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Design Strategies for Personalized Ventilation

Ph.D. Thesis

by Radim Čermák

International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy Department of Mechanical Engineering Technical University of Denmark

ISBN: 87–7475–318–5

MEK-I-Ph.D. 04-02 July 2004

International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy Department of Mechanical Engineering Technical University of Denmark Building 402, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby Denmark

Table of content

Table of content

 

iii

Preface

v

Summary

vii

Resumé

ix

Nomenclature

xi

1.

Introduction

1

1.1 Background

1

1.2 Principles of personalized ventilation 1

1.3 Design, installation, performance

3

1.4 Contaminants indoors

7

1.5 Room air distribution

9

1.5.1 Mixing ventilation

9

1.5.2 Displacement ventilation 10

1.5.3 Underfloor air distribution 14

1.5.4 Control strategies

16

1.6

Interaction of airflows

16

2.

Objectives

19

3.

Method

21

3.1 Experimental design

21

3.2 Air movement room 24

3.3 Ventilation systems

25

3.3.1 Personalized ventilation

25

3.3.2 Total-volume ventilation 26

3.4

Heat and contaminant sources simulation

28

3.4.1 Heat sources

28

3.4.2 Contaminant sources

28

3.5

Measuring Instruments

30

3.5.1 Breathing thermal manikin

30

3.5.2 Artificial lung

31

3.5.3 Tracer-gas analyzer

32

3.5.4 Low velocity anemometers

33

3.6

Procedure

33

3.6.1 Concentration measurement 33

3.6.2 Temperature and velocity measurements 35

3.7

Criteria for evaluation

36

3.7.1 Contaminant concentration 37

3.7.2 Temperature 38

3.7.3 Velocity

39

3.8

Uncertainty of measurement

39

4.

Personalized, mixing and displacement ventilation

41

4.1 Objectives

41

4.2 Experimental conditions

41

4.3 Visualization of personalized airflow

41

4.4 Inhaled air concentration

42

4.5

Inhaled air temperature

45

4.6 Thermal comfort of seated occupants

47

4.7 Contaminant distribution

50

4.7.1 Contaminant concentration profiles

50

4.7.2 Inhaled air quality of walking occupants

53

4.8 Temperature distribution

54

4.9 Velocity distribution

55

4.10 Discussion

56

4.11 Conclusions

61

5. Personalized and underfloor ventilation

63

5.1

Experiment 1

63

5.1.1 Objectives

63

5.1.2 Experimental conditions

63

5.1.3 Aerodynamic data of floor diffusers

63

5.1.4 Inhaled air concentration

66

5.1.5 Inhaled air temperature

67

5.1.6 Contaminant distribution

68

5.1.7 Temperature distribution

71

5.1.8 Velocity distribution

72

5.2

Experiment 2

74

5.2.1 Objectives

74

5.2.2 Experimental conditions

74

5.2.3 Inhaled air concentration

75

5.2.4 Inhaled air temperature

76

5.2.5 Contaminant distribution

77

5.2.6 Temperature distribution

79

5.2.7 Velocity distribution

80

5.3

Experiment 3

81

5.3.1 Objectives

81

5.3.2 Experimental conditions

81

5.3.3 Upward airflow direction

81

5.3.4 Horizontal or downward airflow direction

82

5.4 Discussion

84

5.5 Conclusions

92

6. General discussion

93

7. Recommendations

103

8. Conclusions

105

References

107

Appendix A Expression of uncertainty

115

Appendix B Inhaled air concentration with PV, mixing and displacement ventilation

119

Appendix C Inhaled air temperature with PV, mixing and displacement ventilation

121

Appendix D Whole-body manikin-based equivalent temperature

123

Appendix E Inhaled air concentration with personalized and underfloor ventilation

125

Appendix F Vertical distribution of active contaminants with underfloor ventilation

127

Appendix G Risk of airborne infection transmission

131

Appendix H Intake fraction

135

Preface

This thesis is the result of a study carried out at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark from August 2001 to July 2004. The principal supervisor of the study has been Assoc. Professor Arsen K. Melikov, Ph.D.

I would like to express my gratitude to Professor P. Ole Fanger for inviting me to join the

Centre in 1999, first to carry out my M.Sc. project and later for supporting me to continue

research as a Ph.D. student. I appreciate his encouragement.

I am most grateful to Arsen K. Melikov. It was a great experience being his student. I wish to thank him for support, numerous discussions, constructive criticism, as well as for sharing with me his rich experience and inexhaustible optimism. I owe him a great deal.

I would like to thank my colleagues with whom I had the pleasure to cooperate: Luboš

Forejt and Oldřich Kovář for teamwork during the first stage of the experiments and for carrying out measurements and data analyses; Gabriella Stefanova and Tsvetelina Ivanova for help during the second stage of the experiments; and Quinfan Zeng for developing a control system for supplying air for personalized ventilation.

I am grateful to Jan Kaczmarczyk for many discussions on personalized ventilation, and for his advice during the final stage of writing this thesis.

I would like to extend my gratitude to the scientific, technical and administrative staff at the Centre. I would like to thank Gunnar Langkilde for help on administrative issues and Andreas Szekacz for help and advice with experimental facilities. My thanks are due to Judith Ørting for proofreading this thesis, and to Peter Strøm-Tejsen for translating the summary of this thesis to Danish.

Last, but certainly not least, I would like to thank my parents and Eva for their support over the years.

The study has been supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (STVF) as a part of the research programme of the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy established at the Technical University of Denmark for the period 1998-2007. The Technical University of Denmark has granted my scholarship.

Kgs. Lyngby, 31. July 2004

Radim Čermák

Summary

Personalized ventilation (PV) provides clean air at each workplace. Each occupant is given an opportunity to improve substantially the quality of inhaled air, and to generate and control his/her preferred thermal environment. Because occupants may use PV at small airflow rates and close to isothermal temperatures, a supplementary total-volume ventilation and air-conditioning system has to be applied in rooms with high heat and/or pollution load.

In the present study, two types of air terminal device for PV were combined with the most

common total-volume ventilation systems – mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation and underfloor ventilation. The performance of the combined systems was examined in full- scale experiments. The criteria for evaluation were air quality and thermal comfort.

A mock-up of a typical office with two identical workplaces was built in a climate chamber.

Two breathing thermal manikins simulating occupants were seated behind each other facing

in the same direction. The air terminal devices tested were a round diffuser mounted on a

movable arm duct, positioned above a computer monitor, and a narrow grill positioned at the front edge of a desk. Both terminals were adjusted according to the positioning most often preferred by people. The major difference between the terminals was the direction of personalized airflow – horizontal/downward in the case of the movable panel and upward in the case of the desk grill. The arrangement of workplaces did not change during the whole study, allowing for a direct comparison of the combined systems. Different tracer- gases were used to simulate the most common contaminant sources indoors. Floor covering, human bioeffluents and exhaled air were selected. The exposure of occupants was estimated from the gas concentration measured in the inhalation of the manikins. Temperature of inhaled air, which is important for the perception of air quality, was measured as well. The thermal comfort of seated occupants was evaluated based on the heat loss from the manikins. Furthermore, the distribution of contaminants, temperature and velocity were measured in order to reveal the airflow pattern in the room. The performance of the PV was tested at different combinations of personalized airflow rates (0, 7 and 15 L/s). This covered the range of possible individual patterns of PV use. The total-volume ventilation system was controlled so that the total cooling capacity of personalized air plus total-volume ventilation air was constant. The exhaust air temperature was maintained at 26°C.

Results on air quality showed that in rooms with mixing ventilation, PV will always be able

to protect occupants from pollution and thus increase the quality of inhaled air. The mixing

air distribution principle implies that the type of contaminant source (active or passive, localized or plane) and its location is unimportant. The inhaled air quality of occupants protected with PV is determined to a large extent by the efficiency of an air terminal device, and the direction and the rate of personalized airflow. In inhaled air, the temperature was well correlated with the concentration of the contaminants distributed uniformly in the room.

In a room with displacement ventilation, PV was shown to improve the inhaled air quality

in regard to a passive and plane contaminant located on the floor. This is the case for carpet,

PVC or linoleum. The use of PV was shown, however, to increase mixing of contaminants located in the vicinity of the personalized airflow, such as exhaled air and bioeffluents. The

Summary

personalized flow generated large non-uniformities and differences in the distribution of human-produced contaminants near the workplace. Further from the workplace the non- uniformities disappeared; however, the concentration of the human-produced contaminants increased compared to the case without PV. This may decrease the inhaled air quality for occupants unprotected with PV. The distribution of the human-produced contaminants was affected by the direction and rate of personalized airflow. Upward personalized flow (desk grill) was observed to cause a lower transmission of the human-produced contaminants between workplaces than horizontal/downward flow (movable panel). Personalized airflow may also affect the distribution of contaminants generated at another workplace. In that respect, the impact of upward personalized airflow (desk grill) was greater than the impact of horizontal/downward airflow (movable panel), most probably due to its higher velocity.

The performance of PV in combination with an underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system with a short throw (up to 0.3 m) was comparable with the performance of PV in combination with displacement ventilation. UFAD, however, decreased non-uniformities of contaminants and vertical temperature gradients. Also with UFAD, the use of PV increased mixing of contaminants located in its vicinity. The experiments confirmed that personalized airflow directed upward (desk grill) provides a lower transmission of contaminants between workplaces than personalized airflow directed downward (movable panel). An increase in the throw diminished gradually the impact of the direction of personalized airflow on the transmission of contaminants. The impact of the PV direction on the transmission disappeared when the throw was comparable to the height of the breathing zone.

The analyses indicate that the use of PV in combination with any total-volume ventilation system could be efficient in protecting occupants even from highly infectious diseases, and therefore become an alternative or supplement to traditional methods of occupant protection.

The impact of PV on the thermal environment was very localized, even at high rates of personalized air (15 L/s). The use of PV at one workplace did not affect the thermal comfort of the occupant at another workplace. The cooling performance of PV was independent of the room air distribution generated by a total-volume ventilation system. The cooling provided by PV was equivalent to decreasing room air temperature by 1-2°C, depending on the actual combination of PV air terminal, total-volume ventilation principle and workplace. The ability of PV to affect the air movement in the lower occupied zone was small. In rooms with thermal stratification (displacement or underfloor ventilation), PV was shown not to contribute to the removal of heat from the lower zone. This may cause an increase in temperature in the occupied zone and thus increase the energy consumption of a total- volume ventilation system. On the other hand, a higher temperature may decrease the risk of draught and high vertical air temperature difference.

The present study identified that each combination of PV and total-volume ventilation tested could be applied in practice. Because of an excellent air quality performance and a low risk of thermal discomfort, a combination of PV and underfloor ventilation with a short vertical throw, controlled according to a constant air volume strategy, is recommended. If the control of an airborne transmission of contaminants between occupants has highest priority, personalized air terminals supplying air upward are preferable. Development of air terminal devices with a high efficiency and a low ability to promote mixing of contaminants located in its vicinity is recommended.

Resumé

Personlig ventilation (PV) tilvejebringer ren luft til den enkelte arbejdsplads. Hver bruger bliver tilbudt en mulighed for at forbedre kvaliteten af indåndingsluften væsentligt, og at frembringe og kontrollere hans/hendes termiske omgivelser til det foretrukne. Da den en- kelte bruger muligvis anvender PV med kun en beskeden luftstrøm og tæt ved isotermiske temperaturer, skal der i rum med en høj varme og/eller forureningsbelastning anvendes et supplerende ventilations og luftkonditionerings system for rummet.

I nærværende studie blev to forskellige PV indblæsningsterminaler undersøgt i kombination

med de hyppigst anvendte ventilationssystemer hhv. opblandingsventilation, fortræng- ningsventilation og »underfloor« ventilation. Virkningen af de kombinerede systemer blev undersøgt ved fuld skala forsøg. Vurderingskriterierne var luftkvalitet og termisk komfort.

En fuld-skala model af et typisk kontor med to identiske arbejdspladser blev opført i et kli- makammer. To vejrtrækkende termiske mannequiner, simulerende tilstedeværende perso- ner, blev anbragt siddende bag hinanden med ansigtet vendt i den samme retning. De ind- blæsningsterminaler, som blev undersøgt, omfattede en rund luftfordeler monteret på en bevægelig arm placeret over en computer skærm, og en smal rist placeret i arbejdsbordets forkant. Begge blev justeret i overensstemmelse med den hyppigst foretrukne placering. Den væsentligste forskel mellem terminalerne var luftstrømningen – horisontalt/nedadrettet i tilfældet med den bevægelige luftfordeler, og opadrettet i tilfældet med bordristen. Ar- bejdspladsernes udformning blev ikke ændret under hele undersøgelsen, hvilket gav mulig- hed for en direkte sammenligning mellem kombinationen af de undersøgte ventilationssy- stemer. Forskellige sporgasser blev anvendt for at simulere de mest almindelige indendørs forureningskilder. Der blev valgt gulvbelægning, menneskelig emitterede bioeffluenter og udåndingsluft. Personers eksponering blev vurderet på grundlag af den koncentration af gasser, som blev målt i mannequinernes indåndingsluft. Indåndingsluftens temperatur, som er vigtig for oplevelsen af luftkvalitet, blev ligeledes målt. Den termiske komfort af siddende individer blev evalueret på basis af varmetabet fra mannequinerne. Yderligere blev forde- lingen af forurening, temperatur og lufthastighed målt med henblik på at afsløre luftens strømningsmønstre i rummet. Virkningen af PV systemet blev undersøgt ved forskellige kombinationer af de personkontrollerede luftstrømme (0, 7 og 15 L/s). Dette svarer til mu- lige individuelle former for brugen af PV. Ventilationssystemet for rummet som helhed blev reguleret således, at den totale kølekapacitet af personkontrolleret luft plus luft fra rum ven- tilationen forblev konstant. Udsugningsluftens temperatur blev fastholdt ved 26°C.

Resultater vedrørende luftkvalitet viste, at i lokaler med opblandingsventilation vil PV altid være i stand til at beskytte de tilstedeværende personer mod forurening og således forbedre kvaliteten af indåndingsluften. Princippet for opblandingsventilation indebærer, at typen af forureningskilde (aktiv eller passiv, lokal eller jævnt fordelt) og dens placering er uden be- tydning. Kvaliteten af indåndingsluften for personer, der har PV til rådighed, er i stort om- fang bestemt ved effektiviteten af indblæsningsterminalen, samt retning og omfang af den personkontrollerede luftstrøm. Indåndingsluftens temperatur var velkorreleret med den i lokalet jævnt fordelte forureningskoncentration.

