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4/23/2020 50Hz DIY field magnetometer. Build a proton precession magnetometer, Krasnodar, A. Beletsky.

Main technical characteristics

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50Hz DIY eld magnetometer. Build a proton


precession magnetometer, Krasnodar, A. Beletsky.
Main technical characteristics
The most famous type of magnetic prospecting equipment is a magnetometer . Its modi ed form is a
gradiometer . The principles of measuring the magnetic eld in these devices are the same - they can be proton,

ux-gate, quantum, etc., only the structural solutions that allow solving several different problems are different.

Fig. 1. Three-dimensional magnetic eld of the ancient city.

Consider the most widely used types of magnetometers. First of all, these are, of course, proton, ux-gate, and
quantum magnetometers. All of them have certain advantages and disadvantages. Of course, there are also

cryogenic magnetometers, Hall effect magnetometers, and induction magnetometers. But pedestrian
magnetometers, which are of interest for archaeological research, are, of course, proton, uxgate, and to a
lesser extent quantum. Consider their comparative characteristics.

It would seem that the main characteristic of the magnetometer is sensitivity. However, this is not quite true. For

example, cryogenic magnetometers easily reach a sensitivity of 0.0001 nT, but they are so uncomfortable, bulky

and capricious that they are not used even in the aerovariant (although there have been attempts).

Quantum magnetometers are also quite capable of showing an accuracy of 0.01 nT, but they have very strict

limitations on the orientation of the sensors. They have been successfully used for many years in aeromagnetic
surveys.

Flux-gate magnetometers , possessing very high measurement accuracy and the ability to produce a

continuous signal, not discrete like quantum and proton magnetometers, but sensitive to temperature changes,

which gives designers some trouble with the “creeping zero” of the device.

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Proton magnetometers , being less sensitive, turned out to be very good in terms of stability, low susceptibility
to temperature changes and orientation to the cardinal points (although the latter is still present). The

disadvantages of proton include discreteness of measurements, which requires stopping at each point, the
bulkiness and heavy weight of the sensors, as well as the impossibility of measurements in strong elds.

More about sensitivity. If you see a sensitivity of 0.1 nT in the instrument passport, this does not mean at all
that you can detect an anomaly of at least 1 nT! Firstly, the temperature zero drift of the instrument (several nT)

is superimposed on this 0.1 nTl. Secondly, the in uence of the spatial orientation of the device is another 2-4 nT.
Well, and, of course, variations of the geomagnetic eld already familiar to us.

In a word, as long-term practice shows, it is impossible to isolate an anomaly with an amplitude of less than 3-7

nT during the standard areal walking survey. In case of route shooting (when the search engine goes along

some route, often over rough terrain), trying to isolate the anomaly according to the current readings of the
device, it is very di cult to catch an anomaly even of 10-20 nT. So when searching, you can safely switch the

sensitivity on your device from 0.1 to 1 nT and get to work without bothering yourself by looking at tenths of the
display.

Another important characteristic of the magnetometer is the registration method. If the information is displayed

only on the scoreboard in digital form and (or) on magnetic media, then, of course, this is a device designed for
areal lming. These works are quite complex, require material and time costs, and the result, presented in the
form of maps of the magnetic eld of the site, is issued only after a certain time.

The search appliance should have a light (variable scale) and sound indication. This allows you to quickly, in the
course of eld research, see the anomaly, look for its center and immediately make a decision regarding its

prospects. The most common search device is a hand-held metal detector, but its depth leaves much to be
desired, although other characteristics (discrimination, accuracy of target detection, etc.) are brought to a high
level by manufacturers.

Gradient magnetometers meet the requirements of a more powerful in-depth search instrument. Being, in fact,
two magnetometers integrated into a single device, the gradiometer gives the owner information not about the
numerical value of the eld at the measurement point, but about the difference in the eld between two points

in space - about the gradient. Since the gradient of the Earth’s eld, geological structures, and temporal
variations is vanishingly small, the gradiometer ignores it. But the gradient from the results of human activity, on
the contrary, is great. The eld from small objects of human activity is small, but decays so quickly that this 

attenuation (gradient) is easily detected by a gradiometer without rst constructing magnetic eld maps. This

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difference will also be detected by a conventional magnetometer, but for this the operator will have to make not
one, but two measurements at each point - below, at ground level, and 1-2 meters higher, which, of course, is
inconvenient.

The magnetometer is designed to measure the magnetic eld induction. The magnetometer uses a reference
magnetic eld, which allows one of the other physical effects to convert the measured magnetic eld into an
electrical signal .

The application of magnetometers for detecting massive objects from ferromagnetic (most often steel)
materials is based on the local distortion of the Earth’s magnetic eld by these objects. The advantage of using
magnetometers in comparison with traditional metal detectors is a greater detection range .

FLUX-GATE (VECTOR) MAGNETOMETERS


One of the types of magnetometers are . The uxgate was invented by Friedrich Förster ()

In 1937, it serves to determine the magnetic eld induction vector .

Flux Probe Design

single rod uxgate

The simplest ux gate consists of a permalloy rod, on which an excitation coil ( drive coil ), powered by
alternating current, and a measuring coil ( detector coil ) are located.

Permalloy is an alloy with soft magnetic properties, consisting of iron and 45-82% nickel. Permalloy possesses
high magnetic permeability (maximum relative magnetic permeability ~ 100,000) and low coercive force. A
popular brand of permalloy for the manufacture of ux probes is 80NXS - 80% nickel + chromium and silicon

with a saturation induction of 0.65-0.75 T, used for cores of small-sized transformers, chokes and relays
operating in weak elds of magnetic screens, for cores of pulse transformers, magnetic ampli ers and

contactless relays, for cores of magnetic heads.

