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In Exercises 33-36, show as in Examples ].].5 and t.].6, that science course are also taking a mathematics course. Are more
ACB. than one-thİrd of the sfudents taking a mathematİcs course?
33. A:I|,2I, B:{3,2,1}
34. A:{1,2|, B:{"r|ı3 -612+ 11ı:6}
In Exercises 57-60, let X: {1, 2 and Y- {a, b, c|. List the
elements in each set.
35. A:{1}x{1,2}, B: {1}x{1,2,3}
ü. A : {2n I n < Z+I, B : {n I n eZ+|
57. XxY 58. YxX
59. XxX 6O. Y xY
In Exercises 3740, show, as in Example I.t.9, that A is not a
subset of B.
InExercises 6144, let X: {1,2I, Y : |a|, and Z: {a, B}. List
37. A: I1,2,3|, B : {|,2} the elements of each set.

38. A : I, l x3 _2x2 - x *2 :g1, B : {|,2l


6l. XxYxZ 62. X xY xY
39. A : 11, 2, 3, 4l, C : {5, 6, 7, 8}, B : |n n e A and, n * m :
forsomem€C}
I 8
63. X xX xX 64.YxXxYxZ
40. A: {1.2,3}, B :Z In Exercises 65-72, give a geometric description of each set in
words. (Consider the elements ofthe sets to be coordinates.)
In Exercises 4]48, draw aVenn diagram and shade the given set.
65. RxR
4l. An B 42.A-B 66. ZxR
43. BJ(B - A) 44. (AU B) _ B 67. RxZ
45. Bn(CUA) 46. (AUB)n(C_A) 68. R x Znonne9
47. ((C nA)_(B_A))nC 69. ZxZ
4s. (B _e) u((B -a) n(C U B)) 70. RxRxR
49. A television commercial for a popular beverage showed the 71. RxRxZ
following Venn üagram
72. RxZxZ

r\JLl
Tastea-=----.
(\
Great Less Filling In Exercises 73-76, list all partitions ofthe set.
73. {1] 74. {|,2}
)
75. {a,b,c| 76. |a,b,c,d|
What does the shaded area represent? In Exercises 77-82, answer true or false.

Exercises 50-54 refer to a group of l91 students, ofwhich I0 are 77. {x} C {x| 78. {"r} e {x}
taking French, business, and music; j6 are taking French and busi- 79. {xl e {ı, {.r}} S0. {.r} c
{ı, {"r}}
ness ; 20 are taking French and music ; 1 8 are taking business and
81. {2} CP({1,2» 82. {2| eP({|,z})
music; 65 are taking French; 76 are taking business; and 63 are
83. List the members of P ({a, b}). Which are proper subsets of
taking music.
\a, b|?
50. How many aIe taking French and music but not business? 84. List the members of P ( {
a, b, c, d|).Which are proper subsets
51. How many are taking business and neither French nor music? of {a, b, c, d|?
52. How many are taking French or business (or both)? 85. If X has l0 members, how many members does 2(X) have?
53. How many are taking music or French (or both) but not How many proper subsets does X have?
business? 86. If X has n members, how many proper subsets does X have?
54. How many are taking none of the three subjects? In Exercises 87-90, what relation must hold between sets A and B
55. A television poll of 151 persons found that 68 watched.'Law in order for the given condition to be true?
and Disorder"; 6l watched "25";52 watched'.The Tenors'';
16 watched both "Law and Disorder'' and ''25'' 25 watched
87. AaB:A 88. AUB:A
both "Law and Disorder" and "The Tenors''; 19 watched boü 89.7n{J:a 90. An B :E
"25" and" 'The Tenors"; and 26 watched none of üese shows.
Tlıe symmetric difference of two sets A and B is the set
How many persons watched all three shows?
56. In a group of students, each student is taking a mathemat- A^B-(AUB)-(A.B).
ics course or a computer science course or both. One-fifth of 9l. It A: {1,2,3} and B : {2,3,4,5}, find A A B.
those taking a mathematics course are also taking a computer
92. Describe the symmetric difference of sets A and B in words.
science course, and one-eighth of those taking a computer
2U Chapter 1? Sets and Logic