I et lokale med fortrængningsventilation viste PV at forbedre kvaliteten af indåndingsluft i

relation til en passiv og jævnt fordelt forurening placeret på gulvet. Dette er tilfældet med gulvtæppe, PVC og linoleum. Anvendelsen af PV viste sig imidlertid at forøge opblandin-

Resumé

gen af forurening, der befandt sig i nærheden af den personkontrollerede luftstrøm, såsom udåndingsluft og bioeffluenter. Den personkontrollerede luftstrøm skabte store uensarted- heder og forskelle i fordelingen af menneskelig forurening tæt ved arbejdspladsen. Længere væk fra arbejdspladsen forsvandt uregelmæssighederne, men koncentrationen af menneske- lig forurening blev forøget i sammenligning med tilfældet uden PV. Dette kan om muligt reducere kvaliteten af indåndingsluften for personer, der ikke har PV til rådighed. Fordelin- gen af den menneskelige forurening var påvirket af retning og omfang af den personkon- trollerede luft. Den opadrettede luftstrøm (bordristen) viste sig at medføre en mindre trans- mission af menneskelig forurening mellem arbejdspladserne end den horisonta- le/nedadrettete strømning (bevægelige luftfordeler). En personkontrolleret luftstrøm kan også påvirke fordelingen af forurening frembragt ved en anden arbejdsplads. I så henseende var indvirkningen af den opadrettede luftstrøm (bordristen) større end indvirkningen af den horisontale/nedadrettede luftstrømning (bevægelig luftfordeler), mest sandsynligt på grund af den større strømningshastighed.

Virkningen af PV i kombination med et »underfloor« ventilationssystem med begrænset ka- stelængde (op til 0.3 m) var sammenlignelig med virkningen af PV i kombination med for- trængningsventilation. »Underfloor« ventilationssystemet reducerede imidlertid ujævnhe- der af forurening og temperaturgradienter. Og medførte endvidere, at anvendelse af PV for- øgede opblandingen af forurening i dens nærhed. Undersøgelserne bekræftede, at en opadrettet luftstrøm (bordristen) medfører en mindre transmission mellem arbejdspladserne end den nedadrettede luftstrøm (bevægelige luftfordeler). En forøgelse af systemets kaste- længde reducerer gradvis effekten af den personkontrollerede luftstrøms retning på overfø- ring af forurening. Indvirkningen af PV retningen på transmission forsvandt, når kaste- længden var sammenlignelig med højden af indåndingszonen.

Analysen peger på, at PV, i kombination med et hvilket som helst ventilationssystem, kan være effektivt til at beskytte personer selv mod meget smitsomme sygdomme, og derfor bli- ve et alternativ eller supplement til traditionelt anvendte metoder for personbeskyttelse.

Indvirkningen af PV på det termiske indeklima var meget lokalt, selvom endog meget eks- treme individuelle anvendelsesformer for PV systemet blev undersøgt. Anvendelsen af PV ved en arbejdsplads havde ikke indvirkning på den termiske komfort for en person ved en anden arbejdsplads. Den kølende virkning af PV var uafhængig af luftfordelingen frembragt af ventilationssystemet. Kølingen, som blev frembragt af PV, var ækvivalent med en reduk- tion af rummets lufttemperatur på 1-2°C, afhængig af den aktuelle kombination af PV ind- blæsningsterminal, ventilationsprincip og termisk mannequin (arbejdsplads). Muligheden for, at PV indvirker på luftbevægelser i den nedre opholdszone, var begrænset. I lokaler med termisk lagdeling (fortrængnings- eller »underfloor« ventilation) viste det sig, at PV ikke bidrager til at fjerne varme fra den nedre zone. Dette kan medføre en temperaturfor- øgelse i opholdszonen og herved forøge ventilationssystems energiforbrug. Dog kan en hø- jere temperatur måske reducere risikoen for træk og betydelige lodrette temperaturforskelle.

Nærværende studie har påvist de kombinationer af PV og rum ventilation, som blev under- søgt, vil kunne anvendes i praksis. På grund af en fortrinlig virkning på luftkvaliteten og en lav risiko for termisk ubehag anbefales en kombination af PV og »underfloor« ventilation med begrænset lodret kastelængde, kontrolleret i overensstemmelse med en strategi for konstant lufttilførsel. Såfremt kontrol med luftbåren transmission af forurening mellem in- divider har den højeste prioritet, vil indblæsningsterminaler, der tilfører en opadrettet luft- strøm, være at foretrække. Udvikling af indblæsningsterminaler med en høj virkningsgrad og begrænset opblanding af omkringliggende forurening, er anbefalelsesværdig.

Nomenclature

Abbreviations

ATD

Air terminal device

CAV

Constant air volume

CFD

Computer fluid dynamics

DR

Draught rating

DV

Displacement ventilation

MV

Mixing ventilation

PV

Personalized ventilation

RMP

Round movable panel

SBS

Sick building syndrome

TV

Total-volume ventilation

UFAD

Underfloor air distribution

VAV

Variable air volume

VDG

Vertical desk grill

VOC

Volatile organic compound

Symbols

c

Contaminant concentration, mg/m 3

C

Constant Normalized contaminant concentration, dimensionless Contribution ratio of pollution source, dimensionless Manikin-based equivalent temperature, °C Intake fraction, dimensionless Pollutant removal efficiency, dimensionless Sensible heat loss, W/m 2 Reproductive number for an infectious disease in indoor environment, dimensionless

Air temperature, °C Normalized air temperature, dimensionless

c(-)

CRP

ET

iF

PRE

Q t

R A0

T

T(-)

Tu

Turbulence intensity, %

U

Uncertainty

v

Mean air velocity, m/s Difference between ET with PV and ET without PV; cooling effect, K Personal exposure effectiveness, dimensionless Ventilation effectiveness, dimensionless

ET

ε P

ε V

Subscripts

0

Without personalized ventilation; reference case

E

Exhaust

I

Inhaled

PV

With personalized ventilation

S

Supply

1 1.

Introduction

1.1 Background

Numerous field studies (Bluyssen et al., 1996; Mendell, 1993) have documented substantial rates of dissatisfaction with the indoor environment in many buildings. A recent review of the scientific literature by a multidisciplinary group of European scientists showed a strong association between the level of ventilation and comfort (perceived air quality), health (sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, inflammation, infections, asthma, allergy, short-term sick leave) and productivity (Wargocki et al., 2002). It has been shown that better air quality increases satisfaction and productivity and decreases health problems. The studies show at the same time, that meeting today’s standards does not prevent widespread complaints of poor air quality and frequent building-related symptoms.

Ventilation rates have been given as a required supply of outdoor air per person in order to dilute human bioeffluents to an acceptable odour level (Fanger, 1998). The fact that many other sources indoors (new building materials, electronic equipment, etc.) can contribute to the pollution of air was not considered. Systematic selection of low-polluting materials is certainly the most efficient way to improve the indoor air quality. However, at present, there are limits to which the pollution sources can be reduced. Another way to improve the indoor air quality is to provide larger amounts of outdoor air, but this method poses a risk of thermal discomfort and may increase energy consumption substantially.

In practice, rooms are used by occupants with different physiological and psychological responses, clothing, activity, individual preferences to the air temperature and movement, etc. It is consequently difficult to create an environment that would satisfy everyone when many people occupy the same space. Various studies have demonstrated that on average, 5- 10% of subjects are always dissatisfied with the thermal environment that is considered acceptable by the majority of the population. The total-volume ventilation and air- conditioning, at present the method most used in practice, aims at providing uniform environmental conditions throughout rooms. The ability of occupants to create and control their preferred environment is limited.

1.2 Principles of personalized ventilation

Personalized ventilation (PV) provides clean air at each workplace. Its primary aim is to improve the quality of air inhaled by each occupant, and thus reduce complaints, increase satisfaction and performance and ensure health. Protecting occupants from inhaling airborne contaminants, whether they are airborne infectious agents produced by other occupants or chemicals from building materials, is an important quality of PV systems.

Specifically designed air terminal devices supply clean air direct to the breathing zone (face) of each occupant. The interaction of personalized airflow with the flow in the human boundary layer, room airflow and the flow of respiration determines the ability of PV to

Chapter 1

ensure high air quality. Low velocity and turbulence intensity of the supply airflow is required in order to (1) reduce the mixing of the fresh personalized air and the ambient polluted air and (2) to reduce draught discomfort. However, an airflow that is too weak may not penetrate the human boundary layer, and it is also susceptible to the impact of buoyancy forces. The highest air quality is achieved when an occupant inhales air direct from a potential core region of a personalized air jet. Because of a wide and long concentration core, the PV terminals developed recently by Bolashikov et al. (2003) are able to provide inhaled air consisting of nearly 100% clean air from PV at a supply rate of 10 L/s per person.

Fang et al. (1998a, b) confirmed earlier studies and showed that although the odour intensity of air does not change significantly with temperature and humidity, air is perceived more acceptable with decreasing temperature and humidity. Because of the positive influence of low air temperature on the perception of air quality, it is advantageous to supply cool air. The positive impact of a low air temperature has been confirmed in recent laboratory studies with human subjects (Kaczmarczyk et al., 2002a, accepted; Zeng et al., 2002; Yang et al., 2003; Kaczmarczyk, 2003). Cooling of personalized air is not intended to provide space conditioning.

The presence of air movement in the vicinity of an occupant inevitably affects his or her thermal sensation. Hence, PV is potentially successful in improving thermal comfort if individual differences and preferences can be accommodated. The control of thermal comfort is usually realized by changing velocity, temperature and direction of the supply air stream. Studies show that PV is able to affect thermal comfort equivalent to decreasing room air temperature by several degrees (Tsuzuki et al., 1999). This is sufficient for most occupants. The mechanism of cooling is equivalent to using a desk fan.

Analyses indicate that occupants may have to prioritize between excellent air quality and preferred thermal comfort. While strong airflow may be desirable in warm climates to provide cooling, it may at the same time increase the entrainment of polluted room air and thus decrease the inhaled air quality. In contrast, in a cold environment, sensitive occupants may prefer not to use PV and thus would not benefit from the high air quality. Kaczmarczyk et al. (accepted) and Kaczmarczyk (2003) showed that occupants might not perceive the differences in the air quality between two terminals, which otherwise look similar. He suggests that thermal comfort is an important parameter for occupant’s preferences.

The provision of individual control is the third advantage of PV systems. Research by Bauman et al. (1998) suggests that it is more important for workers to have the ability to control their local environment than it is for them to exactly make a large number of control adjustments.

The ability to consume less energy in comparison with conventional systems may be the fourth advantage of PV systems. Although important for application of PV in practice, this issue has been studied the least. At present, no quantitative proof has been given. The potential to save energy has been associated with providing smaller volumes of air (less conditioning), and shutting the PV system off when a workplace is not occupied. As pointed out by Fanger (2001), the actual breathing requirement of sedentary occupants is as low as 0.1 L/s, while a hundred times more air is typically provided by conventional systems.

In conclusion, personalized ventilation aims to improve perceived air quality and protect occupants from airborne contaminants, to make each occupant thermally comfortable, to satisfy his or her individual preferences and to be environmentally responsible in saving

Chapter 1

energy. Occupants, in order to avoid draught discomfort, may use PV at small flow rates and temperatures only a few degrees cooler than the room air temperature. Therefore, total- volume ventilation and air-conditioning have to be applied in combination with PV in rooms with high heat and/or pollution loads.

1.3 Design, installation, performance

Individual ventilation and air-conditioning systems have been used in vehicle and airplane cabins for many years. Air supply nozzles and slots are designed to produce high momentum jets that promote intensive mixing of the clean air with the surrounding air and are efficient mainly in improving passengers’ thermal comfort.

In buildings, air terminals incorporated in furniture have been used to deliver conditioned

air close to the occupants in some auditoria and theatres. Applications of PV in offices and non-industrial working premises have been limited. At present, individually controlled systems providing an improved level of air quality, referred to also as the task/ambient conditioning systems, can be grouped in the following three categories:

Underfloor ventilation systems

Workplace (furniture) integrated systems

Air terminals in the breathing zone.

Underfloor ventilation systems Several researchers investigated the performance of individually adjustable floor-based terminals named Task Air Modules (TAM), manufactured by Tate Architectural Products. Air was discharged through four adjustable grills mounted on an access floor panel. A rotary knob recessed to one grill allowed occupants to control the quantity of supply air.

Fisk et al. (1991) showed that inhaled air quality improved only when the air was directed in

a manner that yielded an upward vertical displacement flow. The thermal comfort

performance of TAM was comparable with other underfloor air ventilation systems (Arens

et al., 1991). Tsuzuki et al. (1999) reported on the ability of TAM to increase the heat loss

from a thermal manikin. The development of another system with the local control of air velocity and temperature was described by Spoormarker (1990).

Workplace (furniture) integrated systems Sodec and Craig (1990) reported on desk outlets for office applications designed as linear slots or round swirl diffusers. The airflow rate was limited to 14 L/s per person in order to prevent excessive velocities, which could be adjusted in the range from 0 to 0.6 m/s at the head level of seated occupants. The systems were installed typically in conjunction with an underfloor air distribution system, which was operated in order to remove the total heat gain. The improvement of the inhaled air quality was considered but not studied. The outlets had not seen widespread use due to their cost, and the installations of underfloor ventilation systems alone prevailed.

Personal Environments Module (PEM) from Johnson Controls has affected a great deal of research interest. It consists of two adjustable nozzles located at the rear corners of the desk. From a desktop control unit, the occupant can select his or her own settings for air temperature, airflow rate and direction. The system is accomplished with a radiant heating panel at the knee space, task lighting and a background noise generator.

Chapter 1

Faulkner et al. (1999) studied the efficiency of PEM to ventilate the breathing zone of seated occupants. Although the systems could provide re-circulated and filtered air, only the outdoor air was provided. The system was operated in conjunction with an overhead mixing ventilation system, which provided additional space cooling but no outside air. The efficiency was assessed based on the Air Change Effectiveness index (ACE), which was defined as the ratio of the age of air of the exhaust air and the age of air in the breathing zone (Etheridge and Sandberg, 1996). The maximum ACE reported for PEM was 1.6, which indicated 60% improvement in comparison to mixing ventilation. The efficiency was also studied in regard to the contaminants emitted from the floor covering and the body odours from other occupants using several point sources of perfluorocarbon tracer gases. The inhaled air quality was assessed using the Pollutant Removal Efficiency index (PRE), which

is equivalent to the Ventilation Effectiveness index (CEN, 1998). The highest value of PRE

was 1.5 in regard to the body source, and 1.3 in regard to the floor source. The room distribution of the contaminants was not reported.

