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PGDCA

From 300bc Abacus instrument is used to calculate simple calculations


very easily.

Mr Charles barbage introduced different engine in 1822 to calculate


simple calculations very easy

He again introduced & implemented Analytical Engine in 1833 to


calculate Expressional data & scientific calculations fast & easy

ADA AGUSTA – first computer programmer written programe for


analytical engine

C-COMPUTER; O-OPERATING; M-MMACHINE; P-PARTICULARLY


U-USED FOR; T-TRADE & TECHNICAL; E-EDUCATION &
ENTERTAINMENT; R-RESEARCH & RETRIVE DATA
Computer system accepts true data instructions through input
device with user & process
Display processed data core result through output device

PROCESS OUTPUT
INPUT

The above definition is introduced by Mr Charles barbage


Computer system is an electronic device processes given data
Compute – given data calculation
GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER
FIRST GENERATION
1946-55
electronic numerical integer & calculator
Processing section is used with vacuum tubes
These computers occupy more space
Consumes more power
Produces more heat
Data storage capacity is in megabytes
Magnetic tapes are used to store data
SECOND GENERATION
1956-65
TRANSISTORS

THIRD GENERATION
1966-75
Processing section used with integrated circuit; occupies more
space; less power; heat

Data storage capacity –gigabyte. Circular discs stores


data
FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTERS
1976-85
Personal computers
Processing section is used with large scale integrated
circuits
Occupies less space &easy carry
Consumes less power & produce less heat
Data storage capacity in terabytes
Micro chips are used to store data
FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS
1986
Knowledge information processing system
Ultra large scale integrated circuits
ROBOTS / SUPER COMPUTERS/ADVANCED GEN
COMPUTERS
Data storage capacity is in Zeta bytes
Micro chips are used to store data
CLASSIFICATION
A) BASED ON PROCESS
ANALOG COMPUTERS: Accepts data in a form of signate
wave & process it. Used to measure pts temp, weather
report. Gives approximate results.
DIGITAL COMPUTERS:
Process given data in form of binary codes 0 s 1 s
All pcs are digital computers
HYBRID COMPUTERS
Accept data in form of signal waves & process it in form
of binary codes. Combination of analog + digital
computers. Ex – body scan computers.

B) BASED ON SPEED:
1) MICRO COMPUTERS: process data very fast.10 lakhs
times greater than 1st & 2nd gen computers
Ex- 3rd gen computers
2) MAIN FORMS: No of client forms of computers is
networked to a server computer to process data multiple
times faster ex- network of 4th gen computers.
3) SUPER COMPUTERS: process given data in high speed
i.e.10 million calculations /sec
SOME OF INDIAN COMPUTERS ARE:
PRAM SUPER COMPUTER
ANURAG SUPER COMPUTER
MEDHA SUPER COMPUTER
BIG BLUE SUPER COMPUTER
SPACE SUPER COMPUTER
Some of other super computers are
CHINA – TIANHE super computer
JAPAN – K super computer
USA – TITAN super computer
BASED ON APPLICATION
A)General purpose app computers
Personal computers
B)Special purpose app computers
Railway sectors
BASED ON SIZE
PPORTABLE COMPUTERS
Small sized computers & easy to carry
Tabs & laptops
DESKTOP COMPUTERS
Input &output devices
Personal computers
BIG COMPUTERS
No of client computers are connected to server
computers to process particular type of data
BLOCK DIAGRAM
MEMORY
INPUT OUTPUT
CU

ALU
INPUT DEVICE
Computer system accept raw data instructions through
input device with user help
Ex-key board, mouse, light pen, joy stick, scanner, web
cam, bar code reader
KEYBOARD:
Basic input device
Gives data to computer system
TYPE WRITTER:
Plastic keyboard with number of buttons
Longest key – space
Important key – enter
Qboard part of key board
Calculator key pad
QUICK CODE – insert numeric data faster
Numeric
Functional; special
In alphabetical keys – ALPHA NUMERIC}
NUMERIC} KEYS
FUNCTIONAL KEYS – Located at top order in a key board.
We can find F2 function key
F1 – F12
Every functional keys function or task is diff from a
programe to other
SPECIAL KEYS – Escape, break, sero lock, print screen,
NAVIGATIONAL KEYS – used to move in a given
direction of a file
COMBINATIONAL KEYS – used to perform special tasks
Ex- ALT, CTRL, SHIFT.
WIDE SPACE KEYS – blank space in given data
Ex- space bar, task, enter
MOUSE- Secondary hand budded input device
Used to easily move in any direction of screen
INSTRUCTIONS- yes, not, cancel
TYPES OF MOUSE DEVICES –OPTICAL
BAL EXIST
WIRE LESS
BOTTOM EXIST MOUSE DEVICES-
2 Buttons mouse
3 buttons mouse
LEFT BUTTON -
Used to select /open active file/folder
RIGHT BUTTON-
Open/delete/refresh/cut & copy/paste/rename active
file & folder
MIDDLE BUTTON-
Scrolling button
Move up &down in given data /file
LIGHT PEN-
Sign /direction on screen
JOY STICK-Plays games in computer system
SCANNER- capture given photo image copies on
computer
WEB CAM- captures video image copies &stores in
computer
BAR CODE READER – used to read cost discount data &
store in computer
OPTICAL MARK READER- used to read mark sheet &
store in computer
CPU – processor of computer
Important unit of computer
MEMORY- stores given raw data & process it
Internal memory
Primary memory
Not carriable
ROM
Activation of computer
Cannot store data
Permanent data; nonvolatile memory
RAM
Stores memory – electric signals
Washes out memory when system is
switched off
Temporary data; volatile memory
EXTERNAL MEMORY
Secondary memory
Carriable memory
INTERNAL MEMORY
Given data stored in internal memory
User DATA HARD DISK
RAM SAVE

OLE- OBJECT LINKING EMBADED


SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICES-

A) FLOPPY DISC-
Circular in shape
Formed with number of tracks &sectors
Circular disc is layered with magnetic oxide
Covered with plastic material
Cannot store or access data very fast
Data storage capacity is 1.33MB

B) COMPACT DISC
Circular disc formed with number of tracks & sectors
Given data stored on tracks
Circular disc made with carbonate material
Not covered with any material
Data storage capacity is 650,700 MB
C) DIGITAL VERSATILE DISC
Storage device same as compact disc
Data storage capacity 4.7 GB

D) HARD DISC
Circular disc formed with number of tracks & sectors
Given data is stored in form of tracks
Number of circular discs is called plotter
Plotter is covered with aluminum material
We can store data very fast
Data storage capacity is max to all documents
E) CONTROL UNIT
Accepts raw data instructions in the form of memory unit
& gives it to concerned ALU for given instructions
Unit accepts processed data from ALU & gives it to
memory unit.
Unit acts like mediator between memory & ALU
PRINTERS
Used to print data
A) IMPACT PRINTERS
Prints data just like type writer machine
Prints data by applying force on paper &gives sound
ribbon material is used to print data
Low maintenance cost
Poor print out quality
Print data from pixels
Ex – pixel matrix printer
DOT matrix printer
B) NON IMPACT PRINTERS
Prints data without any force on paper with no sound
Liquid /powder material is used to print data
Printout quality is rich
Ex- ink jet printers & laser printers
ARTHEMATIC & LOGICAL UNIT
It is used to process given data with given instructions
like A=5, B=2
INSTRUCTION MEANING CALCULATION RESULT
+ Addition A+B 7
- Deletion A-B 3
Multiply A*B 10
÷ divide A ÷B 2
% modulus A%B 1

LOGICAL UNIT
It is used to process given data & display result in true /
false
AND table OR TABLE
P Q P&Q P Q P/Q

1 0 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1

NOT TABLE
P P NOT
1 0
0 1
OUTPUT DEVICE
Used to display even raw data & also its processed data /
result
1) MONITOR
Primary basic output device used to display data
Visual display unit
Screen of monitor –CONSOLE
Monitor screen resolution –PIXEL
TYPES OF COLOUR MONITORS
A) Mono chrome /single colour monitor
B) Multi-colour monitor
Sizes of monitors – 15, 17, 21 inches
TYPES – TOUCH SCREEN MONITOR
LASER MONITOR
LIGHT EMMITANCE DIODE MONITOR
2) SPEAKERS
Used to give sound effect of given audio / video files
3) CUTTER – used to cut given data
4) PROJECTOR
Used to display data on wall/screen
5) MODEM used to change data into telephone signal
As output device & at destination, this device
interchange telephone signals into computer data as
input device.
Given data in computer system measured in BITS &
BYTES
BITS:-
Binary digits [0 s & 1 s]
A BIT is a unit of memory place to hold 0/1
4 BITS = 1 BYTE
BYTES:-
Unit of memory place to hold single character
Each BYTE = 8 BITS of memory

LIMITATIONS:
1)SELF THINKING PROCESS
Computer system cannot do any own process
Process data as per user given instructions
2)ALTERNATE PROCESS
Computer system cannot think /do any other
process while doing current data process
3) EXPERIENCE
Computer system cannot gain any experience while
doing reputation of data process
4)GIGO
Garbage in &out
CHARECTERSTICS OF COMPUTER:-
1) STORAGE:-
Memory unit is used to store given data &can be
further accessible
2) SPEED:-
Computer system process given data very fast
10 million calculations / sec
3) ACCURACY: - computer system process given data
accurately as per given instructions
4) VERSITALITY: - computer system process given
data based on application & programs
5) DELIGANCY: - cs process given data without any
rest