Determine whether each sentence in Exercises I-I I is a proposi- In Exercises 33-38, formulate the symbolic expression in wı
tion. If the sentence is a proposition, write its negation. (You are using
notbeing askedfor the truthvalues ofthe sentences that are proprı-
p : Lee takes computer science.
sitions. )
q ,. Lee takes mathematics.
1. ? 5: ]q
-r 2. 6-19 : 15.
3. ı*9:15. 33. -p 34. p nq 35. pV q
4. Waiteı will you sefve the nuts-I mean, would you sefve the 36. pv -q 37. p ı_q t$. -p n-q
guests the nuts? In Exercises 3943, formulate the symbolic expression in wı
5. For some positive integer n, 79340 : n. l'7. using
6. Audrey Meadows was the original 'Alice" in "The Honey- p: Youplayfootball.
mooners." q : You miss the midteıın exam.
7. Peel me a grape. r ,. You pass the course.

8. The line "Play it again, Sam" occurs in the movie Casablanca.


9. Every even integer greater than 4 is the sum oftwo primes.
39. pıq 40.-Q^r 4l, pvqvr
l0. The difference of two primes.
42. -Ço v q) v r 43. (p ıq)v(-q ır)
*11. This statement is false. In Exercises 4448, formulate the symbolic expression in ıa
using
Exercises 12-15 refer to a coin that is fiipped ]0 times. Write the
negation of the proposition. p : Today is Monday.
q : It is raining.
12. Ten heads were obtained. r : It is hot.
13. Some heads were obtained.
14. Some heads and some tails were obtained. 44. pvq 45. -pn(gvr1
15. At least one head was obtained. 46. -(.pvq)nr 47. (pıq)ı-(rvp)
48. (p n(s v r)) v (q v p))
Given that proposition p is false, proposition q is true, and proposi- ^(r
tion r is false, determine whether each proposition in Exercises ] 6- In Exercises 49-54, represent the proposition symbolicall1
2] is true orfalse. letting

|6. pvq 17. -pv-q p: There is a hurricane.


|8. _pva 19. _py_(qAr) q : It is raining.

20. -(,pv q) n(-pv r) 49. There is no hurricane.


2l. (p v -r) n -((s v r) v -(r v p))
50. There is a hurricane and it is raining.
Write the truth table of each proposition in Exercises 22-29. 51. There is a hurricane, but it is not raining.
22. p l-q 23. (-p v -q) v p 52. There is no hurricane and it is not raining.
24. (pvs)^-p 25. (p ıq) 53. Either there is a hurricane or it is raining (or both).
^-p
26. (pıq)v(_pvq) 27. -(p nq)v (r n-p) 54. Either there is a hurricane or it is raining, but there i
28. (p v q) ı (-p v (ü) (p v -q) (_p v -q) hurricane.
^ ^
29. -(p ı q) v (_q v r) In Exercises 55*59, represent the proposition symbolicağ
letting
In Exercises 30-32, represent the given proposition symbolically
by letting p: You run l0 laps daily. ]

q: You are healthy. i

,. You take multi-vitamins.


p: 5 <9, q: 9 <7, r: 5 <'7. r

55. You run 10 laps daily, but you are not healthy
Determine whether each proposition is true or false.
56. You run 10 laps daily, you take multi-vitamins, and yoq
30.5<9and9<'7. healthy.
31. Itisnotthecasethat(5 < 9and9 <1). 57. You run l0laps daily or you take multi-vitamins, and yu
32. 5 < 9 oritis notthe case that (9 < 7 and 5 < 7). healthy.
1. What is a conditional proposition? How
is it denoted? 1 What is the converse of p --> q?
) Give the truth table for the conditional proposition.
8. What is a biconditional proposition? How
is it denoted?
3. In a conditional proposition, what is the hypothesis?
9. Give the truth table for the biconditional proposition.
4. In a conditional proposition, what is the conclusion?
10. What does it mean for P to be logically equivalent to
What is a necessary condition?
l1. State De Morgan's laws for logic.
6. what is a sufEcient condition?
|2. What is the contrapositive of p --> q?