In the earlier research by Faulkner et al. (1993), the PEM terminals were operated alone without an additional system. The supply airflow and temperature were adjusted to balance the heat load of the office in order to provide a comfortable environment. This was made possible because of large airflows (up to 40 L/s per person). The inhaled air quality improved only when the highest rates of outdoor air were directed at the breathing zone. The conditions were described as unlikely comfortable due to the high velocities in the face. Measurements throughout the room indicated mixing of indoor air.

Arens et al. (1991) and Bauman et al. (1993) studied the thermal performance of PEM in a simulated office space. During some tests, a ceiling supply diffuser was used to provide supplemental space conditioning. The units were shown to be able to maintain close to comfortable conditions in workstations with different heat load levels. Cho et al. (2001) measured the air velocity and temperature distribution of PEM installed in combination with an underfloor air distribution system. The study showed that the temperatures became more uniform when the supply rate of PEM increased while the airflow from the floor decreased. The ability of PEM to affect the heat loss from a thermal manikin under various conditions was studied by Tsuzuki et al. (1999).

Another system available on the market, named Climadesk (manufactured by Mikroklimat

Sweden AB), provides the air from outlets at the front edge of the desk. Two adjustable slots supply the air horizontally towards the occupant and the third slot, on the top of the desk, supplies the air upward to the breathing zone. The maximum airflow is about 7 L/s. The system also provides radiant heating at the thighs. The efficiency of Climadesk to ventilate the breathing zone of a seated thermal manikin was examined by Faulkner et al. (1999), and compared to the efficiency of PEM. The maximum values of ACE and PRE in regard to both

a body source and a floor source were 1.9 and 1.6, respectively. The performance of the

Climadesk was a little better than the performance of PEM. The high values were, however, achieved only when the system supplied outdoor air, and the manikin’s head was located precisely within the vertical jet of air.

Recently, Faulkner et al. (2002) investigated experimentally the effectiveness of an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of the desk. The supply airflow rates ranged from 3.5 to 6.5 L/s. The measured values of ACE in the breathing zone ranged from 1.4 to 2.7, which converted to PRE (using the correlation between ACE and PRE for a floor source presented in Faulkner et al., 1999) correspond to 1.2 and 2. The efficiency was higher than

Chapter 1

typically reported for previously tested outlets (Faulkner et al., 1999) or displacement ventilation systems. The system was tested in a room with mixing ventilation.

Loomans (1998) proposed a desk displacement ventilation system. The supply terminal was situated below the desktop (against the back of the desk) and supplied air at a low velocity, 0.1 to 0.2 m/s, towards the occupant. The concept was tested experimentally and numerically. The inhaled air quality reportedly did not improve in comparison to rooms with traditional displacement ventilation. Izuhara et al. (2002) tested a similar concept. A fan-equipped partition was used to deliver clean air from the floor level under the desktop.

A traditional displacement ventilation system was installed in the room. The measurements

using the age of air concept did not show large differences between the displacement ventilation alone and in combination with the partition.

Studies on PV and task/ambient conditioning systems reported in the literature recently include a ventilation tower system (Hiwatashi et al., 2000) and a partition integrated fan-coil unit (Chiang et al., 2002). An improvement of air quality and/or thermal comfort for occupants was indicated; however, the studies did not reveal exceptional characteristics or outstanding performance of the designs tested.

Recently, Melikov et al. (2002) investigated five different designs of supply air terminal devices. The designs are schematically shown in Figure 1.1. They comprised: Movable Panel placed above occupant’s head, Computer Monitor Panel located above the monitor, two desk grills supplying air vertically upward and horizontally towards the torso from the front edge of the desk, and pair of PEM terminals tested previously by Faulkner et al. (1999). The

terminals were adjusted in order to provide clean air directly to the breathing zone. The idea

of the movable panel was that due to its construction it is possible to change the location of

the terminal in relation to the occupant.

the location of the terminal in relation to the occupant. Figure 1.1. Air terminal devices studied

Figure 1.1. Air terminal devices studied by Melikov et al. (2002): movable panel (MP), computer monitor panel (CMP), vertical desk grill (VDG), horizontal desk grill (HDG) and personal environments module (PEM).

The terminals were compared in terms of the inhaled air quality and thermal comfort of a seated occupant, using a breathing thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The room

distribution principle was upward piston flow with a mean velocity of less than 0.06 m/s. An isothermal and 6 K lower than the ambient chamber air was supplied from the terminals

at an airflow rate ranging from 3 to 23 L/s. A new index, Personal Exposure Effectiveness,

was proposed. The efficiency of personalized ventilation is expressed as the portion of clean

Chapter 1

personalized air in inhalation. Furthermore, the temperature of inhaled air was measured. Results showed that the performance of PV in terms of both the indices depends to a large extent on the supply air terminal type and the airflow rate. Increasing the airflow rate through the PV increased the amount of personalized air inhaled. The highest personal exposure effectiveness was about 0.7 (PRE of 3.3) measured with the panel above the computer screen (CMP). The supply airflow was 23 L/s and isothermal. The best performing outlet for both an isothermal and a non-isothermal air supply was the vertical desk grill (VDG), which provided a personal exposure effectiveness of about 0.5 (PRE of 2.0) already at an airflow rate of 10 L/s. The next best outlet was the movable panel (MP), which for isothermal conditions performed similarly to the VDG. The study also reports on the portion of exhaled air that was re-inhaled. It was generally low and did not exceed 1% for any of the conditions or terminals tested. The cooling ability of the terminals was reported as well.

Kaczmarczyk et al. (2002a, b) modified the Movable Panel in order to provide better flexibility and appearance of the system (later referred as the 2 nd generation MP). The human response to the terminal was examined (see below). The personal exposure effectiveness (measured additionally) was 0.3, which is, however, rather mediocre. This, together with somewhat encouraging results from the experiments with human subjects, initiated a development of a new terminal (Bolashikov et al., 2003), named Round Movable Panel (RMP). It was made in a circular shape and fitted with a flow straightener in order to provide low turbulent flow with a long concentration core. The RMP was mounted on a movable arm-duct attached to the desk, which allowed for its positioning in respect to the occupant. Physical measurements revealed that for the typical positioning, as used by occupants, the inhaled air consisted of 100% of clean personalized air at a supply rate of 15 L/s. At lower rates, the performance was influenced by the temperature difference between the supply air and ambient air.

Air terminals in the breathing zone The effort to reduce the mixing of clean personalized air and ambient air led to a development of terminal devices positioned direct in the breathing zone of a person. Zuo et al. (2002) studied the concept of a facial air supply outlet. Nozzles of different shapes and sizes were placed on the chest of a manikin and provided with air at a rate of up to 2 L/s. At the highest rate, the ratio of the personalized air in inhalation was calculated to be 0.61. The results are compromised by the fact that the manikin was not heated. It is known that the inhaled air quality depends on the complex interaction of airflows around a human body, of which the free convection along the body is one of the most important.

Bolashikov et al. (2003) developed an air terminal incorporated in a commercially available set of headphones. The microphone piece was replaced with a small rectangular nozzle, providing clean air of up to 0.5 L/s from a short distance direct to the mouth/nose of a person. The design was tested by means of both physical measurements with a breathing thermal manikin and experiments with human subjects (see below). The physical measurements revealed that the inhaled air consisted of up to 80% of clean air from the PV. The ability of the Headset to affect the heat loss from a thermal manikin was very small.

Human response to personalized ventilation Knowledge about the human response to PV is limited. Kaczmarczyk et al. (2002a, b, accepted), Zeng (2002) and Kaczmarczyk (2003) examined the response of 60 human subjects to the 2 nd generation Movable Panel (MP) and mixing ventilation at several combinations of room air temperature and PV air temperature. A series of 4-hour experiments was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. They showed that MP providing cool outdoor

Chapter 1

air was able to improve the perceived air quality and decrease the intensity of some SBS symptoms compared to mixing ventilation. The acceptability of the thermal environment with PV compared to the situation without PV was improved at the higher temperature in the office. Improved self-estimated performance was indicated.

Most recently, Kaczmarczyk (2003) and Kaczmarczyk et al. (2004) examined perceived air quality, thermal sensation and individual preferences with five different air terminal devices for PV and mixing ventilation. The devices used were the Round Movable Panel (RMP), the Headset, the 2 nd generation MP, the Vertical Desk Grill (VDG) combined with the Horizontal Desk Grill (HDG), and the Round Movable Panel combined with the Horizontal Desk Grill. The subjects experienced each system in 25-minute sessions under different combinations of the pollution level and temperature of ambient air. Results showed that all the terminals improved the perceived air quality compared to the office (mixing ventilation). The system with the highest rating in terms of the perceived air quality and thermal conditions was the RMP. It was also the system most frequently selected by subjects. The subjective evaluation of the MP was fairly similar to the RMP, despite the differences in their ventilation performance identified by objective physical measurements. The combination of VDG and HDG caused unpleasant cooling of the pelvis, legs and chest, which was due to HDG. The analyses showed that most subjects used the VDG to achieve high air quality, and closed the HDG. The least rated terminal was the Headset. The subjects reported an unpleasant sensation due to very localized and high velocity, impractical and uncomfortable design (air was supplied to the headset through tubing), and lack of cooling for larger body areas at elevated temperatures.

At present, the movable panels, namely the RMP, and front-desk-edge mounted grills have the highest potential to ensure excellent air quality and preferred thermal environment for occupants. The performance of PV in regard to the distribution of different contaminants has been studied only recently (Cermak and Melikov, 2003; Faulkner et al., 1999).

1.4 Contaminants indoors

All people emit a complex mixture of effluents, which produce an unpleasant odour in sufficient concentration. The odour levels are typically controlled by ventilation to a level that is acceptable by most occupants. The percentage dissatisfied with air polluted by human bioeffluents as a function of the ventilation rate per person is available (CEN, 1998). Although the bioeffluents are not the strongest pollutant in today’s buildings, they are still important because they will ultimately be present in buildings after other contaminants have been removed.

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) produced in the human lung proportionally to the metabolic rate is a good indicator of human bioeffluents. CO 2 is not toxic, except at high concentrations. Exhaled air contains about 3.6% CO 2 , which is, however, diluted in indoor air by ventilation. The first effects are noticeable at a concentration of about 1% (McIntyre, 1980). This is rather high and reached typically only in crowded and under-ventilated spaces. The symptoms include increase in the depth of breathing, frequency of breathing and headache, which may reduce performance.

Environmental tobacco smoke is an unprecedented source of odour and irritation. It has been shown to increase the risk of a variety of diseases and no safe levels of exposure can be recommended. Despite its adverse health effect, tobacco smoke continues to be one of the

Chapter 1

most important contaminants indoors, especially in underdeveloped parts of the world. Its emission is a combination of the smoke exhaled by the smoker and the smoke released directly from the burning cigarette.

Air exhaled by people is the vehicle for release of respiratory infectious agents. Both viruses, which range in size from 0.003 to 0.06 µm, and bacteria, which mostly range between 0.4 and 0.5 µm, do not occur alone but in colonies or attached to other particles. The agents can be dispersed from the respiratory tract during sneezing, coughing or talking.

the respiratory tract during sneezing, coughing or talking. Figure 1.2. Predicted total respiratory depositions at three

Figure 1.2. Predicted total respiratory depositions at three levels of exercise based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection deposition model. Average data for males and females. Reprinted from Hinds (1999).

Most airborne viral and bacterial aerosols originate from human-produced droplet nuclei. Very little information is, however, available on the size of these droplets. The distribution reported in the literature differs according to the measurement techniques applied. Duguid (1945), who measured stain marks found on slides exposed to exhaled air, reported that most droplets were between 4 and 8 µm in diameter. Fairchild and Stamper (1987) concluded, using an optical particle counter, that a great majority of particles are less than 0.3 µm and a few greater than 1 µm. Papineni and Rosenthal (1997) demonstrated the existence of droplets in the exhaled breath using an optical particle counter and measurements of dried droplets collected upon electron microscopy grids. The droplet size ranged from the lower limits of detection of the methods used (0.3 µm with the optical counter) to approx. 8 µm. After expulsion, the large droplets either settle out of the air or they evaporate to droplet nuclei that approach the size of the individual agent. Brosseau et al. (1994) reported, based on a literature review, that the diameter of droplet nuclei ranges from 0.5 to 5 µm. ASHRAE Systems and Equipment Handbook (2000) states that the droplet nuclei average about 3 µm in diameter.

The exhaled air may also contain particles that were previously inhaled and did not deposit in the respiratory tract. The respiratory deposition for a wide range of particle sizes presented in Figure 1.2 indicates that the most respirable particles range from 0.1 to 1 µm.

Chapter 1

Infectious particles behave physically in the same way as any other aerosol-containing particles with similar size, density, electrostatic charge, etc. Particles less than 0.1 µm in diameter behave similarly to gas molecules. They travel with Brownian movement and with no predictable or measuring settling velocity. Particles from 0.1 to 1 µm have settling velocities that can be calculated but that are very low. Although particles in the 1 to 10 µm range settle in still air, normal air currents may still keep them in suspension for appreciable periods. Thus airborne infectious agents can be transported by airflow from person to person. The successful transmission of an infection depends on susceptibility of the individuals (immunity), duration of exposure, concentration of agent, virulence of agent, etc.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have been associated with poor air quality, eye and airway irritation and consequently the prevalence of SBS symptoms (Wargocki et al., 1999; Pejtersen et al., 2001). Building products, which represent the largest surfaces indoors, are considered the major VOC sources (Wolkoff, 1995). Most studies associated the building- related complaints with the presence of carpeting, PVC and linoleum (Mendell, 1993; Jaakkola at al., 1999, 2000; Wolkoff et al., 1995). Despite availability of low-polluting materials, such as polyolefin, carpets are still being used frequently in many buildings.

Recently, some personal computers (PC) have been identified as a strong pollution source having a negative effect on perceived air quality and productivity in offices (Bakó-Biró et al., 2004). Sensory evaluation showed that the classical cathode-ray tube displays were the major polluting elements. Polluting load of the flat Thin Film Transistor (TFT) displays as well as computer towers was small (Wargocki et al., 2003). The significance of PCs as contaminant sources is expected to decrease due to an increase of the market share of the TFT displays. Other office equipment such as printers and copy machines producing ozone are typically fitted with active charcoal filters, which reduce the ozone emission. Besides, they are often placed in sparsely occupied areas (e.g. corridors) where the exposure of occupants is limited.

