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US 2020014467681 us) United States 2) Patent Application Publication co) Pub. No.: US 2020/0144676 A1 Tsuruta et al. (4s) Pub. Dat May 7, 2020 (64) CELL WITT ATABLESS ELECTRODE mons 402 (2006.01) oi vos (2006.01) (1) Applicant: Tesla, Ine. Palo Ao, CA (US) 2) Us.cL : " we CC anae rose? 01301); no1s saos (72) Inventors: Kunlo Tauruta, Mounsin View, CA Sos aif rh auae outa ay Hera (US), Mikel Ehrlich Dermer, Senta Bae Gat Clara, CA (US); Rajeev Dhiman, Pleasanton, CA (US) ABSTRACT C21) Appl No: t6eTa6 Acellofanenrgy storage device with at ent on electrode that is tabless, and methods of forming. thereof, are scribed. The cell includes a first substrate having a frst Application Data coating disposed therenn, wherein 9 second portion of the first substrate at proximal end slong the width of the Fist substrate comprises a conductive material, An inner sepa- (22) Filed: Nov. 4, 2019 Related US. (60) Provisional application No. 62/755,685, filed on Nov 5, 2018, ‘ator is disposed over the fist substrate. second substrate is disposed over the inner separator. The second subsieate oe has a sevoad coating disposed thereon, The first subsite, (31) Int. ‘the inner sepatator, and the second substrate in a successive HOIM 1W0s87 (2006.01) ‘manner, the fist substrate, the inner separator, and the HOM 226 (2006.01) second substrate ate rolled about central axis, m2 PROVIDE A FIRST SUBSTRATE WITH A FIRST COATING DISPOSED THEREON +7 if m4 STACK AN INNER SEPARATOR ON TOP OF THE FIRST SUBSTRATE, 7 - —— ¥ = iJ PROVIDE A SECOND SUBSTRATE HAVING A: L’ ¥ 708 ‘STACK THE SECOND SUBSTRATE ON TOP OF THE INNER SEPARATOR eA ¥. 70 ‘STACK AN OUTER SEPARATOR ON TOP OF THE SECOND SUBSTRATE SUCH THAT THE FIRST ‘SUBSTRATE, THE INNER SEPARATOR, THE SECOND SUBSTRATE, AND THE OUTER Ey SEPARATOR ARE STACKED IN A SUCCESSIVE MANNER ‘OUTER SEPARATOR ABOUT A CENTRAL AXIS SUCH THAT THE FIRST SUBSTRATE IS v TO TR, Patent Application Publication May 7,2020 Sheet 1 of 13 US 2020/0144676 A1 \ FIG. 1 Patent Application Publication May 7,2020 Sheet 2 of 13 US 2020/0144676 AI ae ' { yo 108 a 104 4 a Lone Patent Application Publication May 7,2020 Sheet 5 of 13 US 2020/0144676 Al 404 for 406 FIG. 4 406 506 Patent Application Publication May 7, 2020 Sheet 6 of 13 US 2020/0144676 AI — 6 FIG. 5 HZ ae ' 100 ~ | te ng Secrets eeeeeeeeeees: Patent Application Publication May 7,2020 Sheet 7 of 13 US 2020/0144676 AI NB 404 FIG. 6A 18 404 404 US 2020/0144676 AI Patent Application Publication May 7, 2020 Sheet 8 of 13 d9 ‘DIA q9 DIA aH ni —~_podnsonnonnansannnsanass3y oh! SALLE 9 Dd . aT May 7, 2020 Sheet 9 of 13 US 2020/0144676 AI Patent Application Publication Oh £ Dl SIXV IVHLNAO HHL OL NOLLISOd NI ISASOT SIALVULSANS [Sd HHL LVHL HONS SIXV TVELNEO V LNOGV HOLVUVddS YALNO aL GNV ‘ALVULSANS GNOOAS FHL ‘MOLVUVddS YANNI AHL “ALVALSENS LSM AHL TION f 2 On WENNVW SAISSAOONS V NI GANOVIS HAV WOLVUVaAS YALNO AHL ANY “ALVULSENS CNOOS IHL WOLVAVAAS YANNI SHL ‘ALVULSEAS SWLd FHL LVAL HONS ALVALSANS GNOOUS AHL JO dOL NO YOLVAVAS YALNO NV YOVIS f \ MOLVUVAAS YANNI GHL JO dOL NO ALVULSANS GNOOUS FHL YOVLS 806 T a NOSUFHL GASOdSIC ONILVOD GNOOS V ONIAVH ALVULSANS GNOOSS VW IGIAOUd f ALVULSHNS LSU THL JO dOL NO YOLVUVdAS YANNI NV YOVIS *y t NOAUAHL GASOASIG ONILVOO LSU V HLM ALVULSANS LSU V AGIAOUd *y \ Patent Application Publication May 7, 2020 Sheet 11 of 13 US 2020/0144676 A1 a 900 114 3 8 * 104 A 102 a 108 ry 122 _f f Lone | os FIG. 9 Patent Application Publication May 7, 2020 Sheet 12 of 13 US 2020/0144676 AL ae ap ag To \\ea ~ ZG — iS iS EVA ]//& g 8 3 s S = Ry 2 wo 3 CIT ‘Dla i or” VAN AAA 2 OI DIL z fo ee ee Se ee ee RR Sol al Old — FS 3 VIT Dit i sous STATE a RRR RRE RRR US 2020/0144676 AI (CELL WITH A TABLESS ELECTRODE, INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE TO ANY PRIORITY APPLICATIONS [0001] Any and all applications for which a foreign or domestic priority claim is identified inthe Application Dats Shoot a fled withthe present application are hereby incor porated by reference under 37 CFR 1.57. This application ‘hams priority to US. Provisional App. No, 62/755,685 fled on Nov. 5, 2018, which is hereby incorporated hy reference in its entirety. BACKGROUND Field [0002] The present disclosure relates to a cell for an ‘energy stage device. Description of the Related Are 10003] Many types of battery cells are currently used as ‘energy sources in clctric vehicles and energy-storage appli ‘cations. Curent cells use a jelly-oll design in which the ‘cathode, anode, and separators are rolled together and have ‘scathole ab and an anode tab wo connect othe positive and negative terminals of the cell cu. The path ofthe current necessarily travels through these tabs to connectors on the ‘outside of the battery cell. However, ohmic resistance is, increased with distance when current must travel ll the way ‘along the cathode or anode to the tab and out of the eel, Funhermore, because the tabs ate additional components, they increase costs and present manufacturing challenges, SUMMARY, 10004} For purposes of summarizing the invention and the advantages achieved over the prior an, certain objects and advantages of the invention are described nein. Not all such objects or advantages may be achieved in any particu- Jar embodiment of the invention. Thus, for example, those shilled in the art will recognize thatthe invention may be ‘embodied or carried out in manner that achieves oF ‘optimizes one advantage or group of advantages as taught herein without necessarily achieving ether objects or advan- tages as may be taught or suggested herein. 10005] In one aspect, a cell ofan energy storage device is described, The cell comprises a first substrate comprising & first coating, wherein a sseond portion ofthe first substrate ‘ata proximal end long the width of the first substrate ‘comprises a conductive material, a second substmte com= prising a second coating, and an inner separator disposed between the frst substrate and the second substrate, wherein the first substrate, the inner separator and the second sub- ‘rite are rolled about a central axis to form a cel [0006] In some embodiments, the conductive material ‘consists essentially ofthe fist substrate, In some embod ments, the frst substrate ie a current collector. In some ‘embodiments, the frst substrate is positioned closest to the ‘central axis when rolled. In some embodiments, the second ‘Substrate positioned closest tothe central axis when rolled. 10007] In some embodiments, a first ponion of the fst substrate located partway along a width of the ist substrate is coated with an electrically insulative material. In some ‘embodiments, the second portion is loeated aciacent to the first portion. In some embodiments, the second substrate May 7, 2020 {urther comprises a conductive tab. In some embodiments, the conductive tab is disposed partway along a length of the second! substrate and extends transverse to @ mid-plane of the second substrate. In some embodiments, the fst sub- strate forms one of an anode and a eathode and the second Substrate forms another of the anode and the cathode, [0008] In another aspect, an eneray storage device is ‘eseribed. The energy’ storage device comprises the cell of fn energy storage device, and a can eomprising first end ‘and a second end, wherein the frst end comprises frst ea ‘comprising @ contact surface [0009] In some embogiments, the conductive material isin electrical contact with the contact surface, Ia some embodi- ments, the first end comprises a bottom wall. In some embodiments, each of the fist and second ends are open ends. In some embodiments, the frst end of the can is ‘configured to reveive the frst cap In some embodiments, the second end ofthe can is configured to receive a second ca. In some embodiments, the fst cap comprises at least one of sickel (Ni and a Nichased alloy. In some embodiments, the contact surface ofthe first cap comprises a helically shaped arvove. [0010] tn anoxher aspect, # method for forming a cell is Ueseribed. The method comprises providing a ist subsirate ‘comprising a frst coating wherein a second portion of the Tint substrate at a proximal end along the width of the frst substrate comprises a conductive material, disposing an inner separator over the first substrate, providing a second substrate comprising a second coating, disposing the second Substmie over the inner separator. and rolling the frst substrate, the inner separator. and the second substate isposed aver each other about a central axis to forma a cell 0011] In some embodiments, the frst substrate is closest in position to the central axis. In some embodiments, the second substrate is closest in postion tothe central ais. la some embodiments, the frst substrate, the inner separation, land the second substrate are disposed over cach other in [0012] In some