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Satellite communications laboratory Practice 7 - Communication links part II

INTEGRANTES: Kevin Catota, Danny Leon


PRACTICE 7: COMMUNICATION LINKS PART II
STUDENT: ________________________________________ DATE: _______________
TEACHER: _______________________________________ GROUP: ______________

OBJECTIVE
Analyze and understand satellite communication links. Analyze how environmental
conditions affect the performance of the satellite link.

ACTIVITIES
The student will generate a scenario with a satellite communication link, observe and
analyze the conditions and results of the link to different transmission conditions.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATION
 The student will investigate the following terms:
 Link budget
 PIRE
 BER
 Eb / N0
 Atmospheric attenuation
 Rain attenuation
 Noise factor

DEVELOPMENT OF PRACTICE

Open the practice scenario Previous


In the scenario of the previous practice a communication link between stations was
simulated terrene in Mexico D.F. and a geostationary satellite.

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Satellite communications laboratory Practice 7 - Communication links part II

Figure 1. Communication links.

Create a Link Budget Report


You will start by creating a link budget report to see if you can improve the BER.

1. Select GEO_xmit ( ) in the Object Browser.


2. Click on the Accesses tool ( ) in the Toolbar.
3. Select MXReceive ( ).
4. Click on the Link Budget button…

• How is the performance?


To improve performance, several aspects must be considered. One way to improve the performance
is the addition of an antenna to the satellite with an increase in power.

Adhering an Antenna to the Satellite


As previously seen, the erroneous bit rate (BER) between the GEO satellite and the receiver in
Earth is poor. Because of this, the transmission needs to be refined. The first way will be to adhere
antenna addressed to the GEO.
The STK / Communications module has an antenna object with two options for configuration,
embedded and linked. In the previous versions of STK, each antenna was created with properties
individual inside each receiver and each transmitter (embedded). In STK 9, you can create a
antenna object once and link it to a receiver or a transmitter. To create the antenna:

1. Open the Insert Object Tool ( ).


2. Select the following:

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Satellite communications laboratory Practice 7 - Communication links part II

Table 1. Create antenna in S_AmGEO

VALUE OPTION
Select an Object To Be Inserted: Antenna
Select a Method: Define Properties

3. Click on the button insert…


4. Select the S_AmGEO object.
5. Click on OK.
6. Select the Basic - Definition page.
7. Ensure that the Type is Parabolic in the antenna properties.
8. Enter the following values:

Table 2. Properties of GEO_Antenna

FIELD VALUE
Design Frequency 12 GHz
Diameter 2m
Antenna Efficiency 55%
Back-lobe Gain -30 db

9. Click on OK
10. Rename the antenna to GEO_Antenna

Change transmitter
The antenna has just been installed on the satellite, but it must be ensured that the satellite
transmitter use the new antenna. For this you need to direct the transmitter to use the antenna when
configuring the transmitter to a complex transmitter model and associate it with the antenna.

The complex transmitter allows selecting a variety of real and analytical antenna models, and
defines the characteristics of the selected antenna type. For this model, you can configure what
following:

• Frequency - the frequency of the RF carrier of the transmitter


• Power - the RF output power of the transmitter at the antenna input.
• Transmission rate - the transmission rate in the selected unit (typically megabits for second)
• Antenna
• Polarization
• Post-transmission gains and losses
• Modulation

1. Open the properties ( ) of GEO_xmit ( ).


2. Change the Model Type option to Complex Transmitter Model.
3. Click OK on the page Select Model.

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Satellite communications laboratory Practice 7 - Communication links part II

4. Enter the following Model specifications:

Table 3. Properties of GEO_xmit's

FIELD VALUE
Frequency 12 GHz
Power 127 W

5. Click in Apply.

Embedded Antennas vs. Linked Antennas


There are two ways to use antennas in STK, embedded or linked. The embedded antennas they are
usually attached to their parent object as a receiver or a transmitter. These Antennas are specific to
your parent object. This means that they cannot be used in multiple objects.
The properties of the antenna are configured within the properties of the transmitter or receiver.
Linked antennas are independent of any transmitter or receiver, and therefore they facilitate the
sharing of the antenna between several transmitters and receivers. For example, if you have multiple
transponders on a GEO communications satellite, you can create an antenna object and make the
transmitters and receivers reference the antenna. This is convenient to change the antenna properties
instead of changing the properties of each transmitter and receiver, instead you only have to change
the properties of an antenna.

Now you need to tell the transmitter to reference the antenna attached to S_AmGEO. This means
that a linked antenna will be used.