The exposure of occupants to a contaminant depends on the distribution of the contaminant in a room. The distribution is influenced by the principle of ventilation, type of a contaminant source and its location in respect to the occupant, airflow generated by the activity of occupants, distribution of heat sources (thermal plumes), weather conditions, etc.

1.5 Room air distribution

Total-volume ventilation and air-conditioning of rooms is at present the method most used in practice. Mixing and displacement room air distribution are the main principles applied. Underfloor air distribution, which combines the characteristics of mixing and displacement distributions, has become popular for ventilation of offices in recent yeas.

1.5.1 Mixing ventilation

Mixing air distribution aims at creating relatively uniform air velocity, temperature, humidity, and air quality conditions in the occupied zone. Air quality is maintained by dilution of the released contaminants. Conditioned air is normally supplied from air terminal devices at relatively high velocities, much greater than those acceptable by building occupants. Supply air temperature may be above, below or equal to the air temperature in the occupied zone. The diffuser jets mix with the ambient room air by entrainment and reduce the air velocity and equalize the air temperature. With ceiling-based devices, a region of discomfort is contained above the head level and does not typically affect the occupants.

Chapter 1

However, the quality of air inhaled by occupants is necessarily lowered, allowing the supply air to mix with the contaminants that collect near the ceiling.

Studies show that ideal mixing may not be and is often not achieved. Fisk et al. (1997) provided evidence of short-cutting of air between supply diffusers and exhaust grills located on the ceiling when the supply air was heated, especially when ventilation rates were low. The short-cut did not occur when the supply air was cooled. Heiselberg (1996) showed that the supply airflow rate, location of the return opening, location of the contaminant source and density of the contaminant influences the contaminant distribution. Large differences in distribution were found especially when the airflow rate was low. On the other hand, the activity of occupants (walking, opening and closing of doors) contributes to mixing and diminishes the large differences in air quality that are often found in the test rooms.

CEN Report 1752 (1998) acknowledges an inhomogeneity of the air quality in mixing- ventilated rooms. The typical values of ventilation effectiveness range from 0.4 to 1. The lower values are achieved when the temperature of supply air is higher than the temperature of air in the breathing zone. The low values of ventilation effectiveness are associated with heating. In cooling application, the ventilation effectiveness typically ranges from 0.9 to 1.

1.5.2 Displacement ventilation

Nielsen (1993) and most recently REHVA (2002) provide comprehensive overviews of displacement ventilation (DV). Ventilation air is introduced direct to the occupied zone at a temperate slightly (3-6°C) below the room temperature by floor- or wall-mounted diffusers. Due to the gravity forces, it spreads along the floor in an almost horizontal layer. The thermal plumes generated by warm surfaces (people, equipment, etc.) entrain and transport the air as well as heat and contaminants from the lower levels of the space upward, where they are exhausted at or close to the ceiling. The fraction of air that is not exhausted (the exhaust rate is usually smaller than the flow generated by the plumes) is forced to flow downwards and mix with the ambient air. A level that is said to separate the clean and polluted parts of the room is called a neutral or stratification height.

Displacement air distribution has the ability to provide occupants with better air quality, as compared with traditional mixing systems, especially when the contaminant sources are also heat sources (Brohus and Nielsen, 1996). Energy can be used more efficiently, because air is exhausted at temperatures that are several degrees above the temperature in the occupied zone. However, vertical air temperature differences always exist in displacement-ventilated rooms, with low air temperatures and high air velocities often near the floor. Therefore, if not well designed, the risk of local discomfort due to draught (Pitchurov et al., 2002) and vertical air temperature difference is high (Melikov and Nielsen, 1989).

Contaminant distribution The undisturbed flow pattern gives a gradient in both temperature and contamination within the room. The gradients are not necessarily of the same form. The characteristic two- zonal contaminant distribution is generated when the contaminant sources are associated with heat sources (Brohus and Nielsen, 1996). This is the case of e.g. electronic equipment or human bioeffluents emitted from a still person. The interface layer between the lower clean and upper polluted zone is formed where the net flow rate of plumes equals the supply airflow rate. The thickness of the layer is typically about 0.5 m (Etheridge and Sandberg, 1996). The amount of air transported in the convection flows, and the height to which the

Chapter 1

plume rises, depend on the shape, surface temperature and distribution of the heat sources. Furthermore, the high to which the plume rises is strongly influenced by the temperature gradient in a room. If the convection current from the contaminant source, in a room with several heat sources, is not the warmest, the contaminant may settle in a layer where the concentration locally exceeds the exhaust concentration (Skistad, 1994). Data on the volume flux in the plumes above different sources can be found e.g. in Nielsen (1993), Mundt (1995) or Aksenov et al. (1998).

In a calm environment a free convection flow exists around warm or cold surfaces. Around people, the free convection flow is able to a great extent to entrain and transport air from the lower part of the space to the breathing zone. Brohus and Nielsen (1994, 1996) proposed a quantity named the effectiveness of entrainment in the human boundary layer, which expresses the ability of the free convection flow to supply (fresh) air from the floor area to the breathing zone. An almost linear relationship between the effectiveness and the ratio of the stratification height to the breathing zone height was identified. However, the inhaled air quality in displacement ventilated rooms may not be high when contaminants are passive, i.e. without any significant initial momentum or buoyancy, and/or positioned close to a person (Brohus and Nielsen, 1995, 1996). Murakami et al. (1998) introduced a modified effective entrainment ratio, which takes into account the ability of the rising stream to carry not only clean air but also contaminants, which decrease the inhaled air quality. Hayashi et al. (2002) performed CFD analyses showing the spatial distribution of the portion of air to be inhaled by a standing, sitting and sleeping occupant.

Unless the source is located on the floor or close to an occupant, the values of ventilation effectiveness typically exceed 1. Examples of ventilation effectiveness in the breathing zone as reported in CEN Report 1752 (1998) range from 1.2 to 1.4, assuming that the contaminant sources are distributed uniformly in the space. The results of various full-scale measurements reported in the literature are summarized in Brohus and Nielsen (1996). The values of ventilation effectiveness ranged from 1 to 8 (referred to as the personal exposure index).

Activity of occupants The activity of occupants in a displacement-ventilated room is generally detrimental to the inhaled air quality. Movements of a person can disturb the boundary layer around his/her body, which prevents the breathing zone from being supplied with usually clean air from the lower space when the person is still. A person moving/walking in the room may also disturb the overall temperature and contaminant distribution and affects thus the inhaled air quality of other people in the room indirectly.

Hyldgaard (1994) and Brohus and Nielsen (1995) studied the concentration of contaminants inhaled by a thermal manikin exposed to uniform horizontal flow of different velocities in a wind channel. The effect of movements of the manikin was assumed to be equivalent to the impact of the uniform velocity field. They showed that the boundary layer and hence the inhaled air quality was affected considerably already at a velocity of 0.1 m/s. Mattsson (1999) and Bjørn et al. (1997) carried out a study with a person simulator moving continuously back and forth in a displacement-ventilated room. The inhaled air quality decreased at around 0.2 m/s, at which speed the convection flow reportedly seemed to be deflected away from the breathing zone. All the studies generally agree that the air quality in the breathing zone of a fast walking person (> 1.0 m/s) can be considered the same as in the ambient air.

Chapter 1

The ambient air quality in the occupied zone depends strongly on the physical activity of the people in the room. Brohus and Nielsen (1994) measured the concentration profiles with four persons, two of whom were either seated or walked normally around the room. They showed that although the concentration profile changed between the two conditions, the moving people were not able to destroy the stratification completely. Mattsson (1999) showed that a rather high activity, such as a sports activity, is needed to completely abolish the displacement effect. Physical measurements with the back and forth moving human simulator reported by Mattsson (1999) and Bjørn et al. (1997) showed that already at a speed of 1.0 m/s the distribution was close to the completely mixed situation.

Exhaled air The distribution of exhaled air deserves special attention because of its importance with respect to the transmission of infectious agents, and in situations with passive smoking. Air is exhaled with positive buoyancy and initial momentum. It typically penetrates the free convection boundary layer around the body and becomes free of it. Observation shows that both the buoyancy and momentum are diffused quickly after the exhalation. In a calm environment the exhaled air may stratify in the breathing zone height. If it does so, the local concentration may exceed several times the concentration around the person at the same height. Different authors disagree about the impact of a breathing opening. Bjørn et al. (1997) observed stratification of air exhaled through the mouth. Exhalation through the nose did not stratify and the contaminant distribution was similar to the case when the contaminant was released in the plume above the manikin. To the contrary, exhalation through the nose reportedly stratified in experiments of Hyldgaard (1994). Bjørn (2002) showed that the pulmonary ventilation rate is more important for the flow pattern in front of a person than the exhaled air temperature. According to Bjørn (2002), the stratification is affected by the steepness of the vertical temperature gradient in the immediate surroundings of the respiration zone. The critical limit for the stratification to develop is approx. 0.5 °C/m. Bjørn et al. (1997) showed that movement of a manikin in the room at a very low speed (0.2 m/s) dissolved the stratification layer of exhaled air.

Bjørn and Nielsen (1996) studied personal exposure to air exhaled by another person using two breathing thermal manikins standing in a displacement-ventilated room. They showed that the inhaled air concentration was significantly greater than in the exhaust when the manikins exhaled directly towards each other. As the distance between the manikins increased, the exposure decreased. The concentrations inhaled were comparable to the exhaust concentration when the distance exceeded 1.2 m for exhalation though the mouth, and 0.8 m for exhalation through the nose. When exhalation was directed towards the back of the manikin, larger exposures did not occur. A CFD simulation by Bjørn and Nielsen (1998) showed that the personal exposure was very sensitive to variations in the convective heat output of both the exposed person and the exhaling person, and in the cross-sectional exhalation area (mouth) and the pulmonary ventilation rate of the exhaling person.

Particles Only the distribution of contaminants that follow air currents, such as gases, vapours and small particles, has been considered so far. The ability of DV to displace the contaminants that do not follow the currents, namely larger particles, to the upper part of the room and create a fairly clean lower zone may be limited. Mattsson (2002) studied the vertical distribution of particles generated through office-like activity of people ranging from 0.3 to > 25 µm. The distribution was measured in a displacement-ventilated room at moderate to high ventilation rates. He showed that the displacement effect started to decline for particles in the range 5-10 µm. Slightly negative concentration gradients were observed for particles >

Chapter 1

10 µm at the lowest ventilation rate (1.5 air changes per hour), suggesting a significant influence of gravity. Mundt (2001) obtained similar results.

Thermal environment

A vertical temperature gradient will rise in a room due to the vertical flow of heat to the

ceiling region. The gradient is always positive, increasing temperature up to the ceiling. Its magnitude and shape depend strongly on the geometrical extension, surface temperature and vertical location of the heat sources, supply airflow rate (Mundt, 1995) and the emissivity of the surfaces in a room (Nielsen, 1995; Li et al., 1993). Temperature gradients for different rooms and heat source arrangements are presented elsewhere. It is a general experience that the vertical temperature gradients are identical at any location in the room outside areas with thermal plumes. Nielsen (1995) summarized five temperature distribution models with varying levels of complexity. The temperature gradient is often assumed to vary linearly with the height from a minimum temperature near the floor to a maximum temperature near the ceiling. Mundt (1995) showed that the linear model is a good approximation in rooms of moderate heights.

The thermal stratification in the room air is much less influenced by physical activity than the contaminant stratification, apparently due to the accumulation of heat in materials (Mattsson, 1999; Brohus and Nielsen, 1994). The stratification is usually quite stable, even if people are moving around in a room. A stronger gradient is less sensitive to the disturbances. Even if the room air is temporarily mixed, the stratification is re-established after cessation of the activity.

Air distribution in the vicinity of terminals

In order to avoid thermal discomfort it is necessary to be aware of the adjacent zone close to

the air terminal device, so-called near zone. Several definitions are nowadays used in practice. Originally, the near zone was considered as a zone around the outlet within which the mean velocity is higher than 0.2 m/s. In some cases the near zone was restricted only for heights 0.1 m above the floor level. Melikov et al. (1990) proposed a more reasonable

definition of the near zone based on the percentage dissatisfied due to draught (Fanger et al., 1988; ISO, 1994). Melikov and Langkilde (1990) showed that the zone for 15% dissatisfied penetrates almost twice as deep into the room as the zone defined by the mean air velocity

of 0.2 m/s. The size and the shape of the near zone are a characteristic of each air terminal.

The information is usually available from a manufacturer.

Practical considerations There are several disadvantages associated with the DV concept for offices.

The lowest permissible supply air temperatures restrict the cooling capacity of DV to 30- 60 W/m 2 , depending on the air terminal design. In contrast, overhead mixing ventilation systems can remove loads of up to 100 W/m 2 comfortably.

Displacement ventilation is not suitable for heating.

Large airflow rates of clean air are required in order to maintain a high level of stratification, which is necessary to ensure a high quality of inhaled air.

There are large space requirements in respect to the near zone. The areas can neither be occupied nor furnished.

The principle ensures horizontal uniformity and limits individual control over the environment.

The principle may be inefficient in regard to passive pollution sources.

Chapter 1

1.5.3 Underfloor air distribution

UFAD systems use an open space between the structural slab and the underside of a raised floor to deliver ventilation air direct to the occupied zone. The air is delivered to the space through floor diffusers or grills and returned at or close to the ceiling. An UFAD system may offer improved air quality levels in the occupied zone due to the stratification of contaminants and reduced energy. Moreover, UFAD systems may better address the individual differences in regard to thermal comfort as well as provide flexibility of relocation and reconfiguration of workplaces. Loudermilk (2003) states, however, that cases that involve justification of a raised floor system solely based on the integration of an underfloor air delivery system are few. Instead, economic justification (in contrast to overhead mixing systems) is usually achieved upon the flexibility the platform offers to the relocation of incorporated power, voice and data services for the space.

Several factors affect the design and thus the typical air distribution pattern of underfloor ventilation systems. First, there is an increased possibility of extensive draught as well as vertical temperature difference due to the close proximity of supply outlets to occupants. The requirement for a small near zone facilitates high induction air terminals, which discharge air most efficiently by means of turbulent jets. The jets are often designed to develop in the vertical direction in order to reduce the extent of the near zone. The thermal comfort issues practically limit the supply air temperatures to 15-18°C, and the quality of supply air up to 50 L/s per diffuser. This increases the number of diffusers that need to be used as compared to the number of ceiling-based diffusers used in room with overhead mixing ventilation. Consequently, numerous diffusers providing turbulent jets reportedly create mixing conditions in the lower part of a room (Loudermilk, 1999).

