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RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BULLETIN RD085.

01T

Effect of Fly Ash on the Air-Void


Stability of Concrete
By S. H. Gebler and P. Klieger

Preprmtcd wth pcrmiasmn of the Amencan Concrete Institute from


Prore~din~s, First Inrernotional Conference on the Use of Fly Ash.
Silica Fume. Slag, and Other Mineral Ry-Producrs in Concrete,
July 31.August 5, 1983, Montebello, Quebec, Canada
(AC1 publication SP-79).

PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION


Effect of Fly Ash on the Air-Void
Stability of Concrete

By S. H. Gebler and P. Klieger

ABSTRACT: Concretes containing both portland cement and fly ash Luftporengehaltverhrst beim weiterem Mischen. Obgleich der Luft-
were evaluated to determine the effect of ‘fly ash on air-void stability. porengehalt reduziert ist, werden der ~bstandsfaktor, die spezifische
Tests indicate that air contents of concrete containing Class C fly ash Oberflache und die Anz.ahl Luftporen wenig beeinflusst. Das “Schaum-
appear tobemore stablethan those of concrete containing Class F fly Anzeiger’’-Test wurde durchgefiihrt und als eine zufriedenstellende
ash. The higher the organic matter content of a fly ash, the higher will Methode befunden urn die Erfordernisse fiir Luftporenbildner zu
be the air-entraining admixture requirement for concrete in which the priifen.
admixture is used. The higher the air-entraining admixture requirement,
the greater is the air loss on extended mixing. Even though the air vol-
ume is reduced the spacing factor, specific surface, and number of voids
are little affected. The “Foam Index” test was conducted and found to R6UM~: Des b6tons contenant du ciment Portland et de la cendre
be a satisfactory method for checking air-entraining admixture require- volante ont &t&&valu6s afirr de d~terminer I’effet de la cendre volante sur
ments. ia stabilitt des brzlles d’air clans Ie Wton. Les tests indiquent que le
volume d’air des b6tons contenant de la cendre volante de Classe C
semble plus stable que celui clans Ies bixons contenant de la cendre
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Beton, die sowohl Portlandzement und volante de Classe F. Plus la teneur en mati~re organique de la cendre est
Flugasche enthalten, wurden untersucht, urn die Beeinflussung der importance, plus Ies besoins d’adjuvant entraineur d’air seront impor-
Fhrgasche auf die Luftporengehaltstabilitat zu bestimmerr. Versuche tant pour les b~tons clans Iesquels de tels adjuvants sent utilis+s. Plus
zeigen an, class der Luftporengehalt von Beton, der Flugasche der Ies besoins en adjuvant entraineur d’air sent tlev~s, plus la perte en air
Klasse C enthalt, stabiler zu sein scheint als derjenige von Beton mit est importance pour un m61ange rallongL Blen que le volume d’air soit
Flugasche der Klasse F. Je hoher der organische Stoffgehalt der Flug- r&duit, Ie facteur d’espacement. la surface sp~cifique et le nombre de
asche, desto mehr wird die Zugabe vom Luftporenbildner verlangt. Je bulles sent peu affectts. Le test d’Indite de Mousse a&t&realis~ et trouvt$
hoher der Bedorf zum Luftporenbildner gehah ist, desto grosser ist der satisfaisant pour v6rifier les besoins en adjuvant entraineur d“air.
Steven Gebler is a Senior Research Engineer at the Construction
Technology Laboratories, WA. He joined the Association in 1979
and his activities have been in various phases of concrete mate-
rials research. He k an ASME/ACI 359 Level III Concrete Inspec-
tor and a member of ACI Committees 212, 214, 308, 309, and 517.

Paul Klieger is Consultant, Research and Development/Construction


Technology Laboratories Group, PCA. He joined the Association in
1941 and has been engaged in research activities involving con-
crete strength development and resistance to freezing and thawing.
He is currently Chairman of ACI Committee 201 on Durability.

INTRODUCTION

ACI Committee 212 Report(l)* classifies finely divided min-


eral admixtures into four types: 1) cementitious materials; 2)
pozzolans; 3) Pzzolanic and cementitious materials; and 4) other
finely divided mineral admixtures. Cementitious materials include
natural cements, hydraulic limes, slag cements and ground granu-
lated blast-furnace slag. A pozzolan, as defined by both ACI pub-
lication SP-19(2) and ASTM Designation: C 595(3) is “a siliceous
or siliceous and aluminous material, which in itself possesses
little or no cementitious value but will, in finely divided form
and in the presence of moisture, chemically react with calcium
hydroxide at ordinary temperatures to form compounds possessing
cementitious properties.”

Certain fly ashes (typically Class F, as defined by ASTM


Designation: C 618(4)), volcanic glass, diatomaceous earths, and
some shales can be categorized as pozzolans. Certain fly ashes
(typically Class C, as defined by ASTM Designation: C 618(4)) may
act as both pozzolanic and cementitious materials.

Other finely divided mineral admixtures include those mate-


rials that are considered essentially inert when added to cement-
water mixtures. Finely divided quartz, siliceous sands, granite
and other rock dusts, asbestos, hydrated dolomite and high calcium
lime are some examples.

Fly ash, a product of coal combustion, is formed from the


mineral matter in the coal and recovered from boiler stack gases.
Fly ash can be a highly variable material and is composed mostly
of powdered incombustible mineral matter which constitutes 10% to
25%(5) by weight of the coal used in power plants. R. E. Morrison
(6) reported that between 20% and 80% of the ash content of coal

*Numbers in parentheses designate references at the end of this


report.
is recovered as fly ash. This variation in amount of ash recov-
ered depends on the type of furnace and ash collection system
used. Ash that is not recovered from boiler stack gases is termed
bottom ash, which is coarser than fly ash and is generally not
used as a mineral admixture for concrete.

Two classes of fly ash, as defined by ASTM Designation: C 618


(4), are used in concretes as finely divided mineral admixtures.
Class F fly ashes are normally produced from burning anthracite
or bituminous coal and are considered a pozzolanic material.
Anthracite and bituminous coals having a higher proportion of car-
bon, generally the eastern coals, are relatively harder and older
than the lignite or subbituminous coals, the western coals. Class
C fly ashes are normally produced from lignite or subbituminous
coal having a lower proportion of carbon. One of the most impor-
tant differences in classes of fly ashes is the ease of burning.
Class F ashes tend to retain unburned carbon and oqanic matter,
whereas Class C ashes retain less of these impurities. Generally,
Class C fly ashes have lime contents in excess of 10%. Class C
fly ash has both pozzolanic and cementitious properties.

Currently, both ASTM Designation: C 618(4) and CSA CAN3-A23.5


-M82(7) specifications are based on composition and performance
requirements. Criteria outlined in ASTM Designation: C 494(8)
~quire both chemical tests of the admixtuns and concrete perform-
ance tests which assure the consumer that suitable concrete with
chemical admixtures can be produced. ASTM Designation: C 618(4)
and CSA CAN3-A23.5-M82(7) provide only chemical and physical test
limitations for fly ash. Thtis,these documents do not assure the
consumer that”fly ashes meeting these specifications will perform
satisfactorily when used in portland cement concretes.

Past research(9,10) has shown that fly ashes can adversely


affect the production of an adequate air content, -but an explana-
tion of this effect has not been thoroughly established. The
investigation described in this paper was undertaken to establish
fly ash characteristics that affe’ctthe ai?void parameters and
the air-void stability of concrete.

Other researchers(ll,12,13)have found higher air-entraining


admixture requirements for concretes containing fly ash than for
concretes not containing fly ash. Larson(14) concluded that the
higher air-entraining admixture demand was due to the carbon con-
tent of the fly ash. Currently, many of the fly ashes used in
concrete have carbon contents considerably less than 5%. However,
the air-entraining admixture requirement reported for concrete
containing these fly ashes is still higher than for concrete with-
out fly ash. Our investigationwas also directed toward obtaining
a better understanding of factors that influence the air-entrain-
ing admixture requirement.

As a comllaq to the above tasks, the newly developed Dodson


(15) “Foam Index” test was investigated. Dodson suggested that
this test could be used to estimate the air-entraining admixture

3
requirement of portland-cement concrete mixtures containing fly
ash. Data are presented comparing “Foam Index” test results and
air-entraining admixtun requirements for companion concretes.

