Sie sind auf Seite 1von 110

Heft 614 (en)

DEUTSCHER AUSSCHUSS FOR STAHLBETON

German Committee for Structural Concrete

Commentary on the DAfStb Guideline


"Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete"

Berlin 2015 Beuth


Herausgeber:
Deutscher Ausschuss fur Stahlbeton e.V.
Budapester StraBe 31
10787 Berlin
info@dafstb.de

© 2015 Deutscher Ausschuss fur Stahlbeton e. V.


Budapester StraBe 31
10787 Berlin

Telefon: +49 30 2693-1320


Telefax: +49 30 2693-1319
Internet: www.dafstb.de
Email: info@dafstb.de

Das Werk einschlieBlich aller seiner Teile ist urheberrechtlich geschutzt.


Jede Verwertung auBerhalb der Grenzen des Urheberrechts ist ohne
schriftliche Zustimmung des Verlages unzulassig und strafbar. Das gilt
insbesondere fur Vervielfaltigungen, Obersetzungen, Mikroverfilmungen
und die Einspeicherung in elektronischen Systemen.

Die im Werk enthaltenen lnhalte wurden vom Verfasser und Verlag sorg-
faltig erarbeitet und geprOft. Eine Gewahrleistung fur die Richtigkeit
des lnhalts wird gleichwohl nicht Obernommen. Der Verlag haftet nur fur
Schaden, die auf Vorsatz oder grobe Fahrlassigkeit seitens des Verlages
zurOckzufOhren sind. Im Obrigen ist die Haftung ausgeschlossen.

Druck: Medienhaus Plump, Rheinbreitbach


Gedruckt auf saurefreiem, alterungsbestandigem Papier nach DIN EN ISO 9706

ISSN 0171-7197
ISBN 978-3-410-65279-3
Heft 614 (en)

DEUTSCHER AUSSCHUSS FOR STAHLBETON

German Committee for Structural Concrete

Commentary on the DAfStb Guideline


"Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete"

1st edition 2015

Herausgeber:
Deutscher Ausschuss fur Stahlbeton e.V. - DAfStb

Beuth Verlag GmbH · Berlin . Wien . Zurich


Normen-Download-Beuth-Arcadis-KdNr. 7888555-LfNr. 7605648001-2016-08-10 09:30

(I)
"""
(D
......
,....
~
Preamble to this Comment
Steel fibre reinforced concrete has been used successfully for many decades. Yet a mandatory guideline or
standard for this material was not adopted as a Technical Construction Regulation in Germany until 2010.
Since the 1990s, the principal applications of steel fibre reinforced concrete have been the construction of
industrial floors and tunnels. Guides to Best Practice published by the German Society for Concrete and
Construction Technology (Deutscher Beton- und Bautechnik-Verein E.V. (DBV)) have also been available for
such applications since the 1990s as an aid to the designers of such members.
In 2001, the DBV finally published a Guide to Best Practice for the general design of steel fibre reinforced
concrete members which is applicable to all such concrete members. The Guide is essentially based on the
DBV's "Guide to Best Practice for Tunnel Construction", but also includes European developments such as
work by RILEM, for example. The "Guide to Best Practice for Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete", also
published by the DBV, has proved to be a valuable aid to handling and designing such concrete. The DBV
went on to publish a Design Handbook with numerous examples to facilitate the application of the DBV
Guide. These aids were drawn up jointly by the Institutes of Concrete Structures at Ruhr-University Bochum
and Braunschweig Technical University respectively.
As the DBV Guides to Best Practice do not have the same status as standards and have not been adopted
by the Building Inspectorate, individual approvals or general building inspectorate approvals were still
required for structural members. It was for this reason that the German Committee for Reinforced Concrete
(DAfStb) decided to prepare a guideline for steel fibre reinforced concrete. It was important to draw up the
provisions in such a way that the Building Inspectorate committees would be able to endorse the contents of
the Guideline, thus enabling the Building Inspectorate to adopt the new rules. Published in March 2010, the
Guideline is divided into three parts and corresponds to the standards DIN 1045 (a multi-part standard) and
DIN EN 206-1. In short, the "Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete" Guideline amends the relevant clauses of
DIN 1045-1, DIN EN 206-1, DIN 1045-2 and DIN 1045-3 to include the provisions required for steel fibre
reinforced concrete. Those clauses of DIN 1045:2008-08 that have not been amended continue to apply and
are therefore not included in the Guideline. The DAfStb Guidelines "Concrete Construction when Handling
Substances Harmful to Water" and "Water-impermeable Concrete Structures", in which the use of steel fibre
reinforced concrete is explicitly referred to, continue to apply alongside the "Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete"
Guideline. The Guideline has now been included in the List of Technical Construction Regulations in the
individual States of the Federal Republic of Germany, thus acquiring, as intended, the same status as a
standard.
The Guideline was adapted to the new standards for concrete construction in 2012. Thus Part 1 of the
Guideline was revised on the basis of DIN EN 1992-1-1 in conjunction with DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA. While DIN
EN 206-1 and DIN 1045-2, published in 2001 and 2008 respectively, continued to form the basis of concrete
technology, a new European Standard for the execution of concrete structures, DIN EN 13670, was
published in 2011 and now applies in conjunction with the revised, March 2012 edition of DIN 1045-3.
Consequently, Part 3 of the Guideline also needed to be adapted to the new standards for the execution of
concrete structures. As a result of the new standards situation and considering the experience gathered with
the application of the 2010 edition of the Guideline, the DAfStb Management Board decided at the end of
2011 to publish the revised Guideline once again as a draft and call for comments from experts in the field.
The commenting procedure was concluded in the summer of 2012. The German Federal States have now
begun to include the Guideline in their respective Lists of Technical Construction Regulations and this
process is expected to be concluded in 2015. The revised version of the Guideline (including any editorial
amendments) will then have the same status as a standard, in line with the European specifications.
The Comment on the 2012 edition of the "Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete" Guideline are split into two parts.
The provisions of the Guideline are explained in Part A which is presented in two columns, the text of the
Guideline being reproduced on the left and the explanatory notes being given on the right. Part B of the
Comment contains background information on the safety concept, the derivation of the design residual
tensile strengths and aids to application of the Guideline in the form of design charts.
The Comment was elaborated by the Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Subcommittee of the DAfStb and
subsequently submitted to the DAfStb's Design and Construction Technical Committee. They were thus
approved using a procedure similar to that employed in standardization work, in other words, with a
consensus of opinion being reached by all parties involved. My special thanks go to all participants for their
reliable and prompt realisation of these commentaries.
Bochum, September 2014

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-lng. habil. Peter Mark


(Convenor of the Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Subcommittee of the DAfStb)
Preamble to this guideline
The guideline regulates the properties and applications of the material "steel fibre reinforced concrete" that
are not covered by DIN EN 1992-1-1 in conjunction with DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA (Eurocode 2), DIN EN 206-1
in conjunction with DIN 1045-2 and DIN EN 13670 in conjunction with DIN 1045-3 or by the DAfStb
guidelines on concrete exposed to water-contaminating substances or those on concrete structures that
are impermeable to water. The use of steel fibre reinforced concrete is provided in both of the above
guidelines.

Through the use of steel fibres in cracked concrete, tension can be transferred across the crack. This
property can be used at the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state. Tensile resistance will
usually decrease with increasing deformation, i.e. after crack formation, the load-displacement curve will
point downward. Figure V.1 shows the principle characteristics of steel fibre reinforced concrete compared
with non-reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete.

F
----------Lil ~I= n ·wre
concrete
--o:::r::rr:rr:
F
+---------Lil
reinforced concrete

steel fibre concrete

Figure V.1 - Load-deformation behaviour of concrete, steel fibre reinforced concrete and
reinforced concrete

This guideline classifies steel fibre reinforced concrete into performance classes based on residual flexural
strength. There are two performance classes:
Q

:
Q
Performance class L1 for minor deformations;
~ Performance class L2 for larger deformations in combination with reinforcement.
~
~ The design engineer shall specify the performance classes. The concrete composition including fibre type
~ and dosage shall be determined by the manufacturer of the steel fibre reinforced concrete.
Q
Q

~
~..:
if:
;t
:g
~
~
t~
'5
!:"'
~
;S
:,
&l
-6

i"'
0
9
~
E
~
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

Part A: Explanatory Notes on Part 1 of the Guideline


"Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Additions and changes to
DIN EN 1992-1-1 and DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA
Re 1 General
Re 1.1 Scope
Re 1.1.2 Scope of Part 1-1 of Eurocode 2
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (1)P is replaced

(1)P Together with Part 1-1 of Eurocode 2, this To avoid bond creep, steel fibres shall have a
guideline covers the design and construction of load- positive mechanical anchorage.
bearing structures (including civil engineering
structures) made from steel fibre reinforced concrete For structural elements designed in accordance with
and steel fibre reinforced concrete with the Guideline, it must be demonstrated that the
reinforcement up to compressive strength class equilibrium system remains stable from the time at
CS0/60. This guideline shall only apply when using which cracking occurs until the ultimate limit state is
steel fibres with positive mechanical anchorage. reached. An equilibrium system that is stable after
cracking has ended (final crack pattern) can be
NOTE: Mechanically anchored fibres are usually achieved as follows:
corrugated or hooked end fibres or fibres with nail heads.
- redistribution of internal forces and moments
For structural elements subjected to bending and within statically indeterminate systems;
tension stresses, which are calculated according to - combination with reinforced concrete;
this guideline, an equilibrium system must be - normal compression due to external actions.
demonstrated for the entire system (system
equilibrium) after cracking formation until the
ultimate limit state has been reached. An equilibrium
system for this state can be achieved if at least one
of the following conditions are met:

- redistribution of internal forces and moments The concept of "loadbearing capacity of the cross-
within statically indeterminate systems; section and the system" should be introduced at this
- combination with reinforcement; point. Adequate ductility can thus be demonstrated
- normal compression due to external actions. at cross-sectional level if the minimum reinforcement
specified in 9.2.1.1 is used and, at system level, by
Statically determinate systems whose flexural load- redistribution. The effect of steel fibres can reduce
bearing capacity is derived from steel fibres of a the minimum amount of reinforcing steel required to
single cross-section only are not permissible. In ensure the ductile behaviour of structural members.
these cases, cross-sectional equilibrium shall be However, it should be noted that the flexural
ensured with additional reinforcement. loadbearing capacity of cross-sections in statically
determinate systems must not be achieved solely by
means of steel fibres. The cross-sectional
equilibrium of statically determinate systems must be
ensured by additional steel reinforcement.

Even though normal compression is a possible


condition for demonstrating equilibrium, there is
currently still insufficient experience and information
on the combination with prestressed concrete and
steel fibre reinforced concrete to allow for general
standardization. Steel fibre reinforced concrete is
also used for prestressed members within the
framework of general building inspectorate
approvals.

5
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

Other than in the purely tensile test, referred to in the


Preamble, the three conditions listed above (indents
in Section 1.1.2) result in an ascending load-
deformation curve for the structural member even
though the material behaviour of steel fibre
reinforcE3d concrete is generally characterised by a
descending load-deformation curve. This shows that
the members exhibit ductile behaviour.

There is currently insufficient experience and


expertise with the combination of lightweight
concrete and steel fibres to allow for general
standardization.

High-strength concrete develops a higher degree of


bonding with the steel fibres, these being far more
firmly anchored. The desired failure mechanism
whereby the fibres are pulled out gradually cannot
be ensured in each case. It can be assumed that the
steel fibres generally used for normal-weight
concrete will fail by snapping if used in high-strength
concrete. Accordingly, fibres with higher tensile
strengths must be used in high-strength concrete to
avoid sudden failure of this nature. Again, there is
only very limited relevant experience so far within
the framework of general building inspectorate
approvals. The combination of high-strength
concrete and steel fibres is therefore not covered in
the Guideline.

As regards self-compacting concrete, there is


insufficient relevant experience and expertise in
Germany to enable this application to be generally
permitted. General building inspectorate approvals
are therefore still required for such applications.

With regard to the use of steel fibres in shotcrete,


please refer to DIN EN 14487 in conjunction with
DIN 18551.

Due to their relatively small diameter, it can


generally be assumed today that, given the same
environmental conditions, steel fibres have a higher
resistance to corrosion than conventional reinforcing
steel. This is due to their lower surface area. In
particular, the small fibre dimensions and the lack of
an electrical connection between the fibres are
reasons for the higher resistance to corrosion.

It has not been possible to detect any additional,


accelerated corrosion for crack widths of less than
0.2 mm under any environmental conditions in the
investigations conducted so far. As experience has
so far essentially been gathered under laboratory
conditions, the use of concrete reinforced with steel
fibres only has been ruled out for exposure classes
XD2, XD3, XS2 and XS4 within the framework of this
Guideline. However, the requirements for steel fibre

6
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

reinforced concrete without additional steel


reinforcement have been made more stringent to
compensate for uncertainties in the model for
determining the crack width (see explanatory notes
on 7.3.1) and exposure classes XD2, XD3, XS2 and
XS4 have not been included in the scope of the
Guideline.

In the exposure classes referred to above, steel


fibres may only be used in conjunction with
conventional reinforcing steel.
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (4)P is supplemented

In addition, this guideline does not apply to the


following building materials and components:

- components made of prestressed or post-


tensioned steel fibre reinforced concrete;
- no-fines and regular lightweight concrete;
- high-strength concrete of strength class C55/67
and above;
- self-compacting concrete;
- steel fibre shotcrete;
- steel fibre reinforced concretes without steel
reinforcement in exposure classes XS2, XD2, XS3
and XD3, if the effect of steel fibres is used for
design.

NOTE on the last indent: Steel fibre reinforced concrete


with reinforcement shall in principle be used in all
exposure classes and taken into account in calculations of
limit states.

DIN EN 1992-1-1, a new paragraph (R.5) is added

(R.5) Correspondingly, this guideline also applies to


non-load-bearing components. In such cases, the
application of this guideline shall be agreed on a
case-by-case basis.

Re 1.2 Normative references


Re 1.2.2 Other normative references
The following normative references shall apply to
this part of the guideline in addition to the
information in DIN EN 1992-1-1 and DIN EN 1992-1-
1/NA.

DIN EN 14889-1, Fibres for concrete - Part 1: Steel


fibres - Definitions, specifications and conformity;
German version

Re 1.5 Definitions
Re 1.5.2 Additional terms and definitions used in this standard
The following terms and symbols shall apply to this
part of the guideline in addition to the information in
DIN EN 1992-1-1 and DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA.

7
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

The following terms are added

Re R. 1.5.2.27 Steel fibre reinforced concrete


Steel fibre reinforced concrete is concrete according
to DIN EN 206-1/DIN 1045-2, to which steel fibres
are added to achieve certain properties. This
guideline uses a calculation method to take the
effect of the fibres into account.

Re R. 1.5.2.28 Residual tensile strength


Hypothetical tensile strength of the steel fibre
reinforced concrete in the tensile zone after the
tensile strength of the concrete alone has been
exceeded (post crack tensile strength). The actual
tensile forces occurring in the steel fibres are
"smeared" over the concrete tensile zone; the
resulting direction of force is in normal orientation to
the crack area.

Re R. 1.5.2.29 Residual flexural strength


The value for the cross-sectional resistance
corresponding to the flexural tensile strength upon
bending after cracking (post crack flexural strength).

Re R. 1.5.2.30 Performance class


Indicator of the characteristic values for residual
flexural strengths of steel fibre reinforced concrete
for deformations 1 and 2. Deformations 1 and 2
correspond to deflections measured from beam tests
according to Annex 0, Part 2.

Re 1.6 Symbols
The following Latin upper case symbols are added

Atct (sectional) area of tension zone in the


concrete of the cracked cross-sections or
plastic hinges for a given equilibrium
system
c:,
Afs,min minimum sectional area of reinforcement
'c:,"'
.;; for steel fibre reinforced concrete
...cl,
c:, Ftd bending force resulting from the residual
c:, tensile strength of the steel fibre
...<b
c:, reinforced concrete
...
~
c:,
c:,
L Performance class
0:, L1 Performance class 1
~ L2 Performance class 2
..."'..:
c:,
<o
VfRdc design shear resistance of steel fibre
~ reinforced member without shear
;t reinforcement
"'"'
0:,
0:, VRd,cf design shear resistance resulting from
1e..: steel fibre effect
~ VfRd,s design shear force which can be
~
'S sustained by the yielding shear rein-
'~" forcement and the steel fibre effect
1
:S
:,

,,,"'
CQ

'C:"
.S!
~
0
9C:
"' 8
E
~
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

The following Latin lower case symbols are added

lcw basic value of residual tensile strength of


steel fibre reinforced concrete
f
f ctO,L 1 basic value of residual tensile strength of
steel fibre reinforced concrete in
performance class 1 when using the
complete stress-strain curve according to
Figures R.2 or R.3
f
f ct0,L2 basic value of residual tensile strength of
steel fibre reinforced concrete in
performance class 2 when using the
complete stress-strain curve according to
Figures R.1 or R.2
f
f ctO,s basic value of residual tensile strength at
the serviceability limit state when using
reinforcement
f
f ctO,u basic value of residual tensile strength at
the ultimate limit state when using the
rectangular stress block and
reinforcement
/cflk characteristic value of residual flexural
strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete
f
f ctd,L1 design value of residual tensile strength in
performance class 1 when using the
complete stress-strain curve according to
Figures R.1 or R.2
f
f ctd,L2 design value of residual tensile strength in
performance class 2 when using the
complete stress-strain curve according to
Figures R.1 or R.2
f
f ctd,s design value of residual tensile strength at
the serviceability limit state when using
the rectangular stress block and
reinforcement
f
f ctd,u design value of residual tensile strength at
the ultimate limit state when using the
rectangular stress block and
reinforcement
f
f ctR,j calculated value of residual tensile
strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete
f
f ctR,L1 calculated value of residual tensile
strength in performance class 1 when
using the complete stress-strain curve
according to Figures R.1 or R.2
f
f ctR,L2 calculated value of residual tensile
strength in performance class 2 when
using the complete stress-strain curve
according to Figures R.1 or R.2
f
f ctR,s calculated value of residual tensile
strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete
in the serviceability limit state when using
reinforcement
f
f ctR,u calculated value of residual tensile
strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete
in the ultimate limit state when using the
rectangular stress block and
reinforcement

9
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

/w length over which a crack is smeared to


obtain characteristic strains for steel fibre
reinforced concrete in tension
vRd,ct design shear resistance in the critical
section provided by the steel fibre effect
vtRd,c punching shear resistance along the
critical perimeter of a slab without
punching shear reinforcement considering
the fibre effect
z1 inner lever arm resulting from the residual
tensile strength of steel fibre reinforced
concrete

Greek lower case letters are added

a ratio of the calculated residual tensile


strength value of steel fibre reinforced
concrete to the mean tensile strength of
the concrete; reduction factor taking into
account long-term effects on the residual
tensile strength of steel fibre reinforced
concrete
/J factor for determining the basic value of
residual tensile strength
J deflection
K factor to take effects from the member
size into account; factor to take fibre
orientation into account
a1 ratio of the calculated residual tensile
strength value to the mean tensile
strength
reduction factor which is aligned with the
design concept of this document to allow
for long-term effects on the residual
tensile strength of steel fibre reinforced
concrete
factor for determining the basic value of
residual tensile strength in performance
class 1 when using the complete stress-
strain curve according to Figures R.1 or
R.2
factor for determining the basic value of
residual tensile strength in performance
class 2 when using the complete stress-
strain curve according to Figures R.1 or
R.2
/Js factor for determining the basic value of
residual tensile strength in the
serviceability limit state when using
reinforcement
/Ju factor for determining the basic value of
residual tensile strength at the ultimate
limit state when using the rectangular
stress block and reinforcement
f
Y ct partial safety factor for residual tensile
strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete

10
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

8 L1 deflection in a test according to Part 2,


Annex O to evaluate residual tensile
strength in performance class 1
8 L2 deflection in a test according to Part 2,
Annex O to evaluate residual tensile
strength in performance class 2
etc compressive strain in the steel fibre
reinforced concrete
/c, tensile strain in the steel fibre reinforced
concrete
efct,u ultimate tensile strain in the steel fibre
reinforced concrete
e\m mean strain in the reinforcement taking
into account the steel fibre effect
/t 8 factor taking into account the effect of
member size on the coefficient of variation
/tF factor taking into account the fibre
orientation to calculate the design value of
residual tensile strength from the basic
value
Pw,min minimum reinforcement ratio taking
the effect of fibres into account
(j) \ adjusted maximum bar diameter for crack
width analysis taking into account the
steel fibre effect
o.tc, tensile stress in the steel fibre reinforced
concrete

Re 2 Basis of design
Re 2.2 Principles of limit state design
DINEN1992-1-1,anewparagraph(R.2)isadded In accordance with DIN EN 1992-1-1, the limits at
which failure occurs are defined as ultimate strains
or in terms of the loadbearing capacity of the system
(R.2) The ultimate limit state is deemed to have in DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, cf. Section 5.7.
been reached if the critical cross-sections of the
load-bearing structure has reached

- the critical strain for steel fibre reinforced concrete For non-linear calculations, the strain criteria
or referred to here serve as criteria for the acceptance
- the critical steel strain or of equilibrium conditions occurring in the ultimate
- the critical concrete strain or limit state.

if the whole system has reached the critical state of


an indifferent equilibrium. Stabilising the system by
using tensile concrete strength or tensile steel fibre
reinforced concrete strength is not permissible, while
residual tensile strength may be used for stabilising.

Re 2.4 Verification by the partial factor method


Re 2.4.2 Design values
Re 2.4.2.4 Partial factor for materials
DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, Table 2.1DE is supplemented The scatter of experimentally determined residual
tensile strengths around a mean value decreases as
the cross-sectional dimensions of the test specimen

11
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

A new Column 4 in accordance with Table R.1 is increase. Consequently, higher 5 % fractiles of the
added to Table 2.1 DE. residual tensile strengths are obtained for the same
mean value as the cross-sectional dimensions
increase. The correlation between scatter and size
of the cross-section has therefore been established
here by introducing the factor ,/8 . The factor ,/8
enables for a constant partial safety factor Yet
independent of the cross-section always ensuring
the required probability of failure.

Further details on the safety concept are given in the


article "Safety concept of the DAfStb Guideline
"Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete'"' in Part B of the
General Commentaries.

Table R.1 - Partial safety factor for steel fibre reinforced concrete at ultimate limit states
(supplement to DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, Table 2.1 DE)
Column 1 4

Row Design situation


Yet for steel fibre reinforced concrete
with or without reinforcement
1 Persistent and transient
1.25
2 Accidental

Re NA.2.8 Documentation
Re NA.2.8.2 Drawings
DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, Paragraph (3}P, the indent is
supplemented

- the performance classes of the steel fibre


reinforced concrete

DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, new paragraphs (R.5)P and


(R.6)P are inserted

(R.5)P Reinforcement drawings shall also be


prepared for steel fibre reinforced concrete with and
without reinforcement. Areas in which steel fibre
reinforced concrete is used shall be marked
accordingly. The drawings shall include information
on compressive strength classes, exposure classes
and the required performance classes. For the
maximum length of steel fibres the spacing of steel
reinforcement should be considered.

(R.6)P The concrete sections and concrete work


sequence shall be specified in the execution
drawings.

Re 3 Materials
DIN EN 1992-1-1, the new sections R.3.5 and R.3.6
are inserted

12
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

Re R.3.5 Steel fibres


(1)P DIN 1045-2 in conjunction with DIN EN 14889-1 The production of concrete with such steel fibres is
shall apply. The conformity of the steel fibres shall dealt with in DIN EN 206-1 in conjunction with
be confirmed according to system "1". DIN 1045-2. Loose steel fibres in accordance with
DIN EN 14889-1 whose conformity has been
demonstrated in accordance with System "1" are
considered suitable. Steel fibres according to DIN
EN 14889-1 that are temporarily glued together in
bundles or supplied in dispensing packs are also
deemed suitable if, in addition, the suitability of the
form of delivery has been demonstrated by a
building inspectorate approval.

Limiting the scope of this Guideline to steel fibres


with a positive mechanical anchorage (Figure ER3-
1) ensures that the specifications remain within the
limits of the range of experience gathered with
testing and approvals for fibres and members over
many years.

It is for these reasons and owing to the performance


required for applications within the scope of this
Guideline that fibres made of cold-drawn steel wire
(Group I in accordance with DIN EN 14889-1) will
have to be used in most cases.

The main differences in performance are a result of


the geometry of the fibres and the materials used.

The performance of steel wire fibres in concrete


increases as the aspect ratio (ratio of length to
diameter) and length increase. Steel fibres with the
following characteristics are common within the
scope of this Guideline:

Length: 35-60 mm
Diameter: 0.5-1.2 mm
Aspect ratio: 45-80
Tensile strength: 1000 - 3000 N/mm 2
Ultimate strain: 5 o/oa-70 %a
Anchorage: corrugated, hooked ends or
with nail heads

A distinction is made between two basic


mechanisms: pullout of fibres (1) and elongation of
fibres (2).

(1) The characteristics (in particular aspect ratio,


tensile strength and anchorage) of most steel fibres
are selected in such a way that the fibres are pulled
out of the concrete matrix gradually, resulting in the
required ductile behaviour of the material. This
mechanism means that wires with a normal
elongation at rupture can be used and - as required
- the fibres will not snap.

(2) By contrast, fibres made of particularly strong


and extensible wire can be firmly anchored in the

13
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

concrete matrix if they are shaped in a particular


way. The required ductility is then not achieved by
fibres pull-out but by the actual elongation of the
fibres. However, this requires wires with a high
degree of tensile strength combined with a very high
ultimate strain.

Symbols for different types of fibre are shown in


Figure ER3-1.