The height above the floor where supply air stream velocity decreases to 0.25 m/s is referred to as the throw height or a maximum penetration height of supply air jets. It is a common assumption that the mixing effect is then minimized. Above the mixing zone, air is entrained into the heat sources and drawn upward in the form of thermal plumes, as in the case of displacement ventilation. The plumes then transport heat and contaminants to the upper space of the room where a mixed zone is typically established. A relation between the throw height and the stratification height is crucial for the air quality performance of UFAD systems. Figure 1.3 or illustrates two scenarios that may happen. Assuming there is a step change of concentration from the supply air level to the exhaust level, and the interface between the lower clean and the upper polluting zone is higher than the breathing zone height, the inhaled air quality would equal the supply air quality (Figure 1.3, left). The contaminants are assumed to be associated with heat sources (e.g. human bioeffluents). If the interface height is below the breathing zone height, but still higher than the throw, the inhaled air quality could be predicted using the model of Brohus and Nielsen (1996) for displacement ventilation.

Yamanaka et al. (2002) proposed a model to calculate the vertical distribution of contaminants, when the maximum throw is greater than the height of the interface. The model was verified experimentally in a scaled room. Providing that the supply airflow does not affect the thermal plumes around occupants (i.e. they can transport air upward), it interacts with the interface and forces the contaminants from the upper polluted zone to flow downward (Figure 1.3, right). The model allows for predicting the contaminant concentration in the lower occupied zone and the thickness of the interface layer. Occupants were considered the only sources of heat and contaminants.

Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Figure 1.3. Air distribution models for underfloor air distribution. The vertical throw and the

Figure 1.3. Air distribution models for underfloor air distribution.

The vertical throw and the extent of the near zone depend on the characteristics of a diffuser (geometry), the supply air volume and the temperature difference between supply air and room air. Several types of floor diffusers are recognized. Swirl diffusers supply air with high-turbulence flow and a large induction effect; they are the diffusers most often available commercially. Constant air velocity (active) diffusers are designed for VAV operation. An internal automatic damper maintains a constant discharge velocity, even at reduced supply air volumes. The throw is relatively constant as the discharge area is throttled. The diffuser may also consist of a slotted square floor grill supplying the air in a jet-type pattern. Displacement floor outlets generate low-turbulence, radial horizontal flow for displacement ventilation. For many years, linear floor grills have been used, particularly in computer room applications. Air is supplied in a jet-type planar sheet making them suitable for placement in perimeter zones adjacent to exterior windows.

The selection of floor diffusers should be based on the depth of the diffuser’s mixing zone and the radius of the near zone. Bauman and Webster (2001) recommend designing the floor diffuser systems to allow mixing only in the occupied zone, i.e. up to 1.2-1.8 m. Loudermilk (2003) argues that the mixing must be limited to just below the respiration level in order to transmit the exhaled air to the exhaust and thus prevent cross-respiration to other occupants. The mixing zone depth is also critical for creating the upper level stratification necessary to efficiently isolate space convective loads (Loudermilk, 1999). Consideration must be taken to ensure that outlets are not located so close to stationary occupants because uncomfortable conditions around the outlets are likely to bother them.

There are not many studies on the thermal performance of UFAD systems either. A similarity of underfloor ventilation with displacement ventilation is often anticipated. No particular attention was paid to the impact of the vertical throw on the thermal environment. Webster et al. (2002a, b) studied the thermal stratification with variable area and swirl diffusers in a test room. They showed that as the total room airflow increases at a constant heat load, room air stratification decreases and vice versa, particularly for the swirl diffusers. The reason might be the change of the diffusers throw. The temperature near the floor remained relatively constant unless the supply air temperature changed. Variations of the supply air temperature increased or decreased the temperature profiles, but it did not affect their shape. The variable area diffusers were less sensitive to diffuser flow rate, because they maintained a constant throw estimated at 1.8 to 2 m. Bauman and Daly (2003) state that the normalized temperature near the floor increases from 0.5 with displacement ventilation to 0.7 with UFAD because of mixing in the occupied zone.

Chapter 1

Despite the lack of deeper understanding of the room air distribution with UFAD systems, mixing and displacement air distributions are the extreme cases. The literature (e.g. Arens et al., 1991; Bauman et al., 1991; Fisk et al., 1991; Loudermilk, 1999; REHVA, 2003; Bauman and Daly, 2003) indicates that the airflow pattern of UFAD resembles displacement ventilation when a discharged strategy with a short vertical throw is employed. On the other hand, high airflow rates supplied vertically may reach the ceiling and produce mixing, which is comparable to overhead systems. The most recent overview of an underfloor air distribution (UFAD) can be found in Bauman and Daly (2003), who address also many practical issues such as the design of the supply plenums, UFAD equipment, energy use, etc.

1.5.4 Control strategies

There are two basic strategies to maintain a comfortable environment in response to changing heat load by supply air. A Constant Air Volume (CAV) system changes the supply air temperature in response to the space load, while maintaining a constant airflow. The indoor air quality remains the same unless the contaminant emission varies.

With a Variable Air Volume (VAV) system, a terminal unit at the zone varies the quantity of supply air to the space. The supply air temperature is held relatively constant. Supply air temperature must always be low enough to meet the cooling load in the most demanding zone, and to maintain appropriate humidity. The ability to reduce the supply air quantity allows for energy savings on the one hand, and on the other it reduces the air changes per hour and thus decreases the indoor air quality. The VAV strategy can also be operated on the basis of contaminant concentration, such as CO 2 . The airflow rate is then varied in order to maintain air quality, while changes in temperature maintain the thermal environment.

1.6 Interaction of airflows

Airflows of a different nature exist in the vicinity of an occupant. The free convection flow around a human body, the flow of respiration and the flows generated by PV, and the total- volume ventilation systems are the most important. The complex interaction of these airflows determines both the inhaled air quality and thermal comfort. Section 1.5 presented the airflow patterns with the most common ventilation principles.

Transient flow of respiration The respiration depends primarily on the activity level and the body weight. At light work a seated person of an average size has a respiration frequency of 10 per minute. Each cycle of the breathing function consists of inhalation, exhalation and pause. The pulmonary ventilation (airflow rate) is 0.6 L per inhalation and the typical breathing pattern is through the nose. The exhaled air has a temperature of approximately 34°C (influenced by room air temperature) and a relative humidity close to 100% (Höppe, 1981).

The inhaled air quality is affected mostly by the flow of inhalation. The flow has only a small impact on the airflow around the human body due to the rapid velocity decay near the opening. Hyldgaard (1994) calculated that assuming the air is taken from half a sphere, the velocity already at a distance of 0.05 m from the mouth decreases to 0.015 m/s. Hence, the impact of inhalation through the mouth or through the nose on the inhaled air quality is negligible.

The flow of exhalation affects the air movements around the human body much stronger than the flow of inhalation. Hyldgaard (1994) performed velocity measurements along the

Chapter 1

axis of the exhaled air from the nose air jet with the head in upright position. He reported that the mean velocity of the exhaled air from each nostril is 1.85 m/s. The direction of the exhalation is approximately 45° below the horizon. The two nostrils create two independent jets 30° apart which do not collapse but diffuse in the room. Section 1.5.2 described the distribution of exhaled air in a room with displacement ventilation.

Free convection flow around a human body Upward free convection air movement around the human body exists due to differences between the temperature of the body surface and the room air temperature. The airflow is slow and laminar with a thin boundary layer at the lower parts of the body and becomes faster and turbulent with a thick boundary layer at the height of the head. The velocity profile is similar to a wall jet. Homma and Yakiyama (1988) measured a maximum velocity and the boundary layer thickness at the ankle and beside the head of a standing naked subject. The maximum velocity and the boundary layer thickness were 0.1 m/s and 8 mm for the ankle level and 0.25 m/s and 150-200 for the head level, respectively. The room air temperature was 20°C. Melikov and Zhou (1996) measured the velocity and temperature distribution at the neck of a seated and clothed thermal manikin using a highly accurate Laser Doppler Anemometer. The maximum velocity was 0.18 m/s at a distance of 5-8 mm from the surface. The velocity boundary layer thickness was 80-90 mm. The thickness of the temperature boundary layer was 30-35 mm.

The air movement caused by the free convection flow is important for people’s thermal comfort and air quality. As described earlier in Section 1.5.2, the flow in the human boundary layer is able to entrain and transport air (polluted or clean) from the lower levels to the breathing zone, from where it is inhaled. Furthermore, the air is heated, humidified and polluted by bioeffluents generated by the body and it is distributed to the room in the form of a thermal plume.

Personalized airflow Airflow generated by personalized ventilation can be very different. There is primary airflow supplied from an air terminal device, but also secondary airflows generated by entrainment in a confined workstation space. As stated earlier, the personalized airflow should be of low velocity and low turbulence intensity in order to reduce the mixing of clean and polluted air. The primary air stream should be directed at the breathing zone, where it needs to penetrate the free convection flow as well as the flow of exhalation in order to achieve high quality of inhaled air.

Interaction of airflows Brohus (1997) investigated the inhaled air quality in regard to a point contaminant source in a unidirectional flow field generated in a wind channel. He found that the personal exposure depends highly on the source location as well as the flow direction relative to the person. Measurements and smoke tests confirm that the thermal boundary layer that entrains and transports air from below to the breathing zone in a calm environment is considerably affected at uniform velocities above 0.05 – 0.10 m/s. Melikov and Zhou (1996) showed that an invading flow with a mean velocity of only 0.1 m/s and a turbulence intensity of 10% is able to destroy the free convection flow at the neck of a person. The velocity boundary layer decreased to approx. 40 mm and the temperature boundary layer to less than 10 mm. The air temperature near the skin surface was decreased by 4°C, which lead to an increase in the heat flux by 22%.

Chapter 1

Cermak et al. (2002) used a two-dimensional particle image velocimeter (PIV) to identify the complex flow at the breathing zone of a seated person exposed to airflow from a PV system.

A thermal manikin with a realistic breathing function was used to simulate a human being.

The air terminal was the 2 nd generation Movable Panel tested by Kaczmarczyk et al. (2002a,

b, accepted) and described in Section 1.3. The panel was positioned in front and above the

breathing zone at a distance of 0.45 m from the manikin’s nose. The PIV system allowed instantaneous measurements of the velocity field to be taken corresponding to exhalation, inhalation and pause. Figure 1.4 presents the mean air velocity contours during exhalation through the mouth when the personalized airflow rate was 5 L/s. The results showed that the personalized airflow penetrated the free convection flow even at a very low airflow rate. As documented in the plot, the flow of exhalation was deflected downward and the free convection flow at the chin destroyed.

and the free convection flow at the chin destroyed. Figure 1.4. Distribution of the mean air

Figure 1.4. Distribution of the mean air velocity (m/s). PV airflow rate 5 L/s. Exhalation through the mouth. Reprinted from Cermak et al. (2002).

Recently, prior to the present study, Cermak and Melikov (2003) examined the interaction of PV airflow and the room airflow in a mock-up of a 2-person office. The 2 nd generation Movable Panel was combined with an underfloor air distribution system and tested in regard to the transmission of exhaled air between occupants. Two breathing thermal manikins facing each other were used. One manikin was polluting and the other one exposed. They showed that the PV of the polluting manikin increased the concentration of exhaled air in the room as compared to the reference case of underfloor ventilation alone. As a result of mediocre efficiency, the PV was not able to protect the exposed manikin from inhaling contaminants. The inhaled air concentration increased up to 3.6 times when both the manikins were using their PV systems at 20 L/s per workplace. The study revealed a possible drawback of the PV concept, but due to the small number of experimental conditions it was impossible to draw a general conclusion.

The interaction between the airflow generated by PV, occupants (free convection flow around the body and respiration) and the airflow pattern outside the workplaces has not been studied in detail. The design of PV as well as the parameters of the supply airflow may have an impact on the distribution of contaminants at workplaces and in a room. The use of PV systems by occupants, i.e. their preferred rates, temperatures and directions of supply airflow that differ at each workplace, may affect the distribution as well.

2. 2

Objectives

The objective of the present study is to identify the performance of personalized ventilation in combination with total-volume ventilation in regard to air quality (including transmission of contaminants between occupants) and thermal comfort in the occupied zone of rooms. The personalized ventilation design, total-volume ventilation principle and their control are of main interest.

An additional objective of the study is to recommend a strategy for application of personalized ventilation in practice.

3

3.

Method

The performance of personalized ventilation combined with total-volume ventilation was

examined in full-scale experiments. The experiments were divided into two stages according

to the total-volume ventilation system applied (Table 3.1). In the second stage, three sets of

experiments were performed. The method was identical for all experiments with only minor changes in between the stages.

Table 3.1. Experimental stages.

Stage

Total-volume ventilation

Aim

1

Mixing, displacement

Overall performance

2-1

Underfloor

Overall performance

2-2

Underfloor

Impact of the throw of UFAD

2-3

Underfloor

Impact of the airflow rate of PV

3.1 Experimental design

A mock-up of a typical office with two identical workplaces was built in a climate chamber

(length x width x height = 4.8 x 5.4 x 2.6 m 3 ). Two breathing thermal manikins were used to simulate occupants (Section 3.5.1). Each workstation consisted of a desk with an air terminal device for personalized ventilation, a personal computer and a desk lamp (Section 3.4.1). The workplaces were arranged behind each other with the manikins facing in the same direction. The layout aimed at creating the worst possible scenario with PV transmitting large portions of human-produced contaminants from the front manikin to the back manikin. Figures 3.1 and 3.2 show respectively the layout of the office and its photo. Air temperature outside the chamber was controlled at 25°C in order to reduce the heat transfer through the walls. The office thus simulates an interior section of an open-plan office, if the blocking effect of the walls is disregarded. The manikins were dressed with underwear, short-sleeved T-shirt, pants, socks and shoes, giving a total clothing insulation of 0.45 clo (estimated). The upholstered office chairs on which the manikins were seated had an additional thermal insulation of 0.15 clo.