In Exercises ]-]0, restate each proposition in


24. q-+r
c ondit i onal p ro p o s iti on.
the form ( 1 .3.2) of a 25. r --> p 26. r --> q
27. (p nr) <> r 28. (pvr)<>r 29. (q n r)
l, Joey will pass the discrete mathematics exam if he
studies hard. 30. (qvr)<>r
<+

2. Rosa may graduate ifshe has 160 quarter-hours ofcredits.


Determine the truth value of each proposition in Exercises
3. A necessary condition for Fernando to buy a computer
is that
he obtain $2000. 3t. If3 +5 <2,then l *3 :4.
4. A sufficient condition for Katrina to take the algorithms
course
32. lf 3+5 <2.then |*3l4.
is that she pasş dİscrete mathematics. 33. If3 + 5 > 2,then
5. Getting üat job requires knowing someone who knows
1 +3 - 4.

boss.
the 34. Ii 3 + 5 > 2,then I t 3 # 4.
35. 2|f arıdonly if 1 * 3 :
3+ 5 > a..
6. You can go to the Super Bowl unless you can't afford
the ticket. 36. 3 + 5 < 2if andonly if 1 I 3 : /1.
7. You may inspect the aircraft only if you have the proper
secu- 37. 3 +5 < 2if andonlyif 1 + 3
rity clearance. + 4.
38. Ifthe earth has six moons, then 1 < 3.
8. When better cars are built, Buick will build them.
39. If 1 < 3, then the earth has six moons.
9. The audience will go to sleep if the chairperson gives the
lecfure. In Exercises 4043, represent the given proposition
10. The program is readable onty if it is well structured. by letting

11. Write the converse of each proposition in Exercises p: 4<2, q: 7 <10, r: 6<6.
1-10.
12. Write the contrapositive of each proposition in Exercises 40. If 4 < 2, then7 < l0.
1-10.
Assuming that p and r are false and that q and s are 4l. If(4 <2and6 < 6),then7 < l0.
true, find the
truth value of each proposition in Exercises ] 3-20. 42. If it is not the case that (6 < 6 and 7 is not less than l0),
13. p 6<6.
--> q ||. -p --> -q 43. 7 < 10 if and only if (4 < 2 and6 is not less than
15. -(p --> q) |6. (p --> q) n (q --> r)
6).

|7. (p In Exercises 4449, represent the given proposition


Q) --> r
--> L8. p --> (q --> r)
by letting
19. (s -+ (p ı -r11^ ((p --+ (r v
4)) n s)
20. ((p A -q) + (q ı r)) -+ (s v p: You run l0 laps daily.
-4) q .. You are healthy.
Exercises 21-30 refer to the propositions p, q, and r; p r:
is true, q You take multi-vitamins.
is false, and r's status is unknown at this time.
Tell whether each
proposition is true, is false, or has unknown status 44. If you run 10 laps daily, then you will be healthy.
at this time.
2l. pv r 22. p nr 23. p_7 45. If you do not run 10 laps daily or do not take mult
then you will not be healthy.
1,4 a Arguments and Rules of lnference 31
46. Taking multi-vitamins is sufficient for being healthy.
Using De Morgan's lawsforlogic, write the negationof eachpropo-
47. You will be heaİthy if and only if you run 10 laps daily and sition in Exercises 70-73.
take multi-vitamins.
70. Pat will use the treadmill or lift weights.
48. If you are healthy, then you run 10 laps daily or you take
multi-vitarnins. 7l. Dale is smart and funny.