Figure ER3-1 - Symbols for different types of


fibre

Re R.3.6 Steel fibre reinforced concrete


Re R.3.6.1 General
(1 )P The performance classes for steel fibre Steel fibre reinforced concrete has the ability to
reinforced concrete shall be indicated by the prefix transfer tensile loads across a cracked section. This
L. The first digit indicates performance class L1 for ability is quantified by means of performance
deformation it1 and the second digit indicates classes.
performance class L2 for deformation it2- Both
performance classes shall be indicated in addition to Performance classes L 1 and L2 represent
the compressive strength class and the exposure characteristic values of the ratio 6-M/(b-h2) (moment
classes (for examples of designations see 3.6.3. divided by the section modulus) referring to an
(1)). Table R.2 details the relationship between uncracked concrete cross-section Ac (gross cross-
deformation values and performance classes. section b-h), even if the cross-section is actually
cracked.

A distinction is made between characteristics values


for the serviceability and the ultimate limit state.
Rules for determining such characteristic values are
given and explained in Part 2, Annex 0, of the
Guideline.
0
6l Table R.2 - Deformation values and performance classes for steel fibre reinforced concrete
0
0
.....
o1, Column 1 2 3
0
.J,
..... Deformation values in a test as
0
Performance
~ Row Analysis at specified in Part 2, Annex 0,
0
g
class
of this guideline
:!
,,,
~.: 1 L1 Serviceability Limit State bi.1 =0.5 mm
~ Ultimate I Serviceability Limit State
..J
2 L2 bi.2 =3.5 mm
i"'
~
when using reinforcement

~~ Re R.3.6.2 Properties
'S
~ Steel fibre reinforced concrete is characterised by its
1 residual tensile strength (see Figures R.2 and R.3).
-s
" This residual tensile strength is hypothetical and is
i related to the concrete cross-section. It may not be
~ used to determine steel stresses in the fibres.
~
0
9
§ 14
g
~
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

Re R.3.6.3 Strength
(1 )P The performance class denominations
correspond to respective characteristic values of
residual flexural strengths at respective
deformations. These characteristic values shall be
determined for steel fibre reinforced concrete as
specified in Part 2, Annex 0.

The performance classes shall be indicated


according to the following example:

C30/37 - L1,2/0,9 - XC1 - WO Steel fibre reinforced concrete is described by two


Where performance classes for deformations 1 and 2.
C30/37 is the compressive strength class of
concrete according to DIN EN 206-1 and
DIN 1045-2;
L1.2/0.9 is the steel fibre reinforced concrete of The Guideline applies to ratios L2/L 1 ~ 1.5, the
performance class L1-1,2 for deformation usual ratios being L2/L 1 < 1. Figure P.1 shows the
1, steel fibre reinforced concrete of permitted stress-strain relationships and the
performance class L2-0.9 for deformation associated conversion factors, /J.
2 (see also Part 2, Annex O);
XC1 is the exposure class;
WO is the humidity class.

NOTE: Performance class L1 is usually higher than or


equal to performance class L2.

(2)P The basic values for residual tensile strengths Information on determining residual tensile strength
in Table R.3 are obtained from the characteristic from beam tests is given in the article "From beam
value of residual flexural strength lct1k according to tests to design residual tensile strengths" in Part B of
Part 2, Annex 0, as follows: the General Commentaries.

/ctO.L1 = lcflk,L1 · /JL1 (R.3.31)


lct0,L2 = lcflk,L2 . /JL (R.3.32)
/ ctO,u = / cflk,L2 · /Ju (R.3.33)
lct0,s = /cflk,L2 · /Js (R.3.34)
Expression (R.3.34) applies to L2/L 1 :,:; 1.0,
otherwise Paragraph (4) shall apply.

Where
f
fct0,L1 is the basic value of residual tensile
strength according to Table R.3,
Column 2;
f
f ct0,L2 is the basic value of residual tensile
strength according to Table R.3,
Column 4;
f
f ctO,u is the basic value of residual tensile
strength according to Table R.3,
Column 5;
f
f ctO.s is the basic value of residual tensile
strength according to Table R.3,
Column 6;
/JL1 value according to Paragraph (3);
/JLZ value according to Paragraph (3);
/Ju= 0.37; for the stress block;
/Js =0.37; when using reinforcement

15
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

(3) If the ratio of performance class values L2/L 1 is The value /JL 2 =0.25 is obtained if /JL1 is assumed to
greater than 0.7, then /JL1 = 0.40 or /3L 2 = 0.25 may be 0.4 and L2/L 1 is taken as 0.7. Any slight
be used. Otherwise, the stress block shall be differences between these values and those
assumed for analysis at the ultimate limit state. For determined by an exact calculation of the conversion
more detailed analysis to determine /JL2, Annex P of factors are covered by the safety concept.
Part 2 shall be considered.

(4)P If the ratio of performance class values L2/L 1 is For L2/L 1 ;;: 1, use of the stress block with lcfl,Lz will
greater than 1.0, the stress block may not be used, result in the residual tensile strength being
and the following shall apply instead: overestimated when strain values are low.

/cto,s = /cfl,L1 · /Js (R.3.35)

(5)P The calculated residual tensile strengths are The factor KF takes into account the orientation of
obtained from the basic values of residual tensile the fibres in the direction of flow of the concrete (see
strengths for: Figure ER3-2). A factor KF = 1.0 is comparable to
f - f f f the orientation of fibres in the beam test.
f ctR,L1 - K F" KG" f ct0,L1 (R.3.36)
f f f f
f ctR,L2 = K F·K G" f cto,L2 (R.3.37)
The fibre orientation depends on the concrete
f f f f
f ctR,u = K F"K G" f cto,u (R.3.38) consistency, the thickness of the member, the
f f f f
f ctR,s = K F"K G" f cto,s (R.3.39) concreting method, etc. As no or insufficient
knowledge of these parameters is generally
Where available when the structural analysis is being
, /8 factor to take into account the effect of performed, a conservative uniform lower value of 0.5
member size on the coefficient of variation was assumed for K \ in the Guideline for members
1
= 1.0 + A cr0.5::;; 1.70; in which the direction of the tensile stresses deviates
K\ factor to take into account fibre orientation, from a fibre orientation associated with K\ =1.0.
K \ = 0.5; for level, horizontally
manufactured slab type members (b > 5h) or For cases in which the fibre orientation is
for beams in their longitudinal direction unfavourable with respect to the structural stresses
K\ = 1.0 shall be taken for bending and acting on a member, KF shall be taken as 0.5. This
tensile loads; is the case for vertically cast walls that are subjected
Atct tension zone in cracked concrete cross- to bending around the horizontal axis, for example.
sections or plastic hinges for a given
equilibrium system in m2 .
Bending test Member

NOTE: For components subjected to bending only without


axial force A1c1 may be estimated at 0.9 Ac.
Flbreorientation ~ Loa~ /
f-10i ~
K
~
@=t~w=
c==.---~
-~--
~

~:~~~~-~~~Ji load

-~~-laiffErge
I

EB
..
• • I
bottom top

Figure ER3-2 - Explanation of factors x-\ and


KG [Stahlbeton aktuell-14]

16
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

The factor KG was included in the Guideline to take


account of the fact that the scatter of the residual
tensile strength is dependent on the size of the
tension zone.

The beam tests according to Part 2, Annex O of the


Guideline are characterized by small cross-sectional
areas causing large scatter in the residual tensile
strength. However, the scatter in structures is
considerably lower when the dimensions of the
cracked cross-sections increase. The contribution of
the lower coefficient of variation to the increase in
the loadbearing capacity of members with dimen-
sions greater than those used in the beam test is
therefore taken into consideration by introducing the
factor KG· The procedure for determining the factor
KG is explained in the article "Safety concept of the
DAfStb Guideline "Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete""
in Part B of these General Commentaries.

For a combination of bending and axial loading, the


area of the cracked cross-section Atct and factor KG
must, in principle, be determined iteratively.
Alternatively, KG can be estimated in practice with
the aid of Figure TBE.1 in Part B of these General
Commentaries.

Table R.3 - Performance classes L 1 and L2 for steel fibre reinforced concrete with corresponding
basic values of residual tensile strengths

Column 1 2 3 4 5 6
Basic values of residual tensile strength lcto in N/mm 2

Deformation 1 Deformation 2
f f f
Row L1 f ct0,L1 L2 f cto,L2 f ctO,u lcto.s c

1 0 < 0.16 0 - - -
2 0.4 a 0.16 0.4 a 0.10 0.15 0.15
3 0.6 0.24 0.6 0.15 0.22 0.22
4 0.9 0.36 0.9 0.23 0.33 0.33
5 1.2 0.48 1.2 0.30 0.44 0.44
6 1.5 0.60 1.5 0.38 0.56 0.56
7 1.8 0.72 1.8 0.45 0.67 0.67
8 2.1 0.84 2.1 0.53 0.78 0.78
9 2.4 0.96 2.4 0.60 0.89 0.89
10 2.7 b 1.08 2.7 b 0.68 1.00 1.00
11 3.0b 1.20 3.0b 0.75 1.11 1.11
a for slab type structures only (b > Sh).
b steel fibre reinforced concrete of these performance classes will require general building inspectorate approval or
permission in each individual case.
C
applies to L2/L 1 :o::; 1.0; for L2/L 1 > 1.0 see paragraph (4)P.

17
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

25 3 5 0,3 fctmJ
'

l,04JlctR,L2

l,04lctR,u

1, 04 ffctR,l1

fctm
0-\1in N/mm2

Figure R.1 - Stress-strain curve of


steel fibre reinforced concrete in the tension
zone for analysis and deformation calculation
using non-linear methods

Re R.3.6.5 Stress-strain curve for cross-section design


(1)P In the tension zone, either the complete stress-
strain curve (solid line) or, simplified, the stress block
(perforated line) according to Figure R.2 shall be
used for cross-section design at the ultimate limit
state.
25 3,5 0,1

f citd,u = a~ ·f 1ctR,u I Yc\


respectively
fcitd,s =a~· f~tR,slY~ f citd,L1= a~ -f'ctR,L1 I Ycf

o-tct in N/mm2
bzw. =or
Figure R.2 - Stress-strain curve of steel fibre
reinforced concrete in the tension zone for
cross-section design at the ultimate limit state,
except for non-linear methods

19
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

Re 4 Durability and cover to reinforcement


Re 4.4 Methods of verification
Re 4.4.1.2 Minimum cover, Cmin

DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (1)P is supplemented

Regarding the proof of fire resistance of One possibility is to perform the analysis of fire
components made of steel fibre reinforced concrete, resistance on the basis of cross-sections neglecting
the provisions of DIN EN 1992-1-2 in conjunction the effect of steel fibres.
with DIN EN 1992-1-2/NA shall apply.
If the steel fibres are to be taken into account, the
analysis can be for example performed as a part of
a general building inspectorate approval.
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (5) is supplemented

For steel fibre reinforced concrete, the minimum


concrete cover requirements Cmin.dur shall only apply
to the embedded reinforcement, not to the steel
fibres. Fibres close to the surface are subject to
corrosion and may cause rust stains. This will not
impact the durability.

Re 5 Structural analysis
The determination of internal forces can be
performed for the serviceability and the ultimate limit
state on the basis of linear-elastic or non-linear
stress-strain behaviour. By contrast, linear-elastic
methods with limited redistribution of forces and
plastic methods may only be used for ultimate limit
state analysis.

Structural analyses based on linear-elastic


behaviour might be preferred for structures
subjected to uniformly distributed stresses from
loads and constraint forces. By contrast, non-linear
and plastic methods of structural analysis are
usually preferred for slab-type members subject to
spatially variable loads. Steel fibres transmit tensile
forces across cracked sections so that stresses can
be dispersed by redistribution within the system and
reserve loadbearing capacity can be activated when
plastic hinges or yield lines are formed (cf. for
example [Sawczuk-63], [Hegger-09], [Pardey-94]).
Re 5.6 Plastic analysis
Re 5.6.1 General
DIN EN 1992-1-1, a new paragraph (R.6) is added

(R.6) Plastic analysis methods can generally be In this context, the term "main" means that at least
used in components made of steel fibre reinforced 50 % of the tensile load-bearing capacity must be
concrete where the main tensile load-bearing achieved by means of reinforcing steel.
capacity is achieved through reinforcement. In all
other cases, methods based on plastic analysis
shall be limited to elastically supported structures,
anchored underwater concrete slabs, piled slabs,
shell-type components and monolithic, prefabricated
containers.

20
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

Re 5. 7 Non-linear analysis
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (1) is supplemented

Non-linear methods can generally be used in In this context, the term "main" means that at least
components made of steel fibre reinforced concrete 50 % of the tensile load-bearing capacity must be
where the main load-bearing capacity is achieved achieved by means of reinforcing steel.
through reinforcement. In all other cases, non-linear
methods shall be limited to elastically supported While mean values of material characteristics are
structures, anchored underwater concrete slabs, suitable for recalculating test results, calculated or
piled slabs, shell-type components and monolithic, rather design values of material characteristics are
prefabricated containers. needed to ensure a consistent safety level on the
resistance side when verifying the serviceability and
ultimate limit states by calculation.

Introducing the additional partial safety factor YR for


the system resistance means that individual
analyses of the cross-sections are no longer
required for members subjected to bending and
axial loads if a permissible equilibrium system can
be demonstrated for the system as a whole (after
redistribution of forces). Permitted strain limits must,
of course, be respected when using non-linear
methods of analysis.
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (NA.7)P is replaced

Where the non-linear design procedure is used, the


following shall apply:

Rd= R UcR; 1.04./ctR,Li; fyR; ftR) /yR (R.5.12.1)

Where
1.04-lctR,Li is the calculated mean value for the
tensile load to be taken by steel fibre
reinforced concrete after crack
formation, as specified in Section 3 for
performances classes L1 and L2
respectively;
fcR, fyR, f1R the calculated mean value of
concrete and reinforcement strength;
IR partial safety factor for system
resistance.

DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, Paragraph (NA.9)P is


supplemented

When determining deformations or the distribution The structural analysis is based on Figure R.1, while
of internal forces, a stress distribution according to Figure R.2 is used for cross-sectional design.
Figure R.2 shall be assumed in the tension zone;
3.1.5 in DIN EN 1992-1-1 shall apply to the
compression zone without changes.

DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (NA.10) is


supplemented

When using steel fibre reinforced concrete, then


}R =1.4 shall apply. For steel fibre reinforced
concrete with reinforcement }R = 1.35 may be used

21
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

for persistent, transient and accidental design


situations without further evidence. For exact
analysis the following apply for /R:

1,3 :,:; 1,3 + O,l · Ftd :,:; 1,4; (R.5.12.8)


Ftd +Fsd

Explanation of Ftd and Fsd, see Figure R.3.

m
iL~ -+F,d

Figure R.3 - Load share of steel fibres Ftd and


bar reinforcement Fsd in the relevant cross-
section

DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, Paragraph (NA.12)P is


· supplemented

The ultimate limit state is deemed to have been The maximum strain at the outer part of the cross
reached if, in addition to the limits specified in DIN section of steel fibre reinforced concrete - not the
1992-1-1, the calculated failure strain £\i.u of steel strain in a reinforcing steel layer - is limited to
fibre reinforced concrete as specified in R.3.6.4 has £ \ 1.u =25%0.
been reached.

DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, Paragraph (NA.14)P is


supplemented

To account for effects from tension stiffening the


regular methods for reinforced concrete shall be
applied. Tensile stresses in the reinforcement during
initial cracking and in the cracked state shall be
determined taking into account the loads that can be
transferred by fibres in the crack.

Re 5.8 Analysis of second order effects with axial load


Re 5.8.2 General
DIN EN 1992-1-1, a new paragraph (R.7) is added

(R.7)P For components made of steel fibre


reinforced concrete according to this guideline that
are subjected to second order effects, the effect of
fibres must not be considered in the analysis.

Re 5.9 Lateral instability of slender beams


DIN EN 1992-1-1, a new paragraph (R.5)P is added

(R.S)P The effect of fibres in design of slender


beams subjected to lateral instability must not be
considered according to this guideline.

22
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

Re 5.10 Prestressed members and structures


This paragraph does not apply if this guideline is
used.

Re 6 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES (ULS)


Re 6.1 Bending with or without axial force
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (2)P is supplemented

When using steel fibre reinforced concrete, the The ultimate limit state design of steel fibre
following assumptions are made when determining reinforced concrete sections subjected to interacting
the load-bearing capacity of cross-sections: moments and axial forces is based on the following
assumptions:
- Stresses in the steel fibre reinforced concrete,
both in tension and compression, will be The sections remain plane, i.e. a linear strain
determined using the stress-strain diagram distribution with limitation of the edge strain to
according to Figure R.4; c/c <:: -3.5 %0 (compression zone) and ict s 25 %0
- The effective depth of a cross-section without bar (tension zone) can be assumed;
reinforcement is deemed to be h. For a cross- - There is an ideal bond between the reinforcing
section reinforced with steel fibres and bar steel and the (fibre-reinforced) concrete;
reinforcement, the specifications of DIN EN - The effect of fibres is considered as the tensile
1992-1-1 shall apply; strength of the fibre-reinforced concrete in areas
- The strains in the tension zone are limited to with positive strains up to the edge of the cross-
t'su = t' f ct.u = 25 o/oo. section by means of stress-strain curves
according to R.3.6.5. '

The factor K1G and thus the cross-sectional area in


tension A1c1 must be known in order to be able to
take the residual tensile strength of steel fibre
reinforced concrete into account when designing
sections. An iterative method must be used as A 1c1 is
dependent on the (initially unknown) equilibrium-
strain condition of the design. In the case of
rectangular cross-sections, the cross-sectional area
in tension A 1c1 associated with an equilibrium
condition can be estimated with the aid of
Figure TBE.1.

Sections can, in principle, be designed by iterating


strains or by using dimensionless design charts
such as the General Design Diagram (Figures
TBE.2a and TBE.2b). When performing the design,
the effect of fibres and steel reinforcement must be
taken into account in the tension zone. Additionally,
the concrete compressive stresses and com-
pression reinforcement must be taken into account
in the compression zone. Design charts for rein-
forced concrete can in case of steel fibres only be
applied to a limit extent (e. g. for sections in com-
pression) due to modified strain limits (maximum
strain limit 25 %0 in tension valid at the outer part of
the cross section in case of steel fibres instead of at
the steel layer) and the additional effect of fibres.
Specially developed design charts are therefore
required (cf. e. g. [Stahlbetonbau aktuell-14].

23
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

The ductility criterion according to 9.2.1.1 must also


be checked if a permissible equilibrium condition
(which does not require any steel reinforcement)
can be verified for steel fibre reinforced concrete
sections subjected to bending and axial forces. A
minimum amount of steel reinforcement necessary
to withstand the cracking moment can be taken from
Figure TBE.3 for rectangular cross-sections.

Limiting the edge strain ict.u to 25 %0 results in


strains t:8 < 25 %0 in internal layers of reinforcing
steel.

DIN EN 1992-1-1, a new paragraph (R.9)P is added

(R.9)P The fibre effect may not be used in


construction joints.

I
I
·········"T······································································ ...........
I I
I I
............... t"""""""'""f"'""""""""""'""""'"'""""""""""'"""'"''""""""""''
................................. 1 ................................................................... .

I
,--......,,.~----------1,···············
I
....I ··········r······················································
I
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• .1••••••••.••• , ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
I I I I I f 1
b : : : : : • (j ctl
+ + I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
I I I I I

Cg or i/c! in %0 I
I
I
f •
t: ct.u =25 Cc2 Cc2u
Strain limits according to
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Section 6

Figure R.4 - Determining stresses and strains for steel fibre reinforced concrete

Re 6.2 Shear
Re 6.2.1 General verification procedure
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (1)P is supplemented

vtRd c design shear resistance of steel fibre


reinforced member without shear
reinforcement;
vtRd,s design value of shear force which can be
sustained by the yielding shear
reinforcement and the steel fibre effect.

DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (4) is supplemented

When using steel fibre reinforced concrete, the


minimum amount of shear reinforcement as

24
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

specified in DIN 1992-1-1, 9.22 (5) may be reduced


to zero even in case of beam-type members (b:;; 5h)
by taking into account the fibre effect. For values p
the minimum values specified in Expressions
9.5aDE and 9.5bDE under DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA
shall apply.

Re 6.2.2 Members not requiring design shear reinforcement


DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (1) is supplemented

The design shear resistance V fRd.c of steel fibre The shear force components of members without
reinforced components shall be determined using shear reinforcement and the component resulting
Expression (R.6.1 ). solely from the tensile force component of steel
fibres in the inclined crack are added for design
(R.6.2c) according to eq. (R.6.2c). When doing so, it is
assumed that tensile stresses transmitted by steel
Where fibres in the inclined crack act in the same way as in
VRd,c according to Expression (6.2a) in a tension tie with comparable fibre orientation.
DIN EN 1992-1-1. Based on current findings, fibre orientation is
considered with KfF =0.5, i. e. it is assumed that the
tensile stresses of the steel fibres in the inclined
(R.6.2d) crack are half of that determined in beam tests acc.
to this Guideline. Good correlations with test results
are achieved with this approach. The evaluated tests
When determining lctR,u including specimens of different size indicate that
Atct = hw · d :;; bw · 1.50 must be used. the loadbearing component of the concrete tends to
be supplemented by a constant component which
For cross sections subject to uniaxial tensile can be described well by the residual tensile stress
stresses the fibre effect may not be taken into component in the inclined crack. Tests performed
account: VRd,cf= 0. and evaluated until now have been unable to
demonstrate any influence of the crack friction in the
NOTE: Beams shall always require a minimum inclined crack such as that assumed for beams with
reinforcement, unless the fibre effect as specified in 9.2.2 shear reinforcement. Similarly, an additional size
is sufficient. effect due to the steel fibres is ruled out (cf.
[Rosen busch-04]).

The influence of steel fibres on the shear resistance


of beams with axial tensile stresses has not yet been
investigated and analysed systematically. As there is
therefore a lack of reliable data, a possible
contribution of the steel fibres to the shear
resistance is not taken into account for components
with axial tensile stresses.

The value of d was limited to 1.5 m as experimental


investigations have been conducted up to around
this effective depth.

Re 6.2.3 Members requiring design shear reinforcement


DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (3) is supplemented

In members with shear reinforcement, the design The correlation described above in section 6.2.2
value vt Rd,s shall be determined perpendicular to the could also be seen in tests performed on beams with
member axis including steel fibre effect, using steel fibres and shear reinforcement in which a
Expression (R.6.8.1 ). constant percentage increase due to the steel fibres

25
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

(R.6.8.1)was demonstrated. This is why the additive


approach was also chosen in this case. The
Where resulting discrepancy between this approach and the
VRd,s according to Expression (6.8) in DIN EN 1992- crack friction theory and the related strut inclination
1-1; was not pursued any further, firstly in order to
VRd,cfaccording to Expression (R.6.2d). maintain the consistency with the approach for
members without shear reinforcement and,
The maximum shear resistance VRd,max limited by the secondly, to avoid deriving a complex theoretical
strength of struts shall be determined according to approach which has not been fully validated by
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Expression (6.9). testing (cf. [Rosenbusch-04]).

DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (4) is supplemented

In members with shear reinforcement, the design


value Vf Rd,s shall be determined perpendicular to the
member axis including steel fibre effect, using
Expression (R.6.8.1 ).

Where
VRd,s according to Expression (6.13) in DIN EN
1992-1-1;
VRd,cfaccording to Expression (R.6.2d).

The maximum shear resistance VRd,max limited by the


strength of struts shall be determined according to
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Expression (6.14).

Re 6.2.4 Shear between web and flanges of T-sections

DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (4) is replaced

(4) The analysis of shear resistance may be


performed according to Expression (R.6.2c) or
Expression (R.6.2d). Here, bw = hf and z = &. The
mean axial stress in the concrete according to
DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, 6.2.3 (2) in the adjacent
section of flange assumed to be of length Ax: shall be
substituted for O"cp. By way of simplification,
cote= 1.0 shall be assumed in the tension flange
and cote= 1.2 in the compression flange.

Re 6.3 Torsion
Re 6.3.1 General
DIN EN 1992-1-1, a new paragraph (R.6)P is added

(R.6)P The effect of steel fibres may not be taken Extensive practical experience regarding the effect
into account in the analysis of torsional resistance. of steel fibres in members subjected to torsion is not
yet available.
Re 6.4 Punching
Re 6.4.3 Punching shear calculation
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (1) is supplemented

v tRd,c design value of punching shear resistance of


a steel fibre reinforced slab without punching
shear reinforcement along the control section
considered;

26
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (2) is supplemented

The shear forces for the punching design shall be


determined according to the elasticity theory.

DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (2)(b) is replaced

In slabs without punching shear reinforcement, it


shall be checked that the following applies along the
critical section as specified in DIN EN 1992-1-1,
6.4.2:

Re 6.4.4 Punching shear resistance of slabs and column bases without shear reinforcement
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (1) is supplemented

For slabs or foundations made of steel fibre An additive contribution of steel fibres to the
reinforced concrete without punching shear punching shear resistance vRd,ct, which acts around
reinforcement, the following shall apply: the critical section, is assumed in the analysis of flat
slabs and foundations without punching shear
f
V Rd,c = 2-d/a·VRd,c + VRd,cf :5 VRd,max (R.6.47.1) reinforcement.

Where The maximum punching shear resistance VRd,max is


vRd,c as per Expression (6.47) in DIN EN 1992-1-1. determined without taking account of the
contribution of fibres. When determining the amount
VRd,cf
1
l
= 0 8S. a c . ctRµ (R.6.47.2) of punching shear reinforcement required, an
' f
Yet interaction between steel fibres and punching shear
reinforcement must not be taken into account for
For axial tensile stresses in cross-section the fibre slabs and foundations unless a detailed analysis is
effect may not be taken into account: VRd,ct= 0. performed.