Floor covering and occupants with their bioeffluents and exhaled air were selected as the most common contaminant sources in offices. Three different tracer-gases were used (Section 3.4.2). The floor covering was simulated by means of a rectangular grid of tubing, from which carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) was released over the entire floor area. The tubing was perforated every 0.6 m creating an array of 8x8 dosing points. Air exhaled from the front manikin was marked with sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). The bioeffluents were simulated with nitrogen dioxide (N 2 O). The gas was released at three locations under the clothing of the front manikin. Both the floor covering and the exhaled air from the front manikin were present in all the experiments (both stages). The bioeffluents were studied only in stages 1

and 2-1. In the stage 2-2, N 2 O was used to mark the air exhaled from the back manikin (such

as SF 6 for the front manikin). This allowed for the evaluation of the transmission of exhaled

Chapter 3

air between the two manikins. In stage 2-3 different contaminant sources were used (see Table 5.3).

Two types of air terminal device for PV were tested. They were the Round Movable Panel (RMP) mounted on a movable arm duct and the Vertical Desk Grill (VDG) positioned at the front edge of a desk (Section 3.3.1). Both types currently represent the most promising solutions for providing excellent air quality and preferred thermal comfort for occupants. The major difference is the direction of personalized airflow in respect to a person. The flow from the RMP and the VDG is respectively transversal and assisting to the flow in the human boundary layer. Only one type of terminal was tested at a time. The positioning was adjusted in order to comply with the positioning most often preferred by people (Kaczmarczyk et al., 2002b; Kaczmarczyk, 2003). The positioning did not change during the study.

2003). The positioning did not change during the study. Figure 3.1 Office plan: (1) front thermal

Figure 3.1 Office plan: (1) front thermal manikin – 23 sections, (2) back thermal manikin – 16 sections, (3) Personalized ventilation – RMP, (4) Personalized ventilation – VDG, (5) Displacement ventilation supply, (6) Mixing ventilation supply, (7) Underfloor ventilation supply, (8) Exhaust, (9) 17” computer monitor – 70 W, (10) Computer tower – 75 W, (11) Desk lamp – 55 W, (12) Ceiling light fixture – 6 W, (A)-(E) Measurement positions.

Four scenarios were examined: (1) both manikins using PV, (2) front manikin using PV while back manikin did not or (3) vice versa, (4) neither of the manikins using PV, i.e. total- volume ventilation alone (reference case). In most cases the personalized airflow rate was either 7 L/s or 15 L/s per person. In one experiment 30 L/s per person was supplied. The supply air temperature was 20°C in all experiments (all stages). The combinations tested are presented in detail at the beginning of each result section.

The performance of PV was studied in combination with mixing, displacement and underfloor ventilation (Table 3.1). Mixing and displacement ventilation systems are well understood, besides the fact that they are the most common air distribution principles used today. The underfloor ventilation system was studied more extensively. An installation of PV in conjunction with a raised floor is easy, allowing both PV and total-volume systems to benefit from the same platform. For all combinations air was exhausted at the ceiling level.

Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Figure 3.2. Photo of the office. The arrangement is identical to that used in

Figure 3.2. Photo of the office. The arrangement is identical to that used in the study except: (1) the manikins did not have wigs and were dressed in short-sleeved T-shirts and (2) there were two racks holding low velocity anemometers and tracer-gas sampling tubes in the room.

The number and distribution of the heat sources corresponded to a typical office. The total sensible heat gain was 580 W (22.5 W/m 2 ) and constant during all experiments. Studies showed (Kaczmarczyk et al., accepted; Zeng, 2002; Yang, 2003) that the improvement of inhaled air quality and thermal comfort with PV is greater at elevated room air temperature. The exhaust air temperature was designed at 26°C. The temperature in the occupied zone was intended to fulfil the requirements of present standards for summer conditions (ISO, 1994; CEN, 1998 – category B). Both PV and total-volume ventilation supplied outdoor air. The amount of outdoor air per person was 40 L/s in most experiments, and down to 25 L/s in some experiments in stage 2-2 (see below). The ventilation rate fulfilled the requirements for removal of sensory pollution load when 40-100% tobacco smokers are present, according to CR 1752 (1998), category B, and ensured high elevation of interfacial layer (stratification height) when displacement ventilation was used. The recirculation of exhaust air to the supply air was not utilized in order to increase sensitivity of the tracer-gas measurements.

The supply air temperature and airflow rates were set in order to allow for comparison of the combined systems. In stages 1 and 2-1 the supply air temperature was 20°C. Assuming ideal mixing, the total airflow rate was calculated at 80 L/s (= 4.3 air changes per hour). The total amount of air supplied to the office was kept constant. The use of PV thus led to a decrease in the total-volume ventilation rate (i.e. VAV control). In the stage 2-2 experiments the impact of the throw of UFAD on the performance of the combined systems was examined. Two throw heights were achieved by providing different airflow rates. The first airflow rate was 80 L/s, i.e. identical to the previous stages. The second rate was 50 L/s (= 2.7 air changes per hour). In the reference cases without PV, the supply air temperatures of UFAD were respectively 20 and 16.4°C. Contrary to stages 1 and 2-1, the underfloor airflow rate was kept constant (i.e. CAV control), 80 L/s or 50 L/s, regardless of the PV use. When PV was used, the supply air temperature of underfloor ventilation was increased in order to ensure a constant cooling capacity of ventilation air (PV combined with UFAD). The system was not under thermostatic control and the supply air temperature set point was determined from a calculation. A detailed overview of the supply air conditions is given in Table 5.2, page 74.

The performance of the combined systems was studied in regard to inhaled air quality and thermal comfort. Section 3.7 describes the criteria for evaluation. The breathing thermal

Chapter 3

manikins were used for the assessment of inhaled air quality (contaminant concentration, inhaled air temperature) and thermal environment in the workplaces. The assessment of the environment for standing and/or walking occupants was based on the measurement of contaminant concentration, air temperature and air velocity at five positions throughout the room (Figure 3.1). At positions A and B the measurement of air velocity and temperature were performed at several heights. The supply and exhaust air temperatures and the surface temperatures of walls were monitored as well.

3.2 Air movement room

Figure 3.3 shows a sketch of the climate chamber. The chamber has a modular structure based on a load-bearing steel construction with a module of 1.2 m. Its maximum size is 7.2 x 4.8 x 5.0 m 3 (length x width x height). The walls surrounding the perimeter are made of insulated chipboard. One of the walls is single glazed up to a height of 2.4 m. The floor is made of 0.6 x 0.6 m 2 chipboard tiles raised 0.7 m above a structural concrete slab. The surface of the floor is finished with a low-polluting material. The ceiling is made of 0.6 x 0.6 m 2 gypsum tiles suspended 0.4 m from the ceiling steel construction. The ceiling is divided into 3 parts (2.4 x 4.8 m 2 ) and can be adjusted to different heights, each part separately or as a whole. A height of 2.6 m was used in the present study. The chamber size was also modified with a floor-to-ceiling partition, which splits the chamber into two sections. The larger section, sized 5.4 x 4.8 m 2 , was used in the experiments, while the other part was empty and not used. Neither the ceiling nor the floor was thermally insulated. There were six fluorescent light fixtures evenly distributed along the ceiling in order to provide overall lighting. The chamber, including the light fixtures and the door, was carefully sealed prior to the experiment.

and the door, was carefully sealed prior to the experiment. Figure 3.3 Sketch of climate chamber.

Figure 3.3 Sketch of climate chamber. The section framed bold sized 5.4 x 4.8 x 2.6 m 3 (length x width x height) was used for the experiment.

The climate chamber was situated in a laboratory hall sized 11 x 10 x 8 m 3 . The floor and the ceiling of the hall were made of concrete, the walls of bricks. The hall was ventilated and air- conditioned by mixing ventilation. The temperature in the laboratory hall was controlled at 25°C, i.e. similar to the mean air temperature inside the chamber.

Chapter 3

3.3 Ventilation systems

3.3.1 Personalized ventilation

Round movable panel (RMP) The RMP was an air terminal device with a round front panel with a diameter of 215 mm.

The face (free) area was 0.027 m 2 . The RMP was designed so as to provide a low-turbulent flow with a long potential core in order to reduce mixing of the outdoor air and ambient room air. The RMP was mounted on a movable arm-duct attached to the desktop. The construction of the movable arm-duct allowed for changing the position of the ATD and the angle of the supply jet. Figure 3.4 shows the positioning of the RMP used in the present study. The figure shows also the posture of a manikin and its distances from the desk and

the computer monitor. The layout was identical for the two manikins and maintained

during the whole study.

for the two manikins and maintained during the whole study. Figure 3.4 Details of the positioning

Figure 3.4 Details of the positioning of the Round Movable Panel

Vertical desk grill (VDG) The air terminal device consisted of a plenum box with two air discharge openings. The plenum box was attached underneath the desktop. The supply air entered the plenum at the back of the desk. The two discharge openings were located in the horizontal and the vertical plane at the front edge of the desk. The opening on the horizontal plane (20 x 220 mm 2 ) supplied air vertically to the breathing zone. The opening in the vertical plane (15 x 245

mm 2 ), which was aimed at the horizontal supply toward a torso, was closed. The openings were equipped with vanes for directing the airflows. Figure 3.5 shows the construction and positioning of the vanes as used in the experiments.

and positioning of the vanes as used in the experiments. Figure 3.5. Vertical desk grill. Construction

Figure 3.5. Vertical desk grill. Construction and positioning of the vanes.

Chapter 3

Personalized air temperature and airflow rate The air terminal devices were provided with conditioned outdoor air. The connection was

made with a flexible duct using the plenum beneath the floor. The supply air was first cooled in the main air-conditioning units and then heated separately for each workstation to

a temperature of 20°C. The reference temperature sensor was mounted direct in the air

terminal. The on/off control used caused fluctuations of the supply air temperature by

approx. ±0.1°C around the mean. The air humidity was not controlled.

A differential pressure sensor (Micatrone, type MFS-C-080) was used to measure the airflow

rate. The airflow rate was proportional to the pressure difference measured before and after

the body of the sensor. The sensor was calibrated against an orifice plate and with a tracer- gas constant emission method prior to the experiments. The construction and characteristics

of the sensor ensured that it was possible to measure flows down to 3 L/s with high

accuracy and low drop of pressure. The measurement error as specified by the sensor manufacturer was < 3% of the actual airflow. The pressure differential was measured with a

high precision micromanometer (Furness, type FCO510). The accuracy was 0.025% of reading up to 20 Pa, ± 0.01 Pa; and 0.25% of reading between 20 and 200 Pa, ± 0.01 Pa. The measured pressure was roughly 4, 17 and 70 Pa at a rate of respectively 7, 15 and 30 L/s.

3.3.2 Total-volume ventilation

Commercially available supply and exhaust air terminals were used. The terminals were sized based on the manufacturers’ guidelines. The positioning of the air terminals in the room is shown in Figure 3.1.

Mixing air terminal device

A swirl type diffuser (TROX, type RFD-R-D-US/250), shown schematically in Figure 3.6,

was used for its ability to ensure a high level of induction and rapid reduction in temperature differential. The diffuser was suitable for the VAV application. Its performance was reportedly optimal between 30 and 110 L/s (i.e. 25 to 100% of the max. airflow rate).

Displacement air terminal device

A semicircular unit (Lindab, type COMDIF-CBA 2010) with a radius of planar projection of

250 mm and a height of 1000 mm was used for displacement ventilation (Figure 3.8). The unit was fitted with nozzles, which made it possible to change the geometry of the near zone. The adjustment ensured that the supply airflow spread mainly along the walls and only minimally perpendicular to the room. The near zone, defined as a horizontal distance from the wall to the place in a room where the maximum velocity decreases to 0.2 m/s, was predicted and experimentally verified not to be longer than 0.7 m.

Underfloor air terminal device Four swirl diffusers (TROX, type FBM-3-EU-K/200-SM) were used for underfloor ventilation (Figure 3.7). The supply ductwork was balanced in order to provide an equal amount of air through each diffuser. The airflow rate through each diffuser was measured with a flow capture hood meter. Each diffuser was fitted with a swirl element, which allowed for adjustments of the swirl in a vertical or a horizontal (radial) direction. The diffuser core had a diameter of 200 mm. The size of the diffusers and their number were selected according to a predicted throw height. Section 5.1.3 presents the results of the air velocity measurement and smoke visualization of the air discharge pattern. The prediction agreed with the measurement.

Figure 3.6 Swirl diffuser for mixing ventilation. Dimensions in mm. Figure 3.7. Floor diffuser installed

Figure 3.6 Swirl diffuser for mixing ventilation. Dimensions in mm.

3.6 Swirl diffuser for mixing ventilation. Dimensions in mm. Figure 3.7. Floor diffuser installed in a
3.6 Swirl diffuser for mixing ventilation. Dimensions in mm. Figure 3.7. Floor diffuser installed in a

Figure 3.7. Floor diffuser installed in a floor panel: (1) diffuser core, (2) swirl element for adjustment of air discharge direction, (3) dirt trap, (4) plenum box.

of air discharge direction, (3) dirt trap, (4) plenum box. Figure 3.8. Semicircular air distribution unit

Figure 3.8. Semicircular air distribution unit for displacement ventilation.

Exhaust air terminal device The exhaust air terminals were four circular ceiling diffusers (D = 160 mm) with a perforated front plate (Lindab, type PCA-160). The exhaust airflow rate was also balanced between the diffusers.

Supply and exhaust air temperature and airflow rate The supply and exhaust air temperatures were measured with a thick film thermistor mounted direct in the terminal device. The thermistors were not radiation shielded; however, they were mounted with care in order to prevent the influence of radiation from the room. Only one sensor was used for the four floor diffusers. The exhaust air temperature was measured with two sensors on the diagonal (the difference was small). The sensors were calibrated against a precision mercury thermometer with a scale division of 0.1°C prior to the experiments. The uncertainty of temperature measurement was estimated to ±0.3°C with a high level of confidence.

The supply and exhaust airflow rate were determined by means of an orifice plate measuring section. The installation complied with ISO (1991). Two sizes of an orifice plate were used to cover the range from 50 to 110 L/s. An industrial transducer (Halstrup- Walcher, type PU-0.5-S-230-X-L-02) with an accuracy of 0.5% of reading (0-500 Pa) was used to measure the pressure differential. The accuracy was estimated based on manufacturer’s data and checked with a reference manometer, which was used for the measurement of a personalized airflow rate (Section 3.3.1). The accuracy of the airflow rate measurement was better than 2% (safe estimate).

