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Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection - Tolerances for Formed Head:

There are specific rules for dimensional checking of formed heads, based the fact that
the UG-81 inner surface shall not deviate outside of the specified shape more than
11⁄4% of D and inside the shape more than 5⁄8%.

You can use sweep boards, which are made by cutting a thin steel sheet or piece of
wood for checking your crown and knuckle radius.

For your skirt, the difference between the maximum and minimum inside diameter,
should not be more than 1%, and you can use a tape measure or laser measure for
dimensional control of the skirt.

So to fully understand, let's check the following head together:

Limit for Outside of specified Shape = 3364 x 1 ¼% = 42.05 mm

Limit for Inside of specified Shape = 3364 x 5/8 % = 21.025 mm

So we check the depth, and the drawing is 656.3 mm and the actual is 672 mm, so it is
outside of the shape. We need to check if it is in the range of tolerance, so the
maximum outside of the shape will be 42.05 + 656.3 = 698.35 so our actual value is
672 mm. 672<698.35, so it is OK.

We cut a sweep board equal to the head drawing crown radius (3400 mm) and other
one for the knuckle radius equal to 204 mm, so we try to fit the sweep boards in the
heads for the above example of the sweep boards. The edge distance to the head
surface should not be deviate from the above limited values.

Skirt max and min ID should not be more than 1% of the ID, which is 33.64 mm. So,
in the above example skirt is also is OK. Our nominal thickness is 20 mm, so up to
19.746 is acceptable then for the above example. The thickness dimension is also OK.

So the above head dimensions are ok


Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection - Out of Roundness of Shell:

No. Specification Particular


1 Nominal Diameter 800mm
2 Actual Diameter 805mm
3 Actual Tolerance +5mm
4 Tolerance (±1% of Diameter) ±8mm

5 Acceptable Range 5mm ≤ 8mm


6 Approval Yes

Based on the table above, it is the example of the measurement from an inspection.
The nominal diameter is 800mm and the actual is 805mm. The actual tolerance we can get
from the measurement is +5mm. Therefore, the tolerance is acceptable because it do not
achieved the maximum tolerance which is ±8mm.

Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection - Nozzles and Attachments Orientation:

Step/procedure:

1. Check the nozzle orientation in the design drawing. For example, our nozzle located at
90° from the top view of drawing.
2. Measure the circumference of the vessel by using formula given,

Circumference = π x OD. In our case, the tank OD is 800mm.

Circumference = 3.142 X 800mm = 2513.6mm

3. Distributed the total circumference to 360 degree to get each degree measurement.

2513.6/360 = 6.98mm (1° equivalent to 6.98mm)

4. Multiple the distance per degree to 90 to get a 90o measurement

6.98 X 90 = 628.2mm

5. Tolerance for the nozzle based on Pressure Vessel Hanbook is ±0.5° (±3.49mm)

6. The range for nozzle circumference is between;

628.2mm – 3.49mm = 624.71mm


628.2mm + 3.49mm = 631.69mm

If the tape shows in the following range as above, it is approved.

The orientation tolerances for nozzles and attachments is not specified according to
ASME Code SEC VIII Div 1, thus you need refer to the pressure vessel handbook.

It is almost +/- 1 degree. By using a measuring tape in the actual measurement work
on the vessel, the orientation check can also be done by a simple calculation.