For slabs a= 2·d shall apply. Shear resistance outside the punching shear
reinforcement within the outer control· perimeter Uaut
The maximum design shear resistance VRd,max in can be determined taking the additive component of
slabs containing punching shear reinforcement fibre effect into account. The empirical prefactor of
within the critical section shall be obtained by means the shear resistance is specified as CRd,c = 0.15/yc in
of Expression (NA.6.53.1) in DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, this case.
(NDP) 6.4.5 (3).
Using the performance classes specified in this
NOTE: For bending in elastic embedded floor slabs document without additional longitudinal
without additional reinforcement no tension flange may be reinforcement will usually result in a reinforcement
formed due to the softening behaviour of steel fibre ratio below the minimum reinforcement. Due to the
reinforced concrete so that bending failure is always softening sectional behaviour the three-dimensional
relevant. truss and tie model cannot form so that bending is
the governing load case and punching cannot
become relevant.

Bending is therefore always governing for elastically


embedded floor slabs if steel fibre reinforced
concrete without steel reinforcement is used. In such
cases, punching shear analysis is only required for
combined reinforcement.

Re 6.4.5 Punching shear resistance of slabs and column bases with shear reinforcement

DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (1) is supplemented

27
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Pa.rt A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

The interactions of fibres and punching shear Practical experience with the effect of steel fibres in
reinforcement may not be used for slabs, unless an combination with punching shear reinforcement is
exact analysis is performed. still limited.

DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (4) is supplemented

To determine the outer section uaut according to


Expression (6.54) VRd,c may be replaced by v tRd,c
according to (R.6.47.1 ), if VRd,c is determined with
=
CRd,c 0.15/yc.

Re 6.5 Design with strut-and-tie models


Re 6.5.1 General
DIN EN 1992-1-1, a new paragraph (R.2)P is added

(R.2)P The tensile stresses of strut-and-tie models


shall only be taken by steel fibres if one of the
following conditions has been met:

- the tensile stresses in the uncracked state are


less than lctd,u or
- it can be demonstrated that the crack width can
be limited to wk =
0.5 mm at the ultimate limit
state.

Otherwise, reinforcement shall be inserted, where


the contribution of the steel fibres to the tensile load-
bearing capacity do not exceed 30 % (with lctd,u).

Re 6. 7 Partially loaded areas


DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (4) is supplemented

The tensile stresses of the strut-and-tie model in


Figure R.5 may be taken by the effect of steel fibres
or in combination with reinforcement as specified in
10.6. The analysis shall be performed using lctd,u or
f
f ctR,s.
idealised stress
Tensile bar distribution in ultimate
limit tate

• • ••••••••I
I
I

. =~~~,..,,.,rri-n~~-. -'·
.....
I

I
I
••• •••
•••• ... I

I
I
I
I

0,067h O 133h 0,40h 0,40h


'

Figure R.5 - Strut-and-tie design for partially


loaded areas

28
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

Re 6.8 Fatigue
Re 6.8.1 Verification conditions
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (R.3)P is
supplemented

(R.3)P Steel fibres in principle may not be included


in calculations for fatigue resistance of components
subjected to dynamic stress.

NOTE: Separate tests are required for the calculation of


steel fibres.

Re 7 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES (SLS)


Re 7.3 Crack control
Re 7.3.1 General considerations
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (5) is supplemented

If the steel fibres are included in the analysis of load- Steel fibres exhibit a more favourable corrosion
bearing capacity, Table 7.1DE in DIN EN 1992-1- behaviour than steel reinforcement for the same
1/NA shall be supplemented by Table R.4. For steel crack width. In addition, spalling of concrete caused
fibre reinforced concrete in combination with by enlargement of the corrosion products does not
reinforcement, Table 7.1DE in DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA occur. The values of wk calculated for reinforced
shall apply. concrete are therefore also assumed for steel fibre
reinforced concrete combined with steel
reinforcement for simplicity. The calculation models
in DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA are supplemented by the
effect of the fibres for steel fibre reinforced concrete
combined with steel reinforcement.

DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (9) is supplemented

In contrast to this, the limitation of crack width for However, there are more stringent requirements for
steel fibre reinforced concrete without additional the calculated value of wk for steel fibre reinforced
reinforcement may be obtained by calculation as concrete without additional reinforcement. This is not
specified in DIN EN 1992-1-1, 7.3.4 in conjunction due to changes in the corrosion behaviour in the
with this guideline: absence of reinforcing steel but to the simplified
method of calculating wk used in this Guideline.
in statically indeterminate systems, a state of
equilibrium shall be calculated by redistribution The analysis for steel fibre reinforced concrete
of internal forces, where the required crack without additional reinforcement is based on the
limitation at time t = oo is ensured. When determination of the crack width resulting from the
calculating deformations, tension stiffening shall height of the tensile zone and the rotation of the
be considered; resultant system of equilibrium (chain of plastic
in other systems with a permanent compression hinges). The analysis is performed by means of Eq.
zone; (R.7.11) in Section 7.3.4(R.6)P using the strain in
for af?.k. kc. the tensile zone, that is calculated for the relevant
combination of actions, and a reference length over
which the crack is smeared (cf. explanatory notes on
Section R.3.6.4). The criteria listed on the left need
to be fulfilled in order to follow analysis according to
Eq. (R.7.1.1)

The value of wk can therefore only be estimated for


members with a permanent compression zone.
Tensile stresses, due to constraint stresses for

29
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

example, have to be superimposed by compressive


or flexural compressive stresses in such a way that
a permanent compression area remains within the
cross-section.

The condition ar :::: k kc covers the tensile force


released on initial cracking.

Here, a f shall be taken from Expression (R.7.2a or


R.7.2b).

The crack width determined according to 7.3.4 shall


always be checked for compatibility with
deformations of the system.

In all other cases, reinforcement shall be provided to


limit crack width.

For steel fibre reinforced concrete without additional


reinforcement, DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, Table 7.1DE
shall be replaced by Table R.4 for the exposure
classes specified.

Table R.4 - Recommended values Wmax for steel fibre reinforced concrete in [mm]

Steel fibre reinforced concrete


Exposure class without additional reinforcement
Quasi-permanent load combination
XO, XC1a 0.4
XC2, XC3 0.3
XC4 0.2
XD1, XS1 0.2
a With exposure classes XO and XC1 crack width has no effect on durability and this limit value
shall be assumed in general to ensure an acceptable appearance. If there are no appearance
requirements, this limit value may be raised.

Re 7.3.2 Minimum reinforcement areas


DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (2) is supplemented

To calculate the minimum reinforcement to limit The effect of fibres leads to a reduction in the force
crack width as specified in DIN EN 1992-1-1, 7.3.2 that the reinforcing steel has to resist on initial
and 7.3.3 and to calculate crack width as specified in cracking and thus the minimum area of
DIN EN 1992-1-1, 7.3.4, steel fibre reinforced reinforcement needed for the same crack width.
concrete may be taken into account.

lnsteadofDINEN1992-1-1,Expression(7.1)forthe The effect of fibres is taken into account as a


required minimum reinforcement area the following dimensionless value ar and corresponds to the ratio
expression shall apply: of the residual tensile strength to the tensile strength
on initial cracking at a concrete age of 28 days. This
A! min = f ct eff · kc · k · (1- a,)· Act (R. 7.1) ensures that concrete ages other than 28 days
' ' O" s
taken into account in fct,eff are considered directly in
the effect of fibres.

30
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

Where The value ftctR,s is included in Expression R.7.2a. It


for steel fibre reinforced concrete with reinforcement is determined from the characteristic residual
llt = f~tR,s
flexural strength L2 using a conversion factor fis of
(R.7.2a)
0.37 (conservative approach for the residual
f ctm
strength at ultimate limit state).
for steel fibre reinforced concrete without
reinforcement
f~tR,L1
ll1=-- (R.7.2b)
ctm f
O"s reinforcement stress in the crack without
considering fibres.

If the parameter range in Table NA.7.2DE in


DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA is exceeded, the steel stress
can be determined using Expression (R.7.3).

(}" s =
(R.7.3)

_6_·_f_ct,~eff_. W .E
</J, k s

NOTE: Alternatively, an exact analysis as specified in The Expressions for the minimum reinforcement
7.3.4 is permissible. required for crack control are obtained directly from
7.3.4. For this reason, please refer to the
explanatory notes on that section.
DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, Paragraph (NA.5) is replaced

(NA.5) For thick concrete members subjected to


axial constraint stresses, the minimum reinforcement
area can be determined for each component side
taking an effective boundary zone Ac,eff into account.

Where

~.min = f ct,eff · ~.eff · (1- af) (R. 7.4)


O"s

where the value for A\ min shall not be less than


~.min =fct,eff · f~t ·(k-a1) (R.7.5)
yk
Where
Ac.elf is the effective tension area according to
Figure 7.1d)DE whereAc,e11=hc,e1· b;
crs reinforcement stress in the crack without
taking into account the fibre effect.

For the steel stress O's in Expression (R.7.4)

6 · f ct,eff E
(R.7.6)
O"s = </Js ·Wk· s

may be used.

No more minimum reinforcement needs to be used


than what is obtained by Expressions (R. 7 .1) and
(R.7.2a or R.7.2b) or has been specified in 7.3.4.

31
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

Re 7.3.3 Control of cracking without direct calculation


DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (1) is deleted

DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, NDP 7.3.3 (2)


NOTE is replaced

The upper limit for reinforcing bar diameters, given


in Table 7.2DE, DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA may be
modified as a function of the height of the member
and must be modified as a function of the effective
concrete tensile strength f et,ett according to
Expressions (R.7.7a to R.7.7c) if steel fibres are
used:

Minimum reinforcement for the cracking moment


according to 7.3.2:

f • kc · k · her fct,eff 1
<Ps = ¢s • 4(h - d) · 2,9 · (1 - at) 2
(R.7.7a) A printing error has been rectified in Expression
• fcteff 1 (R.7.7a) of the Guideline: ker has been amended to
~ <Ps • 2:9 · (1-ai) 2 read her

Minimum reinforcement for uniaxial tension


according to 7.3.2:

f • kc · k · her fct,eff 1
<Ps = <Ps • 8(h - d) · 2,9 · (1- at) 2
(R.7.7b) A printing error has been rectified in Expression
• fct elf 1 (R.7.7b) of the Guideline: ker has been amended to
~ <Ps • 2:9 · (1 - at) 2 read her

Load stress:

t • O's · As 1
<Ps = ¢s • 4(h - d) · b · 2,9 (1- at) 2
(R.7.7c)
> • fct,eff 1
- <Ps • 2,9 · (1 - at) 2

Where
<ls adjusted maximum bar diameter if steel fibre
reinforced concrete is used;
¢ s * maximum bar diameter given in DIN EN 1992-
1-1/NA, Table 7.2DE;
O's reinforcement stress in the cracked state
without taking into account the fibre effect;
As the sectional area of reinforcement within the
tension area;
h member depth;
d effective depth;
b width of tension area;

If the parameter range in Table 7.2DE in DIN EN The Expressions for limiting crack width without
1992-1-1/NA is exceeded, </J \ may be determined direct calculations are obtained directly from 7.3.4.
with Expression (R.7.7d) or the crack width For this reason, please refer to the explanatory
calculated directly as specified in 7.3.4. notes on that section.

32
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

(R.7.7d)

Re 7.3.4 Calculation of crack width


In DIN EN 1992-1-1, Expressions (7.8), (7.9) and The force released when a cross-section cracks is
(7.11) in Paragraphs (1)-(3) are replaced by taken by the reinforcing steel and transmitted into
Expressions (R.7.8), (R.7.9) and (R.7.10) for the concrete within the transmission length. The
components made of steel fibre reinforced concrete effect of fibres leads to a reduction in the force that
with reinforcement. the reinforcing steel has to resist. This directly
reduces both the strain in the reinforcing steel and
(R.7.8) the required transmission length (included in sr,max).
The effect of fibres therefore has a favourable
influence on eq. (R.7.8).
The difference between mean strains in concrete
and reinforcement in case of steel fibre reinforced
concrete may be calculated as follows.

(1-af )· [O"s -0,4 · f ct,eff · -


Es
-l
1
Pp,ett
(R.7.9)
For simplicity, the expression in brackets (1+ae"Pp,eff)
in eq. (7.9) of DIN EN 1992-1-1 has been replaced
by 1.0 in eq. (R.7.9).

Where
Sr.max is the maximum final crack spacing;

8rmax =(1-a1)· <A


' 3,6 · Pp,ett
(R.7.10)
s;(1-a1)· O"s ·<A
3,6 · f ct,eff

ar according to Expression (R.7.2a or R.7.2b);


pp,en is the effective reinforcement ratio obtained
by means of Expression (7.10) in DIN EN
1992-1-1;
.s\m is the mean strain in the reinforcement in
steel fibre reinforced concrete for the
relevant combination of actions taking
tension stiffening into account;
tern is the mean strain in concrete between
cracks;
f ct,e11 is the effective tensile strength of concrete
at the considered point of time as specified
in DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, 7.3.3 (2) (here
without considering a minimum value of the
tensile strength of concrete);
O"s reinforcement stress in the crack without
taking into account the fibre effect.

For components subjected only to restraints due to


internal stresses (e. g. due to dissipation of
hydration heat), {&\m - tern) may be obtained using

33
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

O"s = O"sr where O"sr is the stress in the reinforcement


calculated on the basis of a cracked section under
the load conditions causing initial cracking.

In direct calculation, crs is a hypothetical value that As the effect of the fibres is introduced into the
may initially exceed the yield strength of the calculation model as a separate element (factor a1), it
reinforcement. In that case, it must be proven that can no longer be used to determine the reduction in
f yk taking into account the fibre effect lctR,s will not the stress us in the reinforcing steel resulting from
be exceeded in the crack. the fibre effect. In some cases, us may therefore be
greater than .fyk when used as an input value for the
calculation model.

However, in such cases it must be demonstrated


that the actual stress in the reinforcing steel does not
exceed .fyk when the effect of fibres is taken into
account. A case in which us is greater than.fyk could,
for example, be a member with a very high
performance class and a relatively low percentage of
steel reinforcement, combined with a high permitted
nominal crack width wk.

DIN EN 1992-1-1, new paragraphs (R.6)P and


(R.7)P have been added

(R.6)P Under the conditions given in 7.3.1 (9) of this Please refer to the explanatory notes on 7 .3.1 with
guideline the nominal crack width wk of components regard to (R.6)P and (R.7)P.
subject to stress without reinforcement shall be
obtained as follows:

wk =iw .flct The analysis in accordance with eq. (R.7.11) only


(R.7.11)
applies to members with a permanent compression
Where zone. A permanent compression zone must be
wk is the nominal crack width; determined taking account of the design forces
Sfw= 140 mm; acting on the member and any imposed
£\1 is the strain in the steel fibre reinforced deformations.
concrete.

(R.7)P If the conditions given in 7.3.1 (9) of this The analysis of crack width for the relevant
guideline are not satisfied or the calculation of the combination of actions can be performed as follows,
crack width according to Expression (R. 7 .11) is not for example:
possible, then additional reinforcement is necessary.
by specifying a suitable model of a structural
NOTE: The assumption for s 1w applies only to members system (e. g. chain of plastic hinges),
subject to bending. by specifying the maximum crack width,
- by determining the permitted strain for the
specified crack width using eq. (R. 7.11 ),
- by determining the loadbearing capacity of the
cross-section for the permitted strain,
- by comparing the forces acting on the member
with the resulting loadbearing capacity of the
cross-section.

The crack width and the resulting rotation of the


tensile zone are correlated with the fictitious strain
ict by means of iw. The concept for the analysis is
based on geometrical relationships and the selected
definition of iw.

34
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

Please refer to Figure ER3-3 and the related


explanatory notes for the derivation of sfw·
The analysis only applies to members with a
permanent compression zone. The provisions of
(R.6)P cannot be used to analyse other elements,
particularly those subjected to centric constraint
stresses.
Re 7.4 Deflection Control
Re 7.4.1 General Considerations
DIN EN 1992-1-1, the note to Paragraph (6) is
supplemented

NOTE 2: For members designed to be expected to crack


at the usage stage, deformation may increase due to bond
creep of the fibres.

Re 8 Detailing of reinforcement and prestressing tendons - general


Re 8.2 Spacing of bars
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (2) is supplemented

The length of steel fibres shall not exceed twice the


clear spacing of rebars.

Re 8.10 Prestressing tendons


This paragraph does not apply if this guideline is
applied.

Re 9 Detailing of members and particular rules


Re 9. 1 General
DIN EN 1992-1-1, the new paragraphs (R4) and
(RS) are inserted

(R.4) For structures made of steel fibre reinforced


concrete, unannounced failure at initial cracking can
be prevented if it can be demonstrated that the load-
bearing capacity of the entire system after formation
of all plastic hinges is greater than the action that will
cause formation of the first plastic hinge (ductility
criterion).

(R.5) The ductility criterion may also be satisfied by


minimum reinforcement as specified in 9.2.1.1.

Re 9.2.1.1 Minimum and maximum reinforcement areas


DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, Paragraph (1), (NDP) Note 2
is supplemented

When using steel fibre reinforced concrete, lctR,u


may be taken into account on the resistance side.
The minimum reinforcement to ensure ductility of
members shall be calculated using Expression
(R.9.1.a):

35
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

As.min = P Act (R.9.1a)

Where

p =(kc· f ctm - f~R,u)


f yk
A minimum reinforcement will not be required if

(R.9.1 b)

DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (2) is replaced

Cross-sections with fewer reinforcement areas than


As.min are deemed to be non-reinforced (see
Chapter 12) unless it is demonstrated that the load-
bearing capacity of the system can be further
increased after initial cracking when using steel fibre
reinforced concrete.

Re 9.2.1.3 Curtailment of the longitudinal tension reinforcement


DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (1) is supplemented

Curtailment of the longitudinal tension reinforcement


comprises stresses of the steel fibres and stresses
of the reinforcement.

Re 9.2.2 Shear reinforcement


DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (2) is supplemented

In steel fibre reinforced concrete, the load-bearing If calculations show that shear reinforcement is not
contribution of steel fibres may be taken into required, the minimum shear reinforcement may also
account. be replaced entirely by steel fibres in beams.

Thus beams may in principle also be designed


without shear reinforcement if the (minimum) shear
resistance is ensured solely by the effect of the
fibres.
DIN EN 1992-1-1, Paragraph (4) is replaced

If shear reinforcement is required at least 50 % of


the shear reduced by the steel fibre content shall be
covered by stirrups.

DIN EN 1992-1-1, (NDP) Paragraph (5) is


supplemented

Due to the effect of steel fibres Pw.min according to


Expression (9.5aDE) or (9.5bDE) may be reduced to

P fw,min =Pw,min - lctR,u ff yk .:= 0 (R.9.5cDE)

Re 9.3.2 Shear reinforcement


DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, (NCI) 9.3.2 Paragraph (2) is
supplemented

36
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

VRd,c may be replaced by vtRd,c•

Re 9.5.3 Transverse reinforcement


DIN EN 1992-1-1, a new Note 2 to Paragraph (1) is
added

NOTE 2: The steel fibres may not be included in the


calculation of the transverse reinforcement.

Re 11 Lightweight aggregate concrete structures


This paragraph does not apply if this guideline is
used.

37
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 1 of the Guideline

Re Annex E (normative)
Indicative Strength Classes for durability
DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA, Table NA.E.1DE, Footnote f)
to XO, XC1 and XC2 is supplemented

f) The minimum concrete strength for steel fibre


reinforced concrete is C20/25.

NOTE: Steel fibre reinforced concrete is concrete with For this reason, steel fibre reinforced concrete must
embedded metal. not be assigned to exposure class XO.

Re Annex J (normative)
Detailing rules for particular situations
NA.J.4 Surface reinforcement in prestressed components
This paragraph does not apply if this guideline is
applied.

38
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline


"Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Additions and changes to
DIN EN 206-1 and DIN 1045-2
Re 1 Scope
DIN EN 206-1, Paragraph 4 is replaced

(4) Part 2 applies to the production of steel fibre


reinforced concrete for members as specified in
Part 1 of this guideline.

DIN EN 1045-2, Paragraph 1 is supplemented

This part of the guideline does not apply to

- prescribed concrete;
- standardised prescribed concrete;
- self-compacting concrete.

DIN EN 1045-2, a new paragraph is added

The steel fibres must be added at the production


plant.

Re 2 Normative references
The following normative references shall apply to
this part of the guideline in addition to the
information in DIN EN 1045-2 and DIN EN 206-1
and Part 1 of this guideline.

DIN 51220, Materials testing machines - General


information on requirements and verification and
calibration of materials testing machines

DIN EN 12390-5, Testing hardened concrete -


Part 5: Flexural strength of test specimens

Re 3 Definitions, symbols and abbreviations


Re 3.2 Symbols and abbreviations
The following symbols and abbreviations shall apply
to this part of the guideline in addition to the
information in DIN EN 1045-2, DIN EN 206-1 and
Part 1 of this guideline.

Fo.s,i load in a test according to Annex O at a


deflection of 0.5 mm
F3.s,i load in a test according to Annex O at a
deflection of 3.5 mm
F'3.5,i lowest value of load in test according to
Annex O at intervals of 8L1 = 0.5 mm and
8L2 = 3.5 mm

39
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

L/c11m,u mean value of logarithmised individual


test results for residual flexural strength in
a test according to Annex O for
performance class Li
Ls standard deviation of logarithmised
individual test results for residual flexural
strength in a test according to Annex 0
1
! cfl,Li,i individual test results for residual flexural
strength in a test according to Annex 0
lc11k,L 1 characteristic value for residual flexural
strength in a test according to Annex O for
performance class 1 with a deflection of
0.5mm
lc11k,L2 characteristic value for residual flexural
strength in a test according to Annex O for
performance class 2 with a deflection of
3.5mm
lc11m.u mean residual flexural strength in a test
according to Annex O for performance
class Li
lc11m,L 1 mean residual flexural strength in a test
according to Annex O for performance
class 1 with a deflection of 0.5 mm
lc11m,L2 mean residual flexural strength in a test
according to Annex O for performance
class 2 with a deflection of 3.5 mm
ks fractile factor for unknown standard
deviation for the 5 % quantile and a 75 %
confidence level
m1,; steel fibre dosage of a subspecimen
mi.min minimum value of steel fibre dosage at
initial testing to determine performance
class
mean steel fibre dosage for the mixer
truck sampled
Mi,; mass of fibres in a subspecimen
Mfb,i mass of fresh concrete in a subspecimen
n number of samples
p fb,i fresh concrete density of a subspecimen
Uo;11 voltage differential to assess fibre content
u, induction voltage in dimensions
i = X, y, Z
induction voltage of empty sensor
volume of fresh concrete in subspecimen

Re4 Classification
Re 4.3 Hardened concrete
DIN EN 1045-2, a new section R.4.3.3 is added

Re R.4.3.3 Performance classes for steel fibre


reinforced concrete
Performance classes have been established in
Part 1, Section R.3.6.3, Table R.3 of this guideline.

40
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

Re 5 Requirements for concrete and methods of verification


Re 5.4 Requirements for fresh concrete
DIN EN 1045-2, a new section R.5.4.5 is added

Re R.5.4.5 Steel fibre content


If the steel fibre content is to be determined, it shall
be taken from the printed log at the mixing system
or, if there is no recording device, the production
records in connection with the mixing instructions for
the batch.

The steel fibre content shall be defined by a


minimum value mt.min.

Re 6 Setting of concrete
Re 6.2 Setting of concrete according to its properties
Re 6.2.2 Basic requirements

DIN EN 206-1, Point (i) is supplemented

For steel fibre reinforced concrete, the following


shall also apply:

i) Performance class The method of determining the performance class in


accordance with Annex 0, that was included in the
2010 edition of the Guideline, has been adopted
without amendment in this edition.

Re 7 Supply of fresh concrete


Re 7.3 Delivery note for ready-mixed concrete
DIN 1045-2, Paragraph 3, a), the indent is
supplemented

- performance class

Re 8 Conformity checks and criteria


Re 8.2 Conformity checks for concrete according to its properties
Re 8.2.3 Conformity checks for properties other than strength
DIN EN 206-1, Table 17, a new row is added

Table 17 - Conformity criteria for properties other than strength

Test procedure Minimum number Limit deviation of individual test


Assumed results from minimum value
Property or assessment of samples or
number
procedure determination Lower value Upper value
Steel fibre see 5.4.5 1 assessment per See 0.95 mt.min No limit a
content production day Table 19a
a If no limits have been specified.

41
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

Re 9 Production control
Re 9.2 Production control systems
DIN EN 206-1, Paragraph 3 is replaced

(3) The production control system shall contain The method of adding the steel fibres, whether
properly documented procedures and instructions. If automatically or manually via the truck mixer, shall
needed, these procedures and instructions shall be be documented.
established with regard to DIN EN 206-1, Tables 22,
23 and 24, and the control requirements in Annex Q. "Automatically" means that the fibres are weighed
The testing and monitoring frequencies specified by using metering equipment, the fibre dosage being
the manufacturer shall be documented. The testing labelled automatically. The fibres can be added to
and monitoring results shall be documented. the mixer using separate fibre metering equipment
or at the same time as the aggregates, for example.

In the case of manual batching (adding the fibres


directly to the truck mixer, for example), it must be
ensured that the minimum quantity of fibres is
according to the volume loaded by the mixer truck.
Batching must be documented.

The minimum quantity of fibres m1,min shall be stated


on the delivery note.

Re 9.5 Concrete composition and initial testing


DIN EN 206-1, the section is replaced

When using a new concrete composition, an initial An additional initial test is not required for concretes
test shall be conducted to obtain a mix process that with aggregates of the same geological origin. The
achieves the specified properties or the required same geological origin is verified by petrography or
performance (see Annex N). by the aggregate classification (e. g. Elbe gravel).