49. Ifyou 72. Shirley will either take the bus or catch a ride to school.
are healthy and run 10 laps daily, then you do not take
multi-vitamins. 73. Red pepper and onions are required to make chili.
In Exercises 50-55, formulate the symbolic expression in words Exe rc is es 74 and 7 5 p rov ide furthe r mot iv at i on fo r definin g p --> q
using to be true when p
false. We consider changing the truth table fİr
is
p --> q when p is false. For the first change, we call the resulting
p: Today is Monday, operator impL (Exercise 74), and,
for the second change, we call
the resulting operator imp2 (Exercise 75). In both cases,
q: It is raining, we see
that pathologies result.
r: It is hot.
74. Defrne the truth table for impl by
50. p --> q 5|. -s->Qıp)
52. -p --> (q v r) 53. -(p v q) <-> r pq p impl q
54. (p n(q v r)) -+ (r v (q v p))
55. (p v (-p _+ (p v T
^-(qvr))) -(r v q))
F
In Exercises 56_59, write each conditional proposition symboli- F
cally. Write the converse and contrapositive of each proposition T
symbolically and in words. Atso, find the truth value of each con-
ditional proposition, its converse, and its contrapositive.
Showthat p impl q : q impL p,
56. It4 < 6,then9 >12. 57. If4 > 6,then g > 12. Define the truth table for imp2 by
58. 11|<3if-3<l<3. 59. |4l <3if-3<4<3.
For each pair of propositions P and Q in Exercises 6049, state pq p imp2 q
whether or not P Q. = TT T
60. P-p,Q:pvq 6l. P:p^q,Q:-pv-q TF F
62. P:p-+q,Q--pvq FT T
63. P : p n(-qv r), Q : p v (q A_r) FF F
64. P : p v r), Q : Q v q) ı(p v r) (a) Show that
^(q
65. P:p-->q,Q--q->-p (p imp2 s) @ imp2 p) *p <> q. (1.3.5)
66. P:p-->q,Q:p*q ^
(b) Show that (1.3.6) remains true if we change the third row
67. P : (p --> q) A(q --> r), Q: p --> r
of imp2's truth table to F T F.
68. P : (p -> q) --> r, Q: p --> (q --> r) 76. Verify the second of De Morgan's laws
-(p n 4) : ap v -q.
69. P :(s -+ (pn -r)) n ((p --> (r v q)) ıs), : p v t 77. Show that (p -+ q) (-p v q).
Q
=
l. What is deductive reasoning? 8. State üe modus tollens rule of inference.
2. What is a hypothesis in an argument? 9. state the addition rule of inference.
3. What is a premise in an argument? 10. State the simplification rule of inference.
4. What is a conclusion in an argument? 11. State the conjunction rule of inference.
5. What is a valid argument? 12. State the hypothetical syllogism rule of inference.
6. What is an invalid argument? 13. State the disjunctive syllogism rule ofinference.
7. state the modus ponens rule of inference.

Formulate the arguments of Exercises 1-5 symbolically and deter-


4. If I study hard or I get rich, then I get A's.
mine whether each is valid. Let
I get A's.
p: I study hard. q .. I get A's. r : I get rich.
.'. If I don't study hard, then I get rich.
1. IfI study hard, then I get A s.
5. If I study hard, then I get A's or I get rich.
I studv hard.
I don't get A s and I don't get rich.
.'. IgetAs.
7
.'. I don't study hard.
If I sfudy hard, then I get A s.

If I don't get rich, then I don't get A InExercises 6-10, write the given argument inwords ancl determine
s.
whether each ar7ument is valid. Let
.'. I get rich.
3. I study hard if and only if I get rich.
p: 4 megabytes is better than no memory at all
I get rich.
q: We will buy more memory.
.'. I study hard. r: We will buy a new computer
9. Explain how to prove that a universally quantifred state
1. What is a propositional function?
false.
2. What is a domain of discourse?
10. Explain how to prove that an existentially quantified
3. What is a universally quantified statement? is false.

4. What is a counterexample? l1. state the universal instantiation rule of inference,

5. What is an existentially quantified statement? |2. State the universal generalization rule of inference,
6. State the generalized De Morgan's laws for logic, 13. state the existential instantiation rule of inference,

7. Explain how to prove that a universally quantified statement is


|4. State the existential generalization rule of inference,
true.

8. Explain how to prove that an existentially quantified §tatement


is true.

28. Yx P(x) 29. 1x P(x)


In Exercises 1*6, tell whether the statement is a propositional
function. For each statement that is
apropositionalfunction, give 30. Vı -P(ı) 31. ]-r -P(x)
a domain of discourse. 32. -(Vı P(-r)) 33. -(]"r P("r))
|. (2n * 1)2 is an odd integer. 34. Write the negation of each proposition in Exercises
symbolically and in words.
2. Choose an integerbetween 1 and 10,
3. Let x be a real number. Let P(x) d,enote the statement "x is a professional athlete,
let Q@) denote the statement "x plays soccer" The domain
4. The movie won the Academy Award as the best picture of
course is the set of all people. Write each proposition in Ex
l955.
3542 in words. Determine the truth value of each statement,
5. 1 + 3:4. 36. ]ı(P(.r) -> QQ))
35. Vı(P(x) -> QQ))
6. There exists, such that ı < y (x,y real numbers),
37. Yx(Q@) + P(ı)) 38. ]x(0(;) -+ P(ı))
lrt P(n) be the propositionalfunction "n divides 77," Wite each ]ı (P(x) v Q@))
39. Vı (P("x) v o(.r)) 40.
proposition in Exercises 7-11 in words and tell whether it is true
or false. The domain of discourse is Z+ , 41. Yx (P(x) ı QQ)\ 42. 1x (P(x) ı QQ))

9. P(3) 43. Write the negation of each proposition in Exercises


7. P(||) 8. P(1)
symbolically and in words.
I0. Yn P(n) 11. 3n P(n)
Iıt P(x) denote the statement " x is an accountan1" and let
Let P(x) be the propositional function "x > x2"'
Tell whether
denote the statement " x owns a
porsche," write each
each proposition in Exercises 12-20 is true or false, The domain Exe rci s e s 4 447 symb olic ally.
of discourse is R.
44. A|| accountants own Porsches.
|2. P(l) 13. P(2) 14. P(1l2)
45. Some accountantowns aPorsche.
15. Vx P(ı) 16. 1x P(x) lı. -(Yx P(x))
46. A1l owners ofPorsches are accountants,
13. -(3; P(ı)) 19. Vı -P(ı) 20. 1x -P(x)
47. Someoıe who owns a Porsche is an accountant,
Suppose that the domain of discourse of the propositionalfunction 48. Write the negation of each proposition in Exercises
rl,
tl, 2,3,4|. Rewite each propositionalfunction in
Exercises
symbolically and in words.
2]-27 using, only negation, disjunction, and conjunction,
Determine the truth value of each Statement in Exercises
2l. Yx P(x) 22. yx-P(x) 23. -(Vx P(x)) The domain of d,iscourse is R- Justfu your answers,
24. 3x P(x\ 25. 1x -P(x) 26. -(3x P(x\)
49. Yx(xz > x) 50. Jx(xz > x)
27. Yx({x # 1) -> P(x)) x2 >x
51. Vı(x >l"> x2 > x) 52, 3x(x>1->
do, ll3)
Let P (x) denote the statement " x is taking a math coıırse," The 53. V.t(ı > l --> xl(xz + |) <
main of discourse is the set of all students, Write each proposition
54, lx(x > 1--> xl(xz + 1) < 1/3)
in Exercises 28-33 inwords.
1. What is the interpretation of VxVyP(ı, y)? When is this quan- 6. Write the negation of VxVyP(.r, y) using the
tified expression true? When is it false? De Morgan's laws for logic.

2. What is the interpretation of VıJy P(x, y)? When is this quan- 7- Write the negation of Vx3yP(x, y) using the
tified expression true? When is it false? De Morgan's laws for logic.

3. What is the interpretation of f xYy P(x, y)? When is this quan- 8. Write the negation of 3ıVyP(ı, y) using the
tified expression true? When is it false? De Morgan's |aws for logic.

4. What is the interpretation of l x3y P (x, y) ? When is this quan- 9. Write the negation of JxlyP(x, y) using the
tified expression true? When is it false? De Morgan's laws for logic.

5. Give an example to show that, in general, Vı3yP(ı, y) and 10. Explain the ıules for playing the logic game. How can
1xYyP(x, y) have different meanings. logic game be used to determine the truth value of a quanti
expression?

In Exercises ]-27, the set D1 consists of three students: Garth, who 7. Tell whether each proposition in Exercises 1-4 is true or
is feet l1 inches tall; Erin, who is 5 feet 6 inches tall; and Marty,
5 if the domain of discourse is D2 x D2.
who is 6 feet tall. The set D2 consists of four students: Dale, who 8. Tell whether each proposition in Exercises 1-4 is true or
is 6 feet tall; Gaıth, who is 5 feet l l inches tall; Erin, who is 5 feet if the domain of discourse is D3 x D3.
6 inches tall; and Marty, who is 6 feet tall. The set D3 consists of
9. Tell whether each proposition in Exercises 1-4 is true or fal
one student: Dale, who is 6 feet tall. The set D4 consists of three
if the domain of discourse is Da x Da.
i

students: Pat, Sandy, and Gale, each ofwhom is 5 feet l 1 inches tall.
In Exercises 1-9, Tt@, y) is the propositional function "x
is taller than y." Write each proposition in Exercises ]4 in words. In Exercises 10-18, TzQ,y) is the propositional function "x
1. V"rVy Tı(x, y) 2. YxJy Tı(x, y) taller than or the same height as y." Write each proposition
Exercises 10-] 3 in words.
3. 3_rVy T{x,y) 4. 1xly TıQ,y)
5. Write the negation of each proposition in Exercises 1-4 in 10. VıVy TzQ,y) 11. V.x3y TzO,y)
words and symbolically. |2. 1xYy TzQ, y) 13. 3ı3y TzQ,y)
6. Tell whether each proposition in Exercises 1-4 is true or false 14. Write the negation of each proposition in Exercises 10-13
if the domain of discourse is D1 x D1. words and symbolically.
Tell whether each proposition in Exercises 11-13 is true or 35. Every discrete maü student attended someone's office hours.
üI§e if the domain of discourse is D1 x D1. (The set D1 is
36. Al1 teachers had at least one student attend their office hours.
defned before Exercise 1.)
Tell whether each proposiion in Exercises 10-13 is true or Let P(x, y) be the propositional function x > y. The domain of
hl§e if the domain of discourse is D2 x D2. (The set D2 is discourse is Z+ x Z+. Tell whether each proposition in Exercises
&fned before Exercise 1.) 3740 is true or false.

Tell whether each proposition in Exercises 10-13 is true or 37. YxYy P(x,y) 38. Vı3y P(x, y)
hlse if the domain of discourse is D3 x D3. Qhe set D3 is 39. lıVy P(x,y) 40. 3x3y P(x,y)
defined before Exercise 1.)
41. Write the negation of each proposition in Exercises 37-40.
Tell whether each proposition in Exercises 11-13 is true or
false if the domain of discourse is Da x Da. $he set Da is Determine the truth value of each statement in Exercises 42-59.
defined before Exercise l.) The domain of discourse ıs R x R. Justify your answer,ı.

&ercises 19-27, ft(x,y) is the propositional function ''if x


42. YxYy(x2 < y+ l) 43. Yx3y(xz < y+l)
y are distinct persons, then x is taller than y.'' Write each 44.1xYy(x2 <y+1) 45.1xly(xz <y+1)
in Exercises 19-22 in words. 46.lyYx(x2 <y+1) 47. Yylx(xz < )+1)
YxYy \(x, y) 20. YxJy TsQ, y) 48. YxVy(xz * y2 :9) 49. yxly(xz I y2 :9)
3xvy T3Q, y) 22. l.xly TzQ, y) 50. lxYy(x2 * y2 :9) 5l. 1x3y(x2 * y2 :9)
Write the negation of each proposition in Exercises 19-22 in 52. YxYy(xz + y2 ,0) 53. yxly(xz + y2 r 0)
words and symbolically. 54. JxYy(x2 * ü2 ,0) 55. 3x3ylx2 + y2 , 0)
Tell whether each proposition in Exercises 1922 is true or 56. V"tVy((-r < y) --+ (r2 . y2))
false if the domain of discourse is D1 x D1 . (The set D1 is 5/. V"rl}((İ < }) -> (x" < y'))
defined before Exercise 1.)
58. lxvy((_r < y) -+ (r2 ., y2))
IlL Tell whether each proposition in Exercises 19-22 is true or
false if the domain of discourse is D2 x D2. (The set D2 is
59. 3xJy((x < y) -+ (r2 ., y2))

defined before Exercise 1.) 60. Write the negation of each proposition in Exercises 42-59.
ü. Tell whether each proposition in Exercises 19-22 is true or 61. Suppose that P is a propositional function with domain of
false if the domain of discourse is D3 x D3. (The set D3 is discourse tdı, . . ., dn} x {d1, . . ., dn}.Write pseudocode that
defined before Exercise 1.) determines whether
l|'l Tell whether each proposition in Exercises 19J2 is true or 3-rVy P("r, y)
false if the domain of discourse is Da x Da. (The set D4 is
is true or false.
defined before Exercise 1.)
62. Suppose that P is a propositional function with domain of
Iıt L(x, y) be the propositionalfunction "x loves y.'' The domain discourse {dı, . . ., d"} x {d1, . . ., dnl.Write pseudocode that
ğdiscourse is the Cartesian product of the set of all living people determines whether
ıiıh itself (i.e., both x and y take on values in the set of all living
pople). Write each proposition in Exercises 28-3t symbolically. 3x3y P(x, y)
Which do you think are true? is true or false.

