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CORPORATE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, BHOPAL

Lecture Notes :Dr. Akhilesh Jain


SUB: Eng. Mathematics-II (BT-202) Topic: Solution of exact Differential Equations
Exact Differential Equations
A differential equation is called exact if it can be derived from its primitive ( Solution) directly by differentiation without any
subsequent operation of elimination or reduction, etc.

Total Differential (Exact Differential)

Total Diffrentiation: The total differential of a function of two variables u(x,y) is defined by

u u
du = dx + dy
x y

For example: if u(x,y) = x y then the total differential of u is

u u ( xy ) ( xy)
du = dx + dy=du = dx + dy=ydx+xdy
x y x y

Example: Let u(x,y)=c then its total differential

u u  (c )  (c )
du = dx + dy=du = dx + dy=0dx+0dy=0
x y x y

Condition for Exact Differential

If the differential equation of first order and first degree ( degree one ) can be written as

M N
M(x,y) dx + N(x,y) dy = 0 , then it is exact if and only if  .
y x

Solution for Exact Differential Equations

u
Since = M(x,y) the solution has the following form u   M dx  k ( y )  c
x

u u
To determine k(y), we take of the above equation and compare the result with = N(x,y)
dy y

We can find Solution by  M dx   Ndy  c (write common terms once )


  
Or  Mdx    N  y  M dx  dy  c

  
Or  N dy   M  x  N dy  dx  c

Example: Solve x y' + y + 4 = 0

Solution: Given x y' + y + 4 = 0  (y + 4) dx + x dy = 0

Compare with M(x,y) dx + N(x,y) dy = 0

We get M(x,y) =M = y + 4 and N(x,y)=N = x

Lecture Notes :Dr. Akhilesh Jain: akhiljain2929@gmail.com( Mob. 9827353835)


1 (Department of Engineering Mathematics, Corporate Institute of Science and Technology, Bhopal)
CORPORATE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, BHOPAL
Lecture Notes :Dr. Akhilesh Jain
SUB: Eng. Mathematics-II (BT-202) Topic: Solution of exact Differential Equations
M ( y  4) N  ( x) M ( y  4)
Test for exactness : Since   1 and  1  1
y y x x y y

M N
Hence   Equation is Exact Differential equation
y x

To find Solution 
y=constant
Mdx  
y=constant
( y  4)dx  x y  4 x and 
x=constant
N dy  
x=constant
x dy =x y

 M dx   Ndy  c (write common terms once )


 x y+4x=c Ans.

Example: Solve (1 - sin x tan y) dx  (cos x sec2 y) dy  0

Solution: Compare with M(x,y) dx + N(x,y) dy = 0

 M  1 - sin x tan y and N  cos x sec2 y

M  N 
 (1 - sin x tan y )   sin x(sec2 y) and  (cos x sec 2 y)  sec 2 y(  sin x)
y y x x

M N
Hence   Equation is Exact Differential equation
y x

To find Solution 
y  cons tan t
Mdx  
y  cons tan t
(1 - sin x tan y )dx  x - cos x tan y

and 
x  cons tan t
N dy  
x  cons tan t
cos x sec2 y dy  cos x(tan x)

then solution is  M dx   Ndy  c (write common terms once )


 x - cos x tan y  c Ans.
Example: Solve ( y  x  5)dx  ( y  x  1)dy  0 [ June 16]

Solution : Compare with M(x,y) dx + N(x,y) dy = 0

 M  y  x  1 and N  ( y  x  1)

M  N 
 ( y  x  1)  1 and  ( y  x  1)  1
y y x x

M N
Hence   Equation is Exact Differential equation
y x

x2
To find Solution 
y  cons tan t
Mdx  
y  cons tan t
( y  x  1)dx  yx 
2
x

y2
and 
x  cons tan t
N dy  
x  cons tan t
( y  x  1)dy  
2
 yx  y

Lecture Notes :Dr. Akhilesh Jain: akhiljain2929@gmail.com( Mob. 9827353835)