For new concrete compositions obtained through Extrapolation by a single compressive strength class
interpolation of known concrete compositions (see is meant here.
Annex N) or by extrapolating the compressive
strength by no more than 5 N/mm 2 the requirements
of initial compressive strength testing shall be
deemed satisfied. An initial test shall be conducted
to determine the performance class.

NOTE: Interpolation methods according to Annex N, N5.2


may be used to determine the performance class.

Concrete compositions shall be reviewed on a


regular basis, taking into account changes in
properties of its constituents and the results of
conformity checks on concrete compositions, in
order to ensure that all concrete processes will
continue to satisfy valid requirements. These include
the annual beam bending tests (see Annex N).

To control the properties of fresh and hardened


concrete, the following variations in the composition
of concrete are permissible:

42
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

Cement ± 15 kg/m 3
Addition (except for steel fibres): ± 15 kg/m 3
Admixture: between O and
the maximum
batching amount
as specified in
5.2.6

The batching amounts and the batching sequence


for the concrete constituents as well as the mixing
time for the respective mixing system shall be
specified in the mixing instructions.

43
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

Re DIN EN 206-1, Annex A (normative) - Initial testing


Annex A of DIN EN 206-1 does not apply. Annex N
shall apply instead.

Re DIN 1045-2, Annex H (normative) - Additional provisions for high-strength


concrete

Annex H of DIN EN 1045-2 does not apply.

Re Annex M (normative) - Determining the steel fibre content


Re M.1 Washout test
Re M.1.1 General
This work instruction describes the determination of
steel fibre content through washout tests. Three
subsamples of fresh concrete are taken from a
batch. The subsamples of a certain volume are
.washed out. Next, the samples are dried, the steel
fibres separated and their mass determined.

Re M.1.2 Equipment and appliances


The following equipment and appliances are
required:

- 3 buckets with capacity of 10-15 litres;


washout equipment (e. g. 2 mm control sieve
and 8 mm as a protective sieve) for fresh
concrete samples;
- drying sheets;
- suitable dryirig equipment (drying chamber, gas
drying kiln, etc.);
- large drip plate;
- magnet to separate the steel fibres;
- scales with a readout accuracy of ±1 g.

Re M.1.3 Carrying out the test


The samples are taken from the mixer truck. Three
subsamples are taken and marked as follows:

- Subsample 1 from the first third of a batch from


a mixer truck;
Subsample 2 from the second third of a batch
from a mixer truck;
- Subsample 3 from the third third of a batch from
a mixer truck;

The empty weight of the three buckets is determined


first. After that the buckets are filled with fresh
concrete directly from the mixer truck, compacted
and skimmed. After weighing the filled buckets again
and subtracting the empty weight of the respective
buckets, the mass of the fresh concrete M!b,i is
calculated. The volume of the fresh concrete sample

44
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

is obtained using the fresh concrete particle density


determined according to DIN EN 12350-6:
Mfb.1 3
V.fb,i -
- - - · ·1n m (M.1)
Pfb,i

Where
Mtb,i'. is the mass of fresh concrete in the
subsample in kg;
p tb,i'. is the fresh concrete particle density of the
subsample according to DIN EN 12350-6 in
3
kg/m .

The subsamples of fresh concrete are washed out


with the washout equipment, ensuring that no steel
fibres are lost. Aggregate losses may be neglected,
as the calculations are relevant only for the steel
fibre mass. The washed-out samples are then dried
in a drying chamber or kiln to make it easier to
separate the steel fibres from the mixture.

NOTE: Fibres may also be separated from fresh concrete The comparability with other test methods of
using a strong magnet in a special fixture. The reference determining the fibre content in fresh concrete shall
method is the fibre washout method. be verified.

The dried and cooled subsamples are then placed


on a drip plate and sifted. A magnet is then run
through the subsample until all steel fibres have
been removed from the aggregate. The steel fibres
obtained are then gathered and weighed. The result
is the subsample mass Mt,i in kg.

The steel fibre content of the subsamples is


obtained as follows:

Mt· 1 3
- - ' in kg/m
m .. = V. (M.2)
··,,1
fb,i

The mean steel fibre content m t of the mixer truck


being sampled is calculated as follows:

mt,1 +mt,2 +mt,3 in kg/m3


(M.3)
3

Re M.1.4 Test report


A test report on the washout test result is prepared,
containing the following information:

unique designation of the concrete sample;


- location where the test was conducted;
- date and time of the test;
- fresh concrete density;
- steel fibre content of the subsamples mt, 1 , m1,2 ,
fflt,3;
- mean steel fibre dosage m 1;

45
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

- exact designation of the fibre, manufacturer,


number of the EC certificate of conformity,
information on geometry and material from the
CE mark or fibre type and approval number;
- date, time and tester's signature.

Re M.2 Inductive method


Re M.2.1 General
This work instruction describes the determination of
steel fibre content through an inductive method.
Three subsamples of fresh concrete are taken from
a mixer truck. The steel fibre content of the
subsample is determined by measuring the induction
current (transformer principle with the steel fibres as
the transformer core).

Re M.2.2 Equipment and appliances


The following equipment and appliances are
required:

- 3 buckets with capacity of 10-15 litres;


- cubed moulds for concrete testing made of
plastic with an inside edge length of 150 mm;
- ladle;
- compacting tool (e. g. vibrating table or tamping
rod);
- induction meter with a cube-shaped double-coil
sensor.

Re M.2.3 Carrying out the test


The samples are taken from the mixer truck. Three
subsamples are taken and marked as follows:

- Subsample 1 from the first third of a batch from


the mixer truck;
- Subsample 2 from the second third of a batch
from the mixer truck;
- Subsample 3 from the third third of a batch from
the mixer truck;

Each bucket is filled to the 10 I mark, ensuring that


the samples are homogeneous.

First, the induction voltage ULeer is determined using


the empty sensor. Next, the fresh concrete is poured
into the cubed moulds of 150 mm length. The
double-coil sensor is then placed over this container
and the induction voltage measured. This
measurement is conducted for all three dimensions
of the sample and the mean of the measured results
calculated. The result of the empty measurement
ULeer is then subtracted from the mean value. The
resulting voltage differential UDit1 will depend directly
on the fibre content of the concrete sample:

46
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

(M.4)

Using a calibration curve, the measured electric


voltage will be assigned to the steel fibre content of
the respective subsample.

The mean steel fibre dosage m f in the concrete


mixer truck being sampled is calculated as follows:

(M.5)

Re M.2.4 Test report


A test report on the steel fibre dosage determination
result is prepared, containing the following
information:

- unique designation of the concrete sample;


- location where the test was conducted;
- date and time of the test;
- fresh concrete particle density, if tested;
- steel fibre dosage of the subsamples mt.1, mt.2,
mt,3;
- mean steel fibre dosage m ,;
- exact designation of the fibre, manufacturer,
number of the EC certificate of conformity,
information on geometry and material from the
CE mark or fibre type and approval number;
- date, time and tester's signature.

Re Annex N (normative) - Initial testing of steel fibre reinforced concrete


Re N.1 General
This Annex contains the details on initial testing as
specified in 5.2.1, 5.2.5.1, 6.1 and 9.5.

The initial testing will establish a concrete


composition that will satisfy all requirements
specified for fresh concrete and hardened concrete.

Re N.2 Responsibility for initial testing


It is the manufacturers' responsibility to carry out
initial testing on designed concrete.

Re N.3 Frequency of initial tests


Initial tests must be carried out before using a new
concrete.
"Annually" means once every 12 months.

Initial tests shall be repeated annually as verification Example: The initial test was performed on 3rd
tests. March. The verification test must be performed by
31st March of the following year at the latest.

47
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

Initial tests shall be repeated if a major change In addition to the prov1s1ons of DIN EN 206-1 in
occurred either in the source of the material or the conjunction with DIN 1045-2, main changes are for
specified requirements that formed the basis of the example:
tests specified.
- changing to a different fibre manufacturer;
- change in the fibres or their characteristics.

Re N.4 Test conditions


In general, initial tests shall be conducted with the
fresh concrete at a temperature between 15 °C and
22 °C.

NOTE: If the concrete work on the construction site has to


be carried out at temperatures that significantly depart
from these, or if heat treatment is to be applied, the
concrete manufacturer should be notified about this, in
order to take into account potential effects on the concrete
properties and to consider the necessity of additional
tests.

The time between mixing and the consistency test The mixing time allowed for adding fibres to the
as well as the test results shall be recorded. mixer automatically shall be specified in the mixing
instructions to ensure that the fibres are evenly
The initial test should demonstrate that an even distributed.
distribution of the fibres in the batch is achieved
through the documented procedure. An example of a procedure for documenting an even
distribution of the fibres in the batch is given below.

The mixing instructions to be drawn up on the basis


of the initial test (cf. Re 9.5 Concrete composition
and initial testing) should not only specify the
batching quantities, the order in which the concrete
constituents are added and the mixing time but also
include information on how the fibres are added
(whether they are added to the mixer automatically
or added in the truck mixer, irrespective of the way
the equipment is controlled). The mixing instructions
should specify the method of batching and the
mixing time in the truck mixer to ensure an even
distribution of fibres, particularly when fibres are
added in the truck mixer.

Re N.5 Tests in initial testing


Re N.5.1 Test plan
The test plan for the fresh and hardened concrete The information in Table N.1 covers the minimum
test to be carried out in initial testing is given in requirements for initial testing. Thus other tests may
Table 1. have to be performed on the fresh concrete (density,
air content, etc.) or on the hardened concrete (such
The residual flexural strength test (as specified in as verification of rest resistance}, depending on the
Annex O to assign a performance class to the application. The number of specimens required for
concrete and to check performance class) should be the compressive strength tests should be increased
carried out with an allowance of tolerances, but shall to determine the strength development of the
not exceed the minimum value of steel fibre dosage concrete.
mt.min.

48
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

Table N.1 - Properties of steel fibre reinforced concrete to be determined during initial testing

Frequency/number of test
Test item Testing Purpose
pieces per test date
1 Consistency in accordance with To determine consistency one determination
DIN EN 12350-2, classes of test specimens
-3, -4 or -5
2 Residual flexural as specified in To determine performance .:: 6 Beams
strength on concrete Annex 0 classes of test specimens
specimens made in and to check its
moulds performance classes
3 Compressive strength in accordance with To determine compressive 3 cubes
DIN EN 12390-3 strength classes of test
specimens

Re N.5.2 Determining the intermediate value for residual flexural strength


Under certain conditions, linear interpolation to Interpolation is carried out by using the results of the
determine initial test results is possible. The residual flexural strength, not by using the
conditions and methods are set out below. performance classes.

Interpolation with regard to steel fibre dosage


(same strength class)
If concretes have been tested as specified in
Annex O and their difference in fibre dosage is no
more than 20 kg/m 3 , then the residual flexural
strength of concrete with a fibre content, which lies
within these limits, may be obtained by linear
interpolation. Variations in the concrete composition
with regard to liquefying or flow admixture content
are permissible. To determine characteristic values
on the basis of Expression 0.3, simplified
interpolated standard deviations may be used.

Interpolation taking into account performance class


LO or a performance class higher than L2,4 is not
possible.

Interpolation with regard to concrete strengths


g (same fibre dosage)
~ If two concretes with the same constituents have Concretes containing cements, additives, fibres and
;?
~ been tested as specified in Annex 0, and they differ admixtures of the same type and origin are
~ in that their compressive strength is lower (e. g. considered as belonging to the same type.
~ C20/25) or higher (e. g. C35/45), then the mean
g residual flexural strength of the concrete with
~ compressive strengths, which lies within these limits,
, . may be obtained by linear interpolation in proportion
~ to the ratio of their respective mean tensile strengths
;;;: fctm according to DIN EN 1992-1-1. Concretes are
:g deemed to have the same constituents if the
~
~ following apply:
t
)f aggregates of the same geological origin,
~ same cement type and cement strength class,
~ same additives,
1
~ same admixture types.
~
i
9
0

~ 49
I
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

Re N.6 Criteria for the acceptance of initial tests


Furthermore, DIN 206-1 in conjunction with
DIN EN 1045-2 shall apply. Annex O shall apply as
regards performance classes.

Re Annex O (normative) -Tests to determine performance class


Re 0.1 Preparing the specimens
A minimum of six beams with dimensions of 150 mm
x 150 mm x 700 mm as specified in DIN EN 12390-1
shall be used as test specimens. The specimen
dimensions shall apply to aggregate with a
maximum nominal particle size of 16 mm for round
grain and 22 mm for broken grain. For higher
nominal values of the maximum particle size, special
considerations will be necessary as regards
specimen dimensions. The length of the steel fibres
shall not be less than 1.5 times the maximum
particle size. DIN EN 12390-2 should be considered
when producing specimens made of standard
concrete.

Mixing of concrete
The following mixing sequence shall be considered The mixing sequence described here refers to the
to achieve a uniform distribution of fibres: production of concrete in a laboratory mixer.

a) placing aggregate in the concrete mixer. If glued


fibres are used, they may be added to the
aggregate all at once; the minimum mixing time is
30 sec.
b) adding cement and additives; minimum mixing
time 30 sec.;
c) adding water and liquefying admixtures during an
additional minimum mixing time of 30 sec.;
d) adding loose steel fibres evenly through a gutter
to avoid clumping during a further mixing for
minimum time of 60 sec. The subsequent mixing
time shall be at least 90 sec. It should be
checked that all fibres have been separated (only
for glued fibres) and evenly distributed.
Otherwise the mixing time must be extended.

If the mixer has stationary mixer blades, they should


be lifted from time to time to avoid fibres
accumulating on them. A visual inspection of the
mixing process is always necessary.

Filling the moulds Wide and shallow sampling scoops should be used
The beam mould should be filled quickly and in a to fill the moulds so that the distribution of the fibres
manner that will prevent unusual fibre orientations. is affected as little as possible. The filling operation
should preferably begin in the middle of the beam
Compacting mould (Figure ER0-1).
Compacting of the steel fibre reinforced concrete in
the mould is permissible by external vibration only.
Concretes of consistency class F6 may be
compacted manually with a tamping rod. For

50
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

consistency classes F3 and F4, a shaking time of


30 seconds is usually sufficient to fully compact the
,, ,, '' ''
concrete. The shaker table shall be sufficiently large. ,, '' '
I
I
''
Immediately after compacting, the mould shall be I
I
I
''
' \ II
I
covered with foil and stored in a climatic chamber.
Side elevation

Top view

Figure ER0-1 - Sequence of filling the beam


mould [Helm-13]
Re 0.2 Storage
In general, the foil-covered specimens in the mould Early strength cements are cements with a high
should be left in the climatic chamber for 2 days. If initial strength (R).
using early-strength cement, 24 hours will be
sufficient. After removal from the mould, the
specimens shall be stored until the test date at
approximately 100 % humidity (foil, water storage or
climatic chamber with 95 % residual humidity) and a
temperature of (20 ± 5)°C. If foil is used, it shall be
sealed, for example with adhesive tape.

Unless otherwise specified, the specimens should


be stored until they are 28 days old. For special
applications it might be necessary to perform the
test later than after 28 days.

Re 0.3 Preparation for testing


For the flexural strength and residual flexural
strength tests, the specimens shall be removed from
the foil no earlier than 24 h before the test. Sections
5 and 6.1 of DIN EN 12390-5 shall be considered;
the concrete top surface is deemed a side face of
the specimen.

The density of the beam shall be determined


according to DIN EN 12390-7.

After that, the brackets for the measuring devices


shall be mounted on the specimen. Figure 0.1
shows the measuring equipment.

51
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

View Cross-section
l/3 l/3 l/3
2 X F/2
t t t t Glued to the
F/2 F/2 specimen

75

75
[ 151- ··-··-··-. ~ Displacement
transducer on
manufacturing
underside
l/600
150
f f
Figure 0.1 - Measuring equipment to determine residual flexural strengths
(dimensions in mm)

Re 0.4 Test equipment


The test shall be performed on a deflection- Information on the test apparatus, performing the
controlled test machine with high rigidity. The tests and various sources of errors that may occur
machine rigidity shall be high enough to avoid an during the evaluation of load-deformation curves is
uncontrolled drop of the load-deformation curve after given in the "Flexural tensile test - Test equipment
the first crack load has been exceeded. The test and procedure, how to avoid errors" in Part B of the
machine shall conform to at least quality class 1 General Commentaries.
according to DIN 51220.

The support spacing is I =


600 mm. It should be
ensured that support and loaded areas are not
restrained.

Re 0.5 Carrying out the test


During the test, the deflection rate up to a midpoint
deflection of 0.75 mm shall not exceed 0.10
mm/min. Piston travel-based control of the test
machine is not permissible. If the deflection is
greater than 0.75 mm, the deflection rate may be
increased gradually to no more than 0.30 mm/min.
The loads and corresponding deflections shall be
measured up to a deformation of 3.5 mm in 0.01 mm
increments and recorded in graph form.

Re 0.6 Determining the residual flexural strength


The residual flexural strengths can be obtained from
the load-displacement curve of the bending test at
deflection points 8 L1 = 0.5 mm and ~2 = 3.5 mm
(Figure 0.2).

52
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

LoadF inN

\
'
Fo,s
r--.....
-
F3,s

0,5 3,5
Deflection 6 in mm
Figure 0.2 - Load-displacement curve to determine residual flexural strengths

The mean residual flexural strengths of the test


series of n ~ 6 beams:
1 F. · · /
f fcflm,L1 =-"
~
n
~
b ·h in N/mm 2
2
(0.1) Changing expression to lcflk,u for lower coefficients
ni=I i i of variation is not permitted as the values of ,IG
1 F. .. [ given in Section R.3.6.3 (5) of Part 1 have been
f fcflm,L2 =-"
n
~
n
~
b . h in N/mm
i=I i i
2
2
(0.2) calibrated for a pre-factor of 0.51.

Where Several methods of determining characteristic


l, b, h = support spacing, width and height of the values, calculated values and design values were
specimen in mm; examined when drawing up the Guideline. The
Index i: beam number. combination of characteristic values and a member-
dependent factor to take account of the geometry
was shown to be a suitable method.

In order to determine the performance class of steel The derivation of design values of the residual
fibre reinforced concrete, the characteristic value for flexural strength in the following steps is explained
residual flexural strength lct1k,Li in a series of at least in Part B of the General Commentaries:
six specimens for deformations 1 and 2 shall be
obtained as follows: mean residual flexural strength;
characteristic residual flexural strength;
lcflk,Li =e (L/cflm,Li - ks.Ls) S 0.51 ./cflm,Li (0.3) conversion to residual tensile strengths using
values of {3;
Where consideration of the distribution of fibres (,IF) and
the dependency on the geometry (,IG);
L/cflm,u logarithmised individual test results/cn,u,;;
design values.
L/cflm,Li = 1/n · L ln(/c11,u,i); Safety aspects relating to the conversion are dealt
with in items c) to e) and are explained in Part B of
Ls standard deviation of the logarithmised
the General Commentaries, article "Safety concept
individual test results of the series; of the DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced
concrete"".

The actual conversion (items a) to e)) is shown in


Part B of the General Commentaries, article "From
beam tests to design residual tensile strengths".

53
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

Ls= L (Lf~m. u-ln(f~1. u. ;))2


n-1

ks fractile factor for unknown standard


deviation for the 5 % quantile with a 75 %
confidence level as specified in Table 0.1.

Table 0.1 - Fractile factor ks

Column 1 2
Row Number of samples n Fractile factor ks
1 6 2.336
2 9 2.141
3 12 2.048
4 15 1.991
5 20 1.932
6 25 1.895
7 100 1.76
8 00 1.645

NOTE: Changing Expression 0.3 at lower coefficients of


variation is not permissible, since the KGvalues in Part 1,
9.1.5, were calibrated for pre-factor 0.51.

The load-deformation curve must be monotonous


between 8 L1 = 0.5 mm and 8 L2 = 3.5 mm.
Otherwise, the lowest value for the residual flexural
strength shall be assumed for 8L2 =3.5 mm in the
interval between JL 1 = 0.5 mm and 8 L2 =3.5 mm
and inserted in Expression 0.2 (see F' 3 .5 in
Figure 0.3).
LoadF in N

~
\ '\.. '-(-- - ----
------- ------- ------- -------- -------i~
Fo,s F3,s F3,s

.
0,5 3,5
Deflection o in mm
Figure 0.3 - Evaluation of load-displacement ratios for deviating curves

Further examples of evaluating various load-displacement curves are given in Part B of the General
Commentaries, article "Flexural tensile test - Test equipment and procedure, how to avoid errors".

54
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

Re 0. 7 Experimental test report


All test results shall be recorded in an experimental The test results are given with two decimal places
test report including the following: (rounded). Classification according to performance
classes is based on those test results. The rounded
location of the performed experiment; test results must reach or exceed the classification
date of the test performed; boundary of the relevant performance class.
test number;
type of concrete mixer; Examples:
concrete composite; lc11k,L 1 =1,49 N/mm - performance class L1-1,2
2

exact designation of the fibre, manufacturer, lct1k,L2 =0,65 N/mm2 - performance class L2-0.6
number of the EC certificate of conformity,
information on geometry and material from the
CE mark or fibre type and approval number;
description and time of the mixing process;
compacting method and duration;
storage conditions;
load-displacement diagrams;
evaluation including individual results for each
beam (see Expressions 0.1 and 0.2).

Re Annex P (normative} - Exact calculation of factor /JL2 to determine centric tensile


strength
According to Part 1, 3.6.3 (3), factor /JL2 may be
obtained as specified in Figure P.1. If the ratio of
performance classes L2/L 1 is greater than or equal
to 0.7 and less than or equal to 1.0, then /JL 2shall be
determined according to Expression P.1. If the ratio
of performance classes L2/L 1 is greater than 1.0
and less than or equal to 1.5, then /JL 2 shall be
determined according to Expression P .2. In both
cases, /JL1 = 0.4. If the ratio of performance classes
L2/L 1 is greater than 1.5, then /JL2 = 0.44 shall be
used.

1 L2 /
/3L2 = 3 - I u + 0,02
(P .1)
where
0,7~ LYLl ~1,0

/JL2 = 0,18 · L~{ l + 0,17


(P.2)
where
1,0 < LYLl ~ 1,5

If the ratio of performance classes L2/L 1 is greater


than 1.0, the stress block may not be used.

55
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

Factors {3 to determine characteristic residual tensile strengths from the


characteristic residual flexural strength
0,50
0,48
0,46
0,44 0,44- 7

-
~

0,42 A1
.-
0,40
-
0,40
f3u for stress block
0,38 0,37~
0,36
0,35 ~
..... /3L2,_accurat,
0,34
0,32
,,
/
0,30
0,28 ~

p
0,26
0,24
0,22
0,25 ~

f--
- ---
/

/3L2
~

simo ified

0,20
0,18
0,16
0,14
only stress block
-- stress block or --
stress block not
0,12
permissable
-- tr.3_pe_z:c:>id_ - perm issable
0,10
0,08
0,06
-
,- ·····-··- ----
- ----.-----'---- --- ·--· ~

0,04
0,02
0,00
0,0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5
L2IL1

Figure P.1 - Factors f3L1and f3L 2to determine characteristic residual tensile strengths
as a function of the ration L2IL 1

Re Annex Q (normative) -Additional provisions for steel fibre reinforced concrete


In addition to Tables 22, 23 and 24 of DIN EN 206-1,
this Annex contains specifications for production
control in the manufacture of steel fibre reinforced
concrete.

The row numbers in the following Tables Q.1, Q.2


and Q.3 refer to those in Tables 22, 23 and 24 of
DIN EN 206-1 and replace or supplement the
respective requirements.

56
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

Table Q.1 - Additional checks of constituent materials of steel fibre reinforced concrete

Concrete Inspection/
Purpose Minimum frequency
constituent test
10a Steel fibres Inspect the delivery To ensure that the freight Every delivery
note conforms to the order and is from
the right origin
-
11a Visual inspection To ensure that the freight Every delivery
conforms to the order and is from
the right origin

To visually inspect the geometry


of fibres; if in doubt, the fibre

- 13a Weight check of the


geometry shall be determined
To ensure that the container Random sampling
containers (can be contents correspond to the
foregone if additional nominal weight
quantity is weighed
separately)

Table Q.2 - Additional inspection of equipment for manufacturing steel fibre reinforced concrete

Inspection/
Equipment Purpose Minimum frequency
test
3a Measuring Visual inspection of To ensure that measuring All 7 days of production
equipment for the function equipment is working properly
the dosing of To avoid inaccurate additives
Accuracy check According to list
steel fibres and
separating 8
devices At regular intervals
according to list

In case of doubt
a The frequency depends on the type of equipment, its sensitivity in use and the production conditions of the system.

Table Q.3 -Additional control of production procedures and of


properties of steel fibre reinforced concrete

Inspection/
Test item Purpose Minimum frequency
test
17 Uniform Test according to To check if the requirements are as frequently as
distribution of Annex M according to Table Q.4 compressive strength
fibres in fresh test, see DIN EN 206-1,
concrete Table 24, Row 16

18 Residual Test according to To provide performance classes Once a year


flexural strength Annex 0 of test specimens
on concrete In case of doubt
specimens
made in moulds

57
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 2 of the Guideline

Explanatory notes on the uniform distribution of fibres:


The uniform distribution of steel fibres in a batch shall be verified during initial testing and factory
production control. When steel fibres are added to the truck mixer, the check can be carried out by
determining the steel fibre content of three subsamples of fresh concrete as described in Annex M, for
example. The samples shall be taken from the truck mixer at evenly spaced points. The uniform distribution
of fibres added to the truck mixer shall be checked at handover on site, with samples being taken from the
truck mixer as specified in Annex M. The fibres are deemed to be uniformly distributed if the test results for
the subsamples satisfy the criteria in Table Q.4.

