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Universitatea ‘‘Dunărea de Jos din Galați,,

Facultatea de Litere
Specializarea: Traducere și Interpretariat

DISERTAȚIE

Aspects Concerning food terminology

Coordonator:
Conf.univ.dr. Gabriela Dima

Absolvent:
Bănică Luminița-Adriana

Galați
2019

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Aspects Concerning food terminology

Contents

Argument..............................................................................................................................................3
Chapter 1.............................................................................................................................................. 4
1.1 Some remarks Concerning the Vocabulary of English Language............................................4
1.2 A background of english vocabulary..........................................................................................9
1.3 The Structure of English Vocabulary .Food Term Sets............................................................ 11
Chapter 2. Origins and nature of Some Mediterranean Food Terms in English.............................. 14
Chapter 3. Translating Mediterranean Food Terms from English to Romanian................................ 21
3.1 Corpus presentation and Analysis............................................................................................ 23
3.1.1 Pasta.......................................................................................................................................23
3.1.2 Cheese................................................................................................................................... 27
3.1.3 Fresh Cheese..........................................................................................................................28
3.1.4 Hard cheese........................................................................................................................... 30
3.1.5 Blue Cheese...........................................................................................................................33
3.1.6 Semi-Soft Cheese.................................................................................................................. 34
3.1.7Herbs...................................................................................................................................... 35
3.1.8 Fine Herbs............................................................................................................................. 35
3.1.9 Bitter Herbs........................................................................................................................... 40
3.1.10 Aromatic herbs.................................................................................................................... 44
Conclusions........................................................................................................................................48
Bibliography.......................................................................................................................................50

Argument
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Translation builds up a bridge for people from different cultures for the reason
that the activity of translation itself is the communication of culture. Translation
is no longer considered as merely an inter-lingual activity at the level of
language, it is more of an act of cross-cultural communication. 
The translation of the food terms is a way to enrich the vocabulary,to
develop your skills to know the tradition,to develop attention because when it
comes to food,you need to improvise because the terms are specific to one
region and the translation can cause problems,so what I try to do is to research
the specific area, to know all the specific dishes and then I try to give a correct
translation of the terms.
I choose this theme of my dissertation paper because I think is a interesting
one,the terminology is great reffering to food.
Secondly,I choose this title because is gives me

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Chapter 1.
1.1 Some remarks Concerning the Vocabulary of English
Language

English is one of the most important languages of the world and today it is
being spoken almost in every part of the world. It is the native language of
America, Britain, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and Ireland. Currently, nearly
two billion people around the world understand it.
It is also an official language of India, the Philippines, Singapore, and many
countries in Africa, including South Africa. English is the first choice of foreign
language in most other countries of the world, and it is that status that has
given it the position of a global lingua franca. It is estimated that about a third of
the world’s population, some two billion persons, now use English.
(https://www.britannica.com/topic/lingua-franca)
English belongs to the Indo-European family of languages and is therefore related to most other
languages spoken in Europe and western Asia from Iceland to India. The parent tongue, called
Proto-Indo-European, was spoken about 5,000 years ago by nomads believed to have roamed the
southeast European plains. Germanic, one of the language groups descended from this ancestral
speech, is usually divided by scholars into three regional groups: East (Burgundian, Vandal, and
Gothic, all extinct), North (Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish), and West
(German, Dutch and Flemish], Frisian, and English).
When speakers imitate a word from a foreign language, they are said to borrow it, and their
imitation is called a borrowing or loanword. The history of a loanword may be quite complex
because words have often passed through a series of languages before reaching English. For
example, chess was borrowed in the fourteenth century from Middle French esches. The French
word had been, in turn, borrowed from Medieval Latin, which got it from Arabic, which had
borrowed it from Persian shāh ‘king.’ The direct or immediate source of chess is Middle French, but
its ultimate source is Persian. Similarly, the etymon of chess, that is, the word from which it has
been derived, is immediately esches but ultimately shāh.. Loanwords have, as it were, a life of their
own that cuts across the boundaries between languages. ( John Algeo,The Origins and Development
of the English Language,Cengage Learning,Inc 1964p:276)
Borrowings play a very important role in the formation of a language because the number
of words in English that are borrowed directly from German is quite significant,
It is more to the purpose to remember that there are, nevertheless, a
considerable number of German words that were borrowed from French.

4
Examples of such words are brawn, dance, gay, guard, which would hardly be
at once suspected.
The influence of French upon English is too well known to require comment. But the method of the
derivation of French words from Latin or German is often very difficult, and requires the greatest
care.
Geert Booij notes that one criterion for distinguishing derivation and inflection "is that
derivation may feed inflection, but not vice versa’’. Derivation applies to the stem-forms of words,
without their inflectional endings, and creates new, more complex stems to which inflectional rules
can be applied" (Bojji Geert,Models of Inflections,1998 p:11-12 ).
On the other hand inflection represent a process of word formation in which
items are added to the base form of a word to express grammatical meanings.
The word inflection comes from the Latin  inflectere, meaning to bend..
(https://www.thoughtco.com/inflection-grammar-term-1691168 )
Derivational changes that takes place without the addition of a bound morpheme (such as the
use of the noun impact as a verb) is called zero derivation or conversion.
To give a more precise definition of what the zero derivation means, a kind of
word formation specifically, it is the creation of a word from an existing word
without any change in form.
Often a word of one lexical category (part of speech) is converted from a word of another lexical
category; for example, the noun green in golf is derived ultimately from the adjective green.
Conversions from adjectives to nouns and vice versa are both very common and unnotable in
English.
In the formation of a language, borrowings are the key of enrichment of the cultural contact
between two language communities. Borrowing of words can go in both directions between the two
languages in contact, but often there is an asymmetry, such that more words go from one side to the
other .

I have found a list of borrowings words that helped English vocabulary to be more colourfull such
as:
• From Italian: balcony, canto, duet, granite, opera, piano, umbrella, volcano; from
•Fram Spanish: alligator, cargo, contraband, cork, hammock, mosquito, sherry, stampede, tornado,
vanilla;
•From Greek directly or indirectly : acme, acrobat, anthology, barometer, catarrh, catastrophe,
chronology, elastic, magic, tactics, tantalize, and a host of others; Russian,: steppe, vodka, ruble,
troika, glasnost, perestroika;

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•From Persian: jasmine, paradise, check, chess, lemon, lilac, turban, borax, and possibly spinach.
( Baugh Albert and Cable Thomas ,A history of English Language,Routledge,1959)

To a lesser extent the English vocabulary contains borrowings from many other languages.
Instead of making new words chiefly by the combination of existing elements, as German does,
English has shown a marked tendency to go outside its own linguistic resources and borrow from
other languages. In the course of centuries of this practice English has built up an unusual capacity
for assimilating outside elements.
On the another hand Latin has played an important role in the formation of
English beacause, the connection, is primarily lexical in nature, being confined
mainly to words derived from Latin roots. Most words in the English language
are based on words from ancient Greek and Latin. The root of the word vocabulary, for example, is
voc, a Latin root meaning word or name.
Root words are also useful for creating new words, especially in technology
and medicine, where new innovations occur frequently. Thinking of the Greek
root word tele, which means far and inventions that traverse long distances,
such as the telegraph, telephone, and television. The word technology itself is
a combination of two other Greek root words, techne, meaning skill or art,
and logos, or study.
The increases to English from Greek and Latin entered English amid or after the Renaissance.
Not as it were were words borrowed in extraordinary numbers specifically from the pages of Greek
and Roman creators, but endless unused words were moreover coined, by combining components
from the classical dialects. In truth, the hone of utilizing Greek and Latin as the premise for unused
logical terms is one that still proceeds .T
As we can see the modern European languages, especially those of France, with its leadership in
cooking and fashion, and Italy, with its preeminence in the arts, have continued to supply us with a
store of words. From the Near East, Persian (Farsi), for instance, has given to English such common
terms as check, divan, pajamas, and tiger. Arabic has supplied cotton, admiral, syrup, etc. In the
Middle Ages, Arabian science was considerably in advance of the European; a number of our early
scientific terms consequently came to use from the East. Many of these, algebra,alcohol, and for
example, can be recognized from the fact that they begin with al-, the Arabic definite article. From
the languages of India, long ruled by the British, have come punch, bungalow, loot, thug, and
dungaree..
The Far East has produced fewer loan words, yet the Chinese has given tea,
typhoon, and catsup, while Japan has supplied tycoon and kimono. From

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Malayan have come bamboo” and “bantam”. The islands of the Pacific have
given us “tattoo”, “taboo”, and “hula”.
The borrowings by English in the New World remind us of the different cultures
with which the colonists and pioneers came in contact. English has absorbed
words from American Indian languages, such as caucus, raccoon, hickory, and
skunk. Some words came from the French in America; prairie and butter testify
to the extensive early French exploration. .
The Dutch colonists in New York added boss, cookie, stoop and scow. Later,
from the Spanish-speaking culture of the Southwest English acquired words like
“ranch”, “canyon”, “stampede”, and “mustang”. . In the 19th century,
immigrants from various countries added some of their native stock words,
such as pretzel, hamburger, and delicatessen from the German.
(https://www2.gracenotes.info/topics/english.pdf )
During the Stone and early Bronze Ages, the British Isles were inhabited by a non-
IndoEuropean race, about which next to nothing is known. Around 1000 BC, however, the Celts
began to arrive in Britain and to conquer the prehistoric inhabitants, eventually completely wiping
out their language. Thus, for some centuries, the languages of the British Isles were of the Celtic
group, and a few of their descendants, Welsh and Irish, for instance, are spoken today. In the first
century the Romans began the conquest of Britain, and for the next several hundred years were in
control of most of it. Romanization was proceeding on the island in much the same fashion as on
the Continent, when the Roman occupation was cut short by the withdrawal of the legions, which
were sent to buttress the tottering Roman Empire against the onslaughts of the eastern barbarians.
The Celtic leaders sought the aid of certain Germanic peoples living on the Continent to help
them in their struggle. The Germans, however, found the island so much to their liking that they
decided to remain, and in fact they conquered for themselves most of what is now England. These
Teutonic tribes were known as the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes; their language is called Anglo-Saxon,
and it became the basis of modern English (https://www2.gracenotes.info/topics/english.pdf )
The existence of English Language as a separate idiom began when Germanic tribes has
occupied all the lowlands of Great Britain and when accordinaly tro the invasions from the
continent were discontinued so that the settler in their new hommes were cut off from that steady
intercourse with their continental relations which is an imperative condition of linguistic unity.
The dialects spoken by the settlers in England belonged to the great Germanic ( or Teutonic)
branch of the most important of all linguistic families , termed by many philologists the ‘ Indo
-European ( or Indo Germanic) . ( Jepperson ,Growth and Structure of the English
Language,1905,p: 18)

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In what follows I will present some aspects concerning the evolution of the English Language from
Old English Period to Modern English Period,trying to describe the events that took place and what
repercussions they had concerning the evolution of vocabulary of English Langauge,The sources
that I have consulted are :
(Jepperson ,Growth and Structure of the English Language,1905,p:162)
(Deutschmann Mats, A (very) Brief History of English,2014,p:10)
(https://www.thehistoryofenglish.com/history_old.html)

Old English Period (450 to 1150)


One the Anglo-Saxons were in Britain, contact with the earlier inhabitants brought some Celtic
words, mostly place names like Kent and London into Old English. Then, too, some words from
Latin and Greek, such as altar, candle, and priest, were introduced during this period by Christian
missionaries sent from Rome. Beginning in the 8th century, England was subjected to repeated
invasions by Danish marauders, many of whom settled in the areas of Britain which they had
conquered. Despite the valiant efforts of English leaders, like King Alfred the Great, the invaders
could not be dislodged, but continued to live side by side with the Anglo-Saxons. The Danes were
eventually assimilated, and their language has likewise left its mark upon English.