2 (Department of Engineering Mathematics, Corporate Institute of Science and Technology, Bhopal)
CORPORATE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, BHOPAL
Lecture Notes :Dr. Akhilesh Jain
SUB: Eng. Mathematics-II (BT-202) Topic: Solution of exact Differential Equations

then solution is  M dx   Ndy  c (write common terms once )


x 2
y2
 yx   x y c Ans.
2 2

Exercise

1. Show the following differential equation is exact and solve it. ( ye


x
)dx  (2 y  e x )dy  0 [RGPV Nov 19]
Solve (1  4 xy  2 y )dx  (1  4 xy  2 x )dy  0 Ans: (x+y)(1+2xy)=c [RGPV Feb.1995,99, June 17]
2 2
2.
x
3. (e x / y  1)dx  e x / y (1  )dy  0
Solve Ans. x  ye
x/ y
C [RGPV June 2015]
y
4. Solve (e  1) cos xdx  e sin xdy  0 Ans. (e  1)sin x  c [RGPV Dec.2000, June 2014]
y y y

5. Show that the equation (5 x  3x y  2 xy )dx  (2 x y  3x y  5 y )dy  0 is an exact equation. Find its
4 2 2 3 3 2 2 4

solution. [Nov. 2018]


6. Solve ( x  y  2)dx  ( x  2 y  3)dy  0 Ans. x2+2xy-4x-2y2-6y=2c [RGPV Dec.1999]

EQUATION REDUCIBLE TO EXACT FORM:

M N
If  then given Equation is not Exact.
y x

A differential equation which is not exact can be made exact by multiply it by a suitable function f(x,y) (  0). This function is
then called an integrating factor.

1
Case (i) If Mx+Ny≠0 ( a small term) , then take I.F.( Integral Factor) = , and multiply the equation by I.F. to
Mx  Ny
reduce in exact form.
x y3
Example Solve ( x y  2 xy )dx  ( x  3x y)dy  0
2 2 3 2
Ans.  log( 2 )  c [ Dec. 2002 ,Feb.06,Dec.08]
y x

Solution : Compare with M(x,y) dx + N(x,y) dy = 0

 M  ( x 2 y  2 xy 2 ) and N  ( x3  3x 2 y )

M  2 N  3
 ( x y  2 xy 2 )  x 2  4 xy and  ( x  3x2 y)  3x 2  6 xy
y y x x
Hence Example Solve ( x 2 y  2 xy 2 )dx  ( x3  3x 2 y)dy  0 [ Dec. 2002 ,Feb.06,Dec.08]

Solution : Compare with M(x,y) dx + N(x,y) dy = 0

 M  ( x 2 y  2 xy 2 ) and N  ( x3  3x 2 y )

M  N 
Then  ( x 2 y  2 xy 2 )  x 2  4 xy and  {( x3  3x 2 y )}  (3x 2  6 xy )
y y x x

M N
Hence   Equation is not Exact Differential equation
y x

To Make the equation Exact : Finding Integral Factor

Lecture Notes :Dr. Akhilesh Jain: akhiljain2929@gmail.com( Mob. 9827353835)


3 (Department of Engineering Mathematics, Corporate Institute of Science and Technology, Bhopal)
CORPORATE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, BHOPAL
Lecture Notes :Dr. Akhilesh Jain
SUB: Eng. Mathematics-II (BT-202) Topic: Solution of exact Differential Equations

Since Mx  Ny  ( x 2 y  2 xy 2 ) x  ( x3  3x 2 y ) y  x 2 y 2  0

1 1
Hence we take integral Factor IF  
Mx  Ny x y 2
2

( x 2 y  2 xy 2 ) ( x3  3x 2 y) 1 2 x 3
Multiply the given equation with I.F., We Get 2 2
dx  2 2
dy  0 OR (  )dx  ( 2  )dy  0
x y x y y x y y

Now this equation is an exact equation.

1 2 x
To find Solution 
y  cons tan t
Mdx  
y  cons tan t
(  )dx   2 log x
y x y
x 3 x
and 
x  cons tan t
N dy  
x  cons tan t
(  )dy   3 log y
y2 y y

Then solution is  M dx   Ndy  c (write common terms once )


x
  2 log x  3 log y  c Ans.
y

Example : Solve x 2 ydx  ( x3  y 3 )dy [Dec. 2002 ,Feb.2006]

Solution : Given equation is x ydx  ( x  y ) dy  0 ,


2 3 3

Compare with M(x,y) dx + N(x,y) dy = 0

 M  ( x 2 y ) and N  ( x3  y3 )