Chapter 3

3.4 Heat and contaminant sources simulation

3.4.1 Heat sources

Table 3.2 shows the total sensible heat gain of the equipment used in the simulated office mock-up. The electrical power consumption was measured and assumed to be equal to the total heat gain (radiant plus convective). The accuracy of the consumption meter as reported by a manufacturer was 0.4 W. The layout of the sources is shown in Figure 3.1.

Table 3.2. Total sensible heat gain of the heat sources.

Source

Sensible heat gain (W)

Breathing thermal manikin Computer tower Computer monitor (CRT, 17") Desk lamp Ceiling light fixtures Total

2x 75 2x 74 2x 70 2x 55 6x 6 584 (= 22.5 W/m 2 )

3.4.2 Contaminant sources

Three contaminant sources were simulated by means of a constant emission of different tracer-gases. The emission rate was determined considering the density (impact of buoyancy), safe health exposure, measurement range and accuracy of the gas analyzer and consumption of the gas in respect to its price. Table 3.3 provides a summary of the sources, characteristics of the gases and the amounts used. The doses as well as the exhaust air concentration are given in their typical ranges, because the doses differed between the experimental stages.

The dosing set-up was identical for the three gases. It consisted of a gas cylinder, 2-step reduction valve, a needle valve (to adjust the resistance of the distribution tubing) and a glass tube flowmeter (rotameter). The flowmeter was used to monitor the flow stability (not for measurement). The flow rate (dose) was determined from a mass balance of the tracer- gas (i.e. supply rate of outdoor air multiplied by the concentration differential between the exhaust and the supply). The whole arrangement was placed outside the chamber. Practical experience showed that the dosing was constant during the experiments.

Table 3.3.Summary of the contaminant sources.

Source

Tracer-gas

Density*

Dose**

Supply air

Exhaust air

 

(kg/m 3 )

(mL/s)

(ppm)

(ppm)

Floor covering

CO 2

1.83

24 - 40

400

700 - 900

Exhaled air (front m.)

SF 6

6.07

0.14 - 0.18

0.01

1.8 - 2.2

Exhaled air (back m.) & Bioeffluents

N 2 O

1.83

0.12 - 0.15

0.3

1.8 - 2.2

* at 20°C and 101325 Pa

** at 80 L/s (= 4.3 air change per hour)

Chapter 3

Floor covering In order to achieve a uniform distribution over the entire floor a 4-quadrant symmetrical grid of PVC tubing was arranged on the floor of the chamber (Figure 3.9). Very small holes were pierced into the tubing forming a grid of dosing points with distance between the points of 0.6 m. The tubing was placed in metal U-profile beds mounted in between 16 mm thick chipboard plates. A distribution box was arranged in the intersection of the quadrants (i.e. in the centre of the room) and connected with the flowmeter outside the chamber. The CO 2 temperature in the distribution box was monitored in order to make sure that the gas was discharged at the room temperature. The discharge temperature was not controlled. Any impact of the expansion of the tracer-gas (after pressure reduction) on the gas temperature was not observed.

reduction) on the gas temperature was not observed. Figure 3.9. Simulation of floor contaminant source. Left:

Figure 3.9. Simulation of floor contaminant source. Left: one quarter of the floor area with a distribution box in the centre of the room. Right: details of the chipboard and positioning of the tubing in a U-profile spacer. Dimensions in mm.

High resistance of the tubing perforation (and therefore a high overpressure in the system), in contrast to a low flow resistance of the tubing, is believed to have ensured the uniformity of the gas distribution. The testing of the uniformity could be troublesome. In the present study it was examined based on the concentrations measured at numerous locations throughout the chamber. The chamber was ventilated with 50 L/s using either the mixing or the displacement principle. The distribution was considered uniform because the concentrations measured at several locations were identical.

Exhaled air Two different tracer-gases were used to mark the air exhaled from the two manikins. SF 6 was used for the front manikin in all experiments, while in stage 2-2 experiments N 2 O was switched from simulating bioeffluents generated from the front manikin (see below) to mark the air exhaled from the back manikin. The dosing set-up was identical. After the flowmeter

Chapter 3

there was a 3-way solenoid valve mounted inside each lung. The valve was synchronized with breathing so that the gas was released to the exhalation airway only when the exhalation took place. Providing the pulmonary ventilation (breathing rate) was 6 L/min, the exhaled air contained 1400 – 1800 ppm of SF 6 or 1200 – 1500 ppm of N 2 O (Table 3.3). The exhaled air was heated to respectively 36 and 34.3°C in order to have a density similar to that of air exhaled by people (Section 3.5.1). The heating compensated also low water content in the exhaled air (~ 15% RH exhaled).

Human bioeffluents The front manikin was also used as a source of human bioeffluents. A constant dose of N 2 O was released at three points under the clothing of the manikin: two points were located at armpits and one at a pelvis region. The dosing set-up was identical to the set-up for the exhaled air, except for the 3-way valve (inside each lung). The discharge temperature of N 2 O was similar to the surface temperature of the manikin, as it was heated when circulated under the clothing.

3.5 Measuring Instruments

3.5.1 Breathing thermal manikin

Two breathing thermal manikins were used to simulate occupants. The manikins were identical, except the number of segments their surface was divided into: the front manikin consisted of 23 sections and the back manikin consisted of 16 sections. The second, less important difference, was the location of the connectors for supply and exhaust of respiration air. The connectors were placed at the waist and on the top of the head for the front manikin and the back manikin, respectively. Table 3.4 lists the manikins’ body segments and their surface area.

The manikins are shaped as a 1.7 m tall average woman. Their body is made of a 3 mm fiberglass armed polystyrene shell. The junctions at neck, shoulders, hips and knees allow the body to be adjusted in a variety of postures. The surface of the manikins is divided into several sections, each independently heated by means of electric resistance wires. A 0.5 mm thick cover of a glass fiber shield protects the wiring from mechanical damage. The distance between the wires is less than 2 mm in order to ensure uniform temperature distribution on the surface.

Thermal control The surface temperature of each body segment was controlled to be equal to the skin temperature of an average person under thermal neutrality. The control is based on the correlation between the skin temperature and the dry heat loss of an average human body according to Fanger’s comfort equation (Tanabe et al., 1994):

T

sk

= 36.4 0.054Q

t

where T sk Q t

is the skin surface temperature, °C, is the sensible heat loss, W/m 2 ,

(3.1)

36.4

is the deep body temperature, °C,

0.054

is thermal resistance offset of the skin temperature control system, °C.m 2 /W.

Chapter 3

The control system adjusts the power (power consumption is equal to the sensible heat loss) in order to fulfil Equation 3.1. The surface temperature for each body segment is determined from the resistance of the wires. The temperature-resistance relationship was calibrated prior to the experiments.

Table 3.4. Surface area of manikins’ body segments (m 3 ).

Body segment

Front manikin

Body segment

Back manikin

Left foot

0.043

Left foot

0.043

Right foot

0.043

Right foot

0.041

Left lower leg

0.090

Left lower leg

0.089

Right lower leg

0.090

Right lower leg

0.089

Left front thigh

0.080

Left front thigh

0.16

Left back thigh

0.080

Left back thigh

0.165

Right front thigh

0.083

Right back thigh

0.083

Pelvis

0.055

Pelvis

0.182

Back side

0.110

Scull

0.050

Head

0.1

Left face

0.026

Right face

0.026

Back of neck

0.025

Left hand

0.038

Left hand

0.038

Right hand

0.037

Right hand

0.037

Left forearm

0.050

Left forearm

0.052

Right forearm

0.050

Right forearm

0.052

Left upper arm

0.073

Left upper arm

0.073

Right upper arm

0.078

Right upper arm

0.078

Left chest

0.070

Chest

0.144

Right chest

0.070

Back

0.130

Back

0.133

All

1.480

All

1.476

3.5.2 Artificial lung

Each manikin was equipped with an artificial lung that simulates the human breathing function (Melikov et al., 2000). The lung is placed outside the manikins and the respiration air is delivered to and from the manikins with flexible tubing. The breathing cycle (inhalation, exhalation and pause) and the amount of respiration air as well as the temperature and humidity of the exhaled air could be controlled. In the present study the lung was adjusted to simulate breathing of an average sedentary person performing work of light physical activity.

The breathing cycle consisted of 2.5 s inhalation, 2.5 s exhalation and pause. The pause of the

front manikins and the back manikin was set to last for 0.9 s and 1.1 s, respectively, in order

to prevent their synchronization. The breathing frequency was 10 per minute and the

pulmonary ventilation was 6 L/min, or 0.6 L per breath. The instantaneous rate was higher, however, because both inhalation and exhalation took 2.5 s of the 6 s breathing cycle, hence:

0.6 L / 2.5 s = 0.24 L/s = 14.4 L/min. The pulmonary ventilation was monitored by means of

a glass tube flowmeter (rotameter). The measurement accuracy was ±1.1 L/min (corresponds to ±5% of full scale).

Chapter 3

The exhaled air was not humidified in the present study, but heated to a density that is close

to the density of air exhaled by people. The density was calculated to be 1.144 kg/m 3 based

on the following exhaled air properties: air exhaled from a person consists of 78.1 vol.% N 2 0,

17.3 vol.% O 2 , 3.6 vol.% CO 2 and 0.9 vol.% of Ar, its temperature is approximately 34°C at room air temperatures between 20 and 26°C (Höppe, 1981), the relative humidity is close to 95%. However, in the experiments, the actual temperature of air exhaled from the two manikins was different and not identical, due to the different tracer-gas contents (see Section

3.4.2).

The breathing openings are shaped so as to mimic a real person. Providing the manikin sits upright, the two jets emerging from the nose are declined 45° from the horizontal plane, and 30° from each other. Each of the nostrils has a diameter of 8 mm. The oval shaped mouth distributes the exhaled air horizontally. The width and the height of the mouth opening are 25 and 5 mm, respectively. Although both the nose and the mouth can be used for exhalation and inhalation, the air was exhaled through the nose (most typical breathing pattern) and inhaled through the mouth. The reason for using the different openings is that there would be a shortcut of exhaled air containing a tracer-gas to the inhaled air (where the gas concentration is analysed) if the same opening were used.

concentration is analysed) if the same opening were used. Figure 3.10. Temperature sensor mounted in the

Figure 3.10. Temperature sensor mounted in the mouth of a manikin.

Inhaled air temperature The temperature of air inhaled to the manikins was measured with a fast response Thermobead sensor Series B07, with a time constant of 0.12 s in still air. The sensors were mounted in the mouth of the manikins (Figure 3.10) and connected by a transducer to a A/D card (personal computer). Both sensors were calibrated simultaneously against a precision mercury thermometer with a scale division of 0.1°C prior to the experiments. The uncertainty of the measurement was estimated at ±0.2°C with a high level of confidence.

3.5.3 Tracer-gas analyzer

The concentration of the three tracer-gases, used to simulate pollution in the present study, was measured continuously with a multi-gas monitor (Brüel & Kjær, type 1302) based on the photo-acoustic infrared detection method of measurement. The measurement range was 1.5 - 150000, 0.004 - 400 and 0.03 – 3000 ppm for CO 2 , SF 6 and N 2 O, respectively. The analyzer was calibrated for all gases in a certified laboratory prior to the experiments.

A multipoint sampler unit (Brüel & Kjær, type 1303) was used to deliver samples of air from

up to 6 locations at a time to the analyzer. The samples of air were exhausted outside the

laboratory in order to prevent contamination. Both the analyzer and the sampler were controlled with a personal computer, which was also used to store the measured data.

Chapter 3

3.5.4 Low velocity anemometers

Instantaneous values of velocity and temperature were measured simultaneously at several locations throughout the room. The system (Sensor, type HT400) consists of 16 omni-directional thermal anemometers (Figure 3.11) connected to a measurement station. The velocity sensor was spherical with a diameter of 2 mm, ensuring a fast response. The temperature sensor was shielded against radiation. The temperature compensation of the velocity measurement was utilized. Table 3.5 presents the technical specification. Figure 3.11. Low velocity thermal anemometer.

i o n . Figure 3.11. Low velocity thermal anemometer. Table 3.5. Technical specification of low

Table 3.5. Technical specification of low velocity anemometers.

Measurement velocity range

0.05 to 5 m/s

Repeatability

range of 0.05 to 1 m/s

±0.02 m/s, ±1 % of reading

range of 1 to 5 m/s

±3 % of reading

Accuracy of temp. compensation

better than ±0.2 %/K

Upper frequency*

min. 1 Hz, typ. 1.5 Hz

Temperature range

-10 to +50 °C

Accuracy of temp. measurement

0.3 °C

* The upper frequency is defined as the highest frequency up to which the standard deviation ratio remains in the limits of 0.9 to 1.1 (Melikov et al., 1998)

3.6 Procedure

All experiments were performed under steady-state conditions. Each experiment lasted for 1 day. The procedure as well as data analyses were designed in order to reduce the impact of possible instability of the process in time.

3.6.1 Concentration measurement

The tracer-gas concentration was measured in the air inhaled by the two manikins, at 5 positions throughout the room as shown in Figure 3.1, in the supply and exhaust of the chamber, and in the laboratory hall where the test room was located. The concentrations were measured at heights of 0.1, 0.6, 1.1, 1.4, 1.7 and 2.2 m at positions A and B, and at a height of 1.7 m at positions C, D and E. The positions were selected in order to characterize the room airflow pattern. The A and B positions aimed at describing the environment in the vicinity of the workplaces in terms of concentration gradients. The C, D and E positions represented the inhaled air quality for a walking person. In total, there were 20 locations measured.

The supply and exhaust airflow rates and the supply air temperature of both personalized and total-volume (TV) ventilation were adjusted in the evening prior to an experiment. This allowed for creating a steady-state condition in the chamber overnight. The dosing of the

Chapter 3

tracer-gases started in the morning next day. The tracer-gas distribution was allowed to reach steady-state conditions in approx. 3 hours. The measurement locations were grouped and measured in sequences of 6 (Table 3.6 and Table 3.7). The samples in each sequence were analysed one after another in a loop. The time required to analyse a sequence of 6 channels was about 10 minutes, i.e. the concentration readings from a given location were available in 10 minute intervals. Each location was sampled at least 10, but usually 12 times (~ 2 hours) in order to make reliable statistical analyses possible. In each A1 sequence (see below) 3 readings were typically acquired from each channel (~ 30 minutes). The dosing system was turned off at the end of the experiment and the conditions were set for another day. All heat sources in the chamber including the thermal manikins were running all the time.

Table 3.6. Measurement sequences during stage 1 and 2-1 experiments.