Table Q.4 - Criteria for the uniform distribution of fibres in fresh concrete

Test result Fibre content in


for kg/m 3

mf.i ~ 0.80- mt.min


-
mt ~ 0.85· mt.min

mt.min: Minimum fibre content

58
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 3 of the Guideline

Part A : Commentary on Part 3 of the Guideline


"Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Additions and changes to
DIN EN 13670 and DIN 1045-3
Re 1 Scope
DIN EN 1045-3, the first paragraph is replaced

Together with DIN EN 13670 and DIN 1045-3,


Part 3 applies to the execution of components or
structures dimensioned as specified in Part 1 and for
which concrete was manufactured as specified in
Part 2. Part 3 contains the requirements on the
execution of structures including civil engineering
structures made from concrete and steel fibre
reinforced concrete with reinforcement according to
the scope defined in Part 1, Section 1.

NOTE: As defined in DIN EN 13670, Section 1(4)(b), Part


3 governs additional or deviating rules for components or
structures made of concrete and steel fibre reinforced
concrete.

Re 8 Concreting
Re 8.1 Setting of concrete
DIN EN 1045-3, a new paragraph is added

(R.5) The required effort for the processing and


compacting of steel fibre reinforced concrete usually
increases with increasing steel fibre content and
increasing steel fibre slenderness.

Re 8.4 Pouring and compacting


DIN EN 1045-3, a new section 8.4.7 is added

Re 8.4.7 Steel fibre reinforced concrete


When compacting steel fibre reinforced concrete, it
must be ensured that the flow of concrete in the
mould may affect the orientation of the fibres in the
member. Overdone compacting of steel fibre
reinforced concrete should be avoided, as it will lead
to fibre sedimentation.

Re DIN 1045-3, Annex NA {normative)- Monitoring by the construction company


Re DIN 1045-3, Annex NA.6 Monitoring of concrete work
DIN EN 1045-3, Table NA.1 is supplemented as
follows:

59
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 3 of the Guideline

Table NA.1 - Monitoring classes for concrete

Column 1 2 3 4
Row Subject matter Monitoring class 1 Monitoring class 2 Monitoring class 3
Steel fibre reinforced Steel fibre reinforced
concrete of concrete of
5 Special properties
performance class performance class
-
SL1-1,2 >L1-1,2

Re DIN 1045-3, Annex NB {normative)-Tests for relevant properties of fresh and hardened
concrete
NB.1 General
Paragraphs (3) and (4) are omitted.

DIN EN 1045-3, Table NB.1 is supplemented as Prior to construction work, it is advisable to clarify
follows: which of the tests referred to in lines 8a and 8b are
to be performed.

Table NB.1 - Scope and frequency of testing for designed concrete

Column 1 2 3 4 5 6
Testing Frequency for monitoring class
Row Subject matter Requirement
procedure 1 2 3
Properties of fresh and hardened concrete
Visual Normal Random Each delivery
None
Steel fibre inspection appearance sample vehicle
8aa dosage of fresh According to As specified As specified
concrete a Part 2, in - in None
Annex M Annex NB.3 Annex NB.3
residual flexural
strength on According to As specified As specified
8ba concrete Part 2, in - in None
specimens made Annex 0 Annex NB.3 Annex NB.3
in moulds
a Tests 8a and 8b may be conducted alternatively.

DIN EN 1045-3, Annex NB.3 is supplemented

NB.3 Testing the steel fibre dosage of concrete according to its properties when using
ready-mixed concrete
(1) In case of doubt, for steel fibre reinforced
concrete of monitoring class 2, fibre contents shall
be determined as specified in Part 2, Annex M.1 or
M.2 or alternatively a residual flexural strength test
for specimens made in moulds shall be carried out
according to Part 2, Annex 0.

(2) The results of the fibre content determination The samples for determining the fibre content are
shall be evaluated according to the criteria in taken from the truck mixer. Three subsamples as
Table NB.3. specified in Annex M shall be taken.

(3) The results of the residual flexural strength test Concrete for testing the residual flexural strength
shall be evaluated according to the criteria in shall be taken from the truck mixer and one
Table NB.4. specimen (beam) shall be prepared and tested in

60
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part A: Commentary on Part 3 of the Guideline

accordance with Part 2, Annex 0, of the Guideline.


The individual values of the residual flexural
strength f tct1.u obtained for this specimen from the
load-displacement curve shall be equal to or better
than the values of the specified performance
classes L1 and L2 (i. e. f tct1,L 1 ;;: L1 and
/ ct1,L2;;: L2 according to Table NB.4).
(4) The concrete shall be accepted if the criteria in
Table NB.3 or Table NB.4 have been satisfied.

(5) If insufficient test results are found, the


acceptance test may be performed on member
samples, e.g. by determining the fibre dosage on
drilling cores. Here, each individual test result must
yield at least 80 % of the minimum value of the fibre
dosage or the mean value from the three drilling
cores must yield at least 85 % of the minimum
value of the fibre dosage.

Table NB.3 - Criteria for acceptance


of fibre content determination result

Fibre dosage in
Number n of results in the series 3
kg/m

n=I mt,i ;::,: 0.80 · mt.min


-
n=3 m f;::,: 0.85 · mt,min
Minimum value of fibre dosage
m1,min:

NOTE: "n" refers to the batch.

Table NB.4 - Criteria for acceptance


residual flexural strength test result

Each individual test result


Number n of results in the series 2
N/mm

;::,: L1
n=1 and
;::,: L2
NOTE 1: "n" and "test result" refer to the batch.
NOTE 2: The numerical value of the test result should not be multiplied by
the factor 0.51 according to Part 2, Expression 0.3.

61
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

Part B: General commentary on the


Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" (Articles)
Re Part 1, Section 2.4.2 of the Guideline

Safety concept of the DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete"

By Peter Heek, M.Sc., Dr.-lng. Jan Lingemann, Univ.-Prof. Dr.-lng. habil. Peter Mark,
Dr.-lng. Bernd SchnOtgen, Dipl.-lng. Markus Schulz, Prof. Dr.-lng. habil. Dr.-lng. E.h. Konrad Zilch

1 Basic principles
Concrete structures have to be designed in accordance with the safety concept in Eurocode 0
[DIN EN 1990-1 O]. The required safety margin between the effects of actions E and resistances R is
specified on the basis of experience, taking account of the public need for safety and socially acceptable
consequences of failure. The state function g =R - E characterises the failure state with g < 0, whereby g =0
describes a limit state. If effects of actions and resistances are initially regarded as stochastically
independent random variables with a normally distributed population, the state function results in a normally
distributed random variable with the distribution density /G(g). The central safety zone now corresponds to
the difference between the expected value µ 9 = µR - µE and g = 0 and can be expressed as a multiple of the
05
standard deviation a 9 =(uR + uE) · using the reliability indexj3 =µ 9 I u9 . The operational probability of failure Pt
is calculated for g < 0 = µ 9 - j3 · u9 from the area beneath the density function /G(g), thus providing an
equivalent description of the safety level in relation to the reliability indexj3:

Pf=
-00 O" g
l
f fG(g)dg = «11(- µg = «11(- ft) (1)

The probability of survival is obtained directly from Expression (1) as a complement to the probability of
failure. According to [DIN EN 1990-1 OJ, the minimum values of the reliability indexj3 stated in Table 1 must
be satisfied for reference periods of 1 or 50 years. As j3 increases, the probability of failure Pt decreases.

The required safety is stated in terms of the importance of the structure (consequence classes) and the
required reliability classes in the informative Annex B of Eurocode O (DIN EN 1990). However, this annex
has not been adopted by the German Building Inspectorates. Consequence class CC2 and reliability class
RC2 always apply. Distinctions between safety levels are made solely by specifying different levels of
supervision in the Building Regulations (e. g. mandatory checking of the structural analysis).

Table 1: Consequence classes and minimum values of reliability indexj3 according to [DIN EN 1990-10,
Fingerloos-12]

high consequence for loss of human life, or


CC3 7
very great economic, social or 5.2 4.3 approx. 10-
RC3
environmental consequences
medium consequence for loss of human
CC2 6
life, considerable economic, social or 4.7 3.8 approx. 10-
RC2
environmental consequences
low consequence for loss of human life,
cc 1 and small or negligible economic, social or 4.2 3.3 approx. 10-5
RC 1
environmental consequences

A reference period for the reliability index is required as the correlations shown relate to reliability problems
that do not vary with time. At the same time, however, time-dependent effects of variable loads are
considered by distributing the relative maximum values relating to a period of time when modelling actions
[Zilch-09].

62
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

In order to calculate the required safety margin between the resulting random variables, i. e. the effects of
actions E =J:.Ei and resistances R = J:.Ri as the sum of many individual influences, it is generally assumed that
E and R are normally distributed [Konig-03J. Other types of probability distributions, such as the log-normal
distribution or extreme value distributions, may need to be used to describe the individual influences on the
resistance or effects of actions side. Such distributions are then transformed to a normal distribution.

From the explanatory notes on Expression (1) it can be seen that the probability of failure p 1 depends non-
linearly on the scatter of both E and R. Within the semi-probabilistic safety concept - the partial safety
concept - in [DIN EN 1990-1 OJ, linearisation is achieved by introducing weighting factors aE and aR:

(2)

Basically, both weighting factors depend on the ratio <5R/ <5E but are stated as constant factors in [DIN EN
1990-1 OJ such that, on average, an adequate safety level is always obtained [Konig-03J. The partial safety
factors of actions and resistances can only be decoupled by using constant weighting factors. The following
is obtained for the central safety zone

µG = µR -µE = JJ ·(Jg= JJ •(XR(jR + JJ •aEaE (3)

and for the limit state with µ 8 = 0 by transforming

µR - fiaR (jR
'---v---'
= µE - fiaEaE
'------.r------
(4)
Rd Ed

To rule out failure, design values of actions Ed may not exceed design values of resistances Rd in the limit
state. Design values represent the safety level specified in Table 1 and are generally derived from
characteristic values using safety elements.

Additive safety elements are generally required for random variables with an expected value of zero (e. g.
unintentional eccentricities in second order analysis). In addition, a model uncertainty must always be
considered. It is assumed above that the scatter is independent of the expected values. If the coefficient of
variation of a random variable is dependent on the expected value (e.g. residual tensile strength of steel fibre
reinforced concrete), then multiplicative safety elements (partial safety factors) have to be introduced
depending on the scatter of the random variable (standard deviation <5x) in order to achieve a consistent
safety level. Design values are obtained as a quotient (Rd) or a product (Ed) of characteristic values with
partial safety factors. Characteristic values reflect the stochastic nature of the effects of actions or
resistances in a reduced form as they are defined as fractiles of probability distributions. Generally speaking,
upper characteristic values are obtained for actions and lower ones for resistances. Thereby, 5 % fractiles
are common for resistances in civil engineering. Partial safety factors can also be interpreted such that they
are used to convert, by multiplication, the characteristic fractile into the fractile defined by the reliability index
and the appropriate weighting factor in the limit state.

Actions and material properties can generally be considered as basic variables instead of the reference
parameters, i. e. effects of actions and resistances, and be introduced with characteristic values [Zilch-09J.
The basic variables are then transformed into reference parameters during the design process using
calculation models which have an element of uncertainty. Uncertainties in the models must therefore be
covered by the partial safety factors in the same way as uncertainties in representative values of actions or
material properties. See, for example, references [Rackwitz-01, Schneider-94, Spaethe-98J for further details
on the reliability theory and the safety concept in Eurocode 0.

The DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" specifies a partial safety factor let
of 1.25 to calculate
the design values of residual tensile strength in case of persistent, transient and accidental design situations
in ultimate limit states. The specification of a constant partial safety factor for the material property (residual
tensile strength) is consistent with the usual procedure set out in Eurocode 0.

However, an additional factor -,/8 needs to be considered in addition to let


in order to calculate the fractile of
the residual tensile strength required for design. This is because scatter of the residual tensile strength
expected in a member cannot be estimated as a constant coefficient of variation during the design process,
unlike the scatter of the concrete compressive strength, for example. The factor K\ is introduced to consider
the influence of member dimensions on the coefficient of variation of residual tensile strength.

63
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

2 Scatter for steel fibre reinforced concrete


The degrees of scatter observed in the results of material tests on steel fibre reinforced concrete members
depend to a large extent on the absolute size of the cross-sectional area in tension Atct· The percentages of
fibres activated after cracking obtained in material tests performed on specimens with small cross-sectional
areas, such as those specified in the DAfStb Guideline for the determination of the residual flexural tensile
strength, may differ to a greater extent than the percentages obtained for larger cross-sectional areas. For
very small areas, the number of fibers observed in the crack may even be zero. This correlation has been
verified by extensive experimental investigations and can be described theoretically by the variance
propagation law or empirically using Expression (5) [Lingemann-13].
(5)

where V(Atc1) is the coefficient of variation as a function of the cross-sectional area in tension Atct
in [m 2 ]

The results of various test series are analysed and compared with the analytical formulations in Figure 1.
The approach according to Expression (5) describes the test results for small cross-sectional areas in
tension correctly on average and conservatively as Atct increases. The mean test results are modelled well by
the variance propagation law which can be derived theoretically and applies exactly to normal distributions.
However, the variance propagation law will not be considered subsequently as uncertainties resulting due to
different methods of data analysis are neglected in Figure 1 [1].

Vr [-]
0,30 l~....-·1,-1 I 1 T"· I 11 COVresidual strength acc. to [Bemard-02]
i
:::II!.! \ !i I! !
: i ! ! j ! ! : ! ! ! ! !
1
! • COVresidua1 strength acc. to [Erdem-02]
. r:r-·r-·--r1··-··r--11L. . .r·r--l··-rl-·r-l
0 25
• • COVresidual strength acc. to [Lambrechts-04]
%\i i i l I l I I l l i I i l I
0 20
, x COVbearingcapacitypipetests acc. to [Lambrechts-08]

0,15
. lxi -~-J . I___J _I 1....LI J_J !. J. . .1_
! !,,•ii@~ !I ·1 ' I I II I ! I ! I i
x COVresidualstrcngthLl acc. to [Behnen-09]
f
W,
I~··· I I
, . ;
,1,.,
' I

0' 10 ~--t-~
• 1 •
---+-~--.i ·-·H:,._JI_ ..J.._!. . . . .
• • r , . . x.
~I. . ., · - ~ - ~ - ~ - -
II!! COVrcsidualstrengthL2 acc. to [Behnen-09]

! •I ~ 'T'-l. ! \ f ! 1 !x I \ \ !~ A COVNumberfibres/cm', acc. to [Lingernann-13]


O,OS ..... f-~t-----·j·--·-1-+-·-f
! ! : ' ' .
f--r--~t--rx-l
' * ' l
-ir-t-~-- -·
! ' ' ' i
Variance propagation law
0 i i l i ! ! i i i ! !x I xl i I -Approach acc. to Eq. (5)
0 0, 1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0, 7 0,8

Figure 1: Coefficients of variation as a function of the cross-sectional area in tension [Lingemann-13]

3 Fractiles as a function of the statistical scatter


The partial safety factor Yet= 1.25 for steel fibre reinforced concrete is based on a reliability index f3 of 3.8
according to Table 1 in the ultimate limit state. The corresponding weighting factor for the resistance aR is
calculated as 0.8 [DIN EN 1990-1 OJ. The design value of residual tensile strength is therefore obtained
approximately as a 0.1 % fractile, assuming a normally distributed population.

As it is not necessary to draw a mechanically based distinction between residual flexural tensile strengths
and residual tensile strengths in the following explanatory notes on the safety concept of the DAfStb
Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" the general term "residual tensile strength"/ will be used to cover
both. For the sake of simplicity the factors Pu, /Js, /JL1, /JL2 as well as ac and ,/F according to sections R.3.6.3
and R.3.6.4 of the Guideline are not dealt with subsequently. In contrast to the Guideline, characteristic
residual tensile strengths are expressed here in simplified form as /k and design values as /d-

64
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

If the characteristic residual tensile strength is initially assumed to be a 5 % fractile of a normally distributed
random variable with expected value µt and standard deviation a1, then the partial safety factor is obtained as
a function of the coefficient of variation Vi

1-k ~
f sN I-ks ·Vf 1-1,645-Vf (6)
Yct,N 1-3,8·0,8-Vf
I- JJ·aR O"f 1-JJ·aR ·Vf
µf

where ks is the fractile factor.

However, in the context of section 0.6 of the Guideline it has been postulated that the random sample of the
test results has a lognormal distribution. According to [DIN EN 1990-10], the lognormal distribution is
frequently used for the stochastic description of material properties as it has a minimum value fa by contrast
to the normal distribution which has a density function defined as being between - 00 -::..!-::.. 00 • The partial
safety factor based on a lognormal distribution with the expected value Lµ 1 and the standard deviation fot is
obtained as follows

f /LA-k,·Lar) (JJ·a -k )·La (3 8·0 8-1 645)-V,


Yct,LN ------=e R s r,,,,e' ' ' f (7)
/Lµr-fl·aR ·Lar)

It is supposed in Expression (7) that the standard deviation of a lognormally distributed random variable fo1
corresponds approximately to the coefficient of variation Vi of the same random variable when a normal
distribution is assumed. This correlation applies as a good approximation for Vi::; 0.3 according to [Konig-03]
and Figure 4.

On the basis of Expressions (6) and (7) it can clearly be seen that the required partial safety factors y1ct,N/LN,
calculated on the basis of a normal or lognormal distribution respectively, depends largely on the coefficient
of variation Vi (Figure 2).
f
Y ct,N/LN
6
-normal distribution
-Iognormal distribution J
5

4 I
3 I
/
I
I
2 I /
I
I
L---r'"
I
!
0
i
Vr[-]
0,00 0,05 0,10 0,15 0,20 0,25 0,30

Figure 2: Partial safety factor for the material property as a function of the coefficient of variation

As demonstrated in Section 2, it is not possible to specify a constant coefficient of variation for the residual
tensile strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete. Instead, the scatter correlates with the size of the cross-
1
sectional area in tension A ct· According to the safety concept of the DAfStb Guideline, the scatter is not
taken into account by a variable partial safety factor but by a constant partial safety factor let
in conjunction
with the factor i/G. Initial point for the definition of

(8)

65
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

with respect to Section R.3.6.3 of the Guideline is the experimentally based determination of the
characteristic residual tensile strength

J[ = eCLµ,-k,(n),Lu,) ~ 0,51 · N (9)

in accordance to Expression (0.3) of the Guideline.

The underlying idea is now to modify a characteristic value obtained for a test specimen with high degrees of
scatter/a small cross-sectional area by means of a coefficient -,/G, The coefficient is dependent on the
geometry of the element to be designed, in such a way that the scatter in the member, which is much lower
than that obtained in the beam test, can be described appropriately (Figure 3).

N - (µr,(Jr)
N - (µr,ur) Beams acc. to
DAfStb-Guideline

f
Yct f
Of ct

Figure 3: Scatter of residual tensile strength in beam tests according to DAfStb Guideline and members
to be designed

Section 0.6 of the DAfStb Guideline specifies a minimum of six beam tests with a cross-sectional area
Ac= 0.15 x 0.15 m2 for the determination of the characteristic residual tensile strength /k. The statistical
evaluation of the test results is performed in accordance with Expression (9). On the left-hand side of the
expression it is assumed that the frequency distribution of the test results correlates with the lognormal
distribution. The characteristic value A, which is defined as a 5 % fractile in the Guideline, is then estimated
depending on the size of the random sample. As the size n of the random sample increases, the statistical
moments estimated for the random sample approach those of the population. The restriction on the right-
hand side of Expression (9), i. e. the limitation of the characteristic value to 51 % of the mean value of the
series, corresponds to an estimated 5 % fractile of a Student t-distribution with 5 degrees of freedom and a
coefficient of variation Vt of approx. 25 %. A coefficient of variation of this magnitude can usually be expected
when performing the beam tests. The defined upper limit is used to calibrate the factor KtG and ensures that
the material properties can be transferred reliably to the element to be designed, even when low degrees of
scatter are observed in the tests.

66
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

Vf[-]
f\lµr[-]
1,00 ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - -
0,95 ---+----+---+----+---t----+-·--+----+---+-·---j
0,90
0,85
100
0,80 25-
0,75 20
0,70 15-.
0,65 12
9
0,60 6
0,55
0,50 - l - - + - - + - - - + - - - + - - - - + - ~ -
0,45 -i--+---+---1---+----+---t-""-c~~s-'1'-~b-!"'----l
0,40 ~ - - - + - - - + - - - 1 - - - , - - - t - - - + - - ·
0,35 +--+---+---1---+---l---t-----c;,~c----P"'-:-~~3':::,;j
0,30 +--+--+---+---t---t---=>1"'---i----1----i~cc-"'I
0,25 +---t---t--t---t--~~-t---i-----11----1----j
0,20 - f - - t - - - - - + - - - + - - - - - - - + - - + - - - t - - - - - + - - - + - - - ;
0,]5.._--+---l--------1---+---+---+---l----+---i

~:~;ktCI I

!
I
I
I
I
i
I l
0 0,05 0,10 0,15 0,20 0,25 0,30 0,35 0,40 0,45 0,50
Lcrr [N/mm2 ]
Figure 4: Characteristic residual tensile strength as a function of scatter of material tests

Figure 4 illustrates that, for n ;;:: 6, the characteristic value /k


according to Expression (9) is always 51 % of
the mean value of the series for fo1= Vt= (it I µ 1 ~ 0.27. The correlation between the expected value and the
standard deviation of a normally distributed and a lognormally distributed random variable was established
by means of transformation according to [Plate-92] as shown in Table 2. Non-negative random variables F
are referred to as lognormally distributed if log(/) is normally distributed.

Table 2: Transformation of statistical quantities of a normally distributed and a two-parameter


lognormally distributed random variable

Expected value
n =-IJl
1
Lµf = .!..1n[__!!L_] with Vf = (if
n 2 l+vf µr

Standard deviation 1
ur =(;I(/i-µr) 2
)0,5 fof = ~In(vf + 1)

By analogy, statistical quantities of the lognormal distribution can also be transformed into the normal
distribution. For example, the following applies to the expected value according to [Plate-92]:

µf = eLA+0,5·L(J: (10)

After logarithmisation and transformation

Lµf =ln(µf )- 0,5 · L(Ji (11)

67
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

4 Safety level of design values as a function of Atct


In order to evaluate the safety level of the DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" (reliability index
jJ = 3.8), the correlation between the scatter of the residual tensile strength and the size of the cross-
sectional area in tension Atct described in section 2 must be integrated into the calculation of the design value
according to Section 3. The following abbreviated form is obtained for the design value of residual tensile
strength by analogy to Sections R.3.6.3 and R.3.6.5
Expression(9)
~

![
-~f'-'----· Kb (12)
Yet

In accordance with the Guideline, the design value is thus only calculated as the quotient of the
characteristic value and the partial safety factor 1.25 for cross-sections with an area in tension let=
corresponding to that in the beam tests. In this case, a value of 1.0 is obtained for KtG in accordance with
Expression (8) for the beam tests.

The following is obtained for the area relevant for construction by normalising the design value to the
expected value and using Expressions (5) and (8) with fot = Vt :s_ 0.30 in accordance with the DAfStb
Guideline

J, f fif Kf e[(-k(n)-0,5-0,l·A:,--o)s)o,I-A:,--o;sj
__Q_=___k_·_Q_= ,
f
·Ka< 051
, ·Ka
f
(13)
f f f
µf Yet µf Yet Yet

By contrast, the following is obtained as the required safety margin between the expected value and the
design value of the residual tensile strength for a normally distributed population using Expression (5)

1J
- = 1- fl · u.R
r-o,2s
· 0, 1 · Act (14)
µr

By analogy, the following is obtained for a lognormally distributed population using Expression (10)

fdf
-=el\
rr_JJ· aR -0 ' 5·0 ' l·Ar-o, 25
\0 l·Ar--o,,,]
t'
ct ct (15)
µf

Expressions (13) to (16) are analysed in the form of a graph in Figure 5.

1,0
f B = 3,8 aR= 0,8 Yrct = 1,2s J
0,9
0,8 Iog-N - (Lµr,Lar)

0,7
,......,
........
I 0,6
...
::t 0,5
--
-r:: 0,4
. ·········---~~!ail
........................................
0,5
0,3
0,2 0,4
0,1
0,01 0,05 0,10

0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6
Arct [m2 ]

Figure 5: Safety level as a function of Atct

68
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

As the size of the cross-sectional area in tension Atct increases or the scatter of the post-cracking tensile
strength decreases, the ratio of design value to expected value (/di µt) for normally and lognormally
distributed populations of the random variable asymptotically approach a value of 1. According to the safety
/d
concept of the DAfStb Guideline, the ratio I µt remains constant for Atct :::: 1.4 m2 . An adequate safety level
is verified in the DAfStb Guideline for all cross-sections in which the result of Expression (13) is lower than
that of Expression (14) and (15) respectively. Uncertainties in the model have been taken into account by the
conservative formulation in Expression (5). A different approach to Expression (13) is only required for very
small values of Atct (Figure 4). As the detailed graph in Figure 5 shows, the design value of /d must be
estimated as a 5 % fractile of a lognormal distribution as a function of the size n of the sample if large
coefficients of variation (Vt> 0.27) are obtained for the material tests. However, this applies only to very small
cross-sections with cross-sectional areas Atct of approximately 0.005 m2 (corresponding to around half the
cross-sectional area of the specimens described in the DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete")
and is therefore not relevant for construction practice.