M  N 
Then  ( x2 y)  x2 and  {( x3  y3 )}  (3x 2 )
y y x x

M N
Hence   Equation is not Exact Differential equation
y x

To Make the equation Exact : Finding Integral Factor

Since Mx  Ny  ( x 2 y ) x  ( x3  y3 ) y   y 4  0

1 1
Hence we take integral Factor IF  
Mx  Ny y4

Multiply the given equation with I.F., We Get

x2 y ( x3  y 3 ) x2 x3 1
Then we get  dx  dy  0   dx  (  )dy  0
y4  y4 y3 y4 y

Now this equation is an exact equation.

x2 x3
To find Solution 
y  cons tan t
Mdx  
y  cons tan t

y 3
dx   3
3y

Lecture Notes :Dr. Akhilesh Jain: akhiljain2929@gmail.com( Mob. 9827353835)


4 (Department of Engineering Mathematics, Corporate Institute of Science and Technology, Bhopal)
CORPORATE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, BHOPAL
Lecture Notes :Dr. Akhilesh Jain
SUB: Eng. Mathematics-II (BT-202) Topic: Solution of exact Differential Equations

x3 1 x
and 
x  cons tan t
N dy  
x  cons tan t
(  )dy   3  log y
y4 y 3y

Then solution is  M dx   Ndy  c (write common terms once )


x
   log y  c Ans.
3 y3

1
Method-II If f1(x,y)y dx + f2(x,y)x dy=0 , If Mx-Ny≠0 ( a small term) , then take I.F.( Integral Factor) = , and
Mx  Ny
multiply the equation by I.F. to reduce in exact form.

Example: Solve ( xy sin xy  cos xy) ydx  ( xy sin xy  cos xy)dy  0

Given equation is ( xy sin xy  cos xy) ydx  ( xy sin xy  cos xy) xdy  0 ,
Solve:

Compare with M(x,y) dx + N(x,y) dy = 0

 M  ( xy sin xy  cos xy) y and N  ( xy sin xy  cos xy)

M   
Then  M  ( xy sin xy  cos xy ) y  ( xy 2 sin xy  y cos xy )  ( x 2 y 2  1) cos xy  xy sin xy
y y y y

 
And N  ( xy sin xy  cos xy ) x  3xy sin xy  ( x 2 y 2  1) cos xy
x x

M N
Hence   Equation is not Exact Differential equation
y x

To Make the equation Exact : Finding Integral Factor

Since Mx  Ny  ( xy sin xy  cos xy) y x  ( xy sin xy  cos xy) xy  2 xy cos xy  0

1 1
Hence we take integral Factor IF  
Mx  Ny 2 xy cos xy

Multiply the given equation with I.F., We Get

1 1 1 1
Then we get  y tan xy   dx   x tan xy   dy  0
2 x 2 y

Now this equation is an exact equation.

1  1 1 1
To find Solution 
y  cons tan t
Mdx   tan t  y tan xy  x  dx  2 log sec xy  2 log x
2 y cons
1  1 1
and  N dy    x tan xy   dy   log sec xy  log y 
x  cons tan t
2 x  cons tan t  y 2

Then solution is  M dx   Ndy  c (write common terms once )


1 1 1 1
 log sec xy  log x  log y  c  log c  x sec xy  c Ans.
2 2 2 2

Lecture Notes :Dr. Akhilesh Jain: akhiljain2929@gmail.com( Mob. 9827353835)


5 (Department of Engineering Mathematics, Corporate Institute of Science and Technology, Bhopal)
CORPORATE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, BHOPAL
Lecture Notes :Dr. Akhilesh Jain
SUB: Eng. Mathematics-II (BT-202) Topic: Solution of exact Differential Equations
Exercise
1. y sin 2 xdx  (1  y  cos x)dy  0 Ans: 3ycos2x+6y+2y3=c
Solve
2 2
[RGPV Feb.1996]
2. Solve y (1  xy )dx  x(1  xy )dy  0 Ans. x =yce1/xy [RGPV Dec.2003]
1
Solve y ( xy  2 x y )dx  x( xy  x y )dy  0 Ans. 2 log x  log  C1 y
2 2 2 2
3. [RGPV Feb.2012]
xy
4. Solve
(2 y  6 xy 2 )dx  (3x  8 x 2 y)dy  0 , Ans. x 2 y 3  2 x3 y 4  c [RGPV Dec. 2004]

1  M N   f ( x) dx , multiply this I.F. to equation and


Method-III: When     f ( x) function of x only, then I .F .  e
N  y x 
make exact.