Channel Seq.A1

Seq.A2

Seq.A3

Seq.A4

1 Laboratory

Lung manikin 1 Pos. A (0.1 m)

Pos. B (0.1 m)

2 Laboratory

Lung manikin 2 Pos. A (0.6 m)

Pos. B (0.6 m)

3 Supply air (PV) Position C

Pos. A (1.1 m)

Pos. B (1.1 m)

4 Supply air (PV) Position D

Pos. A (1.4 m)

Pos. B (1.4 m)

5 Supply air (TV) Position E

Pos. A (1.7 m)

Pos. B (1.7 m)

6 Exhaust air

Exhaust air

Pos. A (2.2 m)

Pos. B (2.2 m)

Table 3.7. Measurement sequences during stage 2-2 and 2-3 experiments.

Channel Seq.A1

Seq.A2

Seq.A3

Seq.A4

Seq.A5

1 Lung manikin 1 Lung manikin 1 Pos. A - 0.1 m

Pos. A - 1.1 m

Pos. B - 0.1 m

2 Lung manikin 2 Lung manikin 2 Pos. A - 0.6 m

Pos. A - 2.2 m

Pos. B - 0.6 m

3 Supply air (PV) Position C

Pos. A - 1.1 m

Pos. B - 1.1 m

Pos. B - 1.1 m

4 Laboratory

Position D

Pos. A - 1.7 m

Pos. B - 2.2 m

Pos. B - 1.4 m

5 Supply air (TV) Supply air (TV) Supply air (TV) Supply air (TV) Supply air (TV)

6 Exhaust air

Exhaust air

Exhaust air

Exhaust air

Exhaust air

Table 3.8. Order of measurement during stage 1 and 2-1 experiments.

Hours

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Seq.A1

Supply, Exh, Lab

Seq.A2

Inhaled air + C,D,E

Seq.A3

Position A

Seq.A4

Position B

Temperature and velocity

Position A Seq.A4 Position B Temperature and velocity Table 3.9. Order of measurements during stage 2-2

Table 3.9. Order of measurements during stage 2-2 and 2-3 experiments.

Hours 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Seq.B1 Seq.B2
Hours
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Seq.B1
Seq.B2
Seq.B3
Seq.B4
Seq.B5
Supply, Exh, Lab
Inhaled air + C,D
Position A
Position A-B
Position B
Temperature and velocity

Chapter 3

Order of sampling locations It was desirable to monitor simultaneously the gas concentrations in 8 locations: the supply, the exhaust and 6 locations at positions A or B. However, the sampling had to be split into sequences because of the limited number of channels from which the gas analyzer was able to sample at a time. The order of the sampling locations in sequences (and hence also the order of the sequences) was different in the two stages. In stages 1 and 2-1, the integrity of the concentration profiles was prioritized (Table 3.6). The supply and exhaust air concentrations were measured separately as part of A1 sequence, i.e. in between the other sequences. At the same time, the laboratory environment was monitored making it possible to abort the experiment in the case of gas leaking to or from the chamber. The day averages of the supply and exhaust concentrations were used to calculate the ventilation indexes for all locations. The order of the sequences is shown in Table 3.8.

The design was improved in stages 2-2 to 2-3. The supply and the exhaust concentration were monitored continuously during the day (Table 3.7). This was possible because the measurement of positions A and B was split in 3 sequences.

Table 3.9 presents the order of the sequences. The indexes were calculated using the data corresponding to the same measurement sequence, thus improving the uncertainty. The process instability evaluation had also improved because data from a whole day were available. Detailed analyses performed after the experiments showed that the only source of instability was the fluctuation of CO 2 concentration in the supply air during a day, and that the uncertainty was practically comparable with the two designs (i.e. orders of sequences and sampling points).

3.6.2 Temperature and velocity measurements

The room air temperature and velocity, the inhaled air temperature and the heat loss from the thermal manikins (manikin-based equivalent temperature) were measured several times during a day at the same occasion. The occasions are indicated in Tables 3.8 and 3.9. Results showed that the all temperatures were extremely stable during an experiment. Table 3.10 summarizes the sampling frequency and duration of the data acquisition used.

Table 3.10.Sampling frequency and duration of the data acquisition.

Quantity

Frequency of

Duration of measurement stage 1&2-1/stage 2-2&2-3

data acquisition

Inhaled air temperature

20 Hz

1.5 min 3 min/5 min 3 min/5 min 3 min/5 min 10 min

Heat loss from the manikins 3 per minute

Room air temperature Room air velocity Boundary conditions

5 Hz 5 Hz 3 per minute

Inhaled air temperature The temperature was recorded continuously for 1.5 minutes during the transient breathing. Only the data corresponding to a period of 2 s during inhalation were selected using a computer program and analysed. Figure 3.12 shows the typical recording of inhaled air temperature. The diamonds indicate the samples selected for analyses.

Chapter 3

30 Exhalation Pause 29 28 27 26 Inhalation 25 0 5 10 15 20 25
30
Exhalation
Pause
29
28
27
26
Inhalation
25
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Temperature (°C)

Time (s)

Figure 3.12. Inhaled air temperature measurement. The mean inhaled air temperature is 26.1°C.

Heat loss from the manikins The heat loss from the manikins (Section 3.5.1) was acquired with a personal computer, which was also used to control the surface temperature of the manikins. Data for all body segments were stored together with a whole-body average, which was weighted by the surface area of the segments.

Room air temperature and velocity The air temperature and air velocity were measured at position A and B using a system of 16 omnidirectional thermal anemometers (Section 3.5.4). The heights of the measurements were 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.6, 1.1, 1.4, 1.7 and 2.2 m in the cases of displacement and underfloor ventilation and 0.1, 0.35, 0.6, 0.85, 1.1, 1.4, 1.7 and 2.2 m in the case of mixing ventilation.

Boundary conditions The boundary conditions measurement involved the measurement of the supply and exhaust air temperatures of PV and total-volume ventilation, laboratory temperature and surface temperatures of internal chamber walls. The same type of a temperature sensor (thick film thermistor, described in Section 3.3.2) and a data acquisition unit were used. There were 4-5 temperature sensors taped on each of the walls, the floor and the ceiling in a cross-like layout. Results showed that the wall temperature was similar to the air temperature at a given height, and the results are thus not reported. As regards the supply air temperature (and total-volume ventilation supply airflow rate), each quantity was monitored by means of the control system of the air-handling unit continuously during an experiment. The supply air temperature and rate of personalized air were checked at regular intervals, corresponding to the other temperature and velocity measurements. Both quantities were very stable during the experiments.

3.7 Criteria for evaluation

The performance of PV in combination with different total-volume ventilation principles was examined in regard to the inhaled air quality and thermal comfort. Both seated and standing/moving occupants were considered in the present study.

The air quality was evaluated based on tracer-gas concentration and air temperature (Melikov et al., 2000, submitted). Both quantities were measured in the air inhaled by the breathing thermal manikins and at numerous locations throughout the room. No attempt was made to derive a combined index, which would e.g. predict the percentage dissatisfied with the air quality, due to both concentration and temperature. The two quantities were

Chapter 3

evaluated separately. Humidity of air, which also affects human perception of air quality, was not analysed.

The measurement of heat loss from the thermal manikins was used to assess the thermal comfort of seated occupants. Air temperature and velocity recorded throughout the room were used for evaluation of thermal comfort outside the workplaces. The criteria for evaluation included the draught rating and the vertical air temperature difference between the head and the ankles (ISO, 1994; CEN, 1998).

3.7.1 Contaminant concentration

Normalized concentration The concentration of contaminants has most often been expressed in term of normalized concentration, c(–). The concentration was defined as:

c () =

c

c

S

c

E

c

S

where c

c

c

S

E

is the contaminant concentration in a point; is the contaminant concentration in the supply air; is the contaminant concentration in the exhaust air.

(3.2)

The normalized concentration is equal to 1 if there is complete mixing of air and contaminants. If the air quality is better than in the exhaust, the normalized concentration is lower than 1 and vice versa. The supply air has a normalized concentration of 0. The reciprocal value of the normalized concentration has been referred to as the ventilation effectiveness, ε V (e.g. CEN, 1998).

Personal exposure effectiveness A personal exposure effectiveness index, ε P , was proposed by Melikov et al. (2002) and used for the evaluation of air terminal devices for personalized ventilation. It was defined as:

ε =

P

c

I

,0

c

I

c

I

,0

c

S PV

,

where c I,0 c c

I

S,PV

is the contaminant concentration in the inhaled air without PV; is the contaminant concentration in the inhaled air with PV; is the contaminant concentration in the air supplied from PV.

(3.3)

The personal exposure effectiveness can be interpreted as the portion of clean air from PV in the inhaled air. It is equal to 1 when 100% of personalized air is inhaled and equal to 0 when no personalized air is inhaled. The effectiveness of zero thus does not mean that a person does not inhale any clean air, but only that the person does not inhale any air from PV. The concept of the index is identical to that of the effectiveness of entrainment in the human boundary layer introduced by Brohus and Nielsen (1996).

The personal exposure effectiveness can be expressed in terms of the ventilation effectiveness. The relationship is independent of the contaminant distribution:

Chapter 3

ε

P

=

1

c

E

c

S

1

=

1

ε

V ,0

c

I

,0

c

S

ε

V

ε

V

(3.4)

Where ε V is the ventilation effectiveness in the inhaled air without PV. In case of mixing (c I,0 = c E ) it can be is simplified to:

ε

P

=

1

1

ε

V

and

ε

P

= 1c ()

(3.5)

Unlike with ventilation effectiveness, data from two different experiments (with and without PV) are needed for the calculation of ε P in a room where the distribution of a contaminant is non-uniform. The normalized concentrations were used in order to avoid error due to a possible difference in the tracer-gas emissions between the experiments. On the other hand, the uncertainty increased due to the propagation of error.

3.7.2

Temperature

Inhaled air temperature The inhaled air temperature has been expressed in terms of either absolute temperature (i.e. as measured) or the normalized temperature T I (–). The normalized temperature was defined as:

T

I

(

 

)

 

T

I

T

,

S PV

=

 

T

I

,0

T

 
   

S PV

,

where T I

is the inhaled air temperature (with or without PV); is the supply air temperature of PV; is the inhaled air temperature without PV.

 

T S,PV

T I,0

(3.6)

The normalized temperature is equal to 1 when PV does not have any impact on the inhaled air temperature. When the inhaled air temperature equals the supply temperature of PV, the index becomes 0.

Room temperature distribution The temperature distribution has been expressed in a similar way, i.e. either in terms of the absolute temperature or the normalized temperature T(–). The normalized temperature was defined as:

T

() =

T T

S

T

E

T

S

(3.7)

where T

is the air temperature in a point;

T S

is the air temperature in the total-volume ventilation supply;

T E

is the air temperature in the room exhaust.

So as for the normalized concentration, the normalized temperature is equal to 1 when the room air temperature equals the exhaust temperature. The normalized temperature of the supply air is 0.

Chapter 3

Manikin-based equivalent temperature The manikin-based equivalent temperature, ET, has been used to evaluate the thermal comfort of seated occupants (Nilsson et al., 1999; Holmér et al., 1999). The manikin-based equivalent temperature is defined as the temperature of a uniform enclosure in which a thermal manikin with realistic skin surface temperatures would lose heat at the same rate as it would in the actual environment (Tanabe et al., 1994). It can be interpreted as a temperature that a person senses in the actual environment. The relationship between the equivalent temperature and heat loss for each individual body segment (or the manikin as whole) can be expressed as:

ET = 36.4 CQ

t

where ET

is the manikin-based equivalent temperature, °C;

(3.8)

C

is constant depending on clothing, body posture, chamber characteristics and

Q t

thermal resistance offset of the skin surface temperature control system, °C.m 2 /W, determined experimentally; is the sensible heat loss, W/m 2 .

The constants were determined experimentally. The manikins were exposed to several level of equivalent temperature in a uniform reference environment (air temperature = mean radiant temperature, velocity close to zero). The manikins’ clothing and posture were as in the experiments. The heat loss was measured and the constants calculated.

The constants were then used to determine the equivalent temperature of the actual non- homogenous environment. Various analyses were carried out:

The impact of PV on occupants’ thermal comfort was assessed from the change of the equivalent temperature from the reference condition without PV (ET). The segmental and the whole-body equivalent temperatures were evaluated.

The vertical temperature difference and the horizontal temperature asymmetry between (1) front and back of a person and (2) left and right side of a person were used to indicate the severity of the local thermal discomfort.

3.7.3

Velocity

The velocity distribution was expressed in terms of the mean velocity, v , and the turbulence intensity, Tu. The turbulence intensity is defined as the standard deviation of the velocity fluctuations divided by the mean velocity. The velocity and temperature data were used in the calculation of the draught rating (DR), which was expressed by means of the following equation (ISO, 1994; CEN, 1998):

DR =

(34

)(

T v

0.05)

0.62

(0.37

v Tu +

3.14)

(3.9)

3.8 Uncertainty of measurement

Table 3.11 summarizes the typical values of absolute uncertainty based on the analyses of measurements. The values are given for each uncertainty component together with the sample uncertainty U and the uncertainty of a derived quantity U c . The uncertainty components are described in detail in Appendix A. Because the uncertainty of the concentration measurements was largely influenced by the component U meas , a single typical

Chapter 3

value cannot be given. The instrument uncertainty U instr was the strongest component in the case of other quantities, and the uncertainty of a measured quantity U can be thus considered a constant for practical purposes. Except for the concentration measurement, which varies among the measured locations, the uncertainty of the temperature and velocity measurement is generally not presented together with the mean value in the result sections. When presented, the uncertainty is indicated by means of error bars. The level of confidence is 95%.

Table 3.11. Typical values of absolute uncertainty with a level of confidence of 95%. The component having the largest impact on the combined uncertainty is printed in bold.

Quantity

U meas

U stab

U instr

U

U c

Concentration (inhaled and room)

Fluctuations due to nature, 10-12 readings

 

1% of

Stable*

reading**

See results

See results

Inhaled air

<0.03°C,

 

I (-):

T

temperature

560 readings

<0.05°C

0.2°C

0.23°C

< 0.07***

Manikin-based equivalent temp.

<

0.05°C,

15

readings

< 0.01°C

0.2°C

0.23°C

ET: 0.33°C

Surface

<

0.03°C,

temperature

30

readings

< 0.01°C

0.3°C

0.31°C

Room air

temperature

< 0.01°C

0.3°C

0.3°C

T(-): < 0.1***