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NORMAN KINGS

WILLIAM I (The Conqueror) 1066- 1087


1066 – William the Conquer kills king Harold II (Harold Godwinson) in the battle of the Hastings
1067 – work is started on the Tower of London
1086 – Domesday Book, the first census lists names of landowners and their land
WILLIAM II (Rufus) 1087- 1100
HENRY I 1100-1135
STEPHEN 1135-1154
1135 – Civil war between those who supported Stephen and Matilda

PLANTAGENET KINGS
HENRY II 1154-1189
Accomplishments:
- Gained Scotland and was paid homage by its king, William.
- First of the Plantagenet Kings
- He set the basis for English Common Law.
- Improved the Exchequer (money/tax portion of government) by keeping written financial
accounts and issuing receipts and making nobles give money, not military service to the
monarchy
- Implemented trial by jury because he considered church courts inadequate.
- 1155 Henry appoints Thomas Becket, Archdeacon of Canterbury, as Chancellor.
- 1162 Thomas Becket is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. He starts to fight with Henry over
the Church’s rights.
- 1170 Thomas Becket and Henry II reconcile, but Thomas Becket is murdered by four men when
he returns to Canterbury.
- 1173 Henry II’s three eldest sons, Henry, Richard, and Geoffrey, rebel against their father with
the support of their mother, Eleanor.
- 1173 Thomas Becket is canonized. Canterbury becomes a place of pilgrimage.
RICHARD I (The Lionheart) 1189 – 1199
- During the duration of his 10 year reign Richard only spent six months in England.
- Due to this he put ministers in charge of running the state.
- Earned him the nickname “The Absent King”
1193 – alliance with French King Phillip II
1195 – returned his lands
JOHN 1199 -1216
-1199 – acquired the title Duke of Normandy
-1204 – lost Normandy lands
- 1213 - King John resigns his kingship to Pope Innocent III and then receives his kingship back as a holding
from Rome.
-1214 – war with France
-1215 – the first Baron’s War
- 1215 - King John signs the Magna Carta. It Granted certain rights to his barons.
Basis for English constitutional law: Trial by jury, Legislative taxation, Restrictions on royal power
HENRY III 1216 -1272

Monarchs of England and Wales


EDWARD I 1272 – 1307
- Need for Money
- Expulsion of the Jews
- Conquest of Wales
- Conquest of Scotland, uncompleted
- Statute Law
- Development of Parliament as an Institution
EDWARD II 1307 – deposed 1327
He was beaten by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314
EDWARD III 1327 – 1377
the ‘Black Death’ in 1348-1350 killed half the population of England
RICHARD II 1377 – deposed 1399
In 1381 came the Peasants Revolt

HOUSE OF LANCASTER
HENRY IV 1399 – 1413
HENRY V 1413 – 1422
HENRY VI 1422 – deposed 1461 Beginning of the Wars of the Roses

HOUSE OF YORK
EDWARD IV 1461- 1483
During his reign the first printing press was established in Westminster by William Caxton.
EDWARD V 1483 – 1483
He succeeded to the throne at the tender age of 13 and reigned for only two months. He and his brother Richard
were murdered in the Tower of London – it is said on the orders of his uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester.
Richard (III) declared The Princes in the Tower illegitimate and named himself rightful heir to the crown.
RICHARD III 1483 – 1485 End of the Wars of the Roses

THE TUDORS
HENRY VII 1485 – 1509
He married Elizabeth of York and so united the two warring houses, York and Lancaster

Monarchs of England, Wales and Ireland


HENRY VIII 1509 – 1547
The best known fact about Henry VIII is that he had six wives
EDWARD VI 1547 – 1553
He succeeded his father at the age of 9, the government being carried on by a Council of Regency with his
uncle, Duke of Somerset, styled Protector.
MARY I (Bloody Mary) 1553 – 1558
The executions that marked her pursuit of the restoration of Roman Catholicism in England and Ireland led to
her denunciation as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents.
ELIZABETH I 1558-1603
-queen virgin, she never married

British Monarchs
THE STUARTS
JAMES I and VI of Scotland 1603 -1625
• He was crowned King James I of England on 25th July 1603 and this began a period of reign by the House of
Stuart.
- 1605 Gunpowder Plot to blow up the Houses of Parliament, still commemorated as Bonfire Night every 5th of
November.
• James I of England believed in the Divine Right of Kings, which is the idea that kings receive their power
from God and are responsible only to God.
• He ordered an English translation of the Bible, which became known as the ‘King James Bible’.
CHARLES I 1625 – 1649 English Civil War
• He was married to Henrietta Maria, a French Catholic princess.
• Charles I instructed his chief church leader, Archbishop William Laud, to make the Church of
England anti-Puritan, since most people at that time were Puritans.
• He believed in the Divine Right of Kings.
• He got rid of Parliament in 1629 and ruled on his own until 1640. This time is known as the
Personal Rule.
• He raised money by collecting a tax called Ship Money, which was collected by Charles from
the whole country during peacetime.
• By the summer of 1642, Charles I decided that Parliament had become his enemy and needed
to be defeated by force. This began the English Civil War.
• On 30th January 1649 Charles I was executed for high treason.
• Short Parliament (13 April 1640 – 5 May 1640)
- The first Parliament called by King Charles I, after 11 years of attempting Personal Rule.
- King’s reason to call the Parliament was because he needed to obtain money to finance his military struggle
with Scotland in the Bishops' Wars.
- It was dismissed after 3 weeks.
• Long Parliament (3 November 1640 – 16 March 1660)
- It was called by King Charles I, six months after Short Parliament and within weeks of the defeat of the
English in the Bishops' Wars.
- The King was reluctant to summon another Parliament but the expense of the wars had left him desperately
short of money.
- It was formally dissolved in 1660.

THE COMMONWEALTH declared May 19th 1649


OLIVER CROMWELL, Lord Protector 1653 – 1658
- He was an English military leader and Member of Parliament.
- He was the prime mover behind the decision to execute the King Charles I in 1649.
- He was 1st Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653-1658).
RICHARD CROMWELL, Lord Protector 1658 – 1659

THE RESTORATION
CHARLES II 1660 – 1685
- He was restored to the throne after years of exile during the Puritan Commonwealth.
JAMES II and VII of Scotland 1685 – 1688
- He was deposed in the Glorious Revolution (1688) and replaced by William III and Mary II.
WILLIAM III 1689 – 1702 and MARY II 1689 – 1694
The Glorious Revolution of England was a blood-less coup which led to the overthrow of King James II in
1688 and the establishment of William III and Mary II as monarchs.
ANNE 1702 – 1714
- she became queen of England, Scotland and Ireland
- she was a protestant, she was a weak queen, she didn’t have any power

THE HANOVARIANS
GEORGE I 1714 -1727
- Became the king of England despite the fact that he was German, never to England, didn’t know English, but
was protestant and he was related to Stuart family
- Britain’s first Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole
GEORGE II 1727 – 1760
- He was more English than his father, but still relied on Sir Robert Walpole to run the country.
- known British king to take part in a battle (German battle)
- Charles Edward Stuart/ the Young Pretender/ Bonnie Prince Charlie
GEORGE III 1760 – 1820
- native speaker of English, doesn’t rely on Prime Minister
- he was a tyrant, he made bad decisions, he prosecuted American soldiers
- he wrote Peacoc
GEORGE IV 1820 – 1830
WILLIAM IV 1830 – 1837
VICTORIA 1837 – 1901

HOUSE OF SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA


EDWARD VII 1901 – 1910

HOUSE OF WINDSOR Name changed in 1917


GEORGE V 1910 – 1936
EDWARD VIII June 1936 – abdicated December 1936
He reigned but never crowned in 1936. He married a divorcee which wasn’t acceptable
GEORGE VI 1936 – 1952
ELIZABETH II 1952 –