Example: Solve (4 x  3 y 2 ) dx  2 x y dy  0

Solution : Given equation is (4 x  3 y 2 ) dx  2 x y dy  0

Compare with M(x,y) dx + N(x,y) dy = 0

 M  (4 x  3 y 2 ) and N 2xy

M    
Then  M  (4 x  3 y 2 ) =0+6y And N  ( 2 x y )=2y
y y y x x

M N
Hence   Equation is not Exact Differential equation
y x

To Make the equation Exact : Finding Integral Factor

1  M N  1 2
Since     6 y  2 y    f ( x)
N  y x  2 x y x

2
Hence we take integral Factor I .F .  e 
f ( x ) dx dx
 e x  e 2 log x  x 2

Multiply the given equation with I.F., We Get

Then we get x 2 (4 x  3 y 2 ) dx  2 x 3 y dy  0

Now this equation is an exact equation.

x4 x3
To find Solution 
y  cons tan t
Mdx  
y  cons tan t
x 2 (4 x  3 y 2 ) dx  4
4
 3y2
3
y2
and 
x  cons tan t
N dy   2 x3 ydy  2 x3 (
2
)

Then solution is  M dx   Ndy  c (write common terms once )


 x 4  y 2 x3  c Ans.

Solve ( y  x)dx  (2 y )dy  0 , Ans : y 2  x  1  ce  x


2
Exercise

Lecture Notes :Dr. Akhilesh Jain: akhiljain2929@gmail.com( Mob. 9827353835)


6 (Department of Engineering Mathematics, Corporate Institute of Science and Technology, Bhopal)
CORPORATE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, BHOPAL
Lecture Notes :Dr. Akhilesh Jain
SUB: Eng. Mathematics-II (BT-202) Topic: Solution of exact Differential Equations

Exercise : Solve ( x  y  2 x)dx  (2 y )dy  0 , Ans. ( x  y )e  C


2 2 2 2 x

1  M N    f ( y ) dy
Methid-IV: When      f ( y ) function of y only, then I .F .  e , multiply this I.F. to equation and
M  y x 
make exact.

Example: Solve (3x 2 y 4  2 xy )dx  (2 x 3 y 3  x 2 )dy  0 , [RGPV Feb.2001, June 2013]

Solution: Given equation is (3x 2 y 4  2 xy )dx  (2 x 3 y 3  x 2 )dy  0

Compare with M(x,y) dx + N(x,y) dy = 0

 M  (3x 2 y 4  2 xy ) and N  (2 x 3 y 3  x 2 )

M    
Then  M (3x 2 y 4  2 xy )  12 x 2 y3  2 x And N  (2 x3 y3  x 2 )  6 x 2 y3  2 x
y y y x x

M N
Hence   Equation is not Exact Differential equation
y x

To Make the equation Exact : Finding Integral Factor

1  M N 
Since 
M  y
 
1
x  (3x y  2 xy ) 
2 4   y
 
 12 x 2 y 3  2 x  6 x 2 y 3  2 x    2   f ( y ) 
2

Hence we take integral Factor I .F .  e 


 f ( y ) dy dy
1
e y
 e 2 log y 
y2

Multiply the given equation with I.F., We Get

(3x 2 y 4  2 xy ) (2 x3 y 3  x 2 )  2x   x2 
Then we get dx  dy  0 or  3x 2 y 2   dx   2 x3 y  2  dy  0
y2 y2  y   y 

Now this equation is an exact equation.

 2 2 2x  x3 2 2 x 2 x2
 Mdx        
3 2
To find Solution 3 x y  dx 3 y x y
y  cons tan t 
y  cons tan t
y  3 2y y
 x2  y 2 x2 x2
and 
x  cons tan t
N dy    2 x3 y  2  dy  2 x3
 y  2

y
 x3 y 2 
y

Then solution is  M dx   Ndy  c (write common terms once )


x2
 x3 y 2  =c Ans.
y

Exercise Solve ( xy  y )dx  2( x y  x  y )dy  0 , Ans. 3x y  6 xy  2 y  0


3 2 2 4 2 4 2 6

Lecture Notes :Dr. Akhilesh Jain: akhiljain2929@gmail.com( Mob. 9827353835)


7 (Department of Engineering Mathematics, Corporate Institute of Science and Technology, Bhopal)