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The dependence of the relative magnetic permeability on the eld strength for some varieties of permalloy has

the form -

If a constant magnetic eld is superimposed on the core, then the voltage of even harmonics appears in the

measuring coil , the value of which serves as a measure of the intensity of the constant magnetic eld. This
voltage is ltered out and measured.

double rod uxgate

As an example, we can cite the device described in the book by V. Karalis. "Electronic circuits in industry" - The

device is designed to measure constant magnetic elds in the range of 0.001 ... 0.5 Oersted. The eld windings

of the sensor L1 and L3 are turned on in counter. The measuring winding L2 is wound over the eld windings.
Field windings are fed with a current of frequency 2 kHz from a push-pull generator with inductive feedback. The

generator mode is stabilized by a direct current divider on resistors R8 and R9 .

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uxgate with a toroidal core


One of the popular design options for a uxgate magnetometer is a uxgate with a toroidal core ( ring core

uxgate ) -

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Compared with rod ux gates, this design has less noise and requires the creation of a much smaller

magnetomotive force .

This sensor is an excitation winding wound on a toroidal core, through which an alternating current ows with

an amplitude su cient to enter the core into saturation, and a measuring winding , from which the alternating
voltage is removed, which is analyzed to measure the external magnetic eld.

The measuring winding is wound on top of the toroidal core, covering it as a whole (for example, on a special

frame) -

This design is similar to the original design of ux probes (a capacitor is added to achieve resonance at the

second harmonic) -

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The use of proton magnetometers

Proton magnetometers are widely used in archaeological research.


The proton magnetometer is mentioned in Michael Crichton’s science ction short story “ Timeline ” -
He pointed down past his feet. Three heavy yellow housings were clamped to the front struts of the helicopter.

"Right now we're carrying stereo terrain mappers, infrared, UV, and side-scan radar.” Kramer pointed out the rear
window, toward a six-foot-long silver tube that dangled beneath the helicopter at the rear. "And what's that?"
“Proton magnetometer.” “Uh-huh. And it does what?” “Looks for magnetic anomalies in the ground below us that

could indicate buried walls, or ceramics, or metal.”

Cesium Magnetometers

A type of quantum magnetometer is an atomic magnetometer based on alkali metals with optical pumping.

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cesium magnetometer G-858

Overhauser Magnetometers

SOLID STATE MAGNETOMETERS

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The most affordable are magnetometers built into smartphones. For Android, a good application using a
magnetometer is. The page of this application is http://physics-toolbox-magnetometer.android.informer.com/.

SETTING UP MAGNETOMETERS
For testing, a ux gate can be used. Helmholtz coils are used to produce an almost uniform magnetic eld. In
the ideal case, they are two identical circular turns connected together in series and located at a distance of the
radius of the coil from each other. Typically, Helmholtz coils consist of two coils on which a number of turns are

wound, and the thickness of the coil should be much less than their radius. In real systems, the thickness of the
coils can be comparable with their radius. Thus, we can consider the system of Helmholtz rings two coaxially

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located identical coils, the distance between the centers of which is approximately equal to their average radius.
Such a coil system is also called split solenoid .

In the center of the system there is a zone of a uniform magnetic eld (the magnetic eld in the center of the
system in the volume of 1/3 of the radius of the rings is uniformly within 1% ), which can be used for measuring
purposes, for calibrating magnetic induction sensors, etc.

Magnetic induction in the center of the system is de ned as $ B = \ mu _0 \, {\ left ({4 \ over 5} \ right)} ^ {3/2} \,
{IN \ over R} $,

where $ N $ is the number of turns in each coil, $ I $ is the current through the coils, $ R $ is the average radius
of the coil.

Helmholtz coils can also be used to shield the Earth's magnetic eld. For this, it is best to use three mutually
perpendicular pairs of rings, then their orientation does not matter.

The differential magnetometer brought to your attention can be very useful for searching for large iron objects.
It is almost impossible to search for treasures with such an instrument, but it is indispensable when searching

for shallow sunken tanks, ships and other models of military equipment.

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The principle of operation of a differential magnetometer is very simple. Any object from a ferromagnet distorts
the Earth's natural magnetic eld. Such items include everything made of iron, cast iron and steel. To a large
extent, the intrinsic magnetization of objects, which often takes place, can affect the distortion of the magnetic

eld. Having xed the deviation of the magnetic eld from the background value, we can conclude that there is
an object made of ferromagnetic material near the measuring device.

Distortion of the Earth's magnetic eld far from the target is small, and it is estimated by the difference of the
signals from two sensors spaced apart by a certain distance. Therefore, the device is called differential. Each

sensor measures a signal proportional to the magnetic eld. The most widely used are ferromagnetic sensors
and sensors based on magneton proton precession. In this device, sensors of the rst type are used.

The basis of a ferromagnetic sensor (also called a ux-gate) is a coil with a core made of ferromagnetic
material. The typical magnetization curve of such a material is well known from the school physics course and,
taking into account the in uence of the Earth's magnetic eld, has the following form, shown in Fig. 29.

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Fig. 29. Magnetization curve

The coil is excited by an alternating sinusoidal carrier signal. As can be seen from g. 29, the shift of the

magnetization curve of the ferromagnetic core of the coil by the Earth's external magnetic eld leads to the fact
that the eld induction and the associated voltage across the coil begin to be distorted asymmetrically. In other

words, the voltage of the sensor at a sinusoidal current of the carrier frequency will differ from the sinusoid by

the more “ attened” half-wave tips. And these distortions will be asymmetrical. In the language of spectral
analysis, this means the appearance in the spectrum of the output voltage of the coil of even harmonics, the

amplitude of which is proportional to the strength of the displacement magnetic eld (Earth eld). These even

harmonics must be "caught".