TYPES OF NETWORKS:-
Network of cs is used to share data from a cs to
other cs
The cs are networked with a cable
1)LOCAL AREA NETWORK:-
The cs are networked with in a room area or
complex within 10 km area. Own cable is used for
networking. No maintenance
2)METRO POLLITAN AREA NETWORK:-
The cs are networked with in a district /state wide
Tele communication is used
No maintenance charges for user

3)WIDE AREA NETWORK:-


Computers are networked within a state /country
Wireless/ satellite communications are used to
network the computers
There is maintenance charges to user
INTRANET-
DARPA: - DEFENCE ACADEMY RESEARCH PROJECTS
AGENCY NETWORK
DATA: - the collection of characters / values is called data
INFORMATION: – the collection of logic related data
SOFTWARE: - collection of programs
SYSTEM SOFTWARE:-
Operating system
Activate cs & run app software
Directly used by key user – WINDOWS&DAS

APPLICATION SOFTWARE:-
Directly used by user
Cannot run without system software
MS OFFICE, TYPING, PAINTING

HARD WARE:-
Physical components, touchable devices of cs
Key board, mouse, monitor, printer

USES OF COMPUTER SYSTEM:-


Work can be done easily
More storage of data
Gives quick information
Used in banks, shopping malls

VIRUS:-
Vital information resource under seize
Written programe or app
Destroys required programs in a computer
Mainly causes from internet communications
Spreads from affected system to unaffected system
at time of sharing
Symptoms are:-
Late booting of virus
Data changes into diff codes
Low storage capacity
ANTIVIRUS SOFTWRES:-
NORTON & ABAST
Some of viruses are programed as bloom viruses

LANGUAGES
Communication b/w user & system
1) LOW LEVEL LANGUAGE:-
Binary codes 0 s & 1 s
Nearest to computer understandable language
Assembly language/machine code language
2) HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE:-
Form of simple English
Nearest to user & understandable language
FORTRAN-formula translation
JAVA&PASCAW
3) MIDDLE LEVEL LANGUAGE:-
Form of simple English & binary codes
Combination of both high & low level languages
EX: - c, c++

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DATA PROCESSING:-


A

INPUT

65

ASCII

1000001

BINARY

65 A

ASCII:-
ASCIII OUTPUT

American standard code for information interchange


Code is used to change given data into binary code &
further code interchanges
Every data has its own ASCII code
We can find 255 general ASCII codes & 65,535 universal
codes
Some of codes are
Upper case characters: - a, b, c----3
ASCII codes: - 97, 98, 99----127
Numeric values: - 0-3, ----9
ASCII codes: - 48, 49, 50-----57
Special characters: - space, dot, @
ASCII codes 32, 46, and 64

LAN- LOCAL AREA NETWORK


WAN- WIDE AREA NETWORK
MAN- METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK
MAIN FRAME- High networking
Large personal computer
Shares large amount of data
MINI FRAME- Large computer
Small networking
Stores & processes large data
MICRO FRAME- Personal computer

ASCII CODE BINARY CODE


0 0
1 1
2 10
3 11
4 100
5 101
6 110
7 111
8 1000
9 1001
10 1010
11 1011
12 1100
13 1101
14 1110
15 1111
255 111111111
65535 111111111111

WINDOWS:-
Wide interactive network development for office work
solutions
Introduced MS Corporation in Nov 11 1981
Popular operating system – system software
Os is used to activate computer system & turn on app
softwares
Windows 0.1 version – Nov 30 1983
OTHER OS are:-
MS DOS, UNIX, LINEX, SUNSOLARIX, APPLE, ANALOG
WINDOWS OS is the extension to MS DOS
CHARACTER USER INTERPHASE OS:-
We cannot find different data formats – style, size, colour
GRAPHICAL USER INTERPHASE OS:-
We can find diff formats of data, images

WINDOWS OS SERIES:-
95, 98, 2007, 2010, XP, VISTA, SERVER, PROFESSIONAL,
MILLENIUM
TYPES OF WINDOWS:-
Single user os: -data & devices are under control of
single user
Ex: - WINDOWS 93, 98
Multi user os: - data & devices are under control of
single user
Ex:-WINDOWS NT, SERVER, PROFESSIONAL XP
windows os is easy to operate by all types of users
Also called as MULTI TASK OS
We can access no of apps in a parallel way
DESK TOP:-
When system is turned on, first visible screen is display
ICONS:-
A small clip with a graphical image
Represents
DOCUMENT MAP:-
Used to display or not a document map window to the
beside of the document window
We can find only all the headings
OUTLINE OPTION:-
If we select headings in a document
THUMBNAILS
Used to display / not display thumbnails window beside
of the document window
We can find list of used pages in a document
If we select any page in a document window, the
concerned pointer moves to particular page in a
document