Data in this paper are part of a broad program of tests to


evaluate and characterize the effect of fly ash on concrete
petiormanceo Future papers will present data on compressive
strength, abrasion resistance, volume stability, resistance to
freezing and thawing, resistance to deicer chemicals, sulfate
resistance, and alkali-aggregate reactivity.

OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE

The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the


effect of fly ash on the air-void stability, and ai~entraining
admixture requirement in concrete, and to investigate the appli-
cability of the “Foam Index” test. Fly ashes were selected to
represent a wide range of chemical and physical compositions, as
well as geographical location. Tests were performed on both
freshly mixed and hardened concretes containing fly ash.

To evaluate the ai~void stability, air contents of plastic


concrete were measured over a period of 90 min. after completion
of initial mixing. A l-rein. remix, including retempering, was
used at 30-min. intervals after the initial mixing. Concrete
specimens were cast at 30-min. intervals for subsequent linear
traverse measurements.

The “Foam Index” test for estimating the air-entraining


admixture requirement was evaluated. Results of this test are
compared to the air-entraining admixture requirement for concrete.

This investigation also was directed toward obtaining a


better understanding of how the composition of fly ash influences
air-entraining admixture requirements of concrete.

FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS

The following findings and conclusions are based in large


part on an arbitrary separation of the fly ashes used in this
study into ASTM C 618 Class F and Class C designations based on
10% CaO content as a dividing line. Therefore, there may be
exceptions to these general classifications. The findings and
conclusions ars presented below:

1. Generally, concretes containing Class C fly ash require less


air-entraining admixture than those concretes with Class F
fly ash. All concretes with fly ash required more air-
entraining admixture than the portland-cement concretes with-
out fly ash.

2. Plastic concrete containing Class C fly ash tended to lose


less air than concretes with Class F fly ash.
3. Spacing factors (~) on specimens cast over a period of
90 min. were essentially constant for the majority of con-
cretes containing fly ash. In addition, the initial spread
of results of specific surface (W and voids per in. (n) was
essentially similar for concretes containing Class F or
Class C fly ash. HOWWf5rr when measured on specimens cast
at 90 min., concretes with Class F fly ash exhibited greater
variability of results for these air-void parameters than
concretes with Class C fly ash.

4. As the air-entraining admixture requirement increases for a


concrete containing fly ash, the air loss increases.

5. Air contents in plastic concrete containing Class F fly ash


were reduced as much as 59% 90 min. after completion of mix-
ing. Similar results were obtained on hardened concrete
specimens cast at various time intervals after mixing.

6. The “Foam Index” test appears to be a good rapid test to pre-


dict relative air-entraining admixture dosage requirements
for concrete.

7. As the organic matter content, carbon content, and loss on


ignition of fly ash increasef the air-entraining admixture
requirement increases? as does the loss of air in plastic
concrete.

8. Generally, as total alkalies in fly ash increase, the air-


entraining admixture requirement decreases.

9. As the specific gravity of a fly ash increases, the retention


of air in concrete increases. Concrete containing a fly ash
that has a high lime content (Class C fly ash) and less
organic matter tends to be less vulnerable to loss of air.

10. Generally, as the Sol content of fly ash increases the


retained air in concrete increases.

MATERIALS

Cement

TWO different cements were used in this study. A blend of


three commercial ASTM Type I cements, Lot No. 21833, was used for
laboratory concretes. Cement Lot No. 21833 was also used for most
of the mortar physical tests except for the reactivity with cement
alkalies test. A Type I high-alkali cement~ Lot No. 21841, was
used for the reactivity with cement alkalies mortar tests. Calcu-
lated ptential compound compositions and other pertinent data are
presented in Table 1 for both cements.
Fine Aggregate

Natural sand from Elgin, Ill., consisting of carbonate (dolo-


mitic) and siliceous aggregates, was used in all concretes.

Coarse Aggregate

Gravel from Eau Claire, Wis., a highly siliceous, partially


crushed coarse aggregate, was used in all concretes. Coarse
aggregate was dry-sieved and recombined to obtain the desired
gradation. Pertinent data for aggregates are given in Table 2.

Air-Entraining Admixture

Neutralized Vinsol resin in 2.27% aqueous solution was used


as the air-entraining admixture.

Fly Ashes

Ten different fly ashes’that are commercially available for


use in concrete were chosen for this study.

Selected fly ashes represent a wide range of chemical and


physical properties, as well as geographic origin within North
America. Chemical properties of all fly ashes are shown in
Table 3; physical properties are shown in Table 4. Inspection of
Tables 3 and 4 indicate that several fly ashes meet ASTM Designa-
tion: C 618(4), or CSA CAN3-A23.5-M82(7) while many of these com-
mercially available fly ashes do not meet some of the chemical or
physical requirements of these specifications. Inspection of
these tables indicates further that these Class F fly ashes have
less alkalies than the Class C fly ashes. For purposes of discus-
sions that follow, fly ashes having a lime content in excess of
10%, expressed as “CaO, were classified as Class C fly ash; ashes
with less than 10% CaO were classified as Class F fly ash.

DESCRIPTION OF CONCRETE MIXTURES

Concrete Mixture Proportions

Test concretes were proportioned for a nominal cementitious


material content of 517 pounds per cubic yard (pcy) (3o7 kg/m3)
with 75% Type I portland cement and 25% fly ash by weight of
cementitious material.

TWO control concrete mixtures without fly ash were also


prepared. One control concrete had a nominal cement content of
517 pcy (307 kg/m3); the other control concrete had a nominal
cement content of 474 pcy (281 kg/m3). The latter was used to
provide early age strength development more nearly equal to con-
cretes containing fly ash as well as for other durability studies.

The fly ash concretes used in this study contain 388 PCY
(230 kg/m3) cement and 129 pcy (77 kg/m3) of fly ash. Relative
to the two control mixesl this fly ash concrete can be considered
as a 25% cement replacement concrete to be compared with the
517 pcy (307 kg\m3) control and as a partial replacement plus
admixture for comparison with the 474 pcy (281 kg/m3) control. In
the latter case, 86 pcy (51 kg/m3) of cement (17%) is replaced by
fly ash and 43 pcy (26 kg/m3) of fly ash (8%) is used as an
admixturei

All concrete mixtures were proportioned to have a slump of


3 in. ~ 1 in. (75 mm + 25 mm), with sufficient neutralized Vinsol
resin to obtain a nom—inalair content of 6% + 1% in the plastic
concrete.

Selected mixture proportions and’properties of freshly mixed


concrete are presented in Table 5. Results are the mean of repli-
cate mixtures that were used for the entire fly ash test program.
Individual results of mixtures used for air-void stability mea-
surements will be presented in a later section.

Mixing Procedure

All concretes were mixed in.a 1.5-CU ft open-pan counter-cur-


rent-type mixer. Cement and fly ash were blended by hand. Charg-
ing sequence of the concrete materials was coarse aggregate, fine
aggregate, cement and fly ash, mixing water and aix-entrainin.g
admixture. After all ingredients were in the mixer, they’ were
mixed for 3 min. followed by a 3-rein.rest, followed lay2 min. of
final mixing.

APPARATUS AND TECHNIQUES

Air-Void Stability

For each concrete mixture, the freshly mixed (plastic) air


content was measured and a 3x3x11-1/4-in. (76x76x286-mm)ptism was
cast immediately upon completion of initial mixing. A 29-rnin.,
rest period followed. Thereafter, the remaining concrete was
mixed for l-rein.and water was added to retemper the mixture and
slump maintained within + 1/2 in. of the initial sl~p measure-
ment. Next, an additional prism was cast fox linear traverse mea-
surement and the air contentof the plastic concrete determined.
This rest period and mixing cycle was continued at 30-min.,inter-
vals for a total of 90 min. Prisms were rodded, moist cured and
3x3/4x10-in. (76x19x254-MM) slabs were subsequently cut in the
direction of the longest dimension for linear traverse measure-
ments.

Foam Index

Dodson’s “Foam Index” test(15) measures the relative air-


entraining admixture requirement for a fly ash-cement combination.
Meininger(16) proposed some modifications to Dodson’s “Foam
Index.” Our tests used Meininger’s modifications.

7
The apparatus for the “Foam Index” test is shown in Fig. 1.
In this test, 50 ml of water are placed in a 16-02. wide mouth jar
having a height-to-diameter ratio of approximately 1.0. Then,
20 g of blended cementitious pwder, 16 g of cement and 4 g of fly
ash mixed by hand, are added to the water. The jar is capped and
vigorously shaken for 15 sec. A quantity of air-entraining admix-
ture is added and the jar is vigorously shaken for an additional
15 sec. Next, the jar is placed on its base for 45 sec. and the
lid is then removed. A visual determination of the stability of
the foam or bubbles is then made.

The “Foam Index” of a cement-fly ash combination is the


minimum amount of air-entraining admixture necessary to produce a
stable foam which is defined as the state where bubbles exist
over the entire cross sectional area of the wide mouth jar. w
unstable state is recognized by discontinuities in the foam,
whereas a stable state has no breaks in the foam. A stable foam
is shown in Fig. 2.

DISCUSSION OF TEST RESULTS

Properties of Freshly Mixed Concrete

Air Content--Air contents of the plastic concretes were


determined in accordance with ASTM Designation: C 231, Standard
Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pres-
sure Method, using a Type A meter. Initial plastic concrete air
content test results are given in Table 5. Air-entraining admix-
ture requirements were converted to percent of control concretes
and are presented in Table 6.

Tables 5 and 6 indicate that the amount of air-entraining


admixture required to produce 6% ~ 1% air content in freshly mixed
plastic concrete was increased by the presence of fly ash when
compared with either control mixture. Table 6 shows that the
range of air-entraining admixture required for concretes with
Class C fly ash was 126% to 173% of that required for the 517 pcy
(307 kg/m3) cement content control concrete. Air-entraining
admixture required for concretes with Class F fly ash was 170% to
553% of control. Concretes with Class F fly ashes as a group
required more air-entraining admixture and had a wider range of
air-entraining admixture requirements than concretes containing
Class C fly ashes. This finding is in general agreement with
Isenberger’s(12) research.

Regression analyses using standard statistical techniques


were made to see if there was a correlation between the chemical
and physical properties and air-entraining admixture requirement
for concretes containing these fly ashes. Analyses indi~ate that
the most significant components of fly ash affecting air-entrain-
ing admixture requirements were:

1. Organic matter content


2. Carbon content
3. Loss on ignition
4. Alkali content

Other chemical and physical properties listed in Tables 3 and 4


did not exhibit satisfactory correlations with air-entraining
admixture requirements.

Results of regression analyses presented in Fig. 3 clearly


show that, as the organic matter content of fly ash increases,
the air-entraining admixture requirement in concrete increases.
The organic matter content of the fly ash was determined by the
University of Maryland method for evaluating soils which uses
sodium bichromate and sulfuric acid(17). The linear regression
shown in Fig. 3 has a correlation coefficient of 0.96 (a correla-
tion coefficient of 1.00 is a perfect correlation). These data
indicate a significant correlation between organic matter content
of fly ash and air-entraining admixture requirement in concrete
at the 99% confidence level.

Total carbon content and loss on ignition showed- a lower


correlation with respect to air-entraining admixture requirement
than the organic matter content of the fly ash. The carbon con-
tent was obtained from the determination of carbon dioxide from
Leco Furnace Method. Results show that as the total carbon con-
tent and loss on ignition increase, the air-entraining admixture
requirement increases. Correlation coefficients for these rela-
tionships were approximately 0.75. The !igoodness-of-fit”‘as
reduced substantially by fly ashes identified as J and C. These
fly ashes had extremely high air-entraining admixture demands,
presumably due to their high organic matter contents. These data
ind,icate significant correlation at the 95% confidence level
between total carbon content and loss on ignition in fly ash to
air-entraining admixture requirement.

The data in Table 3 indicate excellent correlations between


loss on ignition and carbon content, loss on ignition and organic
matter content, and carbon content and organic matter content of
fly ash.

Total alkalies as Na20 in fly ash also showed correlation


with air-entraining admixture requirement, although in this easer
the correlation coefficient was lower (0.65). Results show that
as total alkalies in fly ash increase, the air-entraining admix-
ture requirement decreases. This finding is in general agreement
with Greenings conclusion that, in Portland-cement mortars,
higher alkalies require smaller amounts of air-entraining admix-
tures than do lower alkalies.

These results indicate that Class C fly ashes generally have


lower air-entraining admixture requirements than Class F fly ashes
and that’the organic matter present in fly ashes increases-the
air-entraining agent requirements. Results show that these two
factors alone do not fully account for the observed air-entraining
agent requirements.
Air Content Stability--TO eV.31U5ite the air content stability
of plastic concretes, air contents were measured over a period of
90 min. after completion of initial mixing. Air content measure-
ments were made immediately following initial mixing, and then at
30-, 60- and 90-min. intervals. Results of the air content sta-
bility measurements of plastic concrete are summarized in Tables 7
and 8.

Results presented in Tables 7 and 8 represent individual


concrete mixtures. These data indicate that several concretes
containing fly ash satisfactorily retained their original air con-
tent, while other cement-fly ash combinations lost approximately
half their initial air content within 90 min.

Figures 4 and 5 show air content retention in plastic con-


cretes over a period of 90 min. Concretes with the Class C fly
ash generally retained their plastic air content better than con-
cretes with Class F fly ash. In addition, plastic concretes con-
taining Class F fly ash experienced a significantly wider range of
air content retention compared to concretes with the Class C fly
ash. Generally, both control concretes retained their plastic air
content (Fig. 4) better than those concretes with Class F fly ash.
Results (Fig. 5) indicate that concretes with Class C fly ash
generally retained their plastic air content at least equal to and
often times better than control concretes.

To investigate the relationship between air-entraining admix-


ture requirement and loss of air in plastic concretes, plots of
percent air-entraining admixture requirement versus percent air
content at various time intervals are presented in Figs. 6 to 8.
Figures 6 to 8 show that as the air-entraining admixture dosage
increases, concretes containing fly ash tend to show instability
with respect to air content in plastic concretes. Figures 6 to 8
had correlation coefficients of approximately 0.81. Statistical
analyses indicate there is a significant correlation at the 99%
confidence level between air-entraining admixture requirement and
the amount of air retained in the plastic concrete. The results
of this study essentially agree to some extent with Meininger’s
(16) mortar investigation where he concludes, “For different fly
ash sources or lots from the same source -- A higher admixture
requirement tends to indicate a reduction in air-void stability,
if the sources of cement, and aggregate remain unchanged in the
mixture.”

Regression analyses were performed on the chemical and physi-


cal properties of the fly ashes and plastic air content retention
to determine whether correlations exist between these parameters.
Organic matter content of the fly ash was the most significant
property affecting the air content retention in plastic concrete.
The data in Tables 3 and 8 and Figs. 9 to 11 generally show that
as the organic matter content of the fly ash increases, the
retained air content of the plastic concrete decreases. These
data indicate there is a significant correlation at the 99%
confidence level between organic matter content of fly ash and

10
retained air content. The average correlation coefficient of
these regressions was 0.87. Total carbon content and loss on
ignition of the fly ash generally exhibited a lesser correlation
with plastic air content retention than did organic matter
content.

The data presented in Tables 4 and 8 also generally indicate


that as the specific gravity of the fly ash increases, the
retained air content of the plastic concrete increases. Further,
results generally indicate that as the S03 content of the fly
ash increases, the retained air content of the plastic content
increases.

The above results indicate that those ashes with lower


organic matter contents retained plastic concrete air content
better than fly ashes with higher organic matter content. This
finding is consistent with the characteristics influencing air-
entraining admixture requirement. Results show that these two
factors alone do not fully account for the observed plastic con-
crete air content retention. To accommodate fly ashes that
exhibit significant loss of air content in concrete~ initial air
content could be increased; thus the effects of fly ash may be
tolerable and concrete with adequate air content may be produced.

Properties of Hardened Concrete

Charac~eristics of Air-Void, Systems--Linear traverse mea-


surements were performed in accordance with ASTM DesignatiQp:
C 457, Standard Practice for Microscopical Deter’minationof Air-
Void Content and Parameters of the Ai,r-Void System in Hardened
Concrete. Measurements were made on four Spec~men$ cast from
individual concrete mixtures (after initial m$xing~ 30, 60 and
90 min.) for each.concrete with fly ash ,and on both controls.
$lpecimens,were cast as described previously. Data shown in
Table 9 summarize complete linear traverse measurements for ,each
specimen. There are occasional discrepancies between correspond-
ing plastic and hardened air contents. It is believed that these
discrepancies are due to loss of air during molding, setting and
hardening rather than,testing precision.

Air contents of hardened concretes, presented in Table 10 and


shown in Figs. 12 and 13~ indicate that concretes c0Ptainin9 C,laSS
C fly ash retained air content better than concretes with Class F
fly ash. Further, concretes with Class F fly ash,experienced a
significantly higher variability of air content retention com~red
to concretes withClass C fly ash. Results also show that two,of
the six concretes made with Class F fly ash experienced a 50%
reduction in air content for specimens made 90 min. from start of
initial mixing. This air content reduction is less th,anoptimal
for concretes that are subjected to freezing and thawing environ-
ments if other air-void.parameters are also harmed.

11
Generally, spacing factors (~) of concretes containing Class
F fly ash are greater than those concretes with Class C fly ash.
As the spacing factor (~) increases, the potential for freeze-thaw
resistance decreases. For concrete with Class F fly ash, most
linear traverse measurements showed voids per inch (n), specific
surface (a), and spacing factor (17) within the guidelines set by
ACI 345(19), Recommended Practice for Highway Bridge Deck Con-
struction and ACI 201(20), Guide to Durable Concrete.

The higher the air-entraining admixture requirement, the more


the air loss on extended mixing when the higher requirement is
caused by higher organic matter contents in the fly ash. As
similarly observed in the plastic concretes, the data presented
in Tables 6 and 10 show that, as the air-entraining admixture
dosage increases for a cement-fly ash combination, the loss of air
increases. Statistically, these data indicate the above relation-
ship exists, but the confidence level is only —90%. The instabil-
ity in air content appears significant in cement-fly ash combina-
tions using Class F fly ashes.

Regression analyses were performed using chemical and physi-


cal properties of the fly ashes and air contents of hardened con-
crete to determine whether correlations existed between these
parameters. Specific gravity appeared to be the most significant
property of the fly ash that affected air contenks of the hardened
concrete. This fact relates to the influence of chemical composi-
tion of fly ash on specific gravity which will be brought out in
subsequent discussions.

The data presented in Tables 4 and 10 and Figs. 14 to 16


indicate that as specific gravity of the fly ash increases, the
retained air content of the hardened concrete increases. These
data indicate a significant correlation at the 95% confidence
level between specific gravity of fly ash and retention of air
content in hardened concrete. The mean correlation coefficient
for these regressions was 0.78. Generally, the Class C fly ashes
have higher specific gravities than the Class F fly ashes.

Additional analyses were conducted to determine those consti-


tuents of fly ash that affect its specific gravity. As the silica
(Si02), sum of the major oxides (silica, alumina, and iron),
alumina, carbon, and organic matter content increase, the specific
gravity of fly ash decreases. The data also show that as CaO
content of fly ash increases, the specific gravity of fly ash
increases. These data illustrate that high lime (Class C fly
ashes) and low carbon content fly ashes tend to be less vulnerable
to loss of air content as measured in hardened concrete.

Obviously, fly ashes that contain less carbon, other factors


being equal (such as occurrence of cenospheres in fly ash), should
have a higher specific gravity than a high carbon fly ash, since

12
carbon is considerably lighter than other constituents of fly ash.
Carbon has a specific gravity of approximately 2.0(21) whereas the
alumino-silica glassy phase of the fly ash has a specific gravity
of approximately 2.5(22). Therefore, it is not surprising that
fly ashes higher in carbon have lower specific gravities.

Test data presented in Tables 3 and 10 and Figs. 17 to 19


generally show that concretes containing Class C fly ashes and
those having less organic matter will be more stable with respect
to air content in hardened concrete. Mean correlation coefficient
for these data was 0.72. This indicates a significant correlation
at the 95% confidence level between organic matter content of fly
ash and retention of air content in hardened concrete. Further
research is suggested to identify those organic constituents in
fly ash, other than carbon, affecting air content and air-void
stability of concrete.

Finally, statistical analyses of data presented in Tables 3


and 10 and Figs. 20 to 22 disclosed that as the S03 content of
fly ash increases, the retained air content in hardened concrete
increases. These data indicate a significant correlation at the
98% confidence level between S03 content of fly ash and reten-
tion of air content in hardened concrete. The mean correlation
coefficient for these regressions was 0.76. Interpretation of
this relationship is somewhat unclear. At low levels (less than
1%) of S03 content, there is significant variation in air content
retention. However, higher levels of S03 (greater than 3%)
apparently reduce the air loss in hardened concrete. These facts
are unexplained. Further research into the relation of air con-
tent stability to S03 content of fly ash is suggested.

Results presented in Table 9 indicate a similarity between


the initial spread of measurements for specific surface (0!)of
concretes containing Class F fly ash and concretes with Class C
fly ash. However, measured range of specific surface (&!)values
for concretes cast at 90 min. were greater for concretes contain-
ing Class F fly ash than for concretes with Class C fly ash. This
observation also is reflected in the voids per inch (n) measure-
t. Results further indicate that spacing factor (Z), measured
ment
on specimens cast over a period of 90 min. was relatively constant
for the majority of the concretes containing fly ash.

Foam Index Test

“Foam Index” test results are presented in Table 11. Figure


23 shows the relationship between “Foam Index” and air-entraining
admixture requirement for concrete. There appears to be good cor-
relation between the “Foam Index” test and air-entraining admix-
ture requirement for concretes made with fly ash. The linear
relationship presented in Fig. 23 has a correlation coefficient
for tie regression of 0.93. These data indicate a significant
correlation at the 99% confidence level between the “Foam Index”
test and air-entraining admixture dosage.

13
Regression analyses were conducted to relate several chemical
properties of the fly ashes to the “Foam Index” to determine
whether correlations existed. Organic matter content was the most
significant chemical property of the fly ash that affects the
“Foam Index.” The data presented in Tables 3 and 11 and Fig. 24
indicate that as organic matter content of the fly ash increase,
the “Foam Index” increases. These data indicate a significant
correlation at the 99% confidence level between organic matter
content of fly ash and “Foam Index.”

Both total carbon content and loss on ignition of fly ashes


showed similar relationships. As total carbon or loss on ignition
increases, the “Foam Index” increases. Total carbon and loss on
ignition exhibited less correlation with “Foam Index”; the cor-
relation coefficients for these relationships were 0.74 and 0.64,
respectively. Although these correlation coefficients are some-
what low, there is a significant correlation at the 95% confidence
level between total carbon and loss on ignition of fly ash with
“Foam Index.”

Results indicated that as the total alkalies as Na20 of the


fly ash increase, the “Foam Index” decreases. This correlation
coefficient was somewhat lower than those just cited above (0.60).
A coefficient of 0.60 suggests that a significant correlation
exists only at the 90% confidence level between total alkalies in
fly ash and “Foam In~x.”

The “Foam Index” proposed by Dodson(15) and modified by


Meininger(16) can be an especially useful quality control test for
concrete producers checking the air-entraining admixture require-
ment for different sources or lots of fly ash. This test provides
a means to detect unexpected changes in fly ash composition which
can influence the air content of concrete.

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The following summary and recommendations are based in large


part on an arbitrary separation of the fly ashes used in this
study into ASTM C 618 Class F and Class C designations based on
10% CaO content as a dividing line. Therefore, there may be
exceptions to these gerieralclassifications which should be con-
sidered in applying these results.

These tests indicate that the majority of concretes contain-


ing fly ash produced relatively stable air-void systems (~,O!, n) .
However, the volume of air retained was affected by certain fly
ashes, while others satisfactorily retained the air content over
a period of 90 min. Generally, air contents of concretes contain-
ing Class C fly ash were more stable than those in concretes con-
taining Class F fly ash. This occurred primarily because Class C
fly ashes have lower organic matter content, carbon content and
loss on ignition values. Concretes with fly ash requiring high
dosages of air-entraining admixture generally exhibited poor air
content retention. Further, as the organic matter content of the
fly ash increases, the air content tends to become unstable.
These data indicate that organics in fly ash affect air-entraining
admixture requirement and subsequent air content stability.

Further work is in progress to evaluate resistance of con-


cretes cast immediately after mixing? and cast 30, 60 and 90 min.
after mixing to freezing and thawing. The objective of this work
is to determine whether spacing factor (~) constancy or final
total air content volume has a greater significance with respect
to resistance to freezing and thawing of concretes made with fly
ash.

The “Foam Index” test appears to be suitable as a screening


test to determine the air-entraining admixture requirement in
concrete using specific fly ashes and cements. The possibility
exists that the test may be useful in determining the stability
of the air-void system produced.

Most of the commercially available fly ashes tested did not


meet current ASTM or CSA physical and chemical standards and
exhibited significant loss in volume of air; howeverl other param-
eters of the air-void system were not unduly affected during mix-
ing and handling. One fly ash (designation E) met physical and
chemical standards but exhibited severe air loss during extended
mixing and handling. These findings show the inability of current
fly ash specifications to predict fly ash performance in concrete
with respect to air in the hardened concrete. This points up the
need for the specifications to include some performance tests.
Therefore, fly ash should not be used indiscriminately in con-
crete. Prior service record of the fly ash should be evaluated
or a battery of tests should be conducted.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank David A. Whiting, Senior


Research Engineer; David Stark, Principal Research Petrographer,
Concrete Materials Research Department; Richard Helmuth, Principal
Research Consultant and Stewart Tresouthick, Director, Chemical/
Physical Research Department for their advice in the planning and
execution of this research. Concretes were prepared and tested by
personnel of the Concrete Materials Research Department, Portland
Cement Association. The authors wish to thank Julie Dugo and the
Word Processing Department for editing and preparing the manu-
script. Appreciation also is expressed to representatives of
electric utilities and fly ash brokers who provided fly ash used
in this project.

15
REFERENCES

1. “Admixtures for Concrete,” ACI Committee 212, Concrete Inter-


national; Design and Construction, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 24-52,
1981.

2* Cement and Concrete Terminology, ACI Committee 116, Publica-


tion SP-19, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, MI, 1978.

3. Standard Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements, (ASTM


C 595-81a), 1981, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, part 14,
American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA,
1981, pp. 355-365.

4. Standard Specification for Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined


Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral Admixture in Portland
Cement Concrete, ASTM C 618-80, 1981, Annual Book of ASTM
Standards, Part 14, American Society for Testing and Mate-
rials, Philadelphia, PA, 1981, pp. 375-378.

5. Potential for Enerqy Conservation Through the Use of Slag


and Fly Ash in Concrete, United States Department of Energy,
Re~rt No. SAN-1699-T1, Washington, D.C., 369 pages.

6. Morrison, R. E., “Power Plant Ash: A New Mineral Resource,”


Proceedings of the South International Ash Utilization
Symposium, March 24-25, 1976.

7. Supplementary Cementing Materials and Their Use in Concrete


Construction, CSA Standard CAN3-A23.5-M82, Canadian Standards
Association, Rexdale, Ont., Canada, 1982.

8. Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete,


ASTM C 494-80, 1981 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 14,
American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA,
1981, pp. 313-323.

9. Larson, G., EffeCt of Substitutions of Flyash for Portions


of Cement in Air-Entrained Concrete, Highway Research Board,
Proceedings of the Thirty-Second Annual Meeting, 1953,
pp. 328-335.

10. Pasko, T., Larson, T., Some Statistical Analyses of the


Strength and Durability of Fly Ash Concrete, ASTM Proceedings
Vol. 62, 1962, pp. 1054-1067.

11 ● Perenchio, W. and Klieger, P., Further Laboratory Studies of


Portland-Pozzolan Cements, (RD041T) Portland Cement Associa-
tion, Skokie, IL, 1976.

12. Isenberger, K, Fly Ash Concrete - Compressive Strength and


Freeze-Thaw Durability, Iowa Department of Transportation,
Highway Division, Office of Materials, 1981.

16
13. Pavlovich, R., Fly Ash as a Partial Replacement for Portland
Cement for-Concrete and Soil Cement - Mixture Physical Prop-
erties, Wyoming Highway Department, 1979.

14. Larson, T., Air-Entrainment and Durability of Aspects of Fly-


Ash Concrete, ASTM Proceedings, Vol. 64, 1964, pp. 866-886.

15. Dodson, V.? “Foam Index Test,” presented at the Transporta-


tion Research Board, Washington, D.C., January 1980.

16. Meininger, R., “Use of Fly Ash in Concrete--Report of Recent


NSGA-NRMCA Research Laboratory Studies~” presented at NRMCA
Quality Control Conference, St. Louis, MO, July 1980.

17. ItsollTesting Methods~” University of Maryland Soil Testing


Laboratory, Agronomy Department, University of Maryland,
College Park, Maryland, pages 15 and 16, January 1975.

18. Greening, N., !tSomecauses for Variation in Required Amount


of Air-Entraining Agent in Portland Cement Mortars~” Journal
of the PCA Research and Development Laboratories, vol. 9,
No. 2, pp. 22-36, May 1967.

19. ACI Standard Recommended Practice for Highway Bridge Deck


Construction (ACI 345-74), American Concrete Institute?
Manual of Concrete Practice, Part II, Detroit, MI, 1982.

20. “Guide to Durable Concrete,” American Concrete Institute


Journal Proceedings, Vol. 74, No. 12, PP. 573-609, 1977.

21. Weast, R. and Selby, S., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics,


The Chemical Rubber company, Cleveland, Ohio, pp. 13-165,
1967.

22. Watt, J. and Thorne, D., “composition and Pozzolanic Proper-


ties of Pulverized Fuel Ashesf I: Composition of Fly Ashes
From Some British Power Station and Properties of their Com-
ponent Particles,” Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 15,
pp 585-594, 1965.

17
TABLE 1. Composition of Cements

Cement Lot Number


I tern
21833 21841

Chemical Properties
CaO, % 63.76 62.66
Si02, % 21.24 20.29

‘1203’ % 4.64 5.53


Fe O 2.74 1.97
23’%
MgO, % 2.35 2.47
2.55 3.31
’03’ %
Loss on ignition, % 1.63 1.22
Insoluble residue, % 0.23 0.26

‘a20’ % 0.25 0.25


0.66 1.27
‘2°’ %
Total alkalies
(as Na20), % 0.68 1.09
Water soluble alkalies
(as Na20), % 0.34 0.12
C3S, % 56 52
C2S, % 18 19
8 11
C3A’ %
C4AF, % 8 6
Physical Properties
Air content, % 8.9 NR(a)
Air permeability
i
fineness, m /kg 383 357
Autoclave expansion, % 0.03 NR(a)
Compressive
strength, psi (b)
3 days 3330 NR(a)
7 days 4320 NR(a)
28 days 5530 NR(a)
Time of setting
Vicat test
Initial set, h:m 1:58 NR(a)
Final set, h:m 2:30 NR(a)
a)Test not performed.
(b)To convert from pounds per square inch to
megapascals, multiply by 6.895 x 10-3.
TABLE2. Data on Aggregates

Fine Aggregate

Grading, cumulative % retained on sieve indicated


Specific 24-hour
Source Fineness gravity absorption,
No. 4 No. 8 No. 16 No. 30 No. 50 No. 100
s.s.d. % by weight
(4.75 m) (2.36 mm) (1.18 nrn) (600#m) (300urn) (150#m) ‘odu’us

Elgin, Ill. 2 16 31 55 84 97 2.85 2.65 1.70

Coarse Aggregate

Grading, % retained
8ulk
on sieve size indicated 24-hour
specific
Source absorption,
gravity
% by weight
s.s.d.

Eau
Claire, Wis. o 50 100 2.66 1.40
I I
!
TABLE3. Chemical Composition of Fly Ash(a)

Total Total
ivai1able MOis- ;lassifi-
Fly ash Si02+ ilkalies
‘ree Loss Total (e !lkalies ture :ation of
identi- Si02 Mgo CaO rganic(d) la20(e) Zo
“2°3 ‘e203 ‘3 on con- of fly
fication “ 2°3+ Iimt(b) :arbon(c) matter Na$(e) ,sNa20(f
[gnition tent
Fe203 ash(g)

(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

A 35.70 20.30 5.76 61.76 3.05 4.26 7.32 0.63 0.36 0.14 0.09 ;.5J 0.84 7.05 4.10 0.0: c
B !6.70 25.00 8.40 80.10 0.94 2.81 7.00 0.71 2.92 2.75 0.29 1.63 2.11 0.95 0.0: F
c 56.00 22.00 11.02 89.02 0.64 1.71 8.70 1.23 2.01 1.80 1.04 1:75 0.91 2.34 0.01 F
D 52.60 24.00 9.80 86.40 0.30 1.30 1.20 0.20 4.30 4.02 0.54 0.37 3.19 2.47 I:E 0.1[ F
E i7.70 23.40 86.54 :.:; 1.62 6.30 1.13 0.93 0.75 0.24 1.79 1.19 2.57 1.05 0.0( F
23.13 13.29 W 48.07 7.54 4.86 2.02 0.74 0.29 0.15 7.28 0.58 7.66 2.41 0.11
: 48.93 21.30 3.74 73.94 0:33 2.68 0.66 0.60 0.49 0.15 6.40 0.94 7.02 2.73 0.0[ :
H 51.40 24.50 13.86 89.76 0.87 0.95 R 0.86 1.83 1.20 0.21 0.49 2.24 1.96 0.31 0.0( F
31.10 17.00 5.60 53.70 4.77 3.79 9.00 ;.OJ 0.28 0.16 0.09 3.17 0.37 3.41 2.34 O.a c
: $6.10 20.10 16.96 83.16 1.36 1.33 5.10 . 4.86 4.19 0.62 0.53 2.23 2.00 0.65 O.1: F

ASTM 70 5.0 5.0 12.0 1.50 3.0 F


C61B min. max. max. max. Max. max,

ASTM 50 5.0 5.0 6.0 1.50 3.0 c


C618 min. max. max. max. max. max$

CSA CR43- 5.0 12.0 3.0 F


/i23.
5-M82 max.

CSA (JW3- 5.0 5.0 3.0 c


A23.5 M82 max. max. max

Al1 numerical values in percentages and tests conducted in accordance with ASTMC 311-77 unless otherwise
Franke free 1ime test method.
Calculated f ran the determination of C02 by Leco Furnace Method.
organics by University of Maryland method for evaluating soils using sodium bichromate and sulfuric acid.
Percent total alkalies calculated as follows - Na20 + 0.658 K20, tested in accordance with ASTM C114.
Tested in accordance with ASTM C311-77 Section 18.
Class of fly ash established based on total lime content, i.e., fly ashes containing at least 10% CaO are considered Class C f1y ashes ● those
containing less than 10% are considered Class F fly ashes.
TABLE 4. Physical Properties of Fly Ash

Pozzolanic
etained
Fineness activity
on later require- ~crease of Classi-
ir perme-
Fly ash 0. 325 index(c) ~ent (d,f ) fication
::::J9) Reduction of of
identification 45 pm) ability
Mortar
(a) Lsfnent(’) .ime (%) mortar fly ash
;ieve (m2/kg) expansion
(%) ,psi) expansion
(%) at 14 days
at 14 days
I

I A 11.24 418 89 ?355 0.01 2.67 c


B 31.56 427 82 715 1% 0.01 2.46 F
c 28.25 530 82 775 103 0.02 2.35 F
23.70 296 68 700 103 0.00 2.19 -0.01 F
23.51 634 81 870 98 0.01 2.32 -0.02 F
11.62 324 ?450 95 0.14 2.86 -0.01 c
38.45 318 :: 98 0.06 2.31 -0.01 c
22.32 241 70 :: 98 0.01 2.44 -0.01 F
14.63 90 1720 0.09 2.74 0.01 c
14.38 $: !Kl 920 1:; 0.02 2.51 -0.01 F

ASTM 34 75 800 105 0.8 0.03 0.020 F&C


C618 max. min. nin. max. max. max. max.

CSA C!W3- 34 ij13(l 0.8 0.03 60


I F&C
A23.5-M82 max. min. max. max. min.
I —
I
I
(a) Tested in accordance with ASTM C 311-77, Section 21.
Tested in accordance with ASTM C 204-79a.
stealin accordance with ASTM C 311-77, Sections.29 to 31, and 34.
[;\ ~ment lot No. 21833 used for nurtar test.
Calculated in accordance with ASTM C 311-77, Section 33.
Tested in accordance with ASTM C 311-77, Section 25.
Tested in accordance with ASTM C 311-77, Section 20.
Tested in accordance with ASTM C 311-77, Sections 22 to 24.
Tested in accordance with ASTM C 311-77, Section 35.
::ment lot No. 21841 and Pyrex Glass No. 7740 Cul let was used for alkali reactivity test.
“ denotes decrease in drying shrinkage.
May be increased to 75% minimum at 28 days.

to
TABLE5. Concrete
MixCharacteristics

Test mixtures ‘a’b)


AEA Water- Initial
Fly ash (ml/lb cement + S 1 ump plastic
fly ash concrete
in.) ‘e)
:emen;[tious ‘c ‘d) air
Claps ratio(c)
material) content
Identification of
(%)
“ly ash

A c 2.51 0.40 3.5 6.8


B F 4.14 0.42 3.5 6.5
c F 10.95 0.42 3.0 6.3
D F 4.73 0.45 4.0 6.7
E F 3.76 0.41 3.0 6.0
F c 3.43 0.40 3.5 6.2
G c 3.14 0.42 3.0 6.3
H F 3.37 0.44 3.25 6.0
I c 2.96 0.42 3.0 6.4
J F 8.61 0.43 3.0 5.9
—.—.

ontrol Mixtures

517 Wy(f) 1.98 0.43 3.25 6.4


474 Wy(g) 1.73 0.48 3.25 6.2

(a) Test mixtures contained 75% cement and 25% fly ash hy weiqht of
cementitious material, based on 517 pcy cemen~itious- cent&t
mixture, or 82% cement and 18% fly ash by weight of cementitious
material based on 474 pcy cementitious content mixture.
(b) Fine aggregate to coarse aggregate ratio of test mixtures was
42.5:57.5 based on 517 FCy cementiti,ous content mixture or
43.3:56.7 based on 474 pcy cementitious content mixture.
(c) Based on 517 pcy cementitious content mixture; also based on
initial water-cement + fly ash ratio tkfore retempering.
(d) To convert from millilitres per pound to millilitres per kilogram,
multiplyby 2.205.
(e) To convert from inches to millimetres, multiply by 25.4.
(f) Fine aggregate to coarse aggregate ratio was 42.5:57.5.
(9) Fine aggregate to coarse aggregate ratio was 43.3:56.7.

22
TABLE 6. Concrete Air-Entraining Admixture Requirement

4 * (
Percent air-entraining
admixture relative to
Fly ash control plastic concrete

Based on Based on
Identification Class of 517 pcy cement 474 pcy cement
fly ash content control content control

A c 126 145
B F 209 239
c F 553 633
D F 239 273
E F 190 217
F c 173 198
G c 158 182
H F 170 195
I c 149 171
F 434 498
L-___L_

TABLE 7. Plastic Concrete Air Content Versus Time

Initial Air content, %(a)


Fly ash Slump
mixture (b) Time at which sample made after
in. completion of initial mixing, min.

Identifi- :lass of
o(c)
cation ly ash 30 60 90

A c 4.0 7.2 6.0 6.0 5.8


B F 3.3 5.3 4.1 3.4 3.1
c F 3.3 7.0 4.7 3.8 2.9
D F 4.4 6.6 5.4 4.2 4.1
E F 3.7 5.6 4.6 4.3 3.8
c 3.9 6.8 6.5 6.3 6.4 I
F
G c 2.9 5.5 4.8 4.5 4.2
H F 3.2 7.6 6.9 6.5 6.6
I c 2.8 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.8
J F 3.0 5.5 4.2 3.8 3.4

Control Mixtures
517 pcy 4.0 6.6 6.0 5.6 5.3
474 pcy 3.4 5.2 4.6 4.4 4.2

(a) Slump was measured at these time intervals. The mixture


.
was retempered to keep slump within ~ l/2-in. of the initiai
slump measurement.
(b) To convert from inches to millimetres, multiply by 25.4.
(c) Air content taken with initial slump measurement.

23
TABLE 8. RetainedPlasticAir Content

Fly ash Percent air content retained (a)


mixture
Time after initial mixing
Class of
Identification fly ash 30 min. 60 min. 90 min.

A c 83 83 80
B F 77 64 58
c F 67 54 41
D F 82 64 62
E F 82 77 68
F c 96 93 94
G c 87 82 76
H F 91 86 87
I c 98 98 103
J F 76 69 61

I Control Mixtures
517 pcy 91 85 80
474 pcy 88 85 81

(a) Based on initial air content measurement.

24
TASLE 9. Characteristics of Air Content in Concretes(a)

Air-void parameters in hardened concretes


Time
Fly ash specimens
Air in Voids per Specific Spacing
mixture Oast after Air content
zompleti on of plastic hardened inch(b) surface factor
:denti- Class of of initial concrete 2@3 3 (c) (i)
concrete (n)
~ication fly ash mixing (%) (in. /in. )
(%)
(min.) (in.) ‘d)
I I

o 7.2 5.62 10.48 746 0.005


30 6.0 6.85 14.09 823 0.004
A c 60 6.0 4.54 7.18 633 0.007
90 5.8 4.10 9.97 973 0.005

0 5.3 3.58 7.00 782 0.007


30 4.1 3.58 7.04 786 0.007
B F 60 3.4 3.57 4.84 542 0.O1O
90 3.1 2.70 4.40 652 0.009
1 1

0 7.0 4.92 12.11 985 0.005


30 4.7 3.84 8.00 833 0.006
c F 60 3.8 1.30 4.48 1378 0.006
90 2.9 2.04 4.65 912 0.007

0 6.6 5.43 12.91 951 0.005


D F 30 5.4 4.17 11.06 1036 0.005
60 4.2 2.62 9.70 1481 0.004
90 4.1 2.33 9.02 1546 0.004
I I
0 5.6 5.90 12.70 861 0.005
30 4.6 4.19 10.40 993 0.005
E F 60 4.3 3.43 5.66 660 0.008
90 3.8 3.43 6.74 786 0.007
I

25
TASLE 9. Characteristics of Air Content in Concretes(a)

(continued)

Air-void parameters in hardened concretes


Time
Fly ash specimens
Air in Voids per Specific Spacing
mixture cast after Air content
completion of plastic hardened inch(b) surface factor
[denti- Class of of initial concrete (cd
concrete (n) (1)
Eication fly ash mixing (%) (in.2/in.3)(c)
(%)
(min.) (in.) ‘d)

o 6.8 5.59 13.08 936 0.004


30 6.5 5.33 12.98 974 0.004
60 6.3 6.11 10.94 716 0.005
90 6.4 6.86 12.60 735 0.004

0 5.5 4.85 9.99 824 0.006


30 4.8 3.56 8.35 938 0.006
G c 60 4.5 3.15 6.75 857 0.006
90 4.2 3.43 5.80 676 0.008

o 7.6 7.39 13.02 705 0.004


H F 30 6.9 7.25 12.12 669 0.005

k
60 6.5 5.80 11.98 826 0.005
90 6.6 6.70 13.78 823 0.004

o 6.6 5.96 10.61 712 0.00.5


30 6.5 6.46 13.34 826 0.004
I c 60 6.5 5.74 10.38 723 0.006
90 6.8 5.54 11.79 851 0.005
TA8LE 9. Characteristics of Air Content in Concretes(a)

(continued)

Air-void parameters in hardened concretes


Time
Fly ash specimens
Air in Voids per Specific Spat i ng
mixture cast after Air content
completion of plastic hardened inch(b) surface factor
Identi- Class of of initial concrete
concrete (n) 2@) 3 (c) (z)
fication fly ash mixing (%) (in. /in. )
(min.) (%) (in.) ‘d)

o 5.5 3.92 7.65 781 0.006


J F 30 4.2 3.30 6.84 829 0.007
60 3.8 2.84 7.20 1014 0.006
90 3.4 3.44 5.91 687 0.008

Control Mixtures

511 pcy o 6.6 4.91 7.74 630 0.007


30 6.0 4.98 7.55 606 0.007
60 5.6 5.69 8.97 630 0.006
90 5.3 5.68 7.38 520 0.008

474 ~y o 5.2 4.27 7.85 735 0.006


30 4.6 4.02 7.58 754 0.006
60 4.4 4.75 6.86 578 0.008
90 4.2 4.63 7.93 684 0.007

(a) Results are determined on 3/4x3x10-in. (19x76x254-mm) slab.


(b) To convert frcen voids per inch to voids per millimetre, multiply by 0.0394.
(c) To convert from square inch per cubic inch to square millimetre per cubic millimetre,
multiply by 0.0394.
(d) To convert from inches to millimetres, multiply by 25.4.

27
TABLE 10. Air Contents Retained in Hardened Concrete

Fly ash Percent air content retained (a)


mixture
Time after initial mixing
Class of
Identification fly ash 30 min. 60 min. 90 min.

A c 122 81 73
B F 100 100 75
c F 78 26 41
D F 79 48 43
E F 71 58
F c 95 109 1;;
G c 73 65 71
I-1 F 98 78 91
I c 108 96 93
J F 84 72 88

Control Mixtures
517 pcy 101 116 116
474 pcy 94 111 108

(a) Relative to air content measurement on hardened concrete


cast at time of initial mixing.

28
TABLE 11. Foam Index

Foam Index

Fly ash Air-entraining admixture dosage


mixture ‘a) ml Percent relative to control

A 0.09 100
B 0.12 133
c 0.33 367
D 0.19 211
E 0.19 211
F 0.10 111
G 0.15 167
H 0.13 144
I 0.11 122
J 0.24 267

ControlMixture
Control(b) 0.09 100

(a) 16 g of cement and 4 g of fly ash for all cement-fly


ash mixtures.
(b) 20 g of cement.

29
30
600 -

Correlation Coefficient = 0.96

500 –

400 -

300 -,

Legend

O CIOSS F Fly Ash


A Class C Fly Ash
200 -

A
&
I00 I
o 0.2 0.4 1.2

Organic Content in Fly Ash, Percent

Fig. 3 - Effect of organics in fly ash on air-entraining admixture dosage.

31
100 I

90
H

474 pcy Control


5 I7 pcy Conlrol

D
J
B

‘“\ ‘\ .

\ c
40

~
o 30 60 90

Minutes After Completion of Inillal Mixing


Fig. 4 - Air content retention in plastic concrete with
Class F fly ash versus time.

Closs C Fly Ashes

-I
/“
/-
-— -—-— -

--~-- —--—--— F

517 pcy Control

I I J
30 60 90

Minutes After Completion of Initial Mixing

Fig. 5 - Air content retention in plastic concrete with


Class C fly ash versus time.

32
110

I 00

90

80

70

60

50

Correlation
COeltlclent.O.79
40
1
L
1 I 1 I 1
o 600
100 200 300 400 500

Air- Entrolnlng Admixtur9 Requirement In Canwata,


P*rO*nt of 517 w ocment Control

Pig. 6 - Relationshipbetween air-entraini”q admixturedosage and r.te”tion


of air CO”tent i“ plastic concrete
30 minutes. at

100
tA
L?!?@
0 Class F Fly Ash
90 -
A Class C Fly Ash

80 -

70 -

00

60 -

50

Correlallon Coefficient .0.80


40
[

Alr - Entrafnlng Admlntura Requlrwnonl In Concrmte,


P*rc*nt of 517 pay C*m*nt Control
?iq. 7 - Rc],ati.anship between air-.ntraininqr.dmixt.r. do.... and Wt.ntio.
.af air c.=ntent in plastic concrete at 60 minutes.

110-

A
lea

90 -
.!4!2!
O Class
F Fly Ash
A CIOU C Fly Ash

80 -A
A

m -
0

0
60 -
0

m -

0
40 C0rr910t 10. Coefficient .0.83

~
1 I 1 I !
0 EOo 6CQ
100 200 300 400

Air - tilralning Admixtura Requif emwit In Concrate,


Pafcant of 317 pcy COm*nt Control

rig. 8 - Rel. ti.”.hip b.tw.en air-entrainingadmixturedosage and retention


of air content in plastic concrete at 90 minutes.

33
100 ~ Cmrelot,.n Crmfflcient.
0,63
t A

90 -
A
A
0
80 -
0

70 -

60 -

Legmd
50 - 0 Cl,lss
F FlyAsh
A ClassC FlyAsh

40
1 I ! 1 I J
0 02 04 0,6 0.8 I,0 1,2

‘O,q.nlc
Content1“Fly Ash, Percent
Fig. 9 - Relati.nehipbetween .rg?,nics in fly a.h and retention
of air content in pla.ti. concreteat 30 minute..