5 Conclusions
In order to determine the residual tensile strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete beam tests are performed
on small scale specimens as are economic to produce. The test results exhibit a high degree of scatter, with
coefficients of variation Vt of around 25 %. By performing tests it was possible to demonstrate that the scatter
strongly correlates with the size of the cross-sectional area in tension. Within the safety concept of the
DAfStb Guideline, the factor ;G is used to apply the scatter obtained in the material tests reliably and
economically to the scatter expected for elements being designed. The factor ;G, which considers the size of
the member on the coefficient of variation, was calibrated using the characteristic residual tensile strengths
determined by testing in accordance with Annex 0.6 of the Guideline. Limiting the characteristic value to
51 % of the mean value of the series, even if low degrees of scatter are obtained in the material tests,
enables a constant partial safety factor Yet, which is common in civil engineering, to be defined. Finally, by
calculating the characteristic residual tensile strength as a minimum of 5 % fractile of a Student t-distribution
with 5 degrees of freedom and 5 % fractile of log normal distribution, reliability index fJ of 3.8 is maintained for
all cross-sections of relevance in construction practice.

69
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

Re Part 1, Section R.3.6.3, and Part 2, Annex O of the Guideline

From beam tests to design residual tensile strengths

By Dr.-lng. Lars Godde, Peter Heek, M.Sc., Univ.-Prof. Dr.-lng. habil. Peter Mark,
Dr.-lng. Mathias Strack, Dipl.-lng. Gerhard Vitt

1 Concept
This article will explain how the design value of residual tensile strength is derived. The concept is structured
in such a way that the determination of material properties is separate from the design process. The upper
limit of the characteristic value defined in Expression 0.3 links material properties and system properties in
such a way that the designer does not require any information other than the specified performance class.
Nevertheless, it is possible to give adequate consideration to the different degrees of scatter for small and
large structures during the design process. The procedure for determining the residual strength values of
relevance to the design is structured as follows:

2 Material properties
2.1 Performance class
2.1.1 Mean residual flexural strength
2.1.2 Characteristic residual flexural strength
2.1.3 Upper limit of the characteristic value
2.1.4 Determination of the performance class
2.1.5 Example of the analysis of beam tests in accordance with Expression 0.3

3 Design
3.1 How to take account of the dependency on geometry (,/G)
3.2 How to take account of the fibre orientation (KfF)
3.3 Conversion of residual flexural strength into residual tensile strengths using values of fJ
3.3.1 Basic residual tensile strengths
3.3.2 Calculated residual tensile strengths
3.4 Design values

2 Material properties
2.1 Performance class
To determine residual tensile strengths and assign fibre-reinforced concretes to performance classes it is
necessary to analyse the load-displacement curves obtained in flexural tensile tests on minimum six beams
according to Part 2, Section 0.6, of the Guideline. Flexural tensile tests have become the established
method as opposed to centric tensile strength tests as load application in the latter is very complex and time-
consuming.

2.1.1 Mean flexural tensile strength


The analysis of the flexural tensile tests is performed with the residual strengths at deflections of 0.5 mm
(performance class 1 - serviceability limit states) and 3.5 mm (performance class 2 - ultimate limit states)
respectively. This method of analysis can only be used if the section of the load-displacement curve between
0.5 mm and 3.5 mm is monotonic. Otherwise, the lowest force between deflections of 0.5 mm and 3.5 mm
must be taken for performance class L2 (Figure 0.2).

70
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

Analysis of tests Relationship between deflection, crack


width and strain
R2
F
=
f' '* Rigid body defonnation is assumed when
cracking occurs in midspan

F.3,5 -> Icfl,L2


····> L2

£ ""0,50mm o,, == 3,50 mm


-4 eJ1= 3,5 %0 - sj,, = 25,0 %0

Figure 1: Analysis of beam tests and relationships between deflections, crack widths and strains
according to Figure 0.2 and Figure ER3-3

The specified deflections can be related to crack widths and calculated strain conditions that are expected to
occur in the serviceability and ultimate limit states (Figure 1). Specifying a deflection value t5 of 0.5 mm
corresponds to values for limiting crack widths (calculated values of wk= 0.4 mm). By analogy to the ultimate
strain t:51 = 25 %0 for reinforcing steel in reinforced concrete members, an ultimate strain /ct of 25 %0 was
specified for the second deflection value t5 = 3.5 mm in case of steel fibre reinforced concrete. Deflections
are associated with crack widths and strain conditions in beams subjected to bending using a model of the
rotation of rigid bodies, assuming the presence of a plastic hinge in the cracked area of the cross-section
(Figure 1 and ER3-3). The percentage of elastic deformations in the overall deflection is negligible in this
case.

Assuming, for the sake of simplicity, that the deflection t5 corresponds approximately to the crack width w for
the given beam geometry, the stress-strain curve can be determined from the load-displacement graph.
Stetting the crack opening w of approximately 3.5 mm for L2 equivalent to a strain /ct of 25 %0 a smeared
1
crack approach was used with a reference length of s w = 140 mm.

Residual flexural strengths /cfl.u (i = 1.2) are calculated from the force values determined from discrete
deflection values on the basis of linear-elastic theory by (0.1) for performance class 1 and (0.2) for
performance class 2. This is done by dividing the acting moment M= Fl/6 by the section modulus W= bh2/6
of the uncracked cross-section: <J = MIW. However, due to cracking, stresses are not distributed linearly over
the cross-section, as previously assumed. The designation "residual flexural strength" is therefore used in an
idealised manner in the Guideline to describe a stress condition assumed for calculation purposes.

In order to calculate the mean residual flexural strength/cflm,u for the deformations L1 and L2 by Expressions
(0.1) and (0.2) respectively, the arithmetic mean of the residual flexural strengths /cfl,i.Li (with j = 1.2, .. n;
i = 1.2) of n :::: 6 beam tests must be calculated as follows:

f 1 n FLi,j ·Lj (1)


fcflm,Li =-;; .~1-b--=.h~2-"-
J- J j

2.1.2 Characteristic flexural tensile strength


The characteristic residual flexural strengths /cflk.u are obtained as 5 % fractiles of the mean residual flexural
strengths. The fractiles are used to classify the steel fibre reinforced concrete according to the performance
classes specified in Table R.3, the value for performance class L1 generally being higher than that for
performance class L2. The performance clasS'es cover residual flexural strengths in the range
0.4 s./cflk,u s. 3.0 N/mm2 in accordance with Table R.3.

71
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

J,f . = e(LJ;~,-k,·Ls) < OSl/,f


cflk,L1 - '
. [ N
cflm,L1 mm2
J (2)

where
L/cflm.u is the mean value of the logarithmised single test results Jcfl,i,Li
Ls is the standard deviation of the logarithmised single test results
ks is the fractile correction factor in accordance with Expression (0.3).

When calculating the characteristic residual flexural strengths, it is assumed that the random sample of the
test results is taken from a lognormally distributed population. By contrast to normally distributed random
variables with defined density functions between -oo ~ x ~ oo, the log normal distribution has a minimum value
x 0 . As x increases, the lognormal distribution asymptotically approaches a value of zero which corresponds to
the intuitive idea of the behaviour of physical quantities, which are always positive, but occur more rarely as
their size increases. The fractile factor ks according to Table 0.1 is introduced to take account of the
influence of the size of the random sample n on the estimate of the 5 % fractile of the population. As the size
of the random sample increases, the statistical moments estimated on the basis of the random sample, such
as fractiles for example, approach those of the population.

2.1.3 Upper limit of the characteristic value


The upper limit of the characteristic residual flexural strength of 51 % of the mean value of the series defined
in Expression (0.3) corresponds to the estimated 5 % fractile of a Student t-distribution with 5 degrees of
freedom and a coefficient of variation Vx of around 25 %. The degree of freedom/ of the Student t-distribution
obtained is n-1, where n is the size of the random sample. The application of the Student t-distribution is
particularly appropriate for small random sample sizes and approaches the normal distribution for n - oo. A
coefficient of variation of around 25 % corresponds to the value which is usually expected to occur in the
bending tests on beams in accordance with the Guideline.

It is not permitted to modify Expression (0.3) for low coefficients of variation as the coefficient KtG to take
account of the influence of the size of members on the coefficient of variation has been calibrated for the pre-
factor 0.51. Similarly, it is not permitted to use residual tensile strengths determined using specimens other
than those specified in Part 2, Annex 0, of the Guideline without the corresponding modifications to the
safety concept.

2.1.4 Determination of the performance class


The characteristic residual flexural strength derived with respect to Sections 2.1.2 and 2.1.3 is used to
determine the performance class according to Table R.3. The performance class must be achieved when the
values are rounded to two decimal places.

Example:

• Characteristic residual flexural strength 1.81 N/mm2 ;


Performance class 1.8
• Characteristic residual flexural strength 1.75 N/mm2 ;
Performance class 1.5

(See N.5.2 for possibilities for interpolation)

2.1.5 Example of the analysis of the beam tests in accordance with Expression 0.3
The following example illustrates the analysis of 6 beams using Expression 0.3 and how steel fibre
reinforced concrete is assigned to the performance classes shown in Table R.3. The numerical values have
been adjusted so that, in the first instance, the characteristic value based on a lognormal distribution and, in
the second instance, the upper value of /cflk,Li ~ 0,51 · Jcflm,u is relevant. In addition, the rounding rules set out
in Section 2.1.4 have been applied.