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Fig. 30. Differential ferromagnetic sensor

Before mentioning a naturally occurring synchronous detector operating for this purpose with a reference signal

of doubled carrier frequency, we consider the design of a complicated version of a ferromagnetic sensor. It

consists of two cores and three coils (Fig. 30). At its core, it is a differential sensor. However, for simplicity, we
will not call it differential in the text, since the magnetometer itself is already differential :).

The design consists of two identical ferromagnetic cores with identical coils located parallel to each other. With

respect to the exciting electric signal of the reference frequency, they are turned on in the opposite direction.
The third coil is a winding wound over two rst two coils with cores stacked together. In the absence of an

external biasing magnetic eld, the electrical signals of the rst and second windings are symmetrical and,

ideally, act so that the output signal in the third winding is absent, since the magnetic uxes through it are
completely compensated.

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In the presence of an external biasing magnetic eld, the picture changes. Either one or the other core at the

peak of the corresponding half-wave “ ies” deeper into saturation than usual due to the additional effect of the

Earth’s magnetic eld. As a result, a double frequency mismatch signal appears at the output of the third
winding. The fundamental signals are ideally completely compensated there.

The convenience of the considered sensor lies in the fact that its coils can be switched on to increase the

sensitivity in the oscillatory circuits. The rst and second - in the oscillatory circuit (or circuit), tuned to the

carrier frequency. The third - in the oscillatory circuit tuned to the second harmonic.

The described sensor has a pronounced radiation pattern. Its output signal is maximum when the longitudinal

axis of the sensor is located along the lines of force of an external constant magnetic eld. When the

longitudinal axis is perpendicular to the lines of force, the output signal is zero.

The sensor of the considered type, especially in conjunction with a synchronous detector, can successfully
operate as an electronic compass. After recti cation, its output signal is proportional to the projection of the

Earth's magnetic eld vector onto the axis of the sensor. Synchronous detection allows you to recognize the

sign of this projection. But even without a sign - by orienting the sensor to the minimum signal, we get a
direction to the west or east. Orienting to the maximum - we get the direction of the magnetic eld line of the

Earth’s eld. In the middle latitudes (for example, in Moscow), it goes obliquely and "sticks" into the ground

towards the north. By the angle of magnetic declination, one can approximately estimate the geographical
latitude of the area.

Differential ferromagnetic magnetometers have their advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are the

simplicity of the device, it is no more complicated than a direct ampli cation radio receiver. The disadvantages

include the complexity of manufacturing sensors - in addition to accuracy, an absolutely exact match of the
number of turns of the corresponding windings is required. An error of one or two turns can greatly reduce the

possible sensitivity. Another disadvantage is the “compassability” of the device, that is, the impossibility of fully

compensating the Earth's eld by subtracting signals from two separated sensors. In practice, this leads to false
signals when the sensor rotates around an axis perpendicular to the longitudinal.

Practical construction

The practical design of a differential ferromagnetic magnetometer was implemented and tested in a prototype

without a special electronic part for sound indication, using only a microammeter with zero in the middle of 
the

scale. The sound indication circuit can be taken from the description of the metal detector according to the

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principle of "transmission-reception". The device has the following parameters.

Key Speci cations

Supply voltage - 15 ... 18 V

Current consumption - no more than 50 mA

Detection depth:

gun - 2 m

gun barrel - 4 m
tank - 6 m

Structural scheme

The block diagram is shown in Fig. 31. A quartz-stabilized master oscillator provides clock pulses for a signal

conditioner.

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Fig. 31. Block diagram of a differential ferromagnetic magnetometer

At one of its outputs there is a rst-harmonic meander supplied to a power ampli er, exciting the emitting coils
of sensors 1 and 2. Another output forms a doubled reference clock meander with a shift of 90 ° for a

synchronous detector. The difference signal from the output (third) windings of the sensors is ampli ed in the

receiving ampli er and recti ed by a synchronous detector. The recti ed constant signal can be registered with
a microammeter or sound indication devices described in previous chapters.

Circuit diagram

The schematic diagram of a differential ferromagnetic magnetometer is shown in Fig. 32 - part 1: master

oscillator, signal conditioner, power ampli er and radiating coils, Fig. 33 - part 2: receiving coils, receiving

ampli er, synchronous detector, indicator and power supply.

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Fig. 32. Schematic diagram - part 1

The master oscillator is assembled on inverters D1.1-D1.3. The oscillator frequency is stabilized by a quartz or

piezoelectric Q resonator with a resonant frequency of 215 Hz = 32 kHz (“clock quartz”). The R1C1 circuit

prevents the excitation of the generator at higher harmonics. Through the resistor R2, the OOS circuit is closed,
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through the resonator Q, the POS circuit. The generator is simple, low current consumption, works reliably at a

supply voltage of 3 ... 15 V, does not contain tuned elements and excessively high-resistance resistors. The

output frequency of the generator is about 32 kHz.

Signal conditioner (Fig. 32)

The signal conditioner is assembled on a binary counter D2 and a D-trigger D3.1. The type of binary counter is
unprincipled; its main task is to divide the clock frequency by 2, 4, and 8, thus obtaining meanders with

frequencies of 16, 8, and 4 kHz, respectively. The carrier frequency for the excitation of radiating coils is 4 kHz.

Signals with frequencies of 16 and 8 kHz, acting on the D-trigger D3.1, form at its output a meander doubled
with respect to the carrier frequency of 8 kHz, shifted 90 ° relative to the output signal of the 8 kHz binary

counter. Such a shift is necessary for the normal operation of the synchronous detector, since the useful shift

signal of the double frequency mismatch at the output of the sensor has the same shift. The second half of the
microcircuit from two D- ip- ops - D3.2 is not used in the circuit, but its idle inputs must be connected either to

logical 1,

Power ampli er ( g. 32)

The power ampli er does not seem like this and is just powerful inverters D1.4 and D1.5, which in antiphase

swing an oscillating circuit, consisting of series-parallel connected transmitter emitting coils of the sensor and
capacitor C2. An asterisk near the capacitor rating means that its value is approximate and that it must be

selected during commissioning. An idle inverter D1.6, in order not to leave its input unconnected, inverts the

signal D1.5, but practically works idle. Resistors R3 and R4 limit the output current of the inverters to an
acceptable level and, together with the oscillating circuit, form a high-quality bandpass lter, so that the voltage

and current in the transmitter emitting coils almost coincide with the sinusoidal one.

Receiving ampli er (Fig. 33)

The receiving ampli er ampli es the difference signal coming from the receiving coils of the sensor, which
together with the capacitor SZ form an oscillating circuit tuned to a double frequency of 8 kHz. Thanks to the

tuning resistor R5, the subtraction of the signals of the receiving coils is carried out with some weighting

factors, which can be changed by moving the slider of the resistor R5. This achieves the compensation of non-
identical parameters of the receiving windings of the sensor and minimizing its "compassability".

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The receiving ampli er is two-stage. It is assembled on an op amp D4.2 and D6.1 with a parallel voltage OS.
Capacitor C4 reduces the ampli cation at higher frequencies, thereby preventing overloading of the ampli er

path by high-frequency interference from power networks and other sources. OA correction circuits are

standard.

Synchronous detector (Fig. 33)

The synchronous detector is made on the D6.2 op amp according to the standard scheme. As analog keys, the
D5 CMOS chip of the 8 on 1 multiplexer-demultiplexer is used (Fig. 32). Its digital address signal is selected only

in the low order, providing alternate switching of points K1 and K2 on a common bus. The recti ed signal is

ltered by a capacitor C8 and ampli ed by an op amp D6.2 with the simultaneous additional attenuation of
un ltered RF components by the chains R14C11 and R13C9. The opamp correction circuit is standard for the

type used.

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Fig. 33. Schematic diagram - part 2. Receiving ampli er

Indicator (Fig. 33)


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The indicator is a microammeter with zero in the middle of the scale. In the indicator part, circuitry of other

types of metal detectors described earlier can be successfully used. Including, as an indicator, you can use the

design of the metal detector on the principle of an electronic frequency meter. In this case, its LC-generator is
replaced by an RC-generator, and the measured output voltage is fed through a resistive divider to the frequency

setting circuit of the timer. You can read more about this on the website of Yuri Kolokolov.

Chip D7 stabilizes unipolar supply voltage. Using the D4.1 op-amp, an arti cial mid-point power supply is

created, which allows the use of conventional bipolar circuitry for an op-amp. Ceramic blocking capacitors C18-
C21 are mounted in close proximity to the cases of digital microcircuits D1, D2, D3, D5.

Types of parts and design

The types of chips used are shown in table. 6.

Table 6. Types of Chips Used

Instead of K561 series chips, K1561 series chips can be used. You can try to apply some chips of the K176

series or foreign analogues of the 40XX and 40XXX series.

The dual operational ampli ers (op amps) of the K157 series can be replaced by any similar general-purpose op
amps (with corresponding changes in the pinout and correction circuits).

The resistors used in the differential magnetometer circuit are not subject to special requirements. They only

need to have a solid and miniature design and be convenient for installation. The rated power dissipation is 

0.125 ... 0.25 watts.

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Multi-turn potentiometers R5, R16 are desirable for the convenience of ne-tuning the device. The handle of the
potentiometer R5 should be made of plastic and should be of su cient length so that the touch of the

operator’s hands during adjustment did not cause a change in the indicator readings due to interference.

Capacitor C16 - electrolytic of any small type.

The capacitors of the oscillatory circuits C2 * and C3 * consist of several (5-10 pcs.) Capacitors connected in

parallel. Setting the circuit to resonance is carried out by selecting the number of capacitors and their nominal
value. Recommended type of capacitors K10-43, K71-7 or foreign thermostable analogues. You can try to use

conventional ceramic or metal lm capacitors, however, when the temperature uctuates, you will have to tune

the device more often.

Microammeter - of any type for a current of 100 μA with zero in the middle of the scale. Small-sized
microammeters, for example, type M4247, are convenient. You can use almost any microammeter, and even a

milliammeter - with any scale limit. To do this, you must accordingly adjust the values of the resistors R15-R17.

Q quartz resonator - any small-sized watch quartz (similar are also used in portable electronic games).

Switch S1 - any type, small-sized.

The sensor coils are made on round ferrite cores with a diameter of 8 mm (used in magnetic antennas of CB
and DV radio receivers) and a length of about 10 cm. Each winding consists of 200 turns of copper winding wire

0.31 mm in diameter, evenly and densely wound in two layers. in double lacquered-silk insulation. A layer of

screen foil is attached over all the windings. The edges of the screen are isolated from each other to prevent the
formation of a closed loop. The screen output is made by a tinned copper single-core wire. In the case of a

screen made of aluminum foil, this conclusion is superimposed on the screen over its entire length and is tightly

wrapped with electrical tape. In the case of a screen made of copper or brass foil, the output is soldered.

The ends of the ferrite cores are xed in the uoroplastic centering disks, thanks to which each of the two
halves of the sensor is held inside a plastic pipe made of PCB, which serves as a body, as shown schematically

in Fig. 34.

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Fig. 34. Sensor antenna design

The length of the pipe is about 60 cm. Each of the halves of the sensor is located at the end of the pipe and is

additionally xed with silicone sealant, which lls the space around the windings and their cores. Filling is

carried out through special openings in the pipe body. Together with uoroplastic washers, such a sealant gives
the fastening of brittle ferrite rods the necessary elasticity, preventing them from cracking during accidental

impacts.

Instrument setup

1. Verify proper installation.

2. Check the current consumption, which should not exceed 100 mA.

3. Check the correct operation of the master oscillator and other elements of the formation of pulse signals.

4. Set the oscillatory circuits of the sensor. Emitting - at a frequency of 4 kHz, receiving - at 8 kHz.

5. Verify the correct operation of the ampli er path and synchronous detector.

Work with the device


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The procedure for setting up and working with the device is as follows. We go to the place of searches, turn on
the device and begin to rotate the antenna sensor. Best of all in a vertical plane passing through the north-south

direction. If the device’s sensor is on a rod, then you can not rotate, but swing it as far as the rod allows. The

indicator arrow will deviate (compass effect). Using a variable resistor R5, we try to minimize the amplitude of

these deviations. In this case, the midpoint of the microammeter readings will “move out” and it will also need

to be adjusted with another variable resistor R16, which is designed to set zero. When the “compass” effect

becomes minimal, the instrument is considered balanced.

For small objects, the search method using a differential magnetometer does not differ from the method of

working with a conventional metal detector. Near the object, the arrow can deviate in any direction. For large

objects, the indicator arrow will deviate in different directions over a large space.

Read and write useful

A magnetometer is a device that is used to explore the Earth's magnetic eld or search for hidden objects.

According to the principle of operation, the device is a bit like a metal detector that responds to metal surfaces,
with the exception that it is sensitive to the Earth’s natural magnetic eld, as well as large non-metallic objects

that have their own residual eld. The device has found its application in various industries and science, since it

allows you to record natural anomalies, and also speeds up the search for objects.

WHY USE A MAGNETOMETER

Magnetometers respond to a magnetic eld and express its strength indicators in various physical units. In this

regard, there are many types of these devices, each of which is adapted for a speci c search purpose.

Modi cations of these devices are used in dozens of branches of science and industry:

Geology.

Archeology.

Navigation.

Seismology.

Military intelligence.

Geochronology.

In geology , a magnetometer searches for minerals without the need for trial drilling to take samples. The device

allows you to x a vein rich in fossils and decide on the feasibility of starting production in the area. Also, using

this equipment, you can determine where underground sources of drinking water are located, how they are

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located and their volume. Thanks to this, you can decide in advance where to build a well or well in order to get

to the water without the need for maximum deepening.

Magnetometers are used in archeology during excavations. They allow you to respond to the foundations of

buildings, statues and other objects that are hidden deep underground, which have residual magnetization. First
of all, it is burnt brick or stone. The device responds to ancient hearths and stoves hidden deep underground.

Use it to search for objects in ice or snow.

A magnetometer is also used in navigation . With its help, the Earth's magnetic eld is determined, as a result of

which it is possible to obtain data on the direction of motion in case of disorientation. Such devices are used in
aviation and maritime transport. Magnetometers are a must for space stations and shuttles.

In seismology, magnetometers that respond to the Earth’s magnetic eld make it possible to predict an

earthquake, since when the characteristics of tectonic plates change, the usual eld indicators are violated. In

this way, fresh underground cracks can be identi ed through which an eruption can begin.

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In military intelligence, this equipment allows you to search for military objects hidden from conventional

radars. Using a magnetometer, you can identify a submarine lying on the sea or ocean oor.

In geochronology , the strength of the residual magnetization can determine the age of rocks. More accurate

methods exist, but with a magnetometer, this can be done in seconds, without the need for costly analysis.

VARIETIES OF MAGNETOMETERS ACCORDING TO THE PRINCIPLE OF ACTION

According to the principle of action, magnetometers are divided into 3 types:

Magnetostatic.

Induction.

Quantum.

Each variety reacts to an external magnetic eld using a speci c physical principle. Based on these three

varieties, various highly specialized types of magnetometers have been created that are more accurate for

measurements under certain conditions.

MAGNETOSTATIC

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Despite the external complexity of this device, it works according to a completely understandable physical

principle. Inside the magnetometer is a small permanent magnet that responds to the magnetic eld with which

it is in contact. The magnet is suspended in an elastic suspension allowing it to scroll. It practically does not

possess its rigidity, therefore it does not hold it and allows it to scroll without resistance. When a permanent
magnet reacts with a foreign eld whose direction or force does not coincide with its own, an attraction or

rejection reaction occurs. As a result, the suspended permanent magnet begins to rotate, which captures the

sensitive sensor. In this way, the strength and direction of the external magnetic eld are measured.

The sensitivity of the magnetostatic device depends on the reference magnet that is installed in it. The accuracy

of the suspension is also affected by the elasticity of the suspension.