Middle English Period (1150 to 1500)


The greatest event in the shaping of the English language, however, was the Norman Conquest.
in 1066, William of Normandy defeated King Harold at the Battle of Hastings and became rule of
England. The Anglo-Saxon nobles were replaced by a French-speaking aristocracy who regarded
themselves as primarily Frenchmen, and who looked upon England as an occupied territory.
Norman-French became the official language of the country, the language of law courts, the
schools, and the army. The such a situation, the speech of the conquerors was bound to exert an
influence upon English. Yet English remained as the language of the masses and kept it basically
Teutonic structure. For a time, Norman-French, spoken by the nobles, and English, spoken by the
lower classes, existed side by side in the conquered land, without affecting each other as much as is
often supposed. Around 1200, the Norman rulers of England lost many of their holdings on the
Continent, including Normandy, and they henceforth began to regard themselves as Englishmen
rather than as Frenchmen.
By 1500, English has reasserted itself, but is was an English far different from the language of the
Angles and Saxons. In the preceding three centuries many Frenchspeaking aristocrats, as they
learned English, had automatically introduced many French words into their speech when the could
not remember the new language, of when the English synonym had been forgotten through disuse.
Many who spoke
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English as a native language had learned French, not at this time the Norman-French of their early
conquerors, but Parisian French, which had become the cultural and commercial language of
Europe. Since French was more polished than their own language, which had declined somewhat in
the centuries when it was use mainly by the uneducated classes, they naturally borrowed French
words to make up deficiencies in their native tongue. Often both the French word and its English
equivalent were kept, sometimes with varying shades of meaning, and this has tended to make
English vocabulary rich and varied. Thus we have both begin, which is native English, and
commence, which is of French origin, as well as the following examples: sin and crime, wretched
and miserable, shun and avoid .

Modern English Period (1500 to present)


By 1500, a new force had begun to exert itself on the English language, this time the result of
an intellectual movement rather than of a military conquest. The movement was the Renaissance or
Revival of Learning, which was marked by the rapid advance of the sciences, a renewal of interest
in the Greek and Roman classics, the rise of nationalism, and by such events as the Protestant
Reformation, the invention of the printing press, and the discovery of the New World. The growth
of national consciousness brought with it a desire on the part of Englishmen and Frenchmen and
Italians and others to write books in their native tongues rather than in Latin, which had been the
universal language of learned men throughout the Middle Ages. Many English writers, however,
felt that their own language was still not sufficiently developed to meet the demands of the new
learning; therefore, to remedy what they considered deficiencies in vocabulary, they borrowed
wholesale from Latin, which most of them knew almost as well as English. Further, the revival of
interest in the ancient classics brought with it a flood of new ideas, especially from Greece; and
when a new concept is imported from another culture, there is a strong tendency to import the word
that denotes the concept as well.

In this chapter I try to develop and to explain the evolutiuon of English vocabulary, borrwowings
,the hiscorical changes that took place and had an ,major impact over the language, managing to
change it and transform it into a complex language with strong roots.

1.2 A background of english vocabulary

The Etymologist Walter W. Skeat succeded to express and to highlight


the relationship between English and other languages, condescending all the

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information about the origin of English language in his dictionary Etimological
Dictionary of English Language.

As the etymolohyst has affirmed “It would be tedious to mention the numerous
other books which help to throw such light on the history of words as is
necessary for the right investigation of their etymology. The great defect of
most of them is that they do not carry back that history far enough, and are
very weak in the highly important Middle-English period.” (Walter.W.
Skeat,Etimological Dictionary of English Language,Oxforn University Press ,1910 p:6 )

English has an extraordinarily large vocabulary, much larger than that of many other languages,
because of its extensive contacts with other languages, because of the large numbers of people all
over the world who have come to use it, and because of the increasingly manifold purposes for
which it is used.( Algeo,The origin and development of the English Language,2009,p: 206 )
Grammatical gender is not a matter of vocabulary only; it also has an effect on grammar through
what is called concord. Old English had an elaborate system of inflection for nouns, adjectives, and
verbs; and words that went closely together had to agree in certain respects, as signaled by their
inflectional endings.
If a noun was singular or plural, adjectives modifying it had to be singular or plural as well; and
similarly, if a noun was masculine or feminine, adjectives modifying it had to be in masculine or
feminine forms also.
The major difference between the grammars of Old English and Modern English is that language
has become less inflective and more isolating. Old English used more grammatical endings on
words and so was less dependent on word order and function words than Modern English.
The lexis or vocabulary of a language is its least systematic aspect. Grammar is sometimes
defined as everything in a language that can be stated in general rules, and lexis as everything that is
unpredictable. But that is not quite true. Certain combinations of words, called collocations are
more or less predictable.
Collocation refers to a group of two or more words that usually go together. A good way to think of
collocation is to look at the word collocation. Co - meaning together - location - meaning place. (
https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-collocation-1211244)

For example mild and gentle are words of very similar meaning, but they go with different nouns:
“mild weather” and “gentle breeze” are somewhat more likely than the opposite combinations
(“mild breeze” and “gentle weather”). ( Algeo,The origin and development of the English
Language,2009,p: 3 )

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The Scandinavian influence certainly began during the Old English period, although it is not
apparent until later. Yet, despite these foreign influences, the word stock of Old English was far
more thoroughly Germanic than is our present-day vocabulary. Many Old English words of
Germanic origin were identical, or at least highly similar, in both form and meaning to the
corresponding Modern English wordsfor example, god, gold, hand, helm, land, oft, under, winter,
and word.
Old English had an elaborate system of inflection for nouns, adjectives, and verbs; and words
that went closely together had to agree in certain respects, as signaled by their inflectional endings.
If a noun was singular or plural, adjectives modifying it had to be singular or plural as well; and
similarly, if a noun was masculine or feminine, adjectives modifying it had to be in masculine or
feminine forms also. The major difference between the grammars of Old English and Modern
English is that our language has become less inflective and more isolating. Old English used more
grammatical endings on words and so was less dependent on word order and function words than
Modern English. These matters are discussed generally in and are further illustrated below for Old
English.
For example, sandwich is often pronounced, not as the spelling suggests, but in ways that might
be represented as sanwich, sanwidge, samwidge, or even sammidge.
Such spellings look illiterate, but they represent perfectly normal, though informal, pronunciations
that result from the position of a sound within the word. When nearby elements thus influence one
another within the flow of speech, the result is called syntagmatic change. Second, words and
sounds may be affected by others that are not immediately present but with which they are
associated.

What I tried to prove is that English vocabulary is complex with difficulties in spelling and writing
that the changes that happened succeded to make it even more special and complex .

1.3 The Structure of English Vocabulary .Food Term Sets.

According to Leisi, contemporary English is a unique mixture of Germanic and Romanceelements


and this mixing has resulted in the international character of the vocabular.It is certainly true that all
languages are mixtures to a greater or lesser extent. Comparing English to German and French,
however, comes to the conclusion that the present-day English vocabulary is unique in this respect.
(Lipka Leophard,An outline of Engish Lexicology,1992,p:8)
Even if the vocabulary is unique,we have to recognised that Enlish is in continuing change
so the globalization has as a major effect in interconnection between different

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fields of specialization such as politics, culture,food ,as a result of this, English,
as the world language, has borrowed a large number of words from foreign
languages like French, German, Italian, Russian, Chinese Japanese, Greek,
Spanish, Arabian, etc. According to surveys, the percentage of modern English
words derived from each language is 29% from French, 29% from Latin, 26%
from German, and 6% from Greek, the rest accounting for 6% as a recent study
has shown.(http://www.davidpublisher.org/Public/uploads/Contribute/56f2519a651eb.pdf )

A great number of words of French origin have entered the English language to
the extent that many Latin words have come to the English language.
According to sources, 45% of all English words have a French origin. (
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_words_of_French_origin)

Exemple:feast,appetite,tart,perch,sturgeon,sardine,beef,veal,mutton,bacon,,to
ast,cream,sugar,salad,raisin,jelly,spice,clove, beef,caramel,casserole,
cassoulet,clafoutis, confit, cream, croissant, custard, filet
mignon,fillet,flognarde,fondant,fondue, gateau, gratin,marmalade,
mayonnaise,meringue,mille-feuille,mustard,mutton,navarin, pastry, petit four,
pork, ragout, roux, salad, sauce,sausage,stew, terrine,trifle,veal.

Italian Origin

Example: pizza , ,pasta ,tempo ,macaroni , macchiato , solo, espresso, zucchini


.

Greek and Latin Origin

Most of the loan words from Latin and Greek are special and science terms. For
example, abducens nerve, candida, animation, millennium, decapitation,
manicure, exvivo, realia from Latin, gyro, ultrasaurus, television, bouzouki,
olive from Greek, etc. One popular word needs mentioning is Mega. It was used
as a morpheme from the 80s of 20th century meaning extra large and become
productive, for example, mega house, megasuperstar, megavitamin,
megawatt, megavolt, megaton, megastore, megatechnology.

Spanish Origin

Example : banana barbecue, bonanza,chocolate,cocoa,vanilla .


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Arabic Origin English loan words have been borrowed directly from Arabic or
indirectly by passing from Arabic into other languages and later into English.

The Arab influence was to have a considerable impact on the history of food in
the Mediterranean. Unlike the Romans, who could be said to have fixed
agricultural production, the Arabs introduced new products and new farming
methods. This innovation underlies the spread of the agronomic sciences in the
region.

For example the mediterranen fruit lemon which may come from Arabic līmūn
(a collective term for citrus fruits), and Old French limon (which means "lime"
in modern French), although similar words occur in Persian and Sanskrit,
making the origin uncertain. (http://mentalfloss.com/article/57738/14-common-food-and-drink-words-
arabic-origins)

Also, regarding fruits that have arab origins is orange because as I found in The American Heritage
Dictionary the Arabs brought oranges to Spain and Sicily between the 8 th and 10th centuries and
from there the fruit spread to the rest of Europe. Italian adopted the Arabic word as arancio. French
altered the first vowel to o-, perhaps influenced by the place name Orange and also by the Old
French word or, "gold," in reference to the color. ( The American Heritage Dictionary ,1969,p:942)

Another examples are : artichoke, ,zenith , doner, kebab ,hashish, minaret ,


salaam, sirocco.

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Chapter 2. Origins and nature of Some Mediterranean Food Terms in English

When I think about mediterranean food, first of all,I think about


pasta,which is not only Mediterranean but also international because it is used
nowdays in many countries and it absolutely delicious.

Pasta is one of the world’s most accessible foods. While pasta is


traditionally Italian, it actually has a very ancient history that makes it almost
impossible to know who came up with the dish first.

The history of pasta is difficult to trace for several reasons. The word itself
translates to “paste” in Italian. This is a reference to the dough, made from a
combination of flour and water or eggs – all simple components that have been
around for centuries. This makes it hard to differentiate pasta from other
ancient dishes made from the same ingredients. In addition, since pasta has
long been a food of the common people, it has not received as much attention
as more extravagant foods.

When we talk about pasta, we must first define the term. The word pasta is
generally used to describe traditional Italian noodles, which differentiates it
from other types of noodles around the world. (http://www.pbs.org/food/the-
history-kitchen/uncover-the-history-of-pasta/)

Pasta is made from unleavened dough consisting of ground durum wheat and
water or eggs. The use of durum wheat sets pasta apart from other forms of
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noodles. Durum wheat’s high gluten content and low moisture make it perfectly
suited to pasta production. The durum wheat dough is pressed into sheets, cut
into a variety of shapes, and cooked before serving.

While we think of pasta as a culturally Italian food, it is likely the descendent


of ancient Asian noodles. A common belief about pasta is that it was brought to
Italy from China by Marco Polo during the 13th century. In his book, “The
Travels of Marco Polo,” there is a passage that briefly mentions his introduction
to a plant that produced flour (possibly a “breadfruit tree”). The Chinese used
this plant to create a meal similar to barley flour. The barley-like meal Polo
mentioned was used to make several pasta-like dishes, including one described
as “lagana” (lasagna).

Since Polo’s original text no longer exists, the book relies heavily on retellings
by various authors and experts. This, combined with the fact that pasta was
already gaining popularity in other areas of Italy during the 13th century,
makes it very unlikely that Marco Polo was the first to introduce pasta to Italy.

19th Century Maccaronaro Sellig

(https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-and-
history/magazine/2016/07-08/daily-life-pasta-italy-neapolitan-diet/

Picture 1.
15
Like so much of southern Italian life, the Arabic invasions of the 8th century
heavily influenced regional cuisine. Today, the presence of Arabic people in the
south of the peninsula during the Middle Ages is considered the most likely
reason behind the diffusion of pasta.

The modern word macaroni derives from the Sicilian term for kneading dough
with energy, as early pasta making was often a laborious, day-long process.
How these early dishes were served is not truly known, but many Sicilian pasta
recipes still include typically middle eastern ingredients, such as raisins and
cinnamon, which may be witness to original, medieval recipes.

Pasta’s popularity is mentioned by the 14th-century writer Boccaccio. In his


collection of earthy tales, The Decameron, he recounts a mouthwatering
fantasy concerning a mountain of Parmesan cheese down which pasta chefs
roll macaroni and ravioli.

In the 1390s Franco Sacchetti, another poet and writer of tales, also tells how
two friends meet up to eat macaroni. They both eat from the same dish, as was
the custom of the time, but one of them has more of an appetite than the
other: “Noddo started to pile the macaroni together, roll it up and swallow it
down. He had sent six mouthfuls down the hatch while Giovanni’s first one was
still on the fork. He did not dare put it in his mouth as the food was steaming.”
(https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-and-history/magazine/2016/07-08/daily-life-
pasta-italy-neapolitan-diet/)

Throughout the Middle Ages, until the start of the 16th century, pasta dishes
were markedly different from those eaten today. Not only was pasta cooked for
longer—there was none of the modern-day preference for pasta al dente—it
was also mixed with ingredients that would seem surprising now, often
combining sweet, savory, and spicy flavors.

Pasta was considered a dish for the wealthy, taking pride of place in
aristocratic banquets during the Renaissance. For example, Bartolomeo Scappi,
a papal chef in the middle of the 16th century, created a third course for a
banquet consisting of boiled chicken accompanied with ravioli filled with a
paste made of boiled pork belly, cow udders, roast pork, Parmesan cheese,
fresh cheese, sugar, herbs, spices, and raisins.

This 14th-century Italian miniature shows two stages in pasta making. The
woman to the right is kneading the dough while her colleague is hanging cut
16
strips of vermicelli—little worms—to dry on a rack. Much later, a thicker
variation of vermicelli developed, today known as spaghetti.

Sursa: (https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-and-history/magazine/2016/07-
08/daily-life-pasta-italy-neapolitan-diet)
Picture 2.

Saverio della Gatta’s early 19th-century take on a popular artistic genre, portraying the
“macaroni eaters” of Naples.

Sursa:(https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-and-
history/magazine/2016/07-08/daily-life-pasta-italy-neapolitan-diet/

17
Picture 3.

What blends very well with any type of pasta is cheese. Cheese is one of the
most varied foods loved by a lot of people in the world. Its taste can be of any
combination of these flavors: salty, tangy, sweet, creamy, bland, buttery,
pungent, sharp, rich or delicate. It may be hard enough to chip off in flakes or
soft enough to have a consistency like a mayonnaise.

Cheese dates back to before recorded history, perhaps as far back as 6,000
B.C.E. We know that cheese was part of the Sumerian diet, 4000 years before
the birth of Christ, made from both cows’ and goats’ milk and stored in tall jars.
Egyptian tomb murals circa 2000 B.C.E. show butter and cheese being made,
and other murals which show milk stored in skin bags suspended from poles
demonstrate a knowledge of dairy husbandry.

(https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-and-history/magazine/2016/07-08/daily-life-pasta-italy-neapolitan-
diet)

Picture 4.

18
An enormous variety of cheeses are made, in virtually every country on earth.
Cheese varieties have been developed with the milk from a broad spectrum of
animals—including the reindeer in Scandinavia, the boar in Africa, the water
buffalo in Italy, the yak in Tibet, and the mare in Russia.

Gorgonzola 879 C.E. Parmesan 1597 Stilton 1785


Roquefort 1070 Gouda 1697 Camembert 1791
Cheddar 1500 Gloucester 1697
(http://www.thenibble.com/REVIEWS/main/cheese/cheese2/history.asp)

The Bible has references to cheese, with perhaps the most famous tale
recounting David carrying cheese to his troops just prior to him slaying Goliath.
But, very recently, an even older cheese discovery was made much farther
north when a cache of 7500- year-old pottery cheese strainers were found in
modern-day Poland. These Neolithic people were dairy farmers, not just
hunters, so their relationship with animals is more complex than was
once supposed.

Legend said that nomadic tribes of Central Asia who carried milk in animal
skin bags “discovered” cheese. They carried milk in saddlebags made from
animal skins, and possibly made from the stomach, which contains the
coagulating enzyme known as rennin.   Or, fermentation of the milk sugars
would cause the milk to curdle. The galloping motion of the horse, acting as
churning, would effectively separate the milk into curds.   The result, curds and
whey, provided a refreshing whey drink as well as curds, which would be
drained through perforated earthenware bowls or woven reed baskets, and
lightly salted to provide a tasty and nourishing high protein food.   However,
any people with milking animals would have “discovered” cheese and yogurt in
a similar way. (http://www.thenibble.com/REVIEWS/main/cheese/cheese2/history.asp)

During the Ancient Greek period, cheese continued to be eaten.  In Greek,


cheese is called fornos, which makes reference to the basket where the cheese
was deposited and separated from the whey. The name for cheese in other
languages were derived from this greek word, such as fromage in French
or formaggio in Italian. There is a Greek tradition that affirms that it was the
Gods who showed the mortals how to make cheese. Indeed, in Greece there
was an abundant consumption of cheese. 

19
Homer, in the eighth century BC, referred to this food in one of his texts of the
"Odyssey" when speaking about the giant Polyphemus milking his sheep. Of the milk obtained, half
he left to curdle and the other half he drank. The Greeks added spices, nuts and fruits to the cheese
for its consumption. Some condiments that they used were raisins, flour, almonds, virgin olive oil or
honey.

Picture 5.

Herbs is also an ingredient that is used also from antiquity and also today.
The use of plants as herbs has been important to all cultures since long before
history was recorded. Hundreds of tribal cultures have used wild and cultivated
herbs for medicinal and food purposes for thousands of years. Herbs are
mentioned in Genesis, the first chapter of the Bible, and throughout its text. As
civilizations developed so did the knowledge for the use of herbs.

The study of herbs is well-documented. Evidence of early herb gardens dates


to Europe in the Middle Ages. Egyptian schools of herbalists have existed since
3000 B.C. Scholars were interested in herbs medicine, cosmetics, cooking,
history, and folklore. Most herbs are symbolic. For example, borage (Borago
officinalis) was given to those who needed courage, while rosemary
(Rosmarinus officinalis) was given to others for remembrance. In the past,
herbs were only available during the warm months of the growing season, and
at other times consumers had to purchase dried herbs. Today, the business of
producing fresh herbs for consumption has become one of the fastest growing
industries in agriculture. The United States produces about 200 billion pounds
of herbs and spices per year.

20
Hippocrates (460-377 BCE) used many herbal remedies in his practice and
wrote the famous words “let your foods be your medicines, and your medicines
your food.” In his writings, he preserved the medical practices of the Greeks
and Romans. He incidentally wrote about the medicinal properties of willow
bark and how it could be used for fevers and pain. During the 1800’s, scientists
began synthesizing active compounds from willow to make aspirin.

During the Middle Ages, the Benedictine monasteries were a place for
medicinal studies and where many herbs were grown, studied and employed in
medical treatments. It was in these monasteries that the ancient Greco-Roman
and Arabic writings on medicine were translated.

https://theherbalacademy.com/herbal-history/

Picture 6.

“In most cases, [the use of herbs and spices] was aimed not so much at
making the food more tasty but rather masking the taste of food that was no
longer fresh, or even spoiled.  Spoilage was not a major problem with cereal
grains and legumes.  But it was more of a problem with the less easy-to-
conserve oil plant seeds and, of course, a major one with fish, fowl, meat, and
animal products such as milk.” — Kiple F. Kenneth The Cambridge World
History of Food,2000,p:150)

“Herbs, the very essences of the natural world, rich in mineral salts, do not
need complicated recipes. They respect food, complement it, and bring out its
flavor.” — Kiple F. Kenneth The Cambridge World History of Food,2000,p:151)

The first recipes were recorded in Mesopotamia, the land between the
Tigris and Euphrates River.  Cuneiform tablets reveal the ingredients and
cooking techniques of the ancient Mesopotamians, which included the use
of arugula, dill, coriander, cress, fennel, marjoram, mint, mustard, rosemary,
rue, and thyme.  There is also reference to sahlu and zurumu, herbs that
have not been identified.  Similar clay tablets from ancient Mycanea (in
21
Greece) recorded recipes that called for coriander, fennel, and
mint. (Freedman, Paul. Food: The History of Taste.  Berkeley: University of
California Press, 2007.p: 525)

Picture 6.

In this chapter I tried do develop and to emphasized the origins of three


mediterranean food terms : pasta,cheese and herbs and the ideea of their
originality which is well mark in the sources that I found related that these
three types of food are very old and they remain through time some fenomens
in our kitchen.

These three ingredients have long existence,even from Middle Ages and remain current even today
because of the taste and the flavour succeded to make them entire masterpieces,the proves with I try
to support what I said are the pictures which shows the age of these ingredients.

No matter how much time will pass I think that some types of foods will remain
and no just in culinary form but also added in medicine and also remain fixed in
our vocabulary.

22
Chapter 3. Translating Mediterranean Food Terms from
English to Romanian

This chapter highlights a small part of what Mediterranen food means beacause I tried to find
some representative terms to prove that their existence represent the Mediterranean quintessence so
I choosed this three terms: pasta,cheese and herbs and I considered that this three terms could be
more than Mediterranean,I think they are international.

To demonstrated their origin and last but not least their translation I asked for help and I received
from the books that I used : Sinclair,Dictionary of Food,International Food and Cooking, Harold
Mc Gee,On Food and Cooking,The Science and Lore of the Kitchen, Hildebrand &
Kenedy ,The Geometry of Pasta, Harbutt,World Cheese Book, WALTER W. SKEAT,Concise
Etymological Dictionary of English Language , Kindersley ,Encyclopedia of
Herbs,Spices and Flavorings.
These books and dictionaries helped me to outline an idea about what should I write about,so I
started write about pasta knowing is a Meditrranean dish, I start to search for pasta names which
are not so well-known,so I choose : Agnolloti,Bucatini,Canederli,Cannelloni,Capelli d’Angelo.
Then I give the term some definitions in English so I could translate them, also I tried to give them
a method of translation and some synonyms.

Then I continued with the second type of Mediterranean food which I think is also representative
for my title, so I choose Cheese many types of cheese : Fresh Cheese : mozzarella,cottage
cheese,ricotta,chevre continuing cu Hard cheese : Kashkaval,Parmesan and Blue Cheese: Bleu de
Quercy and Bleu de Causses ending with Semi-soft Cheese: Bou de Fagne,Burgos,Limburger.
23
The last category I spoke about is representive of Herbs, considering the base element in any
mediterranean dish I choose to translate some interesting terms such as: Fine Herbs:
Chives,Dill,Angelica,Chevril, Bitter Herbs: Tansy,Hyssop,Coriander,Bee Balm Aromatic Herbs:
Bassil,Marjoram and Oregano ,Rosemary.

This chapter outline some ideas, some definitions and translations about some specific food
terms,I also try to give something different to my work by adding some unsusual terms to translate,I
also think that this topic it was great one so I hope you enjoy it.

The English word pastry Italian pasta, and French pâte and pâté all go back to a suggestive
group of ancient Greek words having to do with small particles and fine texembroidered veil.
A later Latin derivative, pasta, was applied to flour that had been wetted to a paste, then dried,it led
to Italian pasta and to pâte meaning dough.
Pâté is a medieval French word that was given originally to a chopped meat preparation enclosed in
a dough, but eventually came to name the meat preparation itself, with or without enclosure.
Pie was the near equivalent of the original pâté in medieval English, word had less to do with
doughs than with odds and ends: it came from magpie, a bird with variegated coloring that collects
miscellaneous objects for its nest.
The postmedieval evolution of pasta took place largely in Italy. Pasta makers formed guilds and
made fresh types from soft wheat flour throughout Italy, dried types from durum semolina in the
south and in Sicily.
Italian cooks developed the distinctive preparation style called pastasciutta or “dry pasta,” pasta
served as the main component of the dish, moistened with sauce but not drowning in it or dispersed
in a soup or stew.
With its ideal climate for drying raw noodles, a tricky process that took one to four weeks, Naples
became the center of durum pasta manufacturing .
(Sinclair, 1989p:148)

3.1 Corpus presentation and Analysis


3.1.1 Pasta

Term: Agnolotti

24
Romanian Translation Equivalent: Agnolotti
Translation Methods: Borrowing
Synonyms: agnellotti, agnulot, angelotti, langaroli, langheroli, piat d’angelot
Definition of the term Translation of the term
A Piedmontese stuffed pasta which Pastele umplute originare din zona
was born as a way of using left-over Piedmontese,s-au născut ca o
meats, agnolotti are made differenly modalitate de a folosi carnea tocată ,
depending on the meat available, local pastele agnolloti se fac în mod diferit
habits, and the preferences of the în funcție de carnea disponibilă, de
cook. To prepare the stuffing, various obiceiurile locale și de preferințele
kinds of roasted and boiled meats are bucătarului.
used separately or in combination, and Pentru prepararea umpluturii cu
a cured meat is always included. diferite tipuri de carne tocată și fiartă
Agnolotti can be served in a broth, folosite separat sau în combinație, iar
tossed with melted butter and fresh carne conservată este întotdeauna
sage, or lavished with a truffle sauce inclusă.
or gravy from roast.( Harold Mc Gee,On Food Pastele Agnolotti pot fi servite într-un
and Cooking,The Science and Lore of the Kitchen,New bulion îmbibat într-un unt topit și
York,pag100)
salvie proaspăta, sau lăsat cu un sos
In accordance with ancient custom,
de trufe sau sos de roșii.
different fillings were made for
În conformitate cu vechiul obicei, au
feasting days (i.e. normal ones) and
fost făcute diferite umpluturi pentru
fasting days .
zile de sărbătoare (adică zile normale)
A half-moon-shaped ravioli stuffed
și zile de post.
with minced lamb and onion sautéed
 Ravioli în formă de jumătate de lună,
in butter mixed with boiled rice or
umpluți cu miel și ceapă tocată în unt
spinach, cheese and seasoning.
amestecat cu orez fiert sau spanac,
Served after cooking in standard
brânză și condimente.
fashion, sometimes tossed in meat
Servit după gătit, conform trdiției,
pan juices. Also called pazlache.
uneori îmbibați în sucuri de carne.
(Harold Mc Gee,On Food and
Denumit și pazlache.
Cooking,The Science and Lore of the
Kitchen,New York,pag105)

25
Term : Bucatini -Diameter: 3mm Length: 260mm Wall thickness: 1mm
Romanian Translation Equivalent: Bucatini
Translation Methods :Borrowing
Synonyms: boccolotti (from boccolo, ‘ringlet’ or ‘roll’), fidelini bucati,
perciatelli (from the French ‘percer’– to pierce); in Sicily agoni bucati, spilloni
bucati (‘hat-pin-with-a-hole’)
Definition of the term Translation of the term
Their name stems from buco (hole), or Numele lor provine din buco (gaură)
bucato (pierced), and the hole has a sau bucato (străpuns), iar gaura are o
specific function. A pasta with a large funcție specifică.
cross-section takes a long time to Pastele cu un diametru mai mare
cook. Above a certain diameter the necesită mult timp pentru a fi
form would take so long to cook from gătite.Peste un anumit diametru ,
dry that the outside would be formei i-ar lua atât de mult penrtu a fi
overcooked before the middle was al gătită încât exteriorul ar fi ars înainte
dente. (al dente Italy Cooked to be ca mijlocul să fie al dente.
firm to the bite. Used of pasta or  Aceste forme sunt, prin urmare,
vegetables. întotdeauna proaspete, astfel încât
These forms are therefore always interiorul, deja hidratat de apa cu care
made fresh, so that the inside, already pastele au fost fierte, sa poată fi gatit
hydrated by the water the pasta was mai repede.
made with, takes less time to cook. Pe de altă parte, Bucatini este un
Bucatini on the other hand are an sortiment de paste industrial extrudat
industrial, die-extruded pasta (the (echivalentul modern al Maccheroni
modern equivalent of maccheroni inferrati,iar procesele de fabricație și
inferrati , , and the manufacture and distribuție necesită uscarea produsului
distribution processes require that the înainte de ambalare.Soluția ingenioasă
product be dried before packaging.The este gaura fină care îi dă numele
ingenious solution is the fine hole that acestui tip de paste.
gives this pasta its name.
(Sinclair, Dictionary of Food,International Food and
Cooking Terms from A to Z,Second
Edition,1998,pag200)

Term : Canederli – Diameter 42


26
Romanian Translation Equivalent: Canederli
Translating Methods: Borrowing
Synonyms : Gnocchi di Pane, Canedeli, Knödel
Definition of the term Translation of the term
Canederli are bread dumplings only Canederli sunt găluște de pâine care
found in the north-east of Italy se găsesc numai în nord-estul Italiei
(Trentino-Alto Adige, Friuli, and part of (Trentino-Alto Adige, Friuli și o parte
Veneto), where they are served as a din orașul Veneto), unde sunt servite
first course or as a main entree. ca fel întâi sau ca intrări principale.
Variations of this dish are common in Variațiile acestui fel de mâncare sunt
all south-eastern Europe, where they comune în toată sud-estul Europei,
are also served as an accompaniment unde sunt servite și ca
to meat stews and roasts. The word acompaniament pentru tocăniţe și
‘canederli’, in fact, derives from the fripturile de carne. Cuvântul
German and Austrian ‘knödel’ "canederli", de fapt, derivă din
(dumplings). "knödel" germană și austriacă
Canederli can be considered part of (găluște).
‘cucina povera’ (cuisine of the poor), Canederli poate fi considerat parte din
as they are made of simple and "cucina povera" (bucătăria celor
inexpensive ingredients: stale bread săraci), deoarece sunt făcute din
moistened with milk and bound with ingrediente simple și necostisitoare:
eggs and a small amount of flour. pâinea veche umezită cu lapte și
However, the mixture is often enriched îmchegată cu ouă și o cantitate mică
with cheese and Speck (a kind of de făină. Cu toate acestea, amestecul
smoked prosciutto also typical of the este adesea îmbogățit cu brânză și
north-east regions). Speck (un fel de prosciutto afumat, de
asemenea, tipic regiunilor nord-est).

Term: Cannelloni -Length: 100mm Width: 30mm


Romanian Translation Equivalent: Cannelloni
Translating methods: Borrowing
Synonyms: cannaciotti, canneroncini, canneroni, manfriguli or manfrigoli in
Valtellina; cannerone or cannarone in Naples; cannarune in Puglia; cannoli,
crusetti in Sicily.
27
Definition of the term Translation of the term
Large squares of thin pasta which are Pătrățele mari de paste subțiri, care
first poached, then rolled around a sunt mai întâi fierte apoi rostogolite în
stuffing to form tubes which are jurul unei umpluturi pentru a forma
placed in a dish, covered in a sauce, tuburi care ulterior sunt plasate într-un
possible gratinated with cheese and vas, acoperite într-un sos, eventual
baked in the oven.(Sinclair, Dictionary of gratinate cu brânză și coapte în
Food,International Food and Cooking Terms cuptor.
from A to Z,Second Edition,1998)
Cannelloni sunt foi de paste înfășurate
Cannelloni are sheets of pasta
în jurul unui cârnat alaturi de
wrapped around a sausage of filling
umplutură și coapte în cuptor.
and baked. .
Numele lor provine din canna (cane),
Their name derives from canna (cane),
astfel cannelloni înseamnă "stuf mare"
thus cannelloni means ‘large reeds’ –
- aceeași tulpină ca cannella
the same stem as cannella (cinnamon
(scorțișoară - "stuf mic").
– ‘little reed’).
Ideea de a umple aluatul de foi cu o
The idea of stuffing a soft pastry with
umplutură savuroasă nu este nouă în
a savoury filling isn’t new in Europe –
Europa – clătitele noastre din
crêpes have been around for ever, and
totdeauna, iar referințele la maceroni
references to macheroni ripieni date
ripieni datează din jurul anului 1770 –
back to around 1770 – but cannelloni
dar cannelloni au fost pentru prima
were first mentioned in print at the
dată menționați intr-un tipar la
beginning of the 20th century, likely
începutul secolului al XX-lea , probabil
the time they were invented .
timpul în care au fost inventați.
Their popularity took off and went
Popularitatea lor s-a dezvoltat și a
global after the Second World War, for
devenit globală după cel de-al Doilea
the dual reasons of their ease of
Război Mondial, din doua motive, a
advance preparation (they can be
usurintei lor de pregatire (pot fi
made ready to go in the oven even the
pregătite să meargă în cuptor chiar și
day before), and being the symbol of
cu o zi înainte) și fiind simbolul fericirii
domestic bliss the housewife at her
eterne- gospodina la cuptorul ei alb,
gleaming white enamel oven.
strălucitor.
The pasta can be replaced with a
Pastele pot fi înlocuite cu o
crêpe in all recipes, if that seems
crepetă/clatita în toate rețetele, dacă
easier or better to you; in both forms,
aceasta vi se pare mai ușoară sau mai
cannelloni are equally popular in Italy,
28
the UK, the USA and Spain, Catalonia bună ; în ambele forme, cannelloni
in particular. sunt la fel de populare în Italia, Marea
(Hildebrand & Kenedy ,The Geometry of Britanie, SUA , Spania si în special în
Pasta,Baxtree,Page 50)
Catalonia.

Term: Capelli d’Angelo Length: 260mm Diameter: 1mm


Romanian Translation Equivalent: Parul ingerului
Translating Method: Word-for-word Translation
Synonyms: capelvenere, ramicia, or in Calabria capiddi d'angilu, vrimicid
Definition of the term Translation of the Term
Aceste subțiri,fine fire de paste
These thin, thin strands of pasta denumite si "părul îngerului" sau
(‘angel’s hair’ or ‘little worms’) can be "viermi mici"pot fi o provocare în
a challenge in the modern kitchen: bucătăria modernă: se gatesc foarte
they cook very fast, overcook easily, repede, se împletesc cu ușurință, iar
and their fine texture can become textura lor fină poate deveni terci dacă
porridgy if served in a thick sauce – este servită într-un sos gros , deoarece
they have no backbone to hold it up. nu au coloana vertebrală pentru a o
It was a different challenge that led susține. A fost o provocare diferită
them to be so highly esteemed during aceea de a le permite sa ajunga atat
the Renaissance. de apreciati in timpul Renasterii.
Specialist nuns would make them in
Călugărițele de specialitate le-ar fi
their convents, particularly to feed to
făcut in mănăstirile lor, în special
new mothers, as the pasta was
pentru a se hrăni proaspetele
believed to help their milk to ‘drop’.
mamici , deoarece se credea că
Hildebrand & Kenedy ,The Geometry of
Pasta,Baxtree,Page 50) pastele ajută laptele să "curgă".

3.1.2 Cheese

29
Evidence of cheesemaking dates back to 2800 BCE, but the discovery of
cheese would have come about as a happy accident. Any milk left to warm by a
fire or stored in a sack made from the stomach of an animal would have
soured, causing the milk solids (the curds) and liquid (the whey) to coagulate
and separate—allowing humans to learn that their most precious commodity,
milk, could be preserved in the form of cheese and, eventually, that rennet, an
enzyme found in the stomach of the milk-producing animal, was the coagulant.
( Harbutt, 2009,2015)
Cheese varieties have been developed with the milk from a broad spectrum of
animals—including the reindeer in Scandinavia, the boar in Africa, the water
buffalo in Italy, the yak in Tibet, and the mare in Russia.( Collin’s Etymological
Dictionary ,London and Glasnow,Collin’s Clear-Type Press,p:50)

3.1.3 Fresh Cheese

Term: Mozzarella (Italy)

Romanian Translation Equivalent: Mozzarella

Translation Method: Borrowing

Synonym: mozzeta

Definition of the term Translation of the term

A cheese made from pasteurized or O brânză obținută din lapte


unpasteurized cows’ or water buffalos’ pasteurizat sau nepasteurizat de vaci
milk that has a mild and creamy flavor. sau de bivolițe de apă, care are o
The curd is knead and stretched while aromă ușoară și cremoasă.
hot until it reaches the desired
Branza dulce este fragedă și întinsă în
consistency.
timp ce este fierbinte până când
It can be sold fresh or packed in a ajunge la consistența dorită.
salty brine. Mozzarella is usually used
Poate fi vândut în stare proaspătă sau
in pizza and lasagna, but it can also be
ambalat într-o soluție salină sarată.
eaten fresh with olive oil and
Mozzarella este de obicei folosită în
seasonings, or as filling to sandwich.
pizza și lasagna, dar poate fi mâncată
proaspăt cu ulei de măsline și
30
condimente, sau ca umplutură la
sandwich.

Term : Cottage cheese( UK and USA)

Romanian Translation Equivalent: Brânza de vacă

Translation Method: Adaptation

Synonyms: curd cheese. farm  cheese. farmer's cheese.

Definition of the term Translation of the term

A creamy, lumpy cheese that has a O brânză cremoasă, care are o usoara
mild, sweet flavor. It is made from aroma dulce. Este fabricat din lapte de
pasteurized or unpasteurized cow’s vacă pasteurizat sau nepasteurizat, cu
milk, with curds drained but not coaja drenată dar nu presată.
pressed. Cottage cheese is sold in
Brânza de vaca este vândută în cupe
cups and pots. It can be eaten by
și vase. Se poate mânca si simpla, cu
itself, with toast, fruits and can even
pâine prăjită, fructe și poate fi chiar
be used in salads.
utilizată în salate.

Term: Ricotta (Italy)

Romanian Translating Equivalent: Urdă

Translation Method: Free Translation

Synonyms: cottage cheese

Definition of the term Translation of the term

A creamy, fluffy and grainy cheese O brânză cremoasă, pufoasă și


that tastes mildly sweet. The casein in granulată, care are un gust dulce.
milk is filtered away from whey during Cazeina din lapte este filtrată din zer
production process. It can be made în timpul procesului de producție.
from the milk of sheep, cow, goat or Poate fi făcut din lapte de oaie, vacă,
buffalo. Ricotta is usually used as a capră sau bivol.

31
sauce thickener or dip, or as an Ricotta este de obicei folosita ca un
ingredient in lasagna, cheesecake, sos de ingrosare sau inmuiere , sau ca
pizza, calzone, cassata and ravioli. ingredient în lasagna, cheesecake,
pizza, calzone, caseta și ravioli.

Term: Chevre (France)

Romanian Translation Equivalent: Brânză de capră

Translating methods: Adaptation

Synonyms: goat cheese

Definition of the term Translation of the term

Also known as Goat cheese, chevre De asemenea, cunoscut sub numele


has a tangy, tart-like earthy flavor with de branza de capra, Chevre este o
a distinctive aroma. It is made from brânză acră cu un soi de aromă
pasteurized or unpasteurized goat’s stricată. Acesta este facut din lapte de
milk. capră pasteurizat sau nepasteurizat.
Branza proaspata Chevre are o textură
Fresh chevre has a slightly chalky
ușor calcaroasă și o aromă de lămâie.
texture and a lemony flavor. It can
Ea poate avea multe forme si
come in many shapes and sizes such
dimensiuni precum : rotundă, lungă și
as round patties, loaves and
piramidală.
pyramids.
Aceasta poate fi consumată ca o
It can be eaten as a snack or dessert,
gustare sau un desert, și sunt, uneori,
and are sometimes flavored with herbs
aromată cu ierburi și condimente.
and spices

.https://cheese-store.com/the-major-types-and-kinds-of-
cheese/

3.1.4 Hard cheese

Term : Kashkaval
Romanian Translation Equivalent : Caşcaval
Translating methods: Free Translation
32
Synonims: Yellow Cheese
Definition of the term Translation of the term
A hard, scalded ewes’ and cows’ milk O brânză tare de lapte de oaie și de
cheese made from spun curd in the vaci, brută, fabricată din branza dulce
Balkans with an aromatic salty flavour în Balcani, cu aromă si gust sarat și
and which has been ripened for 2 to 3 care a fost maturată timp de 2 până la
months. Similar to Cacio Cavallo. Also 3 luni.
called ,kachkaval. (Sinclair,Dictionary of
Similar Cacio Cavallo. De asemenea,
Food,International Food and Cooking Terms
numit, caşcaval.
from A to Z,Second Edttion,1998,p:150)

Term: Parmesan
Romanian Translation Equivalent: Parmezan
Translation Methods: Borrowing
Definition of the term Translation of the term
A very hard Italian grating cheese with O brânză italiană foarte tare, cu o
a strong and distinctive flavour made aromă puternică și distinctă, obținută
from unpasteurized skimmed cows’ din lapte de vacă degresat
milk. The curds are heated and packed nepasteurizat. Coaja este încălzită și
into very large circular moulds and împachetată în matrițe circulare foarte
matured for well over 2 years, ending mari și maturată timp de peste 2 ani,
up with a pale straw colour and a terminând cu o culoare de paie palidă
black rind. When grated it is used on a și o crustă neagră. Când este rasă este
wide variety of Italian dishes. The folosit pe o mare varietate de feluri de
composition depends on age, at 18 mâncare italienești. Compoziția
months it is 27% water, 37% fat and depinde de perioadă , la 18 luni este
31% protein. 27% apă, 37% grăsime și 31%
proteine.

Term : Parmigiano Reggiano (Italy )


Romanian Translation Equivalent: Parmigiano Reggiano
Translating Method: Borrowing
Definition of the term Translation of the term
The finest and most authentic Unul dintre cele mai fine sortimente de

33
Parmesan cheese, made in squat parmesan,îndesate in diferite forme de
barrel shapes (up to 35 kg) which are butoaie pana la 35 kg si care sunt
salted in brine and turned and brushed sărate în saramura si curăţate regulat.
regularly. It is unique to its particular Este unic pentru regiunea sa specifică
region and although it may be made și, deși poate fi făcut în orice moment
at any time it has special names al anului are nume speciale în funcție
according to the date of manufacture, de data de fabricație, "maggengo"
‘maggengo’ April to November and aprilie-noiembrie și "invernengo"
‘invernengo’ December to March. decembrie-martie.
The non-winter period can also be Perioada non-iarnă poate fi de
split, ‘ditesta’ April to June, ‘agostano’ asemenea împărțită, "ditesta" aprilie-
or ‘di centro’ July and August and iunie, "agostano" sau "di centro" iulie
‘tardno’ September to November. One și august și "tardno" din septembrie
year old cheeses are called ‘vecchio’ până în noiembrie. Brandurile de un
and two year old ‘stravecchio’. Always an sunt denumite vechi și străvechi "
stamped with the name. It may be de doi ani. Întotdeauna ștampilate cu
eaten young as a dessert. numele. Poate fi mâncat proaspăt ca
un desert.

Term: Lancashire cheese (England )


Romanian Translation Equivalent : Branza de Lancashire
Translating methods: Free Translation
Definition of the term Translation of the term
An excellent white melting cheese O excelenta branza topita alba,cu o
with a crumbly texture. When new it textura friabila.Când este proaspată
has a mild flavour but this develops as are o consistenţă usoară care ulterior
it matures especially if made with se mareşte în special dacă este facuta
unpasteurized milk.. din lapte nepasteurizat.

Term: Caprino semicotto (Italy)


Romanian Translation Equivalent: Brânză de capră semi-gătită
Translation methods: Adaptation
Definition of the term Translation of the term
A hard scalded-curd goats’ milk O branză curată tare de lapte de
34
cheese from Sardinia made in a drum capră, originară din Sardinia, făcută
shape. The cheese is brined, drysalted într-o formă de tobă. Brânza este
and ripened for at least 3 months. sărată, uscată și maturată timp de cel
puțin 3 luni.

Term: Cabrales (Spain )


Romanian Translation Equivalent: Cabrales
Translation methods: Borrowing
Definition of the term Translation of the term

A distinctive, strongflavoured, smooth, O brânză distinctă, puternic


semi-hard cheese made from cows’ aromatizată, netedă, formată din lapte
milk in Austria, sometimes blueveined de vacă originară din Austria, uneori
and sometimes wrapped in leaves. cu mucegai și uneori înfășurată în
Ripened for 5 to 6 months in limestone frunze. Maturată timp de 5 până la 6
caverns. Contains 30 to 35% water, luni în caverne de calcar. Conține 30
31% fat and 28 to 30% protein. Also până la 35% apă, 31% grăsime și 28
called Cabraliego, Picón până la 30% proteine. De asemenea,
numit Cabraliego, Picón.

3.1.5 Blue Cheese

As I found in Dictionary of food , Sinclair’s Dictionary of food (1998) blue


cheese means that it was inoculated with various species of Penicilium using
needles,to encourage the growth of the blue-green fungus within the cheese.
.( Sinclair,Dictionary of Food,International Food and Cooking Terms from A to Z,Second
Edttion,1998,p:73)

Term: Bleu de Quercy( France)


Romanian Translation Equivalent: Albastru de Quercy
Translating method: Borrowing
Definition of the term Translation of the term
A soft blue cheese made in Aquitaine O brânză moale mucegăită făcută în

35
from cows’ milk. It has a strong flavour regiunea Aquitaine din lapte de vacă.
and a greyish-green natural rind. Are o aromă puternică și o crustă
naturală cenușie.

Term: Bleu des Causses (France)


Romanian Translation Equivalent: Albastru de Causses
Translating method: Borrowing
Defintion of the term Definition of the term
A soft blue-veined cheese made from O brânză moale cu mucegai făcută
the milk of cows pastured on Les din laptele de vaci, pășunat pe Les
Causses (high limestone pastures) in Causses (pășuni de calcar înalt) în
southern France. The paste is firm, rich sudul Franței. Pasta este fermă,
and evenly veined. It has Appellation bogată și uniformă. Are statut de
d’Origine status. Appellation d'Origine.

Term : Blue Cheshire (England)


Romanian Translation Equivalent: Albastru de Cheshire
Translating method: Borowing

Definition of the term Translation of the term


A blue-veined Cheshire cheese made O brânză Cheshire cu mucegai , făcută
in 8 kg cylinders and ripened for up to în cilindri de 8 kg și maturată timp de
6 months. It has a strongflavoured până la 6 luni. Are o pastă galbenă
warm yellow paste. caldă aromată

3.1.6 Semi-Soft Cheese

Term: Limburger
Romanian Translation Equivalent: Limburger
Traslation methods: Borrowing
Definition of the term Translation of the term

36
A very strong-smelling, soft, surface- O brânză foarte puternică, mirositoare,
ripened cheese originally from fină, maturată pe suprafață, originară
Belgium, then adopted in Germany din Belgia, implementată apoi în
and now made worldwide. It is made Germania și realizată acum în întreaga
from pasteurized full cream cows’ milk lume. Ea este produsă din lapte de
started with Streptococcus lactis and vaci de lapte pasteurizat complet
S. thermophilus to develop acidity, amestecat cu Streptococcus lactis și S.
coagulated with rennet, the curd thermophilus pentru a dezvolta
formed into small bricks, dry-salted, aciditatea, coagulată cu cheag
ripened at high humidity for about 10 rezultând cașul format sub forma unor
days until the surface develops a red cărămizi mici, sărate ,uscate,
colour, then further ripened at lower maturate la umiditate ridicată timp de
temperatures until finished. aproximativ 10 zile până când
suprafața dezvoltă o culoarea roșie,
apoi se coace la temperaturi mai
scăzute până la terminare.

Term: Bou de Fagne (Belgium )


Romanian Translation Equivalent: Bou de Fagne
Translating method: Borrowing
Definition of the term Translation of the term

A small soft brickshaped cheese made


O brânză de marime mică, brună,
from cows’ milk. The paste has a
facută din lapte de vacă. Textura are
pleasant taste and aroma with a few
un gust plăcut și o aromă plăcută,
holes. The rind is orange-yellow with a
continând câteva găuri. Coaja este
slight bloom.
galbenă-portocalie, cu un mucegai
subtire.

Term : Burgos (Spain)


Romanian Translation Equivalent : Burgos
Translating method: Borrowing
37
Definition of the term
A soft mild scalded-curd cheese made O brânză moale ușoară, brută, formată
from ewes’ milk around the town of din lapte de oaie în jurul orașului cu
the same name. It has an even același nume. Are o pastă uniformă
textured paste without holes and is fără găuri și este turnată în discuri de
cast in 1 to 2 kg discs. Often 1 până la 2 kg. Adesea îndulcită și
sweetened and used as a dessert. folosiă ca desert. Conține 65% apă.
Contains 65% water.

3.1.7 Herbs
3.1.8 Fine Herbs

Term : Chives
Romanian Translation Equivalent: Arpagic
Translating method: Free Translation
Synonims: onion
Definition of the term Translation of the term

From  Middle English  cyve, from Old Din Engleza Veche cyve si din
French cive,from Latin cepa (“onion”) Franceza Veche cive,din Latina cepa
Rich in vitamins A and C, chives are a (ceapa)
member of the onion family. Indeed, Bogat în vitaminele A și C, arpagicul
their flavor is reminiscent of onion, but este un membru al familiei cepei. Într-
more delicate because they contain adevăr, aroma lor aminteste de ceapă,
less sulfur. When finely snipped, their dar mai delicată, deoarece conține mai
bright green color makes them an puțin sulf. Atunci când sunt bine
attractive as well as flavorful addition finisate, culoarea lor verde
to dishes. They are one of the classic strălucitoare le face să fie o atracție
fines herbes along with parsley, precum si aroma adițională la feluri de
tarragon, and chervil, and they marry mâncare. Acestea sunt una dintre cele
well with egg dishes, like omelets, and mai frumoase plante aromatice,
with eggbased sauces. Long cooking împreună cu patrunjelul, tarhonul și
diminishes their flavor, so it is best to chervilul, și potrivesc bine cu feluri de
add them to dishes at the last minute. mâncare precum ouă,omeletele, și cu
38
Chive flowers can be sprinkled into sosuri pe bază de ouă. Coacerea lungă
salads for added eyeappeal and flavor. diminuează aroma, deci este mai bine
A handful of chopped chives is the să le adăugați la feluri de mâncare în
perfect finish for just about any salad, ultimul moment. Flori de arpagic pot fi
soup, or sauce, adding to the taste as presarate în salate pentru o aromă si
well as the presentation( Lambert prezentare . O mână de arpagic tocată
Elisabeth, Encyclopedia of este finisarea perfectă pentru aproape
Herbs,Spices and Flavorings, orice salată, supă sau sos, adăugând
Kindersley,inc,New York,1992,p:20) gustul și prezentarea

Term: Dill
Romanian Translation equivalent: Mărar
Translating method: Free Translation
Synonims: dillweed
Definition of the term Translation of the term
For the ancient Romans, dill was a Pentru vechii romani, mărarul era un
symbol of vitality; for the Greeks, it simbol al vitalității; pentru greci, a fost
was a remedy for the hiccups. In the un remediu pentru sughiț. În Evul
Middle Ages, it was believed to he a Mediu, se credea că este o protecție
protection against witchcraft, împotriva vrăjitoriei, deși, de fapt,
although, in fact, dill was an ingredient mărarul era un ingredient în multe
in many magic potions. In the kitchen, poțiuni magice. În bucătărie, mărarul
dill is prized both for its seeds and its este apreciat atât pentru semințele
leaves, and each has its own sale, cât și pentru frunzele lor, fiecare
distinctive taste. având propriul său gust distinctiv.
Both forms are widely used in the Ambele forme sunt utilizate pe scară
cuisines of Scandinavia, Germany, and largă în bucătăriile din Scandinavia,
Central and Germania, și Central și Europa de Est.
Eastern Europe. In addition to culinary În plus față de utilizarea culinară,
use, dill seeds are also known for their semințele de mărar sunt cunoscute și
soothing digestive properties. pentru proprietățile digestive
calmante.

39
As a conclusion I can say that dill is an ancient herb with all kinds of amazing
qualities, not just in cooking but aso in medicine. Not only does it make an
amazing dip and secret ingredient in egg salad, but it also contains healing
properties known for centuries. The Egyptians used it for everything: from
calming colicky babies, calming the nerves, and soothing upset stomachs

Term : Angelica
Romanian Translation Equivalent : Angelica
Translating method : Borrowing
Synonims: Garden Angelica,Wild Angelica,European Angelica
Definition of the term Translation of the term
The herb angelica was named, according to folklore, Această plantă angelica a fost numita
after an angel appeared in plague-ridden Europe and potrivit folclorului după un înger care a
showed a monk the angelica plant as a cure.  apărut în Europa plină de ciumă și a arătat
Although best known in the form of unui calugăr planta angelica ca find leac.
crystallized stems used as decoration on Deși cel mai bine cunoscut sub formă de
cakes and desserts, all parts of this tulpini cristalizate, folosit ca decor pe
strongly aromatic plant can be eaten. The prăjituri și deserturi, toate părțile acestei
fresh leaves can be added to tart fruit plante puternic aromatice pot fi consumate.
dishes, such as stewed rhubarb or Frunzele proaspete pot fi adăugate la feluri
gooseberries, where they will help to de mâncare rubarba rosie sau coacăze, în
reduce acidity and their sweetness will care acestea vor ajuta la reducerea
minimize the need for sugar. Young shoots acidității, iar dulceața lor va reduce la
can be blanched and added to salads, and minimum nevoia de zahăr. Lăstarii tineri se
all parts of the plant, fresh or crystallized, pot albi și se pot adăuga la salate și toate
can be used to imbue homemade jellies părțile plantei, proaspete sau cristalizate,
and jams with a delicate flavor. pot fi folosite pentru a impregna jeleuri de

Angelica can be used in fruit syrups to casă și blocaje cu aromă delicată.


make a pleasant summertime drink, or Angelica poate fi utilizată în siropurile de
enhance a salad of winter fruits. The dried fructe pentru a face o băutură plăcută în
leaves, when infused as a tisane, are said timpul verii sau pentru a spori o salată de
to calm the nerves remedy fructe de iarnă. Frunzele uscate, cand sunt
and
indigestion. The dried seeds can be added, infuzate ca ceai, se spune că calmează
along with the stems, to flavor spirits such nervii și remediază indigestia. Semințele
as gin, vodka, or vermouth. In some uscate pot fi adăugate, împreună cu
tulpinile, pentru a aroma băuturi spirtoase,
40
countries, the stems and roots are boiled cum ar fi gin, vodcă sau vermut. În unele
and served as a vegetable. țări, tulpinile și rădăcinile sunt fierte și
(Lambert Elisabeth ,Encyclopedia of servite ca legume.
Herbs,Spices
andFlavorings,DorlingKindersley,NewYork,1
992p23)

As a final result I can say that this plant Angelica is also used in medicine and it
is a truly cure for various diseases included cancer. Angelica has a close
relationship with spirits because of its smell and taste which gives flavor.

Term : Chervil
Romanian Translation Equivalent : Asmățui
Translating method: Free translation
Synonim: Parsley
Definition of the term Translation of the term
Chervil is a hardy annual that grows Asmățuiul este un voinic anual , care
wild in clamp, shady spots. Chervil is crește în sălbăticie strânse în pete
one of the first herbs to appear in umbroase. Chervil este una dintre
spring, it is easy to grow, and prefers a primele plante care apare în
moist climate. One of the fines primăvară, este ușor de cultivat și
herbes , it is essential in French preferă un climat umed. Una dintre
cooking, often supplanting parsley, cele mai fine ierburi , este esențială în
which it does resemble although the bucătăria franceză, deseori înlocuind
leaves are more feathery, and the pătrunjelul cu care seamănă doar că
flavor is reminiscent of anise. frunzele sunt mai pufoase, iar aroma
Chervil is used much like parsley, but aminteste de anason.
it is very delicate; long cooking or high  Asmățuiul este folosit la fel ca
temperatures should be avoided. It is pătrunjelul, dar este foarte delicat; ar
at its best when sprinkled over a salad trebui să evitați gătitul îndelungat sau
just before serving. temperaturile înalte. Este cel mai bine
când este presărat peste o salată chiar
înainte de servire.

41
As a conclusion I found out that the chervil is the first herb that appears in
spring and it’s very used in French cuisine and it’s the brother of parsley with
small differences.

Term: Tarragon
Romanian Translation Equivalent: Tarhon
Translating methods: Partial Equivalence
Definition of the term Translation of the term
Tarragon, with its subtle and Tarhonul , cu aroma sa subtilă și
sophisticated flavor, is an essential sofisticată, este o plantă esențială în
herb in French cuisine. Native to bucătăria franceză. Nativ din Siberia,
Siberia, it became a common culinary a devenit o plantă comună culinară în
herb throughout Europe by the toată Europa până în secolul al XV-lea.
fifteenth century. The Latin name, Numele latin, însemnând "micul
meaning "little dragon." derives from dragon"care derivă din convingerea
the medieval belief that it was an medievală că era un antidot pentru
antidote for the bites of venomous mușcăturile animalelor veninoase.
animals. Wine vinegar perfumed with Oțetul de vin parfumat cu tarhon este
tarragon is a classic, while the reverse un clasic, în timp ce frunzele inverse
—tarragon leaves preserved in vinegar de tarhon conservate în oțet sunt o
—is a delicious and practical use for utilizare delicioasă și practică pentru
abundant plants. Fresh or preserved îndesirea plantelor . Frunzele
leaves can be mixed with cream proaspete sau conservate pot fi
cheese, or pureed with cream and amestecate cu brânză topită sau
used for canapes. There are two pudră cu cremă și folosite pentru
closely related forms of this valuable tartine . Există două forme strâns
culinary herb: French, or "true" legate de această plantă culinară
tarragon, and Russian tarragon. valoroasă: Franceză, sau tarhon
Because of its delicate anise-like adevărat , și tarhon rusesc. Datorită
flavor. aromelor delicioase de anason.
French tarragon is the preferable type, Tarhonul francez este tipul preferat,
although it is harder to cultivate deși este mai greu să de cultivat,
because it seldom sets viable seed. deoarece rar setează semințe viabile.
Russian tarragon grows easily from Tarhonul rus crește ușor de la
seed but has a slightly bitter, more sămânță, dar are o aromă ușor amară

42
pungent flavor. și mai iute

As a conclusion I can say that tarhon is one of the finest herb,it is called little
dragon because of his form with ramifiction.Is is used also as a spice,it is sayed
also that the French tarragon is the best
in culinary used.

Term: Borage
Romanian Translation Equivalent: Limba mielului
Translating method: Semantic Translation
Definition of the term Translation of the
term
Borage came originally from the Limba mielului a venit inițial din
Middle East and now grows wild in Orientul Mijlociu și acum crește
Mediterranean countries. It is a very sălbatic în țările mediteraneene. Este
large, pretty plant, with velvety gray- o plantă destul de mare, drăguță, cu
green leaves and beautiful, star- frunze verzi cravate verde și flori
shaped, vivid purple flowers: it is said violete frumoase, în formă de stea ,se
to lift the spirits, banish melancholy, spunea că alungă spiritele, pedepsea
and give courage. melancolia și dădea curaj.
It is a favorite of bees, because the  Este un favorit al albinelor, deoarece
flowers are filled with nectar. Although florile sunt umplute cu nectar. Deși
its use in the kitchen is limited, the utilizarea sa în bucătărie este limitată,
leaves give a refreshing cucumberlike frunzele oferă o aromă de castravete
flavor to drinks and salads. răcoritoare băuturilor și salatelor.
In China, the leaves are stuffed and În China, frunzele sunt umplute și
rolled like grape leaves, while the laminate ca frunze de struguri, în timp
Germans add the large leaves to stews ce germanii adaugă frunzele mari la
and court bouillons. It is a traditional tocană și bulionului de curte. Este o
part of the Pimm's No. 1. a gin-based parte tradițională a Pimmului nr. . o
drink that was created about 100 băutură pe bază de gin, care a fost
years ago by the proprietor of Pimm's creată acum 100 de ani de către
London restaurant. For a more proprietarul restaurantului Pimm din

43
elaborate garnish, crystallized flowers Londra. Pentru o garnitură mai
can be used. elaborată, pot fi folosite flori
(Pimm's is a brand of gin-based fruit cup, but cristalizate.
may also be considered a liqueur.)

3.1.9 Bitter Herbs

Term: Tansy
Romanian Translation Equivalent: Vetrice
Translating method: Free Translation
Synonims : cow bitter,bitter buttons
Definition of the term Translation of the
term
Tansy is a hardy perennial herb native Vetrica este o plantă perenă durabilă
to Europe. With its yellow buttonlike originară din Europa. Cu ciupercile
clusters of flowers and fernlike leaves sale galbene de flori și frunze de
it makes a decorative garden plant. frunze fac o plantă decorativă de
The Greeks and Romans regarded it as grădină. Grecii și romanii au privit-o ca
a symbol of immortality, while in Tudor pe un simbol al nemuririi, în timp ce în
England the dried leaves were plaeed Tudor, Anglia frunzele uscate au fost
in beds and elosets to repel insects așezate în paturi și elosuri pentru a
and vermin. In the seventeenth respinge insectele și viermii. În secolul
century, tansy tea was regarded as a al șaptesprezecelea, ceaiul de vetrice
stimulating tonic. It was once widely a fost privit ca un tonic stimulant.
used for its internal cleansing and Odată a fost folosit pe scară largă
purifying properties, although this is pentru proprietățile sale interne de
now considered dangerous. Tansy is curățare și purificare, deși acest lucru
also one of the bitter herbs of the este acum considerat periculos.
Jewish Passover. Because of its bitter Vetricele este, de asemenea, una
flavor, culinary uses for tansy are dintre ierburile amare ale Paștelui
limited, although it has been a Evreiesc. Datorită gustului său amar,
traditional ingredient in many cakes utilizările culinare pentru tansy sunt
and puddings. A "tansy" can also refer limitate, deși a fost un ingredient
to a dessert made with tansy leaves, tradițional în multe prăjituri și budinci.
served at Easter, and young leaves Vetricele se poate referi, de

44
and shoots can be used in salads, asemenea, la un desert făcut cu
omelets, and stuffings. frunze de vetrica, servit la Paște, iar
frunzele tinere și lăstarii pot fi folosite
în salate, omlete și umpluturi.

As a result I can say that tansy it is used as a flavoring for puddings and omelets,


also it can be very dangerous in inappropriate doses because his taste is very
bitter and can be even toxic,may cause dermatitits,and because of his toxicity
it used also as insecticide.

Term: Hyssop
Romanian Translation Equivalent : Isop
Translating method: Partial Translation
Definition of the term Translation of the term
This is an herb of great antiquity. Aceasta este o plantă apaținând
Frequently mentioned in the Bible antichiății. Frecvent menționată în
from Moses to John the Baptist. it was Biblie de la Moise la Ioan Botezătorul.
also venerated by the Arabs. a fost deasemenea venerată și de
The ancient Greeks boiled it with arabi.
honey and used it as a cough remedy. Vechii greci au fiert-o cu miere și au
Much used as a medicinal herb in the folosit-o ca remediu pentru tuse.
past, hyssop is also used to flavor Foarte folosită ca plantă medicinale în
liqueurs, such as the French trecut, isopul este folosit și pentru a
Chartreuse. aroma lichioruri, cum ar fi Chartreuse
francez.
The flavor is rather bitter, with a trace Aroma este mai degrabă amară, cu o
of mint, and some herbalists even find urmă de mentă, iar unii botanisti au
an overtone of rue. In the kitchen, it găsit chiar si sub străzi subterane. În
can be added to soups and stews, and bucătărie, se poate adăuga la supe și
a few fresh leaves will enliven a salad. tocană, iar câteva frunze proaspete
Hyssop is also used in tisanes, and vor însuflți o salată. Isopul este, de
when infused in a sugar syrup it can asemenea, utilizat în ceaiuri de plante
be added to fruit desserts. A fragrant și atunci când este infuzat într-un sirop
plant in the garden, it attracts both de zahăr, acesta poate fi adăugat la
bees and butterflies and has been said deserturile de fructe. O plantă

45
to discourage the cabbage butterfly parfumată în grădină, atrage atât
from damaging the vegetable patch. albine, cât și fluturi și se spune că
descurajează fluturele de varză
împotriva deteriorării grădinii de
legume.

The plant hyssop it is used also in cooking but not only hyssop is believed to
have soothing, expectorant, and cough suppressant properties.
Hyssop has been used for centuries in traditional medicine in order to increase
circulation and to treat multiple conditions such as coughing and sore throat
and can stimulate the gastrointestinal system.
Herb hyssop leaves are used as an aromatic condiment. The leaves have a
lightly bitter taste due to its tannins, and an intense minty aroma. Due to its
intensity, it is used moderately in cooking. The herb is also used to
flavor liqueur, and is part of the official formulation of Chartreuse.

Term : Coriander
Romanian Translation Equivalent: Coriandru
Translating method: Borrowing
Synonims: Chinese parsley, culantro, yuen sai
Definition of the term Translation of the
term
Native to Southern Europe as well as Este originar din Europa de Sud, Orientul
the Middle and Far East, this ancient Mijlociu și Orientul Îndepărtat, această plantă
annual herb, a member of the carrot anuală antică, un membru al familiei de
family, is one of the most popular morcovi, este una dintre cele mai populare
herbs in cuisines around the world. plante din bucătăriile din întreaga lume.
Coriander is a pretty plant, with white, Coriandrul este o plantă drăguță, cu flori albe,
pink, or pale mauve flowers and roz sau de culoare galbenă și frunze delicate de
delicate light green leaves, a little like verde deschis, un fel de patrunjel din frunze
flat-leaf parsley. Bunches of the fresh plate. Ciorchini de plante proaspete sunt
herb are available some disponibile în unele supermarketuri și magazine
in
supermarkets and gourmet stores, and de mâncare , iar semințele sunt întotdeauna pe
seeds are always on spice shelves. All rafturile de condimente. Toate părțile plantei
sunt folosite și fiecare are propria sa aromă
46
parts of the plant are used, and each distinctă. Frunzele au un accent slab al
has its own distinct flavor. The leaves anasonului, iar semințele amintesc vag de coaja
have a faint overtone of anise, and the de portocale. Rădăcina este utilizată pe scară
seeds are vaguely reminiscent of largă în curry-ul thailandez și în alte feluri de
orange peel. The root is widely used in mâncare din Asia de Sud-Est, și are un gust ca o
Thai curries and other Southeast Asian versiune intensificată a frunzelor. Una dintre
dishes, and it tastes like an intensified ierburile amare mâncate la Paște, coriandrul este
version of the leaves. One of the bitter menționată în Biblie și se găsesc semințe în
herbs eaten at Passover, coriander is mormintele faraonilor.
mentioned in the Bible, and seeds  Frunzele sunt favorizate în bucătăriile din
were found in the tombs of the Orientul Mijlociu, Spania, Portugalia și Mexic.
pharaohs.  

The leaves are favored in cuisines


throughout the Middle East, Spain,
Portugal, and Mexico.

The coriander is one of the well-known herb on the planet is has numerous
benefits,also used in cooking and medicine,it used from old times even from
the time of the pharaons .
The fresh leaves are an ingredient in many South Asian food ; in Chinese, Thai,
and Burmese dishes; in Mexican cooking, particularly
in salsa and guacamole and as a garnish.
Some people are allergic to coriander leaves or seeds, having symptoms
similar to those of other food allergies In one study, 32% of pin-prick tests in
children and 23% in adults were positive for coriander and other members of
the  Apiaceae  family, including caraway, fennel, and celery.  The allergic
symptoms may be minor or life-threatening.

Term : Bee Balm


Definition of the term: Balsam de albine
Translating method: Free translation
Synonims: Wild bergamot, horse mint
Definition of the term Definition of the term

47
A member of the mint family, bee balm is native Aparținând familiei Lamiacea, balsam de albine
to North America. It’s genus name. Monarda, este nativ din America de Nord. Este numele
derives from the Spanish physician, Nicholas genului. Monarda, provine de la medicul
Monardes, who first discovered and described it. spaniol, Nicholas Monardes, care l-a descoperit
The North American Oswego Indians made an pentru prima dată și la descris. Indienii nord-
herb tea from the leaves. At the time of the americani Oswego au făcut un ceai din frunze.
Boston Tea Party, settlers called it Oswego tea În timpul petrecerii ceaiului din Boston,
and drank it instead of tea imported from coloniștii au numit-o ceaiul Oswego și l-au băut
Britain. The young leaves can be used sparingly în locul ceaiului importat din Marea Britanie.
in salads or stuffings. Frunzele tinere pot fi folosite cu ușurință în
The flowers make a colorful garnish, either fresh salate sau în umpluturi.
or crystallized. Florile fac o garnitură colorată, fie proaspătă, fie
Two other plants are some times confused with cristalizată. Două alte plante se uneori cu
bee balm: eau de cologne mint and bergamot balsamul de albine: menta de colț și portocaliu
orange. de bergamot.
The latter is a small citrus plant with a sweet Acesta din urmă este o mică plantă de citrice cu
perfume that is grown in southern Italy. un parfum dulce cultivat în sudul Italiei.

Bee balm is such a delightful plant, with its splash of flowers, strong scent,
spicy taste and of course its affinity for bees  It can find its into your culinary
yet be some of our most potent medicine against infections. 
As a spicy carminative herb, bee balm can promote stagnant digestion and
relieve discomforts such as bloating, cramping and excessive gas.

3.1.10 Aromatic herbs

Term : Basil
Romanian Translation Equivalent: Busuioc
Translating method: Free translation
Definition of the term Translation of the term
Basil is one of the most important of Busuiocul este unul dintre cele mai
the culinary herbs. The Greek name importante plante culinare. Denumirea
for it means "king," which shows how greacă înseamnă "rege", care arată
highly it has been regarded cât de mult a fost privită de-a lungul
throughout the ages. veacurilor.
There are many types of basil, which  Există multe tipuri de busuioc, care
48
vary in size, color, and flavor, and all variază în funcție de dimensiune,
can be used for culinary purposes. culoare și aromă și toate pot fi folosite
Purple ruffle and dark opal are two of în scopuri culinare. Violet purpuriu și
the more unusual but useful varieties. opal întunecat sunt două dintre
Basil goes with almost everything, but soiurile mai neobișnuite, dar utile.
it has a special affinity with tomatoes. Busuiocul merge aproape cu totul, dar
Freshly torn basil leaves are delicious are o afinitate deosebită cu roșiile.
on a salad of sliced tomatoes, lightly  Frunzele proaspete de busuioc
seasoned with salt and freshly ground mărunțite sunt delicioase pe o salată
pepper and drizzled with a fruity extra- cu felii de roșii , ușor condimentate cu
virgin olive oil. accompanied by crusty sare și piper proaspăt măcinat și
bread. umplute cu un ulei de măsline fructat
Perhaps the greatest basil dish is extra-virgin însoțit de pâine crocantă.
pestoan Italian sauce of basil, garlic,  Poate că cel mai bun fel de mâncare
cheese, and pine nut—which turns cu busuioc este sosul italian de
spaghetti into a feast, although it can busuioc, usturoi, brânză și nuci de pin
also be used as a marinade. care transformă spaghetele într-o
Bottled pesto can be bought during sărbătoare, deși poate fi de asemenea
the months when it is too cold for basil folosită ca o marinadă.
to grow, which is certainly better than  Pestoul îmbuteliat poate fi cumpărat
having no basil at all. Italian cooks, în timpul lunilor în care este prea frig
however, preserve their prolific basil pentru a crește busuiocul proaspăt ,
crops by filling a jar with the leaves, ceea ce este cu siguranță mai bine
lightly salting them, topping up the jar decât lipsa busuiocului. Bucătarii
with olive oil. closing it tightly, and italieni, totuși, păstrează culturile
storing it in the refrigerator. proaspete de busuioc, prin umplerea
unui borcan cu frunze mărunțite , usor
sărate , umplând borcanul cu ulei de
măsline. închizându-l bine și
păstrându-l în frigider.

Basil is most commonly used fresh in recipes. In general, it is added at the last
moment, as cooking quickly destroys the flavor. The fresh herb can be kept for
a short time in plastic bags in the refrigerator, or for a longer period in the

49
freezer, after being blanched quickly in boiling water. Basil is one of the main
ingredients in pesto, a green Italian oil-and-herb sauce.

Terms: Marjoram and Oregano


Romanian Translation Equivalent : Maghiran si Oregano
Translating method: Free Translation
Definition of the term Translation of the term
These two perennial herbs are so Aceste două plante perene sunt atât
closely related that they do not need de strâns legate încât nu trebuie să fie
to be classified separately. The name clasificate separat. Numele oregano
oregano derives from the Greek for derivă din greacă pentru "bucuria
"joy of the mountains," which is where munților", unde se dezvoltă soiurile
the wild varieties of this herb thrive. sălbatice ale acestei plante. Ele sunt
They are similar in appearance, with asemănătoare în aspect, mici, moi,
small, soft, sometimes mottled green uneori cu frunze verzi pestrite și cu
leaves and small white or pink flowers flori mici albe sau roz care formează
that form clusters. clustere.
Marjoram has a more delicate flavor  Măghiranul are o aromă mai delicată
and is a gentler herb than oregano, și este o plantă mai fină decât
which is actually a wild variety of oregano, care este de fapt o varietate
marjoram and has a more potent sălbatică de măghiran și având o
flavor. aromă mai puternică.
These herbs are native to the  Aceste ierburi sunt originare din
Mediterranean region, appearing in regiunea mediteraneană, care apar în
many French and Italian dishes, multe feluri de mâncare franceză și
especially tomato-based sauces. italiană, în special sosurile de roșii.
The more robust flavor of oregano is Cea mai putrnica aromă a oreganului
the quintessential pizza flavoring, and este acea aroma chintesențială din
it is also a favorite herb in Greece. pizza și este, de asemenea, o planta
It is one of the ingredients of favorită în Grecia.
commercial chili powder. There are  Este unul dintre ingredientele pudrei
many more wild species, most of de chili comerciale. Există mai multe
which grow in Greece, where they are specii sălbatice, majoritatea crescând
all called by one name, rigani. în Grecia, unde toți sunt chemați cu un
These are more strongly flavored and singur nume, rigani.

50
coarser than either ordinary marjoram Acestea sunt mai puternic aromate și
or oregano. mai groase decât maghiranul obișnuit
sau oregano.

As a conclusion of this two plants,I can say that both are very used in every
kitchen and are the base of pleanty dishes especially mediterranean dishes.
Oregano is related to the herb marjoram, sometimes being referred to as wild
marjoram. It has an aromatic, warm, and slightly bitter taste, which can vary in
intensity. Good-quality oregano may be strong enough almost to numb the
tongue, but cultivars adapted to colder climates may have a lesser flavor. 

Term : Rosemary
Romanian Translation Equivalent: Rozmarin
Translation method: Free translation
Definition of the term Translation of the term
The name of this lovely aromatic herb, Numele acestei plante aromatice
with its needlelike leaves and delicate minunate, cu frunzele cu ace și florile
light blue flowers, is derived from Latin delicate albastru deschis, deriva din
and means "dew of the sea." latină și înseamnă "roua mării".
This is appropriate because the plant Acest lucru este adevărat deoarece
is indigenous to the Mediterranean planta este sălbatică din zona
area, where it thrives in the calcium- mediteraneeană, unde se dezvoltă în
rich soil, the dry climate, and the salty solul bogat în calciu, în climatul uscat
sea spray. și în stropii cu apă sarată.
It has a strong flavor that is pungent Are o aromă puternică, înțepată, dar
but undeniably pleasant. In Italy, it is fără îndoială plăcută. În Italia, este
the preferred herb with veal, poultry, planta preferată în mâncarurile cu
or lamb dishes, especially those vițel,în mâncăruri cu carne de pasăre
simmered with wine, olive oil, and sau de miel, fierți cu vin, ulei de
garlic. măsline și usturoi.
This versatile herb tastes good with Această plantă versatilă are un gust
strongly flavored vegetables, jams and bun cu legume puternice aromate,
jellies, and even wine punches. It gemuri și jeleuri și chiar cu must . Ar
should always be paired with lamb; a trebui să fie întotdeauna asociat cu

51
sprig placed on a roasting leg lends carnea de miel; o crenguță așezată pe
the meat an incomparable flavor. o picior de prăjit dă carnei un gust
incomparabil .

Conclusions

I have started my paper with the evolution of English Language


Vocabulary which I presented in Chapter 1,I itried to develop the some aspects
regarding evolution of the English Language from Old English Period to Modern English Period, I
also tried to describe the events that took place and what repercussions they had concerning the
evolution of vocabulary of English Langauge,The sources that I have consulted are :Jepperson
,Growth and Structure of the English Language,1905,p:162),(Deutschmann Mats, A (very) Brief
History of English,2014,p:10)(https://www.thehistoryofenglish.com/history_old.html).
My second chapter outlines the ideea of Mediterranean food term,the
evolution, forming and spreading them in different countries of the world. This
terms are : pasta,cheese and herbs which I
represented from an etymological point of view. Because I found out that their
origin started even from Old Period and remains even today ,making our live
more beautiful.
I choosed this three terms because I considered interesting with a special
background behind and because they are very well-known.
My purpose in chapter 3 was to develop the ideea that food and translation
can be a source of inspiration,for example the term pasta which I presented
first, has so many terms to speak about and to translate too. At the same time I
tried to choose some terms which I consider interestin gsuch as:
Agnolloti,Canneloni,Capelli d’Angelo ..
There are very specific terms in each language for ingredients, preparation
methods and tasks which means the translator need to be very informed
regarding the denomination of foods.  Food is a very specialized area in
translation and needs to be handled carefully.  

52
Translation has many things in common with the vast area of food. The
simplest analogy could be the comparison of the act of translation with the
preparation of a dish. Translation begins with an alien text made up of words
that are strung together through syntax and grammar; similarly, a foreign dish
consists of a number of unusual ingredients, combined in such a way as to
create a dish that is acceptable within a diverse culinary culture.
Also the culture and the country where a specific dish comes from can
influence the translation because the specific terms from a specific region can
be very hard to translate so research need to be done,to find synonyms of that
dish,to find the history of that dish and also the roots.
People influence also the food,because they give the name of a dish,so it
depends of nationality and country and tradition also how the term is
translated.
A techique that I used translating food terms is : borrowing meant to o
recreate the flavor of the source language, lots of terms entered in Romanian
Language through borrowing for example pasta terms, I found that 4 terms
from 5 are borrowed from Italian to Romanian.
Agnolloti,Bucatini,Canederli,Cannelloni.
In point of translation 34 food terms of which 11 term are translate by the
technique of free translation also 16 term entered in Romanian Language
through borrowing,1 terms from word-for-word translation and 3 terms
translated by the technique of adaptation,and by the technique of semantic
translation 4 terms.
So the results outline the idea that the majority of terms are adopted by the
Romanian language through borrowing and this is an amazing fact because
borrowing is the most used technique in every language meant to develop the
characteristics of adaptability and enrich language with new words.
This chapter highlights a small part of what Mediterranen food means in
point of terminology, I tried to find some representative terms to prove the
Mediterranean quintessence, and translated them through different techniques.

53
Bibliography

 Baugh Albert and Cable Thomas ,A history of English Language,Routledge,1959

 Bojji Geert,Models of Inflections, Max Niemeyer Verlag Tübingen,1998

 Deutschmann Mats, A (very) Brief History of English, M.: Mid Sweden University,2014

 Freedman, Paul. Food: The History of Taste,  Berkeley: University of

California Press, 2007

 Harbutt Juliet,World of Cheese,DK New Edition,2015

 Hildebrand & Kenedy ,The Geometry of Pasta,Baxtree,2010

 Harold Mc Gee,On Food and Cooking,The Science and Lore of the

Kitchen, John Wiley & Sons; 1st Collier Books Ed edition,1992

 Jepperson ,O.,Growth and Structure of the English Language, Cole Press,1905

 John Algeo,The Origins and Development of the English Language,Cengage

Learning,Inc,1964

54
 Lambert Elisabeth, Encyclopedia of Herbs,Spices

Flavorings,DorlingKindersley,NewYork,1992

 Lipka Leophard,An outline of Engish Lexicology,Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag,1992

 Kiple F. Kenneth The Cambridge World History of Food, Cambridge

University Press,2000

Dictionaries

 Sinclair Charles,Dictionary of Food,International Food and Cooking Terms

from A to Z,Second Edttion,1998

 Collin’s Etymological Dictionary ,London and Glasnow,Collin’s Clear-Type Press,1962

 The American Heritage Dictionary , American Heritage Publishing Co./ Houghton

Mifflin,1969

 Walter.W. Skeat,Etimological Dictionary of English Language,Oxford

University Press ,1910

Web references

 (https://www.britannica.com/topic/lingua-franca)
 https://cheese-store.com/the-major-types-and-kinds-of-cheese/

 (https://www2.gracenotes.info/topics/english.pdf )
 (https://www.thehistoryofenglish.com/history_old.html

 https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-collocation-1211244
 .
(http://www.davidpublisher.org/Public/uploads/Contribute/56f2519a
651eb.pdf )
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_words_of_French_origin)

 (http://mentalfloss.com/article/57738/14-common-food-and-drink-words-

arabic-origins

 https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-and-

history/magazine/2016/07-08/daily-life-pasta-italy-neapolitan-diet/

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 (http://www.thenibble.com/REVIEWS/main/cheese/cheese2/history.asp)

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