embodiments, the method further com- prises coating a fist portion of the first substrate located partway along a width of the first substrate with an eletr- cally insulative material. In some embodiments, the second portion is located adjacent to the first portion, In some ‘embodiments, the method furher comprises forming a eon- ‘ductive tab partway alonga length ofthe second substrate by extending a portion of the second substrate transverse to a ‘ikeplane of the second substrate [0013] In snother aspect a method of forming an energy Storage device is described, ‘The method comprises the ‘method for forming 2 cell, and placing the cel into a can ‘comprising ist end anda second end, wherein the first end comprises fist cap comprising a contact surface, [0014] In some embodiments, the method further com- prises electrically connecting the conductive material with the contact surface. [0018] All of dese embodiments are intended to be within the scope ofthe invention herein disclosed, These and other ‘embodiments ofthe present invention will become really apparent to those skilled in the art from the following Setziled description of the prefered embodiments having reference to the attached figures, the invention not being Timited to any particular preferred embostiment(s) disclose US 2020/0144676 AI BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [0016] FIG. 1 iflusrates «perspective view of a cell showing a fist subsirte, an inner separator, a second substrate, and an outer separator aceording to certain ‘embodiments of the present disclosure. [0017] FIG. 2 illustrates a layout of the cell of PIG. 1 ‘acconting to cersin embodiments ofthe present disclose [0018] "FIG. 34 illastates an exemplary setup that can be used Tor coating a first substrate, according 1 eer ‘embodiments of the present disclosure. [0019] FIG. 3B illuseates an exemplary setup that can be twsed for coating a first substrate, according. to certain ‘embodiments of the present disclosure. [0020] FIG. 4 illostrtes a first cap having a contact surface that can be usod to eleetially connect with 2 ‘conductive portion ofa first substrate, according to certain ‘embodiments of the preset diselosure. 10021) FIG. $ illustrates a can that is shown fo enclose @ fist substrate, an inner separator, a second substrate, and an ‘outer separstor of a cell will fist cap, according Wo cersin ‘embodiments of the present disclosure. [0022] FIG. 6A illustrates a cross-sectional view of @ bottom portion of an energy storage device showing contact surfaces of a frst eap connected to a conductive portion of a fist substrate, acording t0 certain embodiments of the present disclosure [0023] FIG. 68 illustrates a cross-sectional view of & bottom portion of an enemy storage device showing contact surfaces of a can connected to a conductive portion ofa fist tubstrate, according lo certain embodiments of the present disclosure, 10024] FIG. 6C illustrates a layout of a fest substrate showing: multiple conductive portions evenly and intermit- ll spaced from one another according 10 nbodi- mens of the present disclosure. 10025] FIG. 6D illusraes a layout of a first substrate showing multiple conductive portions with progressively increasing widths and progressively inereasing distances from one another according to certain embodiments of the present disclosure [0026] FIG. 6F illustrates bottom view ofa cell showing ‘conductive portions of a rolled firs substrate acconding 10 ‘ert embodiments ofthe present disclosure 10027] FIG. illustrates method for manufacturing a cell according to certain embodiments ofthe present disclosure. 10028] FIG. 8 illustrates a cell showing a fist subsea, 0 Inner separator, a second substrate, and an outer separator ‘acconting to certain embodiments ofthe present disclosure [0029] FIG. 9 illustrates a layout of the cell of FIG. 8 ‘acconling to certain embodiments ofthe present disclose [0030] FIGS. 104-100 cach illustrate altemative configu- rations of a fist cap having contact surlsees aevording (© ‘ceri embodiments ofthe present disclosure. [0031] FIGS, TLA-1ID cach illustrate cross-sectional views of eontat surfaces ofa first exp according to certain ‘embodiments of the present disclosure [0032] Embodiments of the present disclosure and their ‘conesponding advantages are best understood by refeting, to the detailed description that follows. It should be appre- ‘ciated that like reference numerals are used to ident Tike ‘elements illustrated in one or more of the igure, wherein ‘drawings shown therein are for purposes of illustrating ‘embodiments ofthe present disclosure snd not for purposes of Timing the sa May 7, 2020 DETAILED DESCRIPTION 0033} ‘The present disclosure relates to a cell for energy’ storage deviees, More particulary, the present disclosire relates oa cll with t feast one electrode that is tabless, and therefore may be used to form an energy storage device With reduced ohmic resistance and reduced cost. For example, within jellyoll cell design, the negative electrode may ‘include a candacive portion atone end that runs the length of the elecizde, and connects to the bottom of a can to electrically connect the electrode t the can. In some embodiments, the ean includes cap witha particular desiva ‘configured to increase the eonnection of th electrode to the cap. The cap may include ridges, bumps, cavities, or other eatures that provide for ational connectivity between the cap and the electrode. [034] Reference will now he made ia detail to specific aspects or Features, examples of which ae illustrated in the ‘accompanying drawings. Wherever possible, coresponding fr similar reference numbers will be used throughout the Urawings to refer to the sume oF corresponding pats, [035]. FIG. 1 illustrates a cell 100 in accorlance with ‘erin embodiments of the present disclosure. In some embodiments, the cell 100 is embodied in the form of a secondary cell that is rechargeable upon discharge and thus, ‘usable multiple times. In ather embodiments, aspects of the present disclosure can be similarly applied to produce pri- ‘mary cells t minimize costs of such primary cells. Piniary cells include cells that are typically non-rechangeable and Fnence, unfit for reuse upon being discharged. [0036] As shown in FIG. 1, the cell 100 incindes a fist substmte 102 having a fst coating 110 disposed on a side fof the fist substrate 102. In some embodiments, the first coating 110 may be disposed om both side of the first substrate 102. In some embodiments, the first substrate 102 is embodied, preferably, ia the form of laminate that has a pre-determined amount of thickness, foe example, in the range of 0.01-1 millimeter (mm). In some embodiments, the fist substrate 102 comprises a current collector. In some ‘embodiments, the curent collector comprises metalic fi. In some embodiments, the current collector comprises al n andlor copper [0037] In some embodiments, the frst coating 110 may be Aan electrically conductive coating having a first amount of electrical conductivity. In some embodiments, the first coat ‘ng 110 may be an electrode film, In some embodiments, the electrically conductive coating comprises a electrode active ‘material. In some embodiments, the electeode active mate- fia is a cathode active material, In some embodiments, the lectrode active material is a anode active material. In some ‘embodiments, the elecirode aetive material is selected from a silicon material (eg. metallic silicon and silicon dioxide), graphitic materials, graphite, graphene-contaning materials, hare carbon, sot carbon, carbon nanotubes, porous carbon, concctive cirbon, lithium nickel manganese enbalt oxide (NMC), lithium manganese oxide (LMO), a lithium iron phosphate (LEP), a Ithium cobalt oxide (LCO), a lithiu titanate (LTO), a lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA), a layered transition metal oxide (Such a8 LiCoO, (LCO), Li(NiMnC0}0, (NMC) andior LiNiysCog 1s 20, (NCA), a spinel manganese oxide (such 28 LiMn,O, (CMO) andior LiMn, sNipO, (LMNO)), an olivine (such as LiPePO,), chaloogenides (LiTiS,),tavorte (LiF 0, silicon, silicon oxide (SiOx), aluminum, tin, tin oxide (Sa0x), manganese oxide (MuOx), molybdenum oxide US 2020/0144676 AI (MoO,), molybdenum disulfide (MoS.), nickel oxide (N08), eopper oxide (CuOx), and lithium sulfide Li,8), oF ‘combinations thereof. In some embodiments the frst coat ing farther comprises a binder In some embodiments, the first coating 110 may be disposed on the first substrate 102 by any means Known to persons skilled in the art. Some ‘examples of disposing the frst coating 110 onto the fist Substrate 102 include, but are not limited to, mechanical ‘deposition, elecitomechanical deposition, electrochemical ‘deposition, of any combination of processes known t0 persons skilled in the art [0038] Additionally, or optionally, frst portion 12 ofthe first substrate 102, located partway along a width W of the fist substrate 102, is coated with an electrically insulative material 114 In some embodiments, the electrically insula- tive material may be a polymeric insulative material. In some embodiments, the elecrically insulative material may be a ceramic insulative material. In some embodiments, the ‘ceramic insulative material comprises a ceramic powder. In some embodiments, the electrically insulative material may be selected from polyethylene, polypropylene, aluminum ‘oxide (eg AI,O,), of combinations thereof. In_ some ‘embodiments the electrically insulative material further ‘comprises binder. In some embodiments the eloctrically insulative material 114 may be disposed on both side of the first substrate 102, In some embodiments, insulting layer 114 is omitted. In certain embodiments, the frst portion 112 ‘of the ist substrate 102 may be omitted. In such embod ments, formation step that is needed to form the frst portion 112 of the first substrate 102 may he eliminated thereby rendering the first substrate 102 with a second portion 116 alone, as will be described hereinafter In some ‘embodiments, the eletricaly insulative material may aid to reduce of prevent electrical contact between the fist sub- ‘rate 102, the ist coating 119 and/or the conductive porion [18 withthe socond substrate 106 and/or the sconnd coating, 10039] The second portion 116 of the frst substrate 102 disposed at an extreme or end position along the width W of the first substrate 102 (eg, the proximal end of the first substrate 102) and located adjacent to the fist portion 112, ‘comprises a conductive portion (Le. conductive materia) 118. In some embodiments, the conductive portion 118 is an ‘exposed region of the frst substrate 102 (e.g. current cole lector). In some embodiments, the condoctive portion 118 ‘consists or consists essentially ofthe first substrate 102. In some embodiments, the conductive portion 18 is absent of the fist coating 110 ad the insulative material 11, In 0 ‘embodiments, the conductive portion 118 may be disposed ‘on both side of the frst substrate 102, [0040] Further, referring to FIG. 1 and also as shown in FIG. 2, an inner separator 104 is disposed over (eg. stacked ‘on top of) the fist substrate 102. In some embodiments, the Jinner Separator 104 is in the form of a laminate that has @ pre-determined amount of thickness, for example, in the range of 0.01-0.05 mil : to inner separator is ors about 10 um, 15 ym, 20 ym, 30m, 40 jum or 50 umn, or any range of values therebetween (ea 10-15 4m). Fathermore, in some embodiments the inner separator 104 is electrically insulative, In some emboxt- mens, the inner separator may comprise a polymere mte- rial. In some embodiments, the inner separator may be ‘cleted from polyethylene, polypropylene, or combinations thereat, In some embodiments, the inner separator May 7, 2020 cexmbo prises multiple separator layers. In 0 ments, the Jimner separator comprises micro-pores [041] Further, with continued reference t FIG. 1 and Also as shown in FIG. 2,2 second substrate 106 is disposed over (eg. stacked on top of) the inner separator 104. The second substrate 106 has a second coating 120 disposed on ‘side ofthe second substrate 106. ln some embodiments, the second costing 120 may be disposed on both side of the second substrate 106. In some embodiments, the second substrate 106 is in the form of a laminate that has a pre-determined amount of thickness, foe example, in the range of 0.01-1 millimeter (mm). In some embodiments, the second substrate 106 comprises a current collector (e & il. [0042] The second coating 120 is an electrically conduc- tive eoating having a second amount of electrical eondue- tivity In some embodiments, the second coating 120 may'be an electrode film. In some embodiments, the electrically conductive coating comprises a electrode active material. In some embodiments, the electrode active material is cath- ‘ode active material, In some embodiments, the electeode active material isa anode active material. In certain embod ‘eas, the second coating 120 may’ be similar to othe same ‘asthe frst coating 110 and therefore may have similar or the same electrical conductivity. In certain other embodiments, the second coating 120 may be different than th fst coating 110 and therefore may hive dilleent electrical conductivie tics. In some embodiments, the second coating 120 may be