72
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

Beam 1 3.95 3.12 1.374 0.035 1.138 0.037


Beam2 4.93 4.45 1.595 0.001 1.493 0.027
Beam 3 4.65 4.90 1.649 0.008 1.589 0.067
Beam4 3.90 5.01 1.770 0.044 1.611 0.079
Beam 5 5.22 4.02 1.652 0.008 1.391 0.004
Beam 6 3.76 2.13 1.324 0.056 0.756 0.329
n 6 6 No. of specimens
k 2.336 2.336 Fractile factor
Jcflm.L 1 I Jcflm.L2 4.40 3.94 Mean value of series
L}cflm.L 1 I L}cflm.L1 1.474 1.330
Ls 0.138 0.330
f'.Sfanclarcfde··
~~~!~~,~E;:
/cflk,L1 I Jcflk,L2
/cflk.L1 I Jcflk,L2 Upper limit of characteristic value
1--~~~~~~~-+~~~+-~~--1

/cnk,L1 l /cnk,L2 Relevant characteristic value


:i5~oli.9rtiqn:6~~i~111~
Performance class:

An example of the designation of the steel fibre reinforced concrete tested is shown below:

C30/37 L2.1/1.5 XC1 WO

3 Design
3.1 How to take account of the dependency on geometry (,/G)
Statistical analysis of the flexural tensile tests considers scatter of the experimental results which correlates
with the size of the cross-sectional area in tension Ate, [Lingemann-09]. The basic idea is to modify a
characteristic value with a high degree of scatter obtained from small-scale test specimens using the factor
-,/8 . This factor depends on the geometry of the member to be designed in such a way, that the degree of
scatter for the member, which is expected to be far lower than those obtained in the beam tests, can be
described appropriately (cf. DIN EN 1990, 6.3.3).
According to the DAfStb-Guideline, small, economically produced beam specimens with a cross-sectional
area in tension of Atct == 0.9·0.152 =0.02025 m2 and a coefficient of variation l1x of approx. 25 % are to be
tested. The scatter is caused by the way in which the fibres are distributed in the cross-section. This is due to
the fact that, for small cross-sectional areas, it is quite likely that either very many or very few fibres will cross
the cracked cross-section. As the cross-sectional areas increase (up to slab-like plane members), the
probability diminishes that either a very high or a very low number of fibres will be present in the crack. The
mean value predominates. Consequently, the scatter of the residual flexural strength is far lower for large
cross-sections. This correlation has been verified by experimental investigations and can be described
theoretically by the variance propagation law [Lingemann-09].
When the Guideline was drafted, the question arose how this effect could be taken into account. Determining
the residual tensile strength on large specimens would result in higher 5 % fractiles being obtained than for
small specimens for the same mean residual tensile strengths. However, it is more difficult, more time-
consuming and less economic to determine the residual tensile strength on large specimens. On the other
hand, uneconomic results would be obtained if the characteristic residual tensile strengths determined on
small specimens were to be used when designing large members. Finally, it was decided to include the small
specimens, which are widely used and are more practical for testing purposes, in the Guideline. To ensure
that large members could also be designed economically, the correction factor KtG was introduced into the
computation of the calculated residual tensile strength /ctR,u to take account of the influence of the size of
the member on the coefficient of variation
(3)

73
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

For members subjected to bending only, the size of the cross-sectional area in tension Atct may be estimated
by a simplified procedure using 0.9 · Ac in accordance with R.3.6.3 (5). In other cases, Atct is obtained by
iterating the strain states or with Figure 2.

~
f
fctd,u 0" C
/ci=u,1 J a1d,1 =~

fctd,u
1.0 I
o,s L I - - -i
!
0,8,--------r~-~i'---=<~~~~;J;::=--~--~~~o~,0~25~!!
Ufd,1 - 0 (Stb)

0,050_,·
---i
0,7 -F--~~
0,075 ~---~,
' -,~~.,----~--~----1-----1--------,-----=:,""lill!ill'o.i:--l-~o~.1~0~0,---------il
06 I I
0,5
0,4
MEct - NEct · Zs1
0,3 µEds = b . d2 . fed
0 0,05 0,10 0,15 0,20 0,25 0,30 0,35 0,40
Figure 2: Estimation of A\1 associated with an equilibrium condition for rectangular cross-sections with
combined reinforcement

A 1c1 generally denotes the cross-sectional area in tension or rather plastic hinges that are associated with a
1
permitted state of equilibrium. It therefore depends on the (sub-) system under consideration whether A c1
refers to a single cross-section only or to several cross-sections.

Figure 3: Example of a system for determining the cross-sectional area associated with a permitted state
of equilibrium

The system shown in Figure 3 illustrates the following principle:

• ,/8is determined with Atct =b · d for the shear analysis at the support as the load is transmitted through a
single cross-section only.
However, -,/8 may be determined with A c1 = (3· b) · (h-x) for the bending analysis over the supports and
1

in mid-span as the three plastic hinges form the load-bearing system.

Where
b= length of the plastic hinges for the associated state of equilibrium; here b = width of the member bw
h= depth of the member
d= effective depth
x= height of the compression zone

74
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" :_ Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

3.2 How to take account of the fibre orientation (u\)


According to Section R.3.6.3 of the Guideline, the factor KtF considering the fibre orientation in the concrete
member establishes a further relationship between the beam tests and the actual structure to be designed.

KfF =0.5; (4)


for horizontally cast plane members (b > 5h}, KtF may be taken to be 1.0 for flexural and tensile loads

The orientation of fibres in a member is influenced to a great extent by the consistence of the concrete and
the method of concreting. A fibre orientation perpendicular to the direction of concreting and compaction
occurs most frequently, while a fibre orientation parallel to the surfaces of the formwork predominates in
small test specimens. The fibre orientation in tests specimens according to this Guideline as well as for
horizontally cast plane members subjected to bending is generally favourable, because it is in direction of the
principal tensile stresses. The residual tensile strengths determined on beams according to the Guideline
may be applied to such members without reduction (/F =1.0)[Stahlbetonbau aktuell-14].

3.3 Conversion into residual tensile strengths using values of p


Residual tensile strengths have to be used instead of residual flexural strengths for designs in the
serviceability and ultimate limit states. The residual tensile strengths /ci.u for the deformations L1 and L2 are
determined using conversion factors fJ stated in Section R.3.6.3. To compute these factors for the evaluation
of tests according to Part 2, Annex 0, a linear stress distribution limited by the residual flexural strength at
the outermost fibre and an alternative trilinear course of the residual tensile strengths are contrasted
(Figure 4).The strength values are then converted from one stress distribution to the other, assuming a
constant moment (M= constant). For simplicity, the strain condition is assumed to be linear and a function of
the deformation. Strains are linked with the residual tensile strengths via the stress-strain relationships
shown in Figure R.2. Different conversion factors are thus obtained, depending on the deformation
considered (L 1 or L2), the ratio of performance class L2 to performance class L1 and the assumed stress-
strain relationship (trilinear or stress block). The tabulated values refer to a L2/L 1 ratio of 0.7 and are
generally valid. Conversion factors for other ratios are given in Figure P.1.
residual tensile strength

,J r%1
Performance class 1 Performance class 1 Performance class 2
(T! e: =-1,0%0
~tO,u/s
'°t0.L2
M=const.
0,10 0,15
M • con:Sion
factor /J; 0,15 0,22

f 0,9 0,36 0,9 0,23 0,33


fcfl,i dt L1 = b'c\,1 = 3,5 %0
1,2 0,48 1,2 0,30 0,44
/J L1 • fJ,L 1
1,5 0,60 '1,5 0,38 0,56
Performance class 2

rit·
Stress block 0,72 1,8 0,45 0,67
.1,8 .•
f O'cf f_ 3101
b'c--, 100 CT/ ad= -3,1 %0 2,1 0,84 2,1 0,53 0,78
/Ju . fcH,L2
/JL2 0,7
r ""'· I.1.
9
h 0,96 2,4 0,60 0,89
> 2,4 R~quires 9 ~~~~a1 building inspectorate
approval or permission in each individual

~~
fJL2= a!t,1 = 25 %0 fcLts= &J.1 = 25 %0 /J L1 = 0,40 fJ L2 = 0,25 fJ u/s = 0,37
/J L2 ' f!fl,L2 /J u/s · ffn.u/s * only for plane members (b > 5h)

Equilibrium of moments using the example of performance class 1


(f~,L1 'h/4)' (2/3 · h) = (/h1 'fJ,L1 '7/9' h)' (29/54' h)
--> fJ L1 = 0,4

Figure 4: Simplified method of converting experimentally obtained residual flexural strengths into residual
tensile strengths [Stahlbetonbau aktuell-14]

75
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

3.3.1 Basic centric residual tensile strengths


The characteristic residual flexural strengths are converted into basic residual tensile strengths /cto,i by
means of Expressions (R.3.31) and (R.3.33). The fJ factors are obtained as a function of the performance
class values L2/L 1 (Figure P.1) and the selected stress-strain relationship with respect to Section R.3.6.5.

lcto,i =Jcflk,L1/L2 JJi with i =L 1, L2, s, u (5)

Applications of the stress block and the trilinear stress-strain relationship are defined in Sections 3.6.3(3) and
(4) and summarized in Figure P.1.

F [kN) F [kN] F [kN]

112 IL1.~]\ll

'' ''
' '
,L2 jl1 '
:L2 [L1
6[mm] o[mm] 6[mm]
0 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0 0 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0 0 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0
0,1 25,0 0.1 3,5 25,0 0,1 3,5 25,0
I I I I I I I I I I
::: t'ct [%.] £',, [%o] - "-'ct [%o]

s~--r~~:~orsJ;k.~ 1 B,(tlk.L1
.. "'
if L2/L1 :,;-- 1. ,0
..............
a'" [N/mm2] a'"[N/mm2 ] a'"[N/mm 2]

• Point of relevance

Figure 5: Applicable stress-strain relationships as a function of the ratio L2/L 1

3.3.2 Calculated centric residual tensile strengths


Calculated residual tensile strengths /ctR,i are determined by means of Expressions (R.3.36) to (R.3.39),
introducing the factors KtG and /F which are dependent on the cross-section and production.

lctR,i = KfF · KfG • lctO,i with i = LI, L2, S, u (6)

3.4 Design values


The design residual tensile strengths /ctd,i are finally obtained from the calculated residual tensile strengths
/ctR,i by introducing both, the partial safety factor Ytct and the factor to take account of long-term effects ate in
accordance with Figure R.3.

/ctd,i =ate · /ctR,i I Yfct with i = LI, L2, s, u (7)


The residual tensile strength is a fictitious value. It is therefore not permitted to use the residual tensile
strength to calculate steel stresses in individual steel fibres owing to the smeared crack approach and the
different loads acting on each fibre.

76
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

Re Part 2, Annex O of the Guideline

Flexural tensile test - Test equipment and procedure, how to avoid errors

By Dipl.-lng. Frank Lobisch, Dipl.-lng. Wilhelm Nell,


Dipl.-lng. Markus Schulz, Dipl.-lng. Gerhard Vitt

1 Test equipment
The test must be performed with a displacement-controlled testing machine with a high degree of rigidity, a
sufficiently short response time and a sufficiently high measuring frequency. The testing machine must
comply with quality class 1, or better, as specified in DIN 51220 "Materials testing machines - General
information on requirements for materials testing machines and on the testing and calibration of such
machines". The performance (residual tensile strengths) will be overestimated if testing machines or
equipment with insufficient rigidity are used. The loads that occur are overestimated for deformations of
0.5 mm in particular due to the relatively large gap between the deflection points at maximum load and those
at the start of the residual tension range. The performance can be overestimated by up to 1 to 2 performance
classes when the results are analysed.

Figure 1: Example of a testing machine

The distance l between the supports is 600 mm. Care must be taken to ensure that both support and load
application are constraint-free as it may otherwise develop a pressure arc which can also result in the
performance class being overestimated. Therefore at least one of the supports must ensure that the
specimen can move freely in a horizontal direction. The same applies to the load application points.

Figure 2: Examples of movable supports

2 Test procedure
The test must be controlled via the deflection of the specimen. Piston-stroke-based control is not permitted.
The deflection rate must not exceed 0.10 mm/min for deflections up to 0. 75 mm. For deflections greater than
0.75 mm, the deflection rate may be increased up to a maximum of 0.30 mm/min.

77
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

Loads and deformations must be measured and recorded in increments of 0.01 mm for deflections of up to
3.5mm.

3 Typical load-displacement graphs


The typical load-displacement graphs obtained in tests on steel fibre reinforced concrete depend to a great
extent on the fibres. The graphs are affected by the type, length and shape of the fibres, the way the fibres
are anchored and the tensile strength of the material. Wire fibres have the greatest effect on the graph.

Generally speaking, steel fibres with a high aspect ratio (ratio of length to diameter) achieve better results in
the test than fibres with a low aspect ratio (Table 1, a). This is due to the greater number of fibres for the
same dosage used (kg/m 3 ). However, the fibres should also be long enough to permit anchorage
(Table 1, b).

In the case of higher grade concretes, the load-displacement curves for fibres with lower tensile strengths
exhibit a steeper downward slope (Table 1, d). The tensile strength of the fibres should therefore always be
appropriate for the concrete used.

• b ··rnfJ~offiof~f1en
F same dosage, F same aspect ratio
same length (length I diameter)
~

thin: high aspect ratio

thick: low aspect ratio

w w

effect from anchorage concrete strength vs.


fibre tensile strength

fibre pull-out

''
''
''
''

w w
Table 1: Examples of parameters affecting the residual tensile strength

Corrugated wire fibres achieve good results for small crack widths. However, the load-displacement curves
drop steeply as the crack width increases so that they are not as suitable for ultimate limit state designs as
steel wire fibres with hooked ends (Table 1, c).

4 How to avoid errors


In order to avoid errors when evaluating the tests, each load- displacement curve can be checked by
following a simple method. Special procedures may then be followed for the evaluation, if necessary.

78
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

The following paragraphs apply to normal-weight concretes with typical contents of steel wire fibres with
hooked ends. Other types of steel wire fibre, such as corrugated steel wire fibres, may result in different load-
displacement curves (Table 1, c). Although the following paragraphs also apply, in principle, to other types of
steel wire fibres, their applicability should be checked in each individual case.

A typical load-displacement curve for steel fibre reinforced concrete is shown in Figure 3. Initial cracking
generally occurs at a specimen deflection of around 0.1 mm to 0.15 mm in beam tests used in the framework
of this Guideline (Figure 1).The curve subsequently drops to a stable level relatively quickly. As the
deflection of the beam increases there is a steady drop in the associated test load. The level of the residual
tensile strength and the slope of the curve in the post-cracking zone can be influenced by the actual quantity
and length of the fibres used (Table 1).

0.1 mm 3.5mm W

Figure 3: Idealised load-deformation curve

It is essential for the test to be displacement-controlled. Otherwise it will not be possible to identify a post-
cracking zone on the load-displacement curve and only the flexural tensile strength (initial cracking flexural
tensile strength) can be determined. The use of a suitable deformation-controlled testing machine is
therefore imperative.

The test set-up should be checked if the deflection at initial cracking is far greater than approx. 0.1 mm
(Figure 4). Possible causes are attaching the displacement transducers incorrectly or measuring the
deflection with externally located optical equipment. This can lead to deformations at the supports being
registered incorrectly as deflections of the concrete sample, for example. In this case, the position of the
displacement transducers must be checked. The curve can also be evaluated correctly if the displaced initial
cracking point is taken into account.

F
~ >>0.1mm

0.1mm w
Figure 4: Incorrect deflection for initial cracking

79
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

An uncontrolled drop in the specimen may occur after initial cracking if the machine controls react too slowly
or the measuring frequency is too low. The loadbearing behaviour can be considerably overestimated if the
evaluation of the curve is not adjusted and the section highlighted red in Figure 5 is included without
correction. In fact, no results were obtained for the dash-dotted line at all, the load at initial cracking only
being linked linearly with the next data point.

F first crack

\
:'.' \
:, \
: \
': \
'
\\, '.'./ nextd ata
________-'p~o::..:.int

Figure 5: Uncontrolled drop in the test specimen after initial cracking

When a specimen falls in an uncontrolled manner, the beam may rebound. This may cause the load-
displacement curve at the beginning of the stable zone to be higher than described in the paragraph above
in some cases, see Figure 6. Again, this can only be remedied by using a testing machine that is sufficiently
fast and has been designed with sufficient stiffness.

F first crack

\\ r
: '.
'

:
\
\

,
',
graph is
stable
from here
\
',
\
.
------- -~r'---···········
,.,\·,
·-·
w

Figure 6: Uncontrolled fall of the specimen after initial cracking and beam rebound

It is for this reason that a quality class 1 testing machine is specified as instabilities can then largely be
prevented. The effects are of considerable importance, especially for steel fibre reinforced concretes with
lower performance classes. The loadbearing capacity is considerably overestimated if the evaluation of the
curve is not adjusted. See also Figure 9.

Unusually large oscillations (Figure 7) generally indicate that there are problems with the testing machine so
that the manufacturer of the machine should be consulted. As the oscillations may falsify the evaluation
under certain circumstances it may be necessary to discard the test results.

80
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

w
Figure 7: Unusually large oscillations

Steel wire fibres may snap if their tensile strength is not suitable for the concrete strength class (Figure 8).
Instead of individual fibres being pulled out of the concrete as intended, the fibres are stretched and snap
when the ultimate strain is reached. The composite material becomes more brittle and loses its ductile post-
cracking properties. The use of steel fibres that are suitable for the concrete strength is therefore very
strongly recommended.

w
Figure 8: Snapping of steel fibres

81
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

General charts for the design of steel fibre reinforced concrete members

By Univ.-Prof. Dr.-lng. habil. Peter Mark, Peter Heek, M.Sc., Dr.-lng. Lars Godde,
Dr.-lng. Mathias Strack

~ fctd,u
~ ~U-fd,_1_=_fed_~

·7t=J~.
'd····
l>,;f
·,.·.,
'.
j\:" . ,

1,0
DAfStb-Guideline (MEd f. 0, NEd = 0)
0,9 ,.L _ _ I - - . ___ I - - - - - - - - - -

' I I I
Clfd.1 FD (Stb)
0,8 0,025
0,050
0,7 0,075
0,100
0,6
0,5
~Equilibrium possible
0,4 ' with fibres only

0,3 ' I I µEds =


MEd - NEd • Zs1
b ' d2 • fed
0 0,05 0,10 0,15 0,20 0,25 0,30 0,35 0,40

Figure TBE.1: Estimation of cross-sectional area in tension A1'ct associated with a state of equilibrium for
rectangular cross-sections with combined reinforcement

Assumptions and restrictions for Figure TBE.1:


Rectangular cross-sections with combined reinforcement in the tension zone
Loading by interaction of moments and axial forces
Strain levels 2 to 4 in accordance with DIN EN 1992-1-1
The material behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete in the tension zone is modelled using the
stress block in accordance with Figure R.2, usual fibre effects relative to the compressive strength of
concrete a1d,1 =/ctd,u I fed are between O and 0.1
The material behaviour of concrete and reinforcing steel is modelled with respect to
DIN EN 1992-1-1
- Concrete in compression zone: parabola-rectangle diagram
- Reinforcing steel in the tension zone: bilinear stress-strain relationship
- Defined relative position of the reinforcing steel d1/d =0.1

Application of diagram in Figure TBE.1:


Calculate the dimensionless load µEds in relation to the position of the reinforcing steel from the
moment and axial force (compressive forces with a negative sign)
Determine the residual tensile strength in relation to the concrete compressive strength
1Xfd,u =/ctd,u I fed
1
Form intersection with the curves obtained for A c1 and differentiated according to a1d,u·
1
Read value of A ct
1
NB: A ct can be taken as 0.9 Ac for cross-sections made of steel fibre reinforced concrete without steel
reinforcement.

82
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

f f
I C 12/15- C 50/60 11 d1/d = 0,1 I
GC O' C

ti a ff
_ ctd,L2 /lt1Ed-NEd'Zs1
Utd,l = cf:Ll fd,2-~ µEds=
ctd,Ll b ·d 2 ·fed
f
~ I s= f ' 0)
1
'100e c ,lOOes2 10es1
I

1,00
-!-----+-+--- l~~l O(Stb)· 11=0=.0=2s=·a1r'-[=o~:o5=o~r 0,075 r o:ioo Tt---+---+-+--
0,95
1

0,90

0,85

0,80

0,75

0,70

0,65

0,60

0,55

0,50

0,45

0,40

0,35

0,30

0,25

0,20

0,15

0,10

0,05
.. __I__ _.J-_
0
Without compression reinforcement (µEds .:5. µEds,lim(1;J):
-0,05 C.,,.:.-P-7'4+-+--+--!----!--+--+--1

As1 = cr!id { ro·b·d·fcd + NEd)


-0,10

-0,15 With compression reinforcement (µEds> µEds,lim(1;Jl:


~+---11---+-+--l---+-+----1 2
-0,20 t>.MEds = MEds - MEds,lim(I;) = MEds - µEds,lim(1;J'b·d ·fcd

-0,25 As1 = ~l {roEdslim(i;J'b·d·fcd + t,.dMdEds + NEd)


vsld ' • 2

-0,30 A _ __L(t>.MEds)
52 - O"s2d d-d2
-0,35
-+--+-~1---+---1--+---,1---+---1---+---,--+--+--+---+---t---+--+---+-100e1c
-0,40 -t-~..-~i---r~-+-~..---,;---r~-+-~+---,i---+~-+-~+---i~-r-~-r-~+---i~-i-~'T'l~µEds 1

0 0,05 0,10 0,15 0,20 0,25 0,30 0,35 0,40 0,45 0,50
Figure TBE.2a: Design chart for rectangular cross-sections when moments and axial forces interact
(a1d,2 =0.4)

83
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

f f
Ac=b·h=Ac+Act f f
- C12/15-C50/60 II dJd=0,11 Cc O"c

a _
td,l -
t ctd,Ll
foo
a
fd,2-
_ ffctd,L2
r- MEd-NEd 'Zsl I lc1t'·.·· ('·
f
ct <
#);
iii
,",<,'

ctd,Ll /lEds = b •d 2 •fcd

~:t ,~=er,
f - f
f Cct Uct
0) , lOOafc ,l0Das2 , lDtsl
1,00

0,95

0.90

0.85

0,80

0,75

0,70

0,65

0,60

0,55

0,50

0,45

0,40

0,35

0,30

0,25

0,20

0,15

0,10

0,05
lDas1
0 '
Without compression reinforcement (µEds :s. 1-4:ds,llm(l;)):
-0,05 "'l-,'--,'-;-,<--+~-t-~+--~t---+~-t----1

As1 = cr!iJ ro·b·d·fco + NEd)


-0,10

-0,15

-0,20

-0,25

-0,30

-0,35

-0,40
0 0,05 0,10 0.15 0.20 0,25 0,30 0,35 0,40 0,45 0,50

Figure TBE.2b: Design chart for rectangular cross-sections when moments and axial forces interact
(a1d,2 =1.0)
84
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

Assumptions and restrictions for Figures TBE.2a,b:


Rectangular cross-sections with combined reinforcement and compression reinforcement if
necessary
Loading by interaction of moments and axial forces
Strain levels 2 to 4 in accordance with DIN EN 1992-1-1
The material behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete in the tensile zone is modelled using a
trilinear stress-strain relationship with respect to Figure R.2
The slope of the descending branch is taken into account via the relative tensile strength of the fibres
afd,2 =/ctd,L2 I /ctd,L1
Linear interpolation of intermediate values between atd,2 = 0.4 (Figure TBE.2a) and atd,2 = 1.0
(Figure TBE.2b) between the diagrams possible
The material behaviour of concrete and reinforcing steel is modelled in accordance with
DIN EN 1992-1-1
- Concrete in compression zone: parabola-rectangle diagram
- Reinforcing steel in the tensile zone: bilinear stress-strain relationship
Defined relative position of the reinforcing steel d 1/d =0. 1
Any checks of the ductility reinforcement have not been taken into consideration

Application of diagram in Figures TBE.2a,b:


Calculate the stresses µEds due to moments and axial forces (compressive forces with a negative
sign) that are related to the reinforcing steel in tension
Determine the residual tensile strength in relation to the concrete compressive strength
atd, 1 = /c1d,L1 I /cd and the dimensionless tensile strength relationship atd,2 = .ftctd,L2 I .ftc1d,L1
Define µEds,lim(~> as a function of the required rotation capacity in the cross-section
Form intersection with the sets of curves obtained for wand atd,1
Read required values (linear interpolation of intermediate values of atd, 1.and atd, 2 is permitted)
Determine the required amount of reinforcement using the expression
1
Asl = --(w·b·d·fcd +NEd)
O"sld
Compression reinforcement is required if µEds> µEds,limm: in addition, read ss2 and calculate crs2, As1
and As2
Determine the minimum reinforcement required to ensure ductile behaviour of the member
separately, e. g. using Figure TBE.3

85
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

p [%0]
3,5

3,0

2,5

lctR.u
2,0 Relative residual tensile strength: afk,u = - 1ck-
1,5
Minimum reinforcement: As.min= p ·Ac1= p ·h/2 ·t
1,0

0,5

0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05


Figure TBE.3: Minimum reinforcement area required to resist the cracking moment for rectangular cross-
sections subjected to bending only [Stahlbetonbau aktuell-14]

Assumptions and restrictions for Figure TBE.3:


Rectangular cross-sections
Bending only, NEd =0
The material behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete in the tensile zone is modelled using the
stress block according to Figure R.2
Linear stress-strain relationship of the concrete in the compression and tensile zones to resist the
cracking moment in accordance with DIN EN 1992-1-1
The minimum reinforcement required is calculated using Expression R.9.1a

Application of diagram in Figure TBE.3:


Calculate the residual tensile strength relative to the characteristic compressive strength of the
concrete /Xfk,u =lctR,u I !ck
Form intersection with the sets of curves obtained for p and concrete strength classes
Calculate the reinforcement required to ensure ductile behaviour:
As.min =p·Act with Act= O.S·hb

86
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

0,50
0,45
0,40
0,35
0,30
0,25
0,20
0,15
0, 10 -O--+---c-.l'--+--1

0,05 ...--+---I----+--<
0-1£-~f---+.,..,...--+--=,......,..--,-...,....~~...L..;.;.....:::....:::.,..:.:....:::....:::.j

0 0,10 0,20 0,30 0,40 0,50


Figure TBE.4: Shear design chart for rectangular cross-sections

87
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

Assumptions and restrictions for Figure TBE.4:


Rectangular cross-sections
l':Jo axial forces, NEd = 0
Vertical shear reinforcement a =90°
The material behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete is modelled using the stress block
according to Figure R.2
The ratio of the effective depth d to the depth of the cross-section h is constant, d/h =0.9
The ratio of the lever arm of the inner forces z to the effective depth d is constant, z!d = 0.9,
thus zlh =0.81
The minimum shear reinforcement to ensure ductile behaviour of the member in accordance with
DIN EN 1992-1-1 is taken into account
Limiting points for characterisation of the maximum load bearing capacity of the tie

Application of diagram in Figure TBE.4:


Calculate the relative shear force acting on the member vEd
Calculate lctR,u with A ct =bw·d < 1.SO·bw [m 2 ] in relation to lctR,u_max =1.89 N/mm2
1

Read the required amount of reinforcement mw step by step as follows:


1. Connect vEd vertically to the lower limit of a concrete strength class. Implicit check of
loadbearing capacity of strut via position of the intersection below the limiting points (strut is not
relevant)
2. Subtract the contribution of the concrete to the loadbearing capacity VRd,cc and VRd,ct by the
horizontal offset to the proper /c1R,u_max line. Additional shear reinforcement is not required if this
line is not reached.
J
3. Connect vertically to the proper ctR,u_max line in the upper diagram
4. Read required amount of shear reinforcement mw from the horizontal connecting line
5. Compute required shear reinforcement: asw = (mw·bw·v1 fcd) I/ywd

88
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

Bibliography

[Behnen-09] Behnen, G., Fischer, 0.: Ermittlung aquivalenter Zugfestigkeiten von Stahlfaser-
spritzbeton, In: Tunnel 2009, Heft 6, S. 30-40.
[Bernard-02] Bernard, E. S.: Correlations in the behaviour of fibre reinforced shotcrete beam
and panel specimens, In: Materials and Structures 35 (2002), April, S. 156-164.
[Brite Euram-02] Brite Euram BRPR-CT98-0813: Test and Design Methods for Steel Fibre
Reinforced Concrete, 2002.
[DAfStb-Heft 600] Erlauterungen zu DIN EN 1992-1-1 und DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA (Eurocode 2);
Deutscher Ausschuss fOr Stahlbeton, Heft 600, Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin 2012.
[DIN EN 1990-10] DIN EN 1990: Grundlagen derTragwerksplanung, 2010-12.