1. Select the Antenna page.


2. Modify Reference Type to Link.
3. Secure Antenna / GEO_Antenna as the Antenna Name.
4. Click Apply.

MODULATOR
You also need to limit the bandwidth to narrow the transmission so that it does not interfere with
other transmissions. For this, you need to change the transmission rate.
1. Select the Modulator page.
2. Enter the following options:

Table 4. Propiedades del modulador en GEO_xmit

VALUE OPTION
Data Rate 30 Mb / sec
Modulation Type QPSK
Signal Bandwidth Auto Scale Enabled
CDMA Spreading Disabled

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a digital wireless technology developed by the
Department of Defense of the United States in the 1960s. The Techniques of Broad spectrum
modulation are mainly used with mobile communication devices, like cell phones.

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Satellite communications laboratory Practice 7 - Communication links part II

3. Click OK to accept the properties ( ) of GEO_xmit ( ).

Adhering a Complex Receptor


Now that you have an antenna and transmitter in the satellite, you need a complex receiver in
Mexico DF. to accept the satellite transmission. The complex transmitter offers more options which
are personable.
The complex receiver model allows you to select from a variety of realistic antenna models and
analytical. The following parameters can be modified to the model:
• Antenna
• Frequency
• Bandwidth
• System Temperature
• Polarization
• Probability of rain interruption
• Gains and losses pre-reception & Pre-Demodulation

1. Open the Insert Object Tool ( ).


2. Select the following:

Table 5. Create receiver in Mexico

VALUE OPTION
Select an Object To Be Inserted: Receiver
Select a Method: Define Properties

3. Click on the Insert button…


4. Select Mexico.
5. Click on OK.
6. Rename it MX_ComplexRcv.
7. Select the Basic - Definition page in the properties ( ).
8. Change Model Type to Complex Receiver Model.
9. Click on OK in the Select Model window.

CONFIGURE THE ANTENNA


The satellite dish has not yet been modeled. Instead of linking the antenna, the properties of the
antenna in the properties of the receiver.

1. Select the Antenna window.


2. Enter the following values:

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Satellite communications laboratory Practice 7 - Communication links part II

Table 6. Antenna properties for MX_ComplexRcv

VALUE OPTION
Reference Type Embed
Type Parabolic
Diameter 5m

3. Leave the other values by default.


4. Click on OK.

Calculate the Link Budget


An executive receiver and antenna have been created, let's see the effect on the quality of the link
signal.

1. Select GEO_xmit ( ) in the Object Browser.


2. Click on the Accesses button ( ) in the toolbar.

3. Select MX_ComplexRcv ( ).
4. Click on the button Link Budget…
• How much is the BER? It is acceptable?
• Why is performance so poor?
Note the difference between having an omnidirectional receiver compared to a directive one. He
The performance of this last link is much worse due to the misalignment of the boresight due to to
orbital geometry. The antennas are not pointed at each other.

5. Leave open in Link Budget report.


6. Close the Access Tool.

Check 3D performance
To verify, the boresight vectors will be created to see if the antenna and the receiver are pointed to
each other.

1. 1. Open the properties ( ) of GEO_xmt ( ).


2. Select the 3D Graphics - Vector page.
3. Enable the Vector Boresight.
4. Modify Componet Size to seven (7).
5. Click on OK.

ENABLE THE VECTOR BORESIGHT OF MX_COMPLEXRCV

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Satellite communications laboratory Practice 7 - Communication links part II

1. Open the properties ( ) of MX_ComplexRcv ( ).


2. Select the 3D Graphics - Vector page.
3. Enable the Vector Boresight.
4. Modify Componet Size to seven (7).
5. Click on OK.

CHANGE YOUR PERSPECTIVE


1. Select the window 3D Graphics.

2. Click on the Home View button ( ).


3. Restart ( ) the animation to restart the view in the window 3D Graphics.
4. Move the view with the mouse in the 3D Graphics window until you can see the vectors
clearly.

Figure 2. 3D View: Vectors Do Not Intersect

It is easy to see that the vectors do not intersect. This is the reason the performance is so poor; in
receiver and transmitter are not visible.
Pointing the Receiver and the Transmitter
It is necessary to point the receiver and the antenna towards its counterpart. This is achieved in STK
by placing the transmitter, receiver or antenna on a sensor and manipulate the sensor. Since the
antenna becomes an object dependent on the sensor, the antenna will point wherever the sensor
points.

1. Select Mexico ( ) in the Object Browser.


2. Place a Sensor object ( ) using the Object Catalog.
3. Rename it Gimbal_R.

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Satellite communications laboratory Practice 7 - Communication links part II

SIGN TOWARDS S_AMGEO


Point the antenna towards the S_AmGEO satellite when aiming the sensor.

1. Open the properties ( ) of Gimbal_R ( ).


2. Select the Basic - Definition page.
3. Modify the Cone Angle to five (5) degrees.
4. Select the Basic - Pointing page.
5. Modify the Pointing Type option to Targeted.

6. Move the satellite S_AmGEO ( ) to the Assigned Targets field.


7. Click on OK.

ADHERE AN OBJECT ANTENNA


Remember that MX has a parabolic antenna with a diameter of five (5) m. It was adhered to sensor
to point the antenna towards the satellite transmitter. Instead of having the receiver with a
embedded antenna, now you want to create an antenna and link it as you did with the transmitter.

1. Select Gimbal_R ( ) in the Object Browser.

2. Adhere an Antenna object ( ) using the Object Catalog.


3. Rename it MX_Antenna.

4. Open the properties ( ) of MX_Antenna ( ).


5. Select the Basic page - Definition.
6. Modify the Diameter to 5 m.
7. Click on OK.

USE THE ANTENNA


Previously, we had an embedded antenna. Now that an antenna has been created, it has to be linked
to the receptor.

1. Open the properties ( ) of MX_ComplexRcv ( ).


2. Select the Antenna page.
3. Change the Reference Type to Link option.
4. Select Sensor / Gimbal_R / Antenna / MX_Antenna.
5. Click OK to accept the changes made to MX_ComplexRcv.

Change Your Perspective


1. Select the window 3D Graphics.
2. Click on the Home View button ( ).
3. Restart ( ) the animation to restart the view in the 3D Graphics window.
4. Move the view with the mouse until the vectors are clearly visible.

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Satellite communications laboratory Practice 7 - Communication links part II

Figure 3. 3D View: Sensors of Mexico and S_AmGEO

Recalculate the Link Budget


1. Select the link budget report.

2. Click on the Refresh ( ) button.

• How much is the BER?

Pointing the Transmitter to Earth


Although the BER has been improved, it can still be improved. For this it is necessary to point the
antenna of the satellite to the ground installation.

1. Select S_AmGEO ( ) in the Object Browser.

2. Adhere a Sensor object ( ) through the Object Catalog.


3. Rename it Gimbal_T.

4. Open the properties ( ) of Gimbal_T ( ).


5. Modify the Angle of Con to five (5) degrees.
6. Select the Basic page - Pointing.
7. Change Pointing Type to Targeted.

8. Move the installation ( ) Mexico to the Assigned Targets field.


9. Click on OK.

MOVE THE ANTENNA


1. Select GEO_Antenna in the Object Browser.

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Satellite communications laboratory Practice 7 - Communication links part II

2. Cut ( ) the GEO_Antenna ( ).


3. Select the Gimbal_T sensor.

4. Paste ( ) the GEO_Antenna ( ).

5. Repeat the procedure for MX_Antenna ( ) and Gimbal_R.

USE ANTENA
Since the antenna was moved, the transmitter is required to link to it.

1. Open the properties ( ) of GEO_xmit ( ).


2. Select the Antenna page.
3. Change Reference Type to Link.
4. Modify that Link is set to Sensor / Gimbal_T / Antenna / GEO_Antenna.
5. Click on OK.
6. Repeat The Steps this time for MX_ComplexRcv and MX_Antenna.

Change your Perspective


1. Select the window 3D Graphics.

2. Click on the Home View button ( ).


3. Restart ( ) the animation to restart the view in the window 3D Graphics.
4. Move the view with the mouse until the vectors are clearly visible.

Figure 4. 3D View: Vectors of GEO_Xmit and MX_ComplexRcv intersectand

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Satellite communications laboratory Practice 7 - Communication links part II

Calculate the Link Budget


Now that the sensors have been pointed, the transmitter and the receiver can communicate mutually,
increasing the quality of the signal.
1. Select the link budget report.
2. Click on the button Refresh ( ).

• Has the BER improved?

• It is acceptable?

If you compare this report with the previous one, you will see a great improvement. Without proper
guidance, the BER is 0.5 because the antennas could not be seen. With proper targeting, the BER
improves.

3. Keep the Link Budget report open.

Profits and Additional Losses


There are always losses due to degradation in satellite communications. For the transmitter, it they
can apply specific post-transmission losses and gains. For the receiver, the pre-reception and pre-
demodulation gains and losses are applied. To take into account degradation losses:

1. Open the properties ( ) of GEO_xmit ( ).


2. Select the Additional Gains and Losses page.
3. Click on the Add button.
4. Change the name in the Identifier to Post-Transmit Loss.
5. Change the Gain to -1 dB. This represents the typical post-transmission losses.
6. Click on OK.

BLOCK PURESUPMENT REPORT


Now that you have the degradation loss on the satellite, the quality of the signal is affected.
1. Open the link budget report.
2. Click on the button Refresh ( ).

• What is your PIRE?

The C / N and the Eb / No are also reduced by 1 dB from the previous analysis.

Post-transmission losses can result in a slightly degraded BER.

3. Close the reports

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Satellite communications laboratory Practice 7 - Communication links part II

Save Your Work


4. Close all reports.
5. Close the Accesses tool.

6. Save ( ) your work.

NOTES AND CONCLUSIONS


Make your general comments on the practice, report what is done in it. Write your
conclusions about the results obtained.
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