100

rAA
90 -

Legend
A
0 ClossF FlyAsh
80 - A CIOSSC FlyAsh
0

70 -

0 0

60 -

30 -
Correl.tio.
C.elflclenf
S0,07

T
~L.————J 1 I 1 1
0 0.2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1.2

Orq..icContentinFly Ash, Percent

Fig. 10’- Relation.hip between organic. in fly ash and retention


of air .onte.t in Pi..ti. c..oret. at 60 . .......

110

A
103

90

Leqe.d
80 A
A 0 ClassF FlyAsh
A Cl.,,C FlyAsh
70
0

60
0

50

40 CorrdolionCOatficlent
.0,08

1 1 1 [ 1 I
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0.6 I ,0 I ,2

Organic Content 1“ Fly Ash, Percent

Fig. 11 - RelatiO.ahiPbetween organic. i“ fly ash .I16retention


of air content in plastic ..nc.ete at 90 minute..
I20 Class F Fly Ashes

——517PCY
Control
,<..,.,..
110
‘“’ . . . . . 474pcy
... Control
..’
I 00 ——.. — .
.“
\

90 ‘h\
‘\/ :

BO \, ‘\ /
v
B
‘b \,\
%
,1
70
\
‘;~
60
+---.— E

\
,, \
50 \
$ L
‘-%
-+ o

40 \ ,.. c
‘!
,/

3@ ‘\,”/”

20

~.
o

Minutes After Compktion of Initial Mixing

Fig. 12 - A+r contents retained in harde?ned concrete


w,th Class F fly ash versus t,me.

130 Class C Fly Ashes

F
I 20
517 pcy
Cent rol

I 10 474 PCy
Control

IOQ

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20
;
I I I
o 30 60 90

Minutes Atter Completion of Initia} Mlxlmj

Fig. 13 - Air content. retained in hardened concrete


w,th class C fly ash versus tnne.
140

Correlation CO*lticlents 0,75


I 20 c)

A
100
0“

Lw!!!
40 O Class F Fly Ash
A Claua C Fly Ash

20

0 1 I 1 1 I
2, 2.20 2.40 2,60 2.00 3,00

Specific Grovlty 01 Fly Ash

Fig. 14 - Relationship between specific gravity of fly a.h at-dretained


air .c,”tenti. hardened concrete cast at 30 minutes.

140

Correlall.an Coal f iclant. 0.78

I 20

Iw o

80 0

A
60

o
40
.Q@
O Cba,s F Fly Ash
o A Clots C Fly A$h
20

0
2.( 2.20 2,40 2.60 2,20 3SQ
SP#dflC Grovity of Fly Ash

Fi’3.15 - Relationship between specific gravity of fly ash and retained


air c.ntent in hardened concrete cast at 60 minutes.

140-

COrdOllOn
COWlclenl. 0.82
120 - A

100

0
0

80 -

60 -

Legend
40 - 0 Class F Fly Ash
A CIOSS C Fly Ash

20

t
I I 1 I 1 I
:.00 2.20 2,40 2.60 2,80 3.00
SP4CIIIC
G<a”lty
ofFly Ash
Fiy. 16 - Relationshipbetween Ep3.ific gravity Of fly .eh and retained
air CO”tent i“ hardened co”.rete east ., 90 minute,,
Legend

O Class F Fly Ash


A Class C fly Ash

;
&
o~2
Organic Co”tM InFly Ash, Percent

Fig. 17 - Relationshipbetween organic. in fly ash and retained


air content in hardened .on.rete cast at 30 minute..

I40

1?,0 LOgend
0 class F fly Ash
A A Class C Fly Ash

!00 0
A

80 A

> \ 0
i
60
‘o\

40

:
20 Coffelofion COefllciant. O.82

1 1 1 I I I
0 0.2 0.4 0,6 0.6 I,0 1.2
O,qanic
Cont..*
1.Fly ASII, Pe,cent

?ig. 18 - R.lIItlOII.hip organic. i“ fly ..h and retained


b.tween
air c.a”tantin hacclen.d.oncr.te cast 60 minutes. at

140

I 20
A Legend
0 Clm% F Fly Ash
A Clou C fly Ash

100
A
0

80

‘A

60
0

0
40

20 Cor,elollo” coefficle”t=O.65

I 1 1 ! I I
o 0,2 0.4 0,6 0.8 I ,0 1.2

Organic Content in Fly Ash, Percent

rig. 19 - R.lati.n.
hip betwe.” Organic. i. fly ..h and r.tainti
air content in hard.nti concrete.a.t at 90 mi”ut.a.

37
140

A
I 20

100
8
b

I
0
eo 00
0

60 f
Mw!J!2
0 Class
F Fly A,h
40 - b Class C Fly Ash

20 - C.arrdl.d!m
C.WlciOnl,
0,76

I 1 I k I
o 2,0 4.0 6,0 8.0 loo
S03 In Fly &sh, F’wc.”1

Fig. 20 - RelationshipbeLwee. S03 I. fly ash and retained


air content in hardened co.cret. ..6L at 30 minute..

140

Correlation Coefllclent. 073


I 20

100 0

80
0

A
60

Legend

O Class F Fly Ash


40 A Class C Fly Ash

0
20

1 1 1 I I
0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

S03 In Fly Ash, Percent

Fig. 21 - R.lati.n.
hip I,t,
kw.en S03 i. fly ash and retazne’1
air content in hardened concrete cast at 60 min.L$s.

120 A

100-
0
0
eo -
0
A

L8q0”d

0 class F Fly Ash


40 -o 0 A Class C Fly Ash

20 Correlotlo”
CO*lflclenl .0,79

1
, 1 1 t 1
0 4,0 6,0 6,0 10.0
SO,i“Fly Ash, P@rca”t

Fig.22 - Rel. tion.hiP between S.j 1. fly ash ml retained


air .o”tent i. hardened ..ncreta .ast at 90 minutes,
600

0 /
Correlation Coefficient = 0.93

0 Legend

A 0( Class F Fly Ash


A ClawC Fly Ash

1 I I
) 200 300 400

Foam Index, Percent of Control

Fig. 23 - Relationship between Foam Index and concrete


air-entraining admixture doaaga.

39
400

Correlation Caefficient=O.94 o

300

0 Legend
200
O Class F Fly Ash
A Class C Fly Ash
A

A
100 I
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 I .0 I .2

Organics in Fly Ash, Percent

Fig. 24 - Relationship between organics in fly ash and Foam Jndex.

,------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ----- I
i I
I KEYWORDS: admixtures, air content, airentrahinga dmixtures,a irentrain- I
I I
I ment, concrete, fly ash, Foam Index, fresh concretes, hardened concretes, mineral I
I admixtures, pozzolans. I
I I
ABSTRACT Concretes containing bothportland cement and flyashwereevalu- ~
atedtodetermine theeffect of flyashon air-void stability. Tests indicate that air I
contents of concrete containing Class C fly ash appear to be more stable than those I
I
ofconcrete containing ClzNs Ffly ash. Thehigher theorganic matter content ofa I
flyash, thehigher will betheair*ntraining admixture requirement forconcretein j
which the admixture is used. The higher the air-entraining admixture requirement, I
I
thegreater istheair loss unextended mixing. Even though theairvolumeisre-
ducedthe spacing factor, specific surface, andnumber ofvoids arelittle affected. :,
The “Foam Index” test was conducted and found to be a satisfactory method for ~
checking air-entraining admixture requirements. I
I
REFERENCE: Gebler, S. H., and Klieger, P., Effect of Fly Ash on the Air- Void 1
Stability of Concrete (RD085.OIT), Portland Cement Association, 1983. Preprint I
of Proceedings, presented at the First International Conference on The Use of Fly ~
Ash, Silica Fume, Slag and Other Mineral By-Products in Concrete, Montebello, :
Quebec, Canada, July-August 1983 (American Concrete Institute publication ,
i SP-79). I
I I
I
------- ------ ------ ------- ------ ------- ------- ------- --------

PCA R/D Ser.


No. 1705

40
This publicati n ;S based on the facts, tests, and authorities stated herein. It is
intended for th$! use of professional personnel competent to evaluate the signifi-
cance and limitations of the reported findings and who will accept responsibility
for the application of the material it contains. The Portland Cement Association
disclaims any and all responsibility for application of the stated principles or for
the accuracy of any of the sources other than work performed or information
developed by the Association.

An organization of cement manufacturers


PORTLAND CEMENT
to improve
ml I I ASSOCIATION
and extend the uses of portlmcd cement and concrete through scientific research, engineering field work, ●nd market development,

Printed in U.S.A.
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