28. Someone loves everybody. 63. Explain how the logic game (Example 1.6.15) determines
whether each proposition in Exercises 42-59 is true or false.
Z). Everybody loves everybody.
64. Use the logic game (Example 1.6.15) to determine whether the
30. Somebody loves somebody.
proposition
3l. Everybody loves somebody.
YxYylz((z>J)^(z<y))
32. Write the negation of each proposition in Exercises 28-31 in
words and symbolically. is true or false. The domain of discourse is z x z x z.
65. Use the logic game (Example 1.6.15) to determine whether the
Iıt A(x, y) be the propositional function "x attended y's ffice proposition
hours" and let E(x) be the propositionalfunction ''x is enrolled
in a discrete math class." Let S be the set of students awl let T V"tVyJe((z < "T) (z < y))
^
denote the set of teachers-all at Hudson University. The domain is true or false. The domain of discourse is z x z x z,
of discourse of A is S x T and the domain of discourse of E is S. 66. Use the logic game (Example 1.6.15) to determine whether the
Write each proposition in Exercises 33-36 synbolically. proposition
33. Brit attended someone's offlce hours. YxYy3z((x < y) -+ ((e > "r; n (z < y)))
34. No one attended Professor Sandwich's office hours. is true or false. The domain of discourse is z x z x z.
67. Use the logic game (Example 1.6. 1 5) to determine whether the Assume that3xYy P(x, y) isfalse andthat the domain of
proposition is nonempty. Which of Exercjses 8-1*85 must also be false?
your answer
V_rVy!z((x < )) -+ ((z > .x) ı (z < ı)))

is true or false. The domain of discourse is R x R x R.


83. V.rVy P(x,y) 84. Vı3y P(x,y) 85. 3ıJyP(x,_ı
Assume that 3x!y P(ı, y) is false and that the domain of di
y P (x, y) is true and that the domain of discourse
As sume that Y xY
is nonempty. Which of Exerclses 86-88 must also be.false?
is nonempty. Which of Exercises 68-70 must also be true? Prove
your answer,
your answer.

68. Vı3y P(ı, y) 69. !.rVy P(x,y) 70. 1xly P(x,y)


86. VıVy P(ı, y) 87. Vı3y P(x, y) 88. 3.rVy P(ı, _ı,)

Assume that 1xV y P (x, y) is true and that the domain of discourse
Which of Exercises 89-92 ls logically equivalent
is nonempty. Which of Exercises 71-73 must also be true? Prove -(Vr]J P(x. y)).' Explain.
your answer. 89. ]x-(Vy P(_r, ı)) 90. Vı-(]y P(ı, y))
7l. YxVy P(x,y) 72. Yxly P(x, y) 73. Jx3y P(.r, y) 91. J_rVy -P(ı, y) 92. 3xly -P(x, y)
93. [Requires calculus] The definition of
Assume that 3x:Jy P (x, y) is true and that the domain of discourse
is nonempty. Which of Exercises 74-76 must also be true7 Prove
your answer. İ+a f(x)
|im : L

74. YxYy P(x,y) 75. Yxly P(x, y) 76. lxYy P(x,y) is: For every e > 0, there exists 6 > 0 such that for all
0 < l.r - cıl < 3, then |/(x) - al < s. Write this defi
As s ume that V xY y P (x, y)
i s fal s e and that the domain of dis c ours e
symbolically using V and J.
is nonempty. Which of Exercises 77-79 must also be false? Prove
your answer 94. [Requires calculus] Write the negation of the definition of
(see Exercise 93) in words and symbolically using V and 3
77. Yx3y P(x,y) 78. 3ıVy P(.r, y) 79. 3xly P(x,y) not -.
-o f 0)
Assume thatY x3y P (x, y) is fals e and that the domain of discourse *95. [Requires calculus] Write the definition of "lim,
is nonempty. Which of Exercises 80-82 must also be false? Prove not exist" (see Exercise 93) in words and symbolically
your answer V and ] but not -.
96. Consider the headline: Every school may not be right
80. V.rVy P(x,y)
every child, What is the literal meaning? What is the i
81. l"rVy P(x,y) meaning? Clarify the headline by rephrasing it and writi
82. 3x3y P(x, y) symbolically.