INDUCTION

Induction magnetometers have inside a coil with a wire winding of conductive material. It is powered by a
battery pack. The coil creates its own magnetic eld, which begins to come into contact with external elds

passing through its circuit. Sensitive sensors respond to changes that are displayed on the coil as a result of

this interaction. They can respond to rotation or vibrations. For more complex devices, sensors respond to

changes in the magnetic permeability of the core of the coil. Regardless of how the change is recorded, the

device displays the indicators of external magnetic elds and allows you to determine the location of objects,

their size and remoteness. 

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QUANTUM

A quantum magnetometer reacts to the magnetic moment of electrons that move under the in uence of

external magnetic elds. This is an expensive equipment that is used for laboratory research, as well as

complex searches. The device captures the magnetic moment of microparticles and the intensity of the

measured eld. This equipment allows you to measure the strength of weak elds, including those that are in

outer space. It is this equipment that is used in geological exploration to search for deep mineral deposits.

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THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MODELS

A magnetometer is a high-tech equipment that can differ from other similar devices not only by the physical

principle of a reaction to a change in a magnetic eld or sensitivity, but also by other characteristics. Devices

can differ from each other by the following criteria:

The presence of the display.

The number of sensors.

The presence of a sound indicator.

Measurement errors.
Indication method.

Duration of continuous work.

Dimensions and weight.

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As for the number of sensitive sensors, the more there are, the more accurate the equipment will be. The
magnetometer can display its measurements in numerical or graphical terms. It is di cult to say which is

better, since it all depends on the particular conditions in which the measurement is carried out. In certain

cases, you just need to get a display of the magnetic eld indicators in numbers, while sometimes you need

more visual de nition of the vector of its vortices. The best option is combined devices that allow you to

visualize indicators in digital and graphical displays.

The differential magnetometer brought to your attention can be very useful for searching for large iron objects.

It is almost impossible to search for treasures with such an instrument, but it is indispensable when searching

for shallow sunken tanks, ships and other models of military equipment.

The principle of operation of a differential magnetometer is very simple. Any object from a ferromagnet distorts

the Earth's natural magnetic eld. Such items include everything made of iron, cast iron and steel. To a large

extent, the intrinsic magnetization of objects, which often takes place, can affect the distortion of the magnetic

eld. Having xed the deviation of the magnetic eld from the background value, we can conclude that there is

an object made of ferromagnetic material near the measuring device.

Distortion of the Earth's magnetic eld far from the target is small, and it is estimated by the difference of the

signals from two sensors spaced apart by a certain distance. Therefore, the device is called differential. Each

sensor measures a signal proportional to the magnetic eld. The most widely used are ferromagnetic sensors

and sensors based on magneton proton precession. In this device, sensors of the rst type are used.

The basis of a ferromagnetic sensor (also called a ux-gate) is a coil with a core made of ferromagnetic

material. The typical magnetization curve of such a material is well known from the school physics course and,

taking into account the in uence of the Earth's magnetic eld, has the following form, shown in Fig. 29.

FIG. 29. MAGNETIZATION CURVE

The coil is excited by an alternating sinusoidal carrier signal. As can be seen from g. 29, the shift of the

magnetization curve of the ferromagnetic core of the coil by the Earth's external magnetic eld leads to the fact
that the eld induction and the associated voltage across the coil begin to be distorted asymmetrically. In other

words, the voltage of the sensor at a sinusoidal current of the carrier frequency will differ from the sinusoid by

the more “ attened” half-wave tips. And these distortions will be asymmetrical. In the language of spectral

analysis, this means the appearance in the spectrum of the output voltage of the coil of even harmonics, the

amplitude of which is proportional to the strength of the displacement magnetic eld (Earth eld). These even

harmonics must be "caught".

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FIG. 30. DIFFERENTIAL FERROMAGNETIC SENSOR

Before mentioning a naturally occurring synchronous detector operating for this purpose with a reference signal

of doubled carrier frequency, we consider the design of a complicated version of a ferromagnetic sensor. It

consists of two cores and three coils (Fig. 30). At its core, it is a differential sensor. However, for simplicity, we

will not call it differential in the text, since the magnetometer itself is already differential (©).

The design consists of two identical ferromagnetic cores with identical coils located parallel to each other. With

respect to the exciting electric signal of the reference frequency, they are turned on in the opposite direction.

The third coil is a winding wound over two rst two coils with cores stacked together. In the absence of an

external biasing magnetic eld, the electrical signals of the rst and second windings are symmetrical and,
ideally, act so that the output signal in the third winding is absent, since the magnetic uxes through it are

completely compensated.

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In the presence of an external biasing magnetic eld, the picture changes. Either one or the other core at the

peak of the corresponding half-wave “ ies” deeper into saturation than usual due to the additional effect of the

Earth’s magnetic eld. As a result, a double frequency mismatch signal appears at the output of the third
winding. The fundamental signals are ideally completely compensated there.

The convenience of the considered sensor lies in the fact that its coils can be switched on to increase the

sensitivity in the oscillatory circuits. The rst and second to the oscillatory circuit (or circuit), tuned to the carrier
frequency. The third - in the oscillatory circuit tuned to the second harmonic.

The described sensor has a pronounced radiation pattern. Its output signal is maximum when the longitudinal

axis of the sensor is located along the lines of force of an external constant magnetic eld. When the

longitudinal axis is perpendicular to the lines of force, the output signal is zero.