[Erdem-02] Erdem, E.: Probabilistisch basierte Auslegung stahlfasermodifizierter Betonbau-
teile auf experimenteller Grundlage, Dissertation, Ruhr-Universitat Bochum,
2002.
[Falkner-02] Falkner, H., Teutsch, M., Rosenbusch, J.: Stahlfaserbeton- und stahlfaserver-
starkte Stahlbetonbauteile - Bemessung mit neuer cr-s-Beziehung, Beton- und
Stahlbetonbau 97, Heft 8, 2002, S. 409-414.
[Fingerloos-12] Fingerloos, F.; Hegger, J.; Zilch, K.: Kommentierte Fassung Eurocode 2 fOr
Deutschland, Beuth Verlag, Ernst & Sohn, 1. Auflage, 2012.
[Godde-08] Godde, L.; Strack, M.: Conversion Factors for the Determination of the Tensile
Behaviour of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete by Bending Tests. In: Gettu, R.
(Ed.): 7'h Int. RILEM Symposium on Fibre Reinforced Concrete: Design and
Applications, BEFIB 2008, S. 409-418.
[Godde-13] Godde, L.: Numerische Simulation und Bemessung von Flachentragwerken aus
Stahlfaserbeton sowie stahlfaserverstarktem Stahl- und Spannbeton,
Dissertation, Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, 2013.
[Hegger-09] Hegger, J., Will, N., Littwin, R.: Berechnung von Stahlbetonplatten nach der
Bruchlinientheorie, DAfStb-Forschungsbericht, Frauenhofer IRB Verlag, 2009.
[Helm-13] Helm, M.: Stahlfaserbeton in der Praxis, Verlag Bau & Technik, 2013.
[Holschemacher-11] Holschemacher, K. et al.: Grundlagen des Faserbetons. In: Betonkalender 2011,
Teil 2, Ernst & Sohn, Berlin, 2011.
[Konig-03] Konig, G.; Tue, N. V.: Grundlagen des Stahlbetonbaus, 2. Auflage, Vieweg +
Teubner, 2003.
[Lambrechts-04] Lambrechts, A.N.: The variation of steel fibre characteristics - Study on
toughness results 2002-2003. In: Ahmad, S. et al. (Hrsg.): Fibre Reinforced
Concrete from Theory to Practice, International Works. on Adv. in Fiber
Reinforced Concrete. Bergamo, Italy, 2004, S. 135-148.
[Lambrechts-08] Lambrechts, A.N.: Performance Classes for Steelfibre Reinforced Concrete: be
critical. In: Gettu, R. (Hrsg.): 7'h RILEM Int. Symposium on Fibre Reinforced
Concrete: Design and Applications, BEFIB 2008, S. 1007-1020.
[Lingemann-09] Lingemann, J.; Zilch, K.: Zurn Einfluss der Bauteilgro~e auf das Tragverhalten
von Bauteilen aus Stahlfaserbeton. In: K. Zilch (Hrsg.): Tagungsband zum
13. MOnchener Massivbau Seminar 2009.
[Lingemann-09a] Lingemann, J.; Zilch, K.: Bemessung von Bauteilen aus Stahlfaserbeton In:
Gehlen, Chr.; Heinz, D.; Zilch, K. (Hrsg.): DAfStb-Forschungskolloquium -
Beitrage zum 50. Forschungskolloquium am 8./9. Oktober 2009 an der
TU MOnchen, S. 149-156.
[Lingemann-1 OJ Lingemann, J.; Zilch, K.: Effect of Specimen Size on the Performance of Steel
Fiber Reinforced Concrete. In: Proc. of 3rd Int. fib Congress & PCI Convention,
Washington DC, USA, 2010.

89
DAfStb Guideline "Steel fibre reinforced concrete" - Part B: General Commentary on the Guideline (Articles)

[Lingemann-13] Lingemann, J.; Zilch, K.: Einfluss der Bauteilgror..e auf das Tragverhalten von
Stahlfaserbeton - theoretisches Modell und Verifizierung am Bauteil,
Bauingenieur, Band 88, 2013, S. 518-524.
[Pardey-94] Pardey, A.: Physikalisch nichtlineare Berechnung von Stahlbetonplatten im
Vergleich zur Bruchlinientheorie; Deutscher Ausschuss fOr Stahlbeton, Heft 441,
Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin 1994.
[Plate-92] Plate, E. J.: Statistik und angewandte Wahrscheinlichkeitslehre fOr
Bauingenieure, Verlag Ernst und Sohn, 1992.
[Rackwitz-01] Rackwitz, R.: Zuverlassigkeit von Tragwerken, In: Zilch, K., et al. (Hrsg.):
Handbuch fOr Bauingenieure, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2001, S. 1/217-1/254.
[Rosenbusch-04] Rosenbusch, J.: Zur Querkrafttragfahigkeit von Balken aus stahlfaserverstarktem
Stahlbeton; Deutscher Ausschuss fOr Stahlbeton, Heft 550, Beuth Verlag GmbH,
Berlin 2004.
[Sawczuk-63] Sawczuk, A., Jaeger, Th.: Grenztragfahigkeitstheorie der Platten, Springer-
Verlag, Heidelberg, 1963.
[Schneider-94] Schneider, J.: Sicherheit und Zuverlassigkeit im Bauwesen, vdf - Verlag der
Fachvereine, Zurich und Teubner, Stuttgart, 1994.
[Spaethe-98] Spaethe, G.: Die Sicherheit tragender Baukonstruktionen, Springer Verlag, Wien,
1998.
[Stahlbetonbau Mark, P., Godde, L., Heek, P., Strack, M.: Stahlfaserbeton, In: Stahlbetonbau
aktuell-14] aktuell 2014, S. E.1-E.65, Bauwerk-Verlag Beuth, Berlin, 2014.
[Strack-03] Strack, M.: Zur Biegebemessung von Stahlfaserbeton. In: DAfStb-
Forschungskolloquium - Beitrage zum 43. Forschungskolloquium, Ruhr-
Universitat Bochum, 2003.
[Strack-07] Strack, M.: Modellbildung zum rissbreitenabhangigen Tragverhalten von
Stahlfaserbeton unter Biegebeanspruchung. Dissertation, Ruhr-Universitat
Bochum, 2007.
[Teutsch-11] Teutsch, M., Wiens, U., Alfes, Ch.: Erlauterungen zur DAfStb-Richtlinie
Stahlfaserbeton. In: Betonkalender 2011, Teil 2, Ernst & Sohn, Berlin, 2011.
[Zilch-09] Zilch, K.; Zehetmaier, G.: Bemessung im konstruktiven Betonbau, 2. Auflage,
Springer Verlag, 2009.

90
Verzeichnis
der in der Schriftenreihe des Deutschen Ausschusses fur Stahlbeton-DAfStb-
seit 1945 erschienenen Hefte

Heft Heft Heft


100: Versuche an Stahlbetonbalken zur Be- 114: SchOttbeton aus verschiedenen Zu- 127: Witterungsbestandigkeit von Seton
stimmung der Bewehrungsgrenze. schlagstoffen. (1957)
Von W Gehler, H. Amos und Von A. Hummel und K. Wesche. Von K. Walz. 4,80 EUR
E. Friedrich. Die Ermittlung der Kornfestigkeit
128: Ku_gelschlagprOfung von Seton (Ein-
Die Ergebnisse der Versuche und das von Ziegelsplitt und anderen Leicht-
fluss des Betonalters) (1957).
Dresdener Rechenverfahren for den beton-Zuschlagstoffen (1954).
Von K. Gaede. vergriffen
plastischen Betonbereich (1949). Von A. Hummel. vergriffen
Von W Gehler. 9,70 EUR 129: Stahlbetonsaulen unter Kurz- und
115: Die Versuche der Bundesbahn an Langzeitbelastung (1958).
101: Versuche zur Ermittlung der Riss- Spannbetontragern in Kornwestheim Von K. Gaede. 12,90 EUR
bildung und der Widerstandsfahigkeit (1954).
Von U. Giehrach und C. Sattele. 130: Bruchsicherheit bei Vorspannung ohne
von Stahlbetonplatten mit verschiede-
5,40 EUR Verbund (1959).
nen Bewehrungsstahlen bei stufen- Von H. Rasch, K. Kordina und
weise gesteigerter Last. 116: Verdichten von Seton mit lnnenrOttlern C. Zeiger. 5,40 EUR
Von 0. Grafund K. Walz. und ROtteltischen, GoteprOfung von
Versuche Ober die Schwellzugfestig- Deckensteinen (1954). 131: Das Kriechen unbewehrten Betons
keitvon verdrillten Bewehrungsstahlen. Von K. Walz. vergriffen (1958).
Von 0. Graf und G. Weil. Von 0. Wagner. vergriffen
Versuche Ober das Verhalten von kalt 117: Gas- und Schaumbeton: Tragfahigkeit
von Wanden und Schwinden. 132: Brandversuche mit starkbewehrten
verformten Baustahlen beim ZurOck- Stahlbetonsaulen.
biegen nach verschiedener Behand- Von 0. Grafund H. Schaff/er.
KugelschlagprOfung von Porenbeton Von H. Seekamp.
lung der Proben. Widerstandsfahigkeit von Stahlbeton-
Von 0. Grafund G. Weil. (1954).
Von K. Gaede. vergriffen bauteilen und Stahlsteindecken bei
Versuche zur Ermittlung des Zusam- Branden (1959).
menwirkens von Fertigbauteilen aus 118: Schwefelverbindung in Schlacken- Von M. Hannemann und H. Thoms.
Stahlbeton tor Deeken (1948). beton (1954). vergriffen
Von H. Amos und W Bochmann. Von A. Stois, F. Rost, H. Zinnert und 133: Gas- und Schaumbeton:
vergriffen F. Henkel. 6,90 EUR Druckfestigkeit von dampfgehartetem
102: Seton und Zement im Seewasser 119: Versuche Ober den Verbund zwischen Gasbeton nach verschiedener Lage-
(1950). Stahlbeton-Fertigbalken und Ortbeton. rung.
Von A. Eckhardt und W Kronsbein. Von 0. Grafund G. Weil. Von H. Schaff/er.
vergriffen Versuche mit Stahlleichttragern tor Ober die Tragfahigkeit von bewehrten
Massivdecken (1955). Platten aus dampfgehartetem Gas- und
103: Die n-freien Berechnungsweisen des Von G. Weil. -vergriffen Schaumbeton.
einfach bewehrten, rechteckigen Stahl- Von H. Schaff/er.
betonbalkens ( 1951). 120: Versuche zur Festigkeit der Biege- Untersuchung des Zusammenwirkens
Von K. B. Haberstock. vergriffen druckzone (1955). von Porenbeton mit Schwerbeton bei
Von H. Rusch. vergriffen bewehrten Schwerbetonbalken mit
104: Bindemittel fur Massenbeton, Unter- seitlich angeordneten Porenbeton-
suchungen Ober hydraulische Binde- 121: Gas- und Schaumbeton: schalen (1959).
mittel aus Zement, Kalk und Trass Versuche zur Schubsicherung bei Von H. Rusch und E. Lassas.
(1951). Balken aus bewehrtem Gas- und 4,80 EUR
Von K. Walz. vergriffen Schaumbeton.
Von H. Rusch. 134: Ober das Verhalten von Seton in che-
105: Die Versuchsberichte des Deutschen Ausgleichsfeuchtigkeit von dampf- misch angreifenden Wassern (1959).
Ausschusses tor Stahlbeton (1951). gehartetem Gas- und Schaumbeton. Von K. Seidel. vergriffen
Von 0. Graf. vergriffen Von H. Schaff/er. 135: Versuche Ober die beim Betonieren an
Versuche zur PrOfung der Grof1e des den Schalungen entstehenden Belas-
106: Berechnungstafeln fur rechtwinklige Schwindens und Quellens von Gas und
Fahrbahnplatten von Straf1enbrOcken tungen.
Schaumbeton (1956). Von 0. Grafund K. Kaufmann.
(1952). 7. neubearbeitete Auflage Von 0. Grafund H. Schaffle.
(1981). Druckfestigkeit von Seton in der
vergriffen oberen Zone nach dem Verdichten
Von H. Rusch. vergriffen
durch lnnenrOttler.
122: Gestaltfestigkeit von Betonkorpern. Von K. Walz und H. Schaff/er.
107: Die KugelschlagprOfung von Seton. Von K. Walz.
Von K. Gaede. vergriffen Versuche Ober die Verdichtung von Be-
Warmzerreif1versuche mit Spann- ton auf einem ROtteltisch in lose auf-
108: Verdichten von Leichtbeton durch stahlen. gesetzter und in aufgespannter Form
ROtteln (1952). Von J. Dannenberg, H. Deutschmann (1960).
Von K. Walz. vergriffen und Melchior. Von J. Strey. vergriffen
Konzentrierte Lasteintragung in Seton
109: S0 3-Gehalt der Zuschlagstoffe (1952). (1957). 136: Gas- und Schaumbeton:
Von K. Gaede. 3,30 EUR Von W Pohle. 7,60 EUR Versuche Ober die Verankerung der
1?.ewehrung in Gasbeton.
110: Ziegelsplittbeton (1952). 123: Luftporenbildende Betonzusatzmittel Uber das Kriechen von bewehrten
Von K. Charisius, W Drechsel und (1956). Platten aus dampfgehartetem Gas-
A. Hummel. vergriffen Von K. Walz. vergriffen und Schaumbeton (1960).
Von H. Schaff/er. 11,20 EUR
111: Modellversuche Ober den Einfluss der 124: Seton im Seewasser (Erganzung zu
Torsionssteifigkeit bei einer Platten- Heft 102) (1956). 137: Schubversuche an Spannbetonbalken
balkenbrOcke (1952). Von A. Hummel und K. Wesche. ohne Schubbewehrung.
Von G. Marten. vergriffen 2,70 EUR Von H. Rasch und G. Vigerust.
Die Schubfestigkeit von Spannbeton-
112: EisenbahnbrOcken aus Spannbeton 125: Untersuchungen Ober Federgelenke balken ohne Schubbewehrung (1960).
(1953). 2. erweiterteAuflage (1961). (1957). Von G. Vigerust. vergriffen
Von R. Bohrer. 7,80 EUR Von K. KammOller und 0. Jeske. 138: Ober die Grundlagen des Verbundes
vergriffen zwischen Stahl und Seton (1961).
113: Knickversuche mit Stahlbetonsaulen.
Von W Gehler und A. Hatter. 126: S03-Gehalt der Zuschlagstoffe - Von G. Rehm. vergriffen
Festigkeit und Elastizitat von Seton mit Langzeitversuche (Erganzung zu 139: Theoretische Auswertung von
hoher Festigkeit (1954). Heft 109). Eindringtiefe von Seton in Heft 120 - Festigkeit der Biegedruck-
Von 0. Graf. 9,10 EUR Holzwolle-Leichtbauplatten (1957). zone (1961 ).
Von K. Gaede. 5,40 EUR Von G. Scholz. 5,80 EUR
2 Verzeichnis der DAfStb-Hefte

Heft Heft Heft


140: Versuche mit Betonformstahlen (1963). 154: Spannungs-Dehnungs-Linien des Be- 168: Versuche mit Ausfallkornungen.
Von H. Rasch und G. Rehm. tons und Spannungsverteilung in der Von W Albrecht und H. Schaff/er.
16,00 EUR Biegedruckzone bei konstanter Dehn- Der Einfluss der Zementsteinporen auf
geschwindigkeit (1962). die Widerstandsfahigkeit von Seton im
141: Das spiegeloptische Verfahren (1962). Seewasser.
Von C. Rasch. 14,10 EUR
Von H. Weidemann und W Koepcke. Von K. Wesche.
9,90 EUR 155: Einfluss des Zementleimgehaltes und Das Verhalten von jungem Beton gegen
der Versuchsmethode auf die Kenngro- Frost.
142: Einpressmortel filr Spannbeton (1960). r..en der Biegedruckzone von Stahlbe-
Von W Albrecht und H. Schmidt. Von F. Henkel.
tonbalken. Zur Frage derVerwendung von Bolzen-
7,30 EUR Von H. Rasch und S. Stocki. setzgeraten zur Ermittlung der Druckfe-
143: Gas- und Schaumbeton: Rostschutz Einfluss der Zwischenlagen auf Streu- stigkeit von Seton ( 1965).
der Bewehrung. ung und Gror..e der Spaltzugfestigkeit Von K. Gaede. 13,10 EUR
Von W Albrecht und H. Schaff/er. von Seton (1963).
Von R. Se//. 10,60 EUR 169: Versuche zum Studium des Einflusses
Festigkeit der Biegedruckzone (1961).
der Rissbreite auf die Rostbildung an
Von H. Rasch und R. Se//. 156: Schubversuche an Plattenbalken mit der Bewehrung von Stahlbetonbau-
15,00 EUR unterschiedlicher Schubbewehrung teilen.
144: Versuche ilber die Festigkeit und die (1963). Von G. Rehm und H. Moll.
Verformung von Seton bei Druck- Von F. Leonhardt und R. Walther. Ober die Korrosion von Stahl im Seton
$.chwellbeanspruchung. 15,90 EUR (1965).
Uber den Einfluss der Gror..e der Pro- Von H. L. Moll. vergriffen
157: Verformungsverhalten von Seton bei
ben auf die Wilrfeldruckfestigkeit von zweiachsiger Beanspruchung (1963). 170: Beobachtungen an alten Stahlbeton-
Seton (1962). Von H. Weig/er und G. Becker. bauteilen hinsichtlich Carbonatisierung
Von K. Gaede. 14,50 EUR 11,10EUR des Betons und Rostbildung an der
145: Schubversuche an Stahlbeton-Recht- Bewehrung.
158: Rilckprallprilfung von Beton mit dich- Von G. Rehm und H. L. Moll.
eckbalken mit gleichmal1.ig verteilter tem Gefilge.
Belastung. Untersuchung ilber das Fortschreiten
Von K. Gaede und E. Schmidt. der Carbonatisierung an Betonbau-
Von H. Rasch, F. R. Haugli und Konsistenzmessung von Seton (1964).
H. Mayer. werken, durchgefilhrt im Auftrage der
Von W Albrecht und H. Schaff/er. Abteilung Wasserstrar..en des Bundes-
Stahlbetonbalken bei gleichzeitiger 11,00 EUR
Einwirkung von Querkraft und Moment verkehrsministeriums, zusammenge-
(1962). 159: Die Beanspruchung des Verbun- stellt von H.-J. Kleinschmidt.
des zwischen Spannglied und Seton Tiefe der carbonatisierten Schicht alter
Von F. R. Haug/i. 15,50 EUR
(1964). Betonbauten, Untersuchungen an
146: Der Einfluss der Zementart, des Von H. Kupfer. 6,60 EUR Betonproben, durchgefilhrt vom For-
Wasser-Zement-Verhaltnisses und des schungsinstitut filr Hochofenschlacke,
Belastungsalters auf das Kriechen von 160: Versuche mit Betonformstahlen; Rheinhausen, und vom Laboratorium
Beton. Teil II. (1963). der westfalischen Zementindustrie,
Von A. Hummel, K. Wesche und Von H. Rasch und G. Rehm. Beckum, zusammengestellt im For-
W Brand. 11,70 EUR schungsinstitut der Zementindustrie
Der Einfluss des mineralogischen Cha- des Vereins Deutscher Zementwerke
rakters der Zuschlage auf das Kriechen 161: Modellstatische Untersuchung punkt- e.V. Dilsseldorf (1965).
von Seton (1962). formig gestiltzter schiefwinkliger Plat- 15,70 EUR
Von H. Rasch, K. Kordina und ten unter besonderer Berilcksichtigung
der elastischen Auflagernachgiebigkeit 171: Knickversuche mit Zweigelenkrahmen
H. Hilsdorf. 31,20 EUR aus Stahlbeton (1965).
(1964).
147: Versuche zur Bestimmung der Ober- Von A. Mehmel und H. Weise. Von W Hochmann und S. Robert.
tragungslange von Spannstahlen. vergriffen 10,30 EUR
Von H. Rasch und G. Rehm. 172: Untersuchungen ilber den Stor..verlauf
Ermittlung der Eigenspannungen und 162: Verhalten von Stahlbeton und Spann-
beton beim Brand (1964). beim Aufprall von Kraftfahrzeugen auf
der Eintragungslange bei Spannbeton- Stiltzen und Rahmenstiele aus Stahl-
fertigteilen (1963). Von H. Seekamp, W Becker, W Struck,
K. Kordina und H.-J. Wierig. beton (1965).
Von K. Gaede. 12,20 EUR Von C. Popp. 10,70 EUR
vergriffen
148: Der Einfluss von Bilgeln und Druckstaben 173: Die Bestimmung der zweiachsigen
auf das Verhalten der Biegedruckzone 163: Schubversuche an Durchlauftragern Festigkeit des Betons (1965).
von Stahlbetonbalken (1963). (1964). Zusammenfassung und Kritik frilherer
Von H. Rasch und S. Stocki. Von F. Leonhardt und R. Walther. Versuche und Vorschlag filr eine neue
14,80 EUR 20,70 EUR Prilfmethode.
149: Ober den Zusammenhang zwischen 164: Verhalten von Seton bei hohen Tem- Von H. Hilsdorf. 8,40 EUR
Qualitat und Sicherheit im Betonbau peraturen (1964). 174: Untersuchungen ilber die Tragfahigkeit
(1962). Von H. Weig/er, R. Fischer und netzbewehrter Betonsaulen (1965).
Von H. B/aut. 10,00 EUR H. Dettling. 13,20 EUR Von H. Weig/er und J. Henze/.
165: Versuche mit Betonformstahlen 8,40 EUR
150: Das Verhalten von Betongelenken bei
oftmals wiederholter Druck- und Biege- Teil Ill. (1964). 175: Betongelenke. Versuchsbericht, Vor-
beanspruchung (1962). Von H. Rasch und G. Rehm. schlage zur Bemessung und konstruk-
Von J. Dix. 8,40 EUR 12,20 EUR tiven Ausbildung.
Von F. Leonhardt und H. Reimann.
151: Versuche an einfeldrigen Stahlbeton- 166: Berechnungstafeln filr schiefwinklige Kritische Spannungszustande des
balken mit und ohne Schubbewehrung Fahrbahnplatten von Strar..enbrilcken Betons bei mehrachsiger ruhender
(1962). (1967). Kurzzeitbelastung (1965).
Von F. Leonhardt und R. Walther. Von H. Rasch, A. Hergenrader und Von H. Reimann. vergriffen
10,70 EUR I. Mungan. vergriffen
176: Zur Frage der Dauerfestigkeit von
152: Versuche an Plattenbalken mit hoher 167: Frostwiderstand und Porengefilge des Spannbetonbauteilen (1966).
Schubbeanspruchung (1962). Betons, Beziehungen und Prilfverfah- Von M. Mayer. 9,60 EUR
Von F. Leonhardt und R. Walther. ren.
14,80 EUR Von A. Schafer. 177: Umlagerung der Schnittkrafte in
Der Einfluss von mehlfeinen Zuschlag- Stahlbetonkonstruktionen. Grundlagen
153: Elastische und plastische Stauchungen stoffen auf die Eigenschaften von der Berechnung bei statisch unbe-
von Seton infolge Druckschwell- und Einpressmorteln filr Spannkanale, Ein- stimmten Tragwerken unter Berilck-
Standbelastung (1962). pressversuche an langen Spannkana- sichtigung der plastischen Verformun-
Von A. Mehmel und E. Kern. len (1965). gen (1966).
13,40 EUR Von W Albrecht. 14,80 EUR Von P. S. Rao. 12,00 EUR
Verzeichnis der DAfStb-Hefte 3

Heft Heft Heft


178: Wandartige Trager (1966). 192: Die mitwirkende Breite der Gurte von 205: Versuche an wendelbewehrten Stahl-
Von F. Leonhardt und R. Walther. Plattenbalken (1967). betonsaulen unter kurz- und langzeitig
vergriffen Von W Koepcke und G. Denecke. wirkenden zentrischen Lasten (1969).
vergriffen Von H. Rusch und S. Stocki.
179: Veranderlichkeit der Biege- und Schub- 12,00 EUR
steifigkeit bei Stahlbetontragwerken 193: Bauschaden als Folge der Durchbie-
und ihr Einfluss auf Schnittkraftvertei- gung von Stahlbeton-Bauteilen (1967). 206: Statistische Analyse der Betonfestig-
lung und Traglast bei statisch unbe- Von H. Mayerund H. Rusch. keit (1969).
stimmter Lagerung (1966). 13,10EUR Von H. Rusch, R. Se// und R. Rack-
Von W Dilger. 13, 10 EUR witz. 8,40 EUR
194: Die Berechnung der Durchbiegung von
180: Knicken von Stahlbetonstaben mit Stahlbeton-Bauteilen (1967). 207: Versuche zur Dauerfestigkeit von
Rechteckquerschnitt unter Kurzzeit- Von H. Mayer. vergriffen Leichtbeton.
belastung- Berechnung mit Hilfe von Von R. Se// und C. Zeiger.
automatischen Digitalrechenanlagen 195: 5 Versuche zum Studium der Verfor- Versuche zur Festigkeit der Biege-
(1966). mungen im Querkraftbereich eines druckzone. EinflOsse der Querschnitts-
Von A. Blaser. 8,40 EUR Stahlbetonbalkens (1967). form (1969).
Von H. Rasch und H. Mayer. Von s. Stocki und H. Rasch.
181: Brandverhalten von Stahlbetonplat- 12,00 EUR 13,10EUR
ten- EinflOsse von Schutzschichten.
Von K. Kordina und P. Bornemann. 196: Tastversuche Ober den Einfluss von 208: Zur Frage der Rissbildung durch
Grundlagen fur die Bemessung der vorangegangenen Dauerlasten auf die Eigen- und Zwangspannungen infol-
Feuerwiderstandsdauer von Stahlbe- Kurzzeitfestigkeit des Betons. ge Temperatur in Stahlbetonbauteilen
tonplatten (1966). Von S. Stocki. (1969).
Von P. Bornemann. 10,70 EUR Kennzahlen filr das Verhalten einer Von H. Falkner. vergriffen
182: Karbonatisierung von Schwerbeton. rechteckigen Biegedruckzone von 209: Festigkeit und Verformung von Gasbe-
Von A Meyer, H.-J. Wierig und Stahlbetonbalken unter kurzzeitiger ton unter zweiaxialer Druck-Zug-Bean-
K. Husmann. Belastung (1967). spruchung.
Einfluss von Luftkohlensaure und Von H. Rasch und S. Stocki. Von R. Se//.
Feuchtigkeit auf die Beschaffenheit 13,60 EUR Versuche Ober den Verbund bei be-
des Betons als Korrosionsschutz for 197: Brandverhalten durchlaufender Stahl- wehrtem Gasbeton (1970).
Stahleinlagen (1967). betonrippendecken. Von R. Se// und C. Zeiger.
Von F. Schroder, H.-G. Smolczyk, Von H. Seekamp und W Becker. 12,00 EUR
K. Grade, R. Vinkeloe und R. Roth. Brandverhalten kreuzweise bewehrter
12,90 EUR 21 O: Schubversuche mil indirekter Kraft-
Stahlbetonrippendecken. einleitung. Versuche zum Studium der
183: Das Kriechen des Zementsteins im Von J. Stanke. VerdObelungswirkung der Biegezug-
Beton und seine Beeinflussung durch VergroBerung der Betondeckung als bewehrung eines Stahlbetonbalkens
gleichzeitiges Schwinden (1966). Feuerschutz von Stahlbetonplatten, (1970).
Von W Ruetz. 8,40 EUR 1. und 2. Teil (1967). Von T. Baumann und H. Rasch.
Von H. Seekamp und W Becker. 14,40 EUR
184: Untersuchungen Ober den Einfluss 14,10 EUR
einer Nachverdichtung und eines An- 211 : Elektronische Berechnung des in ei-
striches auf Festigkeit, Kriechen und 198: Festigkeit und Verformung von unbe- nem Stahlbetonbalken im gerissenen
Schwinden von Beton (1966). wehrtem Belon unter konstanter Dau- Zustand auftretenden Kraftezustandes
Von H. Hilsdorf und K. Finsterwalder erlast (1968). unter besonderer BerOcksichtigung des
8,40 EUR Von H. Rasch, R. Se//, C. Rasch, Querkraftbereiches (1970).
185: Das unterschiedliche Verformungsver- E. Grasser, A. Hummel, K. Wesche Von D. Jungwirth. 15,80 EUR
halten der Rand- und Kernzonen von und H. Flatten. 13,30 EUR
212: Einfluss der Krommung von Spann-
Beton (1966). 199: Die Berechnung ebener Kontinua mil- gliedern auf den Spannweg.
Von S. Stocki. 9,60 EUR tels der Stabwerkmethode - Anwen- Von C. Zeiger und H. Rasch.
186: Betone aus SulfathOttenzement in ho- <:J.ung auf Bal ken mil einer rechteckigen Ober den Erhaltungszustand 20 Jahre
herem Alter (1966). Offnung (1968). alter Spannbetontrager (1970).
Von K. Wesche und W Manns. Von A. Krebs und F. Haas. Von K. Kordina und N. II. Waubke.
8,40 EUR 10,70 EUR 9,60 EUR
187: Zur Frage des Einflusses der Ausbil- 200: Dauerschwingfestigkeit von Beton- 213: Vierseitig gelagerte Stahlbetonhohl-
dung der Auflager auf die Querkraft- stahlen im einbetonierten Zustand. platten. Versuche, Berechnung und
tragfahigkeit von Stahlbetonbalken. Von H. Wascheidt. Bemessung (1970).
Von K. Gaede. Betongelenke unter wiederholten Von H. Aster. vergriffen
Schwingungsmessungen an Massiv- Gelenkverdrehungen (1968).
Von G. Franz und H.-D. Fein. 214: Verlangerung der Feuerwiderstands-
brOcken (1966).
dauer von StahlbetonsUltzen durch
Von B. Brockmann. 9,60 EUR 11,70 EUR
Anwendung von Bekleidungen oder
188: Verformungsversuche an Stahlbeton- 201: Schubversuche an indirekt gelagerten, Ummantelungen.
balken mit hochfestem Bewehrungs- einfeldrigen und durchlaufenden Stahl- Von W Becker und J. Stanke.
stahl (1967). betonbalken (1968). Ober das Verhalten von Zementmortel
Von G. Franz und H. Brenker. Von F. Leonhardt, R. Walther und und Belon bei hoheren Temperaturen
12,00 EUR W Dilger. 9,60 EUR (1970).
189: Die Tragfahigkeit von Deeken aus Glas- Von R. Fischer. 15,30 EUR
202: Torsions- und Schubversuche an vor-
stahlbeton ( 1967). gespannten Hohlkastentragern. 215: Brandversuche an Stahlbetonfertig-
Von C. Zeiger. 10,70 EUR Von F. Leonhardt, R. Walther und stOtzen, 2. und 3. Teil (1970).
190: Festigkeit der Biegedruckzone - Ver- 0. Vogler. Von W Becker und J. Stanke.
gleich von Prismen- und Balkenver- Torsionsversuche an einem Kunstharz- 15,30 EUR
suchen (1967). modell eines Hohlkastentragers (1968). 216: Schnittkrafttafeln for den Entwurf
Von H. Rasch, K. Kordina und Von D. Feder. 12,00 EUR kreiszylindrischer Tonnenkettendacher
S. Stocki. 8,40 EUR (1971).
203: Festigkeit und Verformung von Beton Von A. Mehmel, W Kruse, S. Samaan
191: Experimentelle Bestimmung der Span- unter Zugspannungen (1969).
nungsverteilung in der Biegedruckzo- und H. Schwarz.
Von H. G. Heilmann, H. Hilsdorf und 20,90 EUR
ne. K. Finsterwalder. 14,40 EUR
Von C. Rasch. 217: Tragwirkung orthogonaler Beweh-
Stotzmomente kreuzweise bewehrter 204: Tragverhalten ausmittig beanspruchter rungsnetze beliebiger Richtung in
durchlaufender Rechteckbetonplatten Stahlbetondruckglieder (1969). Flachentragwerken aus Stahlbeton
(1967). Von A. Mehmel, H. Schwarz, K. H. (1972).
Von H. Schwarz. 9,60 EUR Kasparek und J. Makovi. 12,00 EUR Von T. Baumann. vergriffen
4 Verzeichnis der DAfStb-Hefte

Heft Heft Heft

218: Versuche zur Schubsicherung und Mo- 228: ZusammenhangzwischenOberflachen- 239: Torsionsversuche an Stahlbetonbalken
mentendeckung von profilierten Stahl- beschaffenheit, Verbund und Spreng- (1974).
betonbalken (1972). wirkung von Bewehrungsstahlen unter Von F. Leonhardt und G. Schelling.
Von H. Kupfer und T. Baumann. Kurzzeitbelastung (1973). 20,30 EUR
11,00 EUR Von H. Martin. 12,60 EUR
240: Hilfsmittel zur Berechnung der Schnitt-
229: Das Verhalten des Betons unter mehr- grtil1,en und Formanderungen von
219: Die Tragfahigkeit von Stahlstein-
achsiger Kurzzeitbelastung unter be- Stahlbetontragwerken nach DIN 1045
decken. sonderer BerOcksichtigung der zwei- Ausgabe Juli 1988 [3. Oberarbeitete
Von C. Zeiger und F. Daschner. achsigen Beanspruchung. Auflage (1991)].
Bewehrte Ziegelstorze (1972). Von H. Kupfer. Von E. Grasser und G. Thielen.
Von C. Zeiger. 10,20 EUR Bau und Erprobung einer Versuchs- 19,30 EUR
einrichtung fOr zweiachsige Belastung
220: Bemessung von Seton- und Stahl- (1973). 241 : Abplatzversuche an PrOfktirpern aus
betonbauteilen nach DIN 1045, Aus- Von H. Kupfer und C. Zeiger. Seton, Stahlbeton und Spannbeton
gabe Januar 1972. [2. Oberarbeitete 19,30 EUR bei verschiedenen Temperaturbean-
Auflage (1979)] - Biegung mit Langs- spruchungen ( 1974).
kraft, Schub, Torsion. 230: Erwarmungsvorgange in balkenartigen Von C. Meyer-Ottens. 9,70 EUR
Von E. Grasser. Stahlbetonteilen unter Brandbeanspru-
chung (1975). 242: Verhalten von verzinkten Spannstahlen
Nachweis der Knicksicherheit. und Bewehrungsstahlen.
Von K. Kordina und U. Quast. Von H. Ehm, K. Kordina und
R. v. Postel. 20,30 EUR Von G. Rehm, A. Lammke, U. Nurn-
26,90 EUR berger, G. Rieche sowie H. Martin und
231: Die Versuchsberichte des Deutschen A. Rauen.
220 (En): Design of Concrete and Rein- Ausschusses for Stahlbeton. lnhalts- Ltiten von Betonstahl (1974).
forced Concrete Members in Obersicht der Hefte 1 bis 230 (1973). Von D. Russwurm. 20,30 EUR
Accordance with DIN 1045 Von 0. Grafund H. Deutschmann.
December 1978 Edition-Bending 10,10 EUR 243: Ultraschall-lmpulstechnik bei Fertig-
with Axial Force, Shear, Torsion. teilen.
By E. Grasser. 232: Bestimmung physikalischer Eigen- Von G. Rehm, N. II. Waubke und
schaften des Zementsteins. J. Neisecke.
Analysis of Safety against Buckling.
Von F. Wittmann. Untersuchungen an ausgebauten
By K. Kordina and U. Quast
Verformung und Bruchvorgang portiser Spanngliedern (1975).
2nd revised edition. 26,90 EUR Baustoffe bei kurzzeitiger Belastung Von A. Rohnisch. 15,50 EUR
und unter Dauerlast (1974).
221: Festigkeit und Verformung von I nnen- 244: Elektronische Berechnung der Aus-
Von F. Wittmann und J. Zaitsev.
wandknoten in der Tafelbauweise. wirkungen von Kriechen und Schwin-
14,30 EUR
Von H. Kupfer. den bei abschnittsweise hergestellten
Die Druckfestigkeit von Mortelfugen 233: StichprobenprOfplane und Annahme- Verbundstabwerken (1975).
zwischen Betonfertigteilen. kennlinien tor Seton (1973). Von D. Schade und W Haas.
Von E. Grasser und F. Daschner. Von H. Blaut. 7,90 EUR 7,10 EUR
Tragfahigkeit (Schubfestigkeit) von
234: Finite Elemente zur Berechnung 245: Die Kornfestigkeit kOnstlicher Zu-
Deckenauflagen im Fertigteilbau
von Spannbeton-Reaktordruckbehal- schlagstoffe und ihr Einfluss auf die
(1972). tern (1973).
Von R. v. Halasz und G. Tantow. Betonfestigkeit.
Von J. H. Argyris, G. Faust, J. R. Roy, Von R. Sell.
14,30 EUR J. Szimmat, E. P Warnke und Druckfestigkeit von Leichtbeton (1974).
K. J. Willam. 13,10 EUR Von K. D. Schmidt-Hurtienne.
222: Druck-Stti11,e von Bewehrungsstaben-
Stahlbetonstotzen mit hochfestem 235: Untersuchungen zum hei11,en Liner als 17,40 EUR
Stahl St 90 (1972). lnnenwand fOr Spannbetondruckbehal- 246: Untersuchungen Ober den Querstol1,
Von F. Leonhardt und K.-T. Teichen. ter fOr Leichtwasserreaktoren (1973). beim Aufprall von Kraftfahrzeugen auf
9,70 EUR Von J. Meyer und W Spandick. GrOndungspfahle aus Stahlbeton und
vergriffen Stahl (1974).
223: Spanngliedverankerungen im lnneren Von C. Popp. 17,20 EUR
von Bauteilen. 236: Tragfahigkeit und Sicherheit von Stahl-
Von J. Eibl und G. lvanyi. betonstotzen unter ein- und zweiachsig 247: Temperatur und Zwangsspannung
Teilweise Vorspannung (1973). exzentrischer Kurzzeit- und Dauerbela- im Konstruktions-Leichtbeton infolge
Von R. Walther und N. S. Bhal. stung (1974). Hydratation.
12,30 EUR Von R. F. Warner. 8,30 EUR Von H. Weig/er und J. Nicolay.
237: Spannbeton-Reaktordruckbehalter: Dauerschwell- und Betriebsfestigkeit
224: Zusammenwirken von einzelnen Fer- von Konstruktions-Leichtbeton (1975).
tigteilen als grol1,flachige Scheibe Studie zur Erfassung spezieller Beto-
neigenschaften im Reaktordruckbe- Von H. Weig/er und W Freitag.
(1973). 13,70 EUR
halterbau.
Von G. Mehlhorn. vergriffen Von J. Eibl, N. II. Waubke, W Klingsch, 248: Zur Frage der Abplatzungen an Bau-
225: Mikrobeton fOr modellstatische Unter- U. Schneider und G. Rieche. teilen aus Seton bei Brandbeanspru-
suchungen (1972). Parameterberechnungen an einem Re- chungen (1975).
Von A.-H. Burggrabe. 13,20 EUR ferenzbehalter. Von C. Meyer-Ottens. 8,40 EUR
Von J. Szimmat und K. Willam.
226: Tragfahigkeit von Zugschlaufensttil1,en. Einfluss von Werