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FLUID MACHINERY

Chapter 2
Hydraulic Turbines
Part II
Comparison of part-load efficiencies of
various types of hydraulic turbine

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Axial Flow Turbine

Schematic layout of Kaplan


turbine installation

Flow is parallel to the shaft


both at the inlet and outlet
Is used where a large quantity of
water is available at low heads
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Velocity Triangles

v1u

v=
1a v=
2a va (at any radius)
v1a
w1 v1
N =T ω =m ω rm ( v1u − v2u ) =U ( v1u − v2u )

For maximum efficiency

N
v2u = 0 = Uv1u
w2 m
v2 = v2a

When loading on the turbine decreases


(T ↓), rotation rate increases (ω ↑) and
efficiency drops. 4
Cavitation

In the design of hydraulic turbines, cavitation is


an important factor. As the outlet velocity V2
increases, then pressure p2 decreases and has its
lowest value when the vapore pressure is
reached.

σ=
NPSH Thoma parameter
H

The turbines of high specific speed have a high critical


value of σ, and must therefore be set lower than
those of smaller specific speed

ns Specific speed
ns × 10−3 (rpm) 5
Specific Speed of Water Turbine

The term specific speed arises from the idea of a given type of machine producing unit
power (1 kW) at unit head (1 m). Ns is the speed it would run at in rpm. It much better
to think of it as a shape parameter.
nN 1 2
ns = 5 4
H
n – rotation rate (rpm);
N – power (kW) ;
H - head

Specific speed for a


number of turbines
produced by Alstom
Power company

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Specific Speed

Specific Speed for different turbine types


Case Specific Speed
Pelton Wheel 50 and below
Francis Turbine 100 to 300
Kaplan Turbine 400 and above

Example A turbine is to be designed for a site with 400 m of head and an


expected power of 1 MW, the turbine will feed electricity into a 50 Hz
electrical grid. Using specific speed estimate which sort of turbine design
should be investigated further.
Solution The strategy here is to calculate the specific speed.
nP1 2 3000 × 10001 2
Generator with one pole pair must rotate at n=3000 rpm: = ns = = 53.03
H5 4 4005 4
10 pole pairs - n=300 rpm: ns = 5.3 According to the diagram, the choice is a
Pelton wheel 7
Coefficients for Axial Turbines

Flow coefficient

v Ratio of the axial flow velocity over the mean blade speed.
ϕ= a For a given blade speed and height it gives some idea of
Um the flow rate through the turbine.
Stage loading coefficient
N v1u − v2u
=ψ = Measure of the work done in a stage.
 m2
mU Um
Typical values of ϕ and ψ

Case Flow coefficient Loading coefficient


Aircraft engine Compressor 0.4 – 0.7 0.35 – 0.5
Aircraft engine HP Turbine 0.5 – 0.65 1.0 – 2.0
Aircraft engine LP Turbine 0.9 – 1.0 1.0 – 2.0

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Coefficients for Axial Turbine

Efficiency
No Ratio of output power to available water power
η=
ρ gHQ

Reaction (Degree of reaction)

∆pr Ratio of pressure drop across the runner over


R=
∆p the total pressure drop

Zero reaction turbine (stage): β1 = β2 , U1=U2 = Um


From continuity equation (mass conservation):
w1 sin β1 = w2 sin β 2 ⇒ w1 = w2 ⇒ p1 = p2
∆pr = p1 − p2 = 0 ⇒ R= 0
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Design Examples

Example 1
Water turbine develops 20 MW under a head of 15 m. Assume the flow coefficient
of 0.68, loading coefficient 1.5, and efficiency 85%. The hub diameter is 1/3 the
diameter of the runner. Find the diameter of the runner and its rotation speed and
specific speed.

Given : N o = 15m , ϕ =
20 ⋅ 106 W, H = 0.68, ψ = 3d , η =
1.5, D = 0.85
Find : D, n, ns
Solution

Inlet water velocity : v1 = 2 gH = 2 ⋅ 9.81 ⋅ 15 = 17.16 m/s

No 20 ⋅ 106
: N o ρ gQHη
Flow rate= =
⇒ Q = =159.9 m3 /s
ρ gHη 1000 ⋅ 9.81 ⋅ 15 ⋅ 0.85

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Design Examples

Example 1
N N 20 ⋅ 106
=
Runner speed at mean radius : ψ ⇒ Um = = = 9.13 m/s
ρ QU m2 ρ Qψ 1000 ⋅ 159.9 ⋅ 1.5

v1 sin α1
Axial flow velocity at the inlet : ϕ = ⇒ v1a = v1 sin α = ϕU m =
Um
= 0.68 ⋅ 9.13 =
6.21 m/s

π 1 2 π 8 π 8
Outer diameter of the runner : Q =  D 2
− D  v1a ⇒ D= v1a = ⋅ 6.21 ⋅ =
4 9  4 9 4 9
= 0.785 ⋅ 7.25 ⋅ 8 / 9 =
2.08 m
 D
Mean radius : Rm = D+  4 = D 3=2.08/3= 0.694 m
 3 
U m 30 9.13 ⋅ 30
=
Rotation speed and specific speed : n = = 125.64 rpm
Rm π 0.694 ⋅ π
ns (=
nN ) H
12 54
601.92 rpm
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Design Examples

Example 2
A reaction turbine is to be selected from the following data:
Discharge: Q= 7.8 m3/s;
Output power No= 12400 kW;
Pressure head in scroll casing at the entrance to turbine: pcρg= 164 m;
Elevation of turbine casing above tail water level : Zc= 5.4 m;
Diameter of turbine casing : D= 1m;
Velocity in tail race: vtr= 1.6 m/s.
Calculate the effective head on the turbine and the overall efficiency of the
unit.

=
Given =
: Q 7.8 m3 /s , H c 164 = =
m , z c 0.68, D 1=
m, vtr 1.6 m /s

Find : H , η

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Design Examples

Example 2
Solution
4Q 7.8
Velocity in casing at the turbine inlet : vc = = =9.93 m/s
π D (π 4 ) ⋅ 1
2 2

vc2 − vtr2 9.932 − 1.62


: H pc ρ g + H c +
The net head on turbine= = 164 + 5.4 + = 174.3 m
2g 2 ⋅ 9.81

No 12400000
=
Overal efficiency : η = = 0.93 (93%)
ρ gQH 1000 ⋅ 9.81 ⋅ 7.8 ⋅ 174.3

What type of turbine is optimal for this case if n = 1500 rpm?

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Design Examples

Example 3
The blade tip and hub diameters of an axial hydraulic turbine are 4.50m and 2m
respectively. T he turbine has a net head of 22m across it and develops 22MW at a speed
of 150 rpm. If the overall efficiency 84%,
calculate the inlet and outlet blade angles at the mean radius assuming axial flow at
outlet.
=
Given : D 4.5=
m , d 2= =
m , H 22 m =
, N o 22 MW, n 150 rpm,
=η 84%
= , α 2 900
Find : β1 , β 2

Solution

D + d 4.50 + 2
Mean diameter : Dm = = =3.25 m
2 2

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Design Examples

Example 3
No 22
=
Overal efficiency : η ⇒ ρ gHQ = =26.2 MW
ρ gQH 0.85

ρ gQH 26 ⋅ 106
Flow rate : Q = = =121.4 m3 /s
ρ gH 1000 ⋅ 9.81 ⋅ 22
π Dm n π ⋅ 3.25 ⋅ 150
Rotor speed at mean diameter : U m = = =25.54 m/s
60 60

N
Shaft power : N =ρ QU m v1u (α 2 =0 ⇒ v2u =0) ⇒ v1u = =
ρ QU m
24.104 ⋅ 106
=v1u = 7.77 m /s
1000 ⋅ 121.4 ⋅ 25.54

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Design Examples

Example 3
4Q 121.4 ⋅ 4
Axial velocity : Va = = =9.51 m/s
(
π D2 − d 2 ) π ⋅ (4.52 − 22 )
v 9.51
From inlet velocity triangle : tan (180 − β1 ) = a = =0.53517;
U m − V1u 25.54 − 7.77
β1 = 151.850

va 9.51
U m ⇒ tan ( β 2 ) =
From outlet velocity triangle : v 2u = = =0.3724;
um 25.54
β 2 = 20.430

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