The sensor of the considered type, especially in conjunction with a synchronous detector, can successfully

operate as an electronic compass. After recti cation, its output signal is proportional to the projection of the

Earth's magnetic eld vector onto the axis of the sensor. Synchronous detection allows you to recognize the

sign of this projection. But even without a sign - by orienting the sensor to the minimum signal, we get a
direction to the west or east. Orienting to the maximum - we get the direction of the magnetic eld line of the

Earth’s eld. In the middle latitudes (for example, in Moscow), it goes obliquely and "sticks" into the ground

towards the north. By the angle of magnetic declination, one can approximately estimate the geographical

latitude of the area.

Differential ferromagnetic magnetometers have their advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are the

simplicity of the device, it is no more complicated than a direct ampli cation radio receiver. The disadvantages

include the complexity of manufacturing sensors - in addition to accuracy, an absolutely exact match of the

number of turns of the corresponding windings is required. An error of one or two turns can greatly reduce the

possible sensitivity. Another disadvantage is the “compassability” of the device, that is, the impossibility of fully

compensating the Earth's eld by subtracting signals from two separated sensors. In practice, this leads to false
signals when the sensor rotates around an axis perpendicular to the longitudinal.

PRACTICAL CONSTRUCTION

The practical design of a differential ferromagnetic magnetometer was implemented and tested in a prototype
without a special electronic part for sound indication, using only a microammeter with zero in the middle of the

scale. The sound indication circuit can be taken from the description of the metal detector according to the

principle of "transmission-reception". The device has the following parameters.


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Main technical characteristics

Supply voltage 15 ... 18 V

Current consumption no more than 50 mA

Depth of detection:
gun 2 m

gun barrel 4 m

tank 6 m

STRUCTURAL SCHEME

FIG. 31. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A DIFFERENTIAL FERROMAGNETIC MAGNETOMETER

The block diagram is shown in Fig. 31. A quartz-stabilized master oscillator provides clock pulses for a signal

conditioner.

At one of its outputs there is a rst-harmonic meander supplied to a power ampli er, exciting the emitting coils

of sensors 1 and 2. Another output forms a doubled reference clock meander with a shift of 90 ° for a

synchronous detector. The difference signal from the output (third) windings of the sensors is ampli ed in the

receiving ampli er and recti ed by a synchronous detector. The recti ed constant signal can be registered with

a microammeter or sound indication devices described in previous chapters.


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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The schematic diagram of a differential ferromagnetic magnetometer is shown in Fig. 32 - part 1; master

oscillator, signal shaper, power ampli er and radiating coils, Fig. 33 - part 2: receiving coils, receiving ampli er,

synchronous detector, indicator and power supply.

FIG. 32. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM - PART I

OWNER GENERATOR (FIG. 32)

The master oscillator is assembled on inverters D1.1-D1.3. The oscillator frequency is stabilized by a quartz or

piezoelectric ceramic resonator Q with a resonant frequency of 215 Hz = 32 kHz (“clock quartz”). The R1C1

circuit prevents the excitation of the generator at higher harmonics. Through the resistor R2, the OOS circuit

closes, through the resonator Q-circuit POS. The generator is simple, low current consumption, works reliably at

a supply voltage of 3 ... 15 V, does not contain tuning elements and excessively high resistance resistors. The
output frequency of the generator is about 32 kHz.

SIGNAL SHAPER (FIG. 32)


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The signal conditioner is assembled on a binary counter D2 and a D-trigger D3.1. The type of binary counter is

unprincipled; its main task is to divide the clock frequency by 2, 4, and 8, thus obtaining meanders with

frequencies of 16, 8, and 4 kHz, respectively. The carrier frequency for the excitation of radiating coils is 4 kHz.

Signals with frequencies of 16 and 8 kHz, acting on the D-trigger D3.1, form at its output a meander doubled

with respect to the carrier frequency of 8 kHz, shifted 90 ° relative to the output signal of the 8 kHz binary
counter. Such a shift is necessary for the normal operation of the synchronous detector, since the useful shift

signal of the double frequency mismatch at the output of the sensor has the same shift. The second half of the

microcircuit from two D- ip- ops - D3.2 is not used in the circuit, but its idle inputs must be connected either to

logical 1,

POWER AMPLIFIER (FIG. 32)

The power ampli er does not seem like this and is just powerful inverters D1.4 and D1.5, which in antiphase

swing an oscillating circuit, consisting of series-parallel connected transmitter emitting coils of the sensor and

capacitor C2. An asterisk near the capacitor rating means that its value is approximate and that it must be
selected during commissioning. An idle inverter D1.6, in order not to leave its input unconnected, inverts the

signal D1.5, but practically works idle. Resistors R3 and R4 limit the output current of the inverters to an

acceptable level and, together with the oscillating circuit, form a high-quality bandpass lter, so that the voltage

and current in the transmitter emitting coils almost coincide with the sinusoidal one.

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FIG. 33. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM - PART II. RECEIVING AMPLIFIER

RECEIVING AMPLIFIER (FIG 33)

The receiving ampli er ampli es the difference signal coming from the receiving coils of the sensor, which

together with the capacitor SZ form an oscillating circuit tuned to a double frequency of 8 kHz. Thanks to the

tuning resistor R5, the subtraction of the signals of the receiving coils is performed with some weighting

factors, which can be changed by moving the slider of the resistor R5. This achieves the compensation of non-
identical parameters of the receiving windings of the sensor and minimizing its "compassability". The receiving

ampli er is two-stage. It is assembled on an op amp D4.2 and D6.1 with a parallel voltage OS. Capacitor C4

reduces the ampli cation at higher frequencies, thereby preventing overloading of the ampli er path by high-

frequency interference from power networks and other sources. OA correction circuits are standard.

SYNCHRONOUS DETECTOR (FIG. 33)

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The synchronous detector is made on the D6.2 op amp according to the standard scheme. As analog keys, the
D5 CMOS chip of the 8 on 1 multiplexer-demultiplexer is used (Fig. 32). Its digital address signal is selected only

in the low order, providing alternate switching of points K1 and K2 on a common bus. The recti ed signal is

ltered by a capacitor C8 and ampli ed by an op amp D6.2 with a simultaneous additional attenuation of un-

ltered RF components by the chains R14C11 and R13C9. The opamp correction circuit is standard for the type

used.

INDICATOR (FIG. 33)

The indicator is a microammeter with zero in the middle of the scale. In the indicator part, circuitry of other

types of metal detectors described earlier can be successfully used. Including, as an indicator, you can use the
design of the metal detector on the principle of an electronic frequency meter. In this case, its LC-generator is

replaced by an RC-generator, and the measured output voltage is fed through a resistive divider to the frequency

setting circuit of the timer. You can read more about this on the website of Yuri Kolokolov.

Chip D7 stabilizes unipolar supply voltage. Using the D4.1 op-amp, an arti cial mid-point power supply is
created, which allows the use of conventional bipolar circuitry for an op-amp. Ceramic blocking capacitors C18-

C21 are mounted in close proximity to the cases of digital microcircuits D1, D2, D3, D5.

TYPES OF PARTS AND DESIGN

The types of chips used are shown in table. 6.

TABLE 6. TYPES OF CHIPS USED

Instead of K561 series chips, K1561 series chips can be used. You can try to apply some chips of the K176
series or foreign analogues of the 40XX and 40XXX series.

The dual operational ampli ers (op amps) of the K157 series can be replaced by any similar general-purpose op

amps (with corresponding changes in the pinout and correction circuits).

The resistors used in the differential magnetometer circuit are not subject to special requirements. They only

need to have a solid and miniature design and be convenient for installation. The rated power dissipation is

0.125 ... 0.25 watts.

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Multi-turn potentiometers R5, R16 are desirable for the convenience of ne-tuning the device. The handle of the

potentiometer R5 should be made of plastic and should be of su cient length so that the touch of the
operator’s hands during adjustment did not cause a change in the indicator readings due to interference.

Capacitor C16 - electrolytic of any small type.

The capacitors of the oscillatory circuits C2 * and C3 * consist of several (5-10 pcs.) Capacitors connected in

parallel. Setting the circuit to resonance is carried out by selecting the number of capacitors and their nominal
value. Recommended type of capacitors K10-43, K71-7 or foreign thermostable analogues. You can try to use

conventional ceramic or metal- lm capacitors, however, when the temperature uctuates, you will have to tune

the device more often.

Microammeter - of any type for a current of 100 μA with zero in the middle of the scale. Small-sized
microammeters, for example, type M4247, are convenient. You can use almost any microammeter, and even a

milliammeter - with any scale limit. To do this, you must accordingly adjust the values of the resistors R15-R17.

Q quartz resonator - any small-sized watch quartz (similar are also used in portable electronic games).

Switch S1 - any type, small-sized.

FIG. 34. SENSOR ANTENNA DESIGN

The sensor coils are made on round ferrite cores with a diameter of 8 mm (used in magnetic antennas of CB

and DV radio receivers) and a length of about 10 cm. Each winding consists of 200 turns of copper winding wire

0.31 mm in diameter, evenly and densely wound in two layers. in double lacquered-silk insulation. A layer of

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screen foil is attached over all the windings. The edges of the screen are isolated from each other to prevent the

formation of a closed loop. The screen output is made by a tinned copper single-core wire. In the case of a

screen made of aluminum foil, this conclusion is superimposed on the screen over its entire length and is tightly
wrapped with electrical tape. In the case of a screen made of copper or brass foil, the output is soldered.

The ends of the ferrite cores are xed in the uoroplastic centering disks, thanks to which each of the two

halves of the sensor is held inside a plastic pipe made of PCB, which serves as a body, as shown schematically

in Fig. 34. The length of the pipe is about 60 cm. Each of the halves of the sensor is located at the end of the
pipe and is additionally xed with a silicone sealant, which lls the space around the windings and their cores.

Filling is carried out through special openings in the pipe body. Together with uoroplastic washers, such a

sealant gives the fastening of brittle ferrite rods the necessary elasticity, preventing them from cracking during

accidental impacts.

INSTRUMENT SETUP

1. Verify proper installation.

2. Check the current consumption, which should not exceed 100 mA.

3. Check the correct operation of the master oscillator and other elements of the formation of pulse signals.

4. Set the oscillatory circuits of the sensor. Emitting - at a frequency of 4 kHz, receiving - at 8 kHz.

5. Verify the correct operation of the ampli er path and synchronous detector.

WORK WITH THE DEVICE

The procedure for setting up and working with the device is as follows. We go to the place of searches, turn on

the device and begin to rotate the antenna sensor. Best of all in a vertical plane passing through the north-south

direction. If the device’s sensor is on a rod, then you can not rotate, but swing it as far as the rod allows. The

indicator arrow will deviate (compass effect). Using a variable resistor R5, we try to minimize the amplitude of

these deviations. In this case, the midpoint of the microammeter readings will “move out” and it will also need
to be adjusted with another variable resistor R16, which is designed to set zero. When the “compass” effect

becomes minimal, the instrument is considered balanced.

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For small objects, the search method using a differential magnetometer does not differ from the method of

working with a conventional metal detector. Near the object, the arrow can deviate in any direction. For large

objects, the indicator arrow will deviate in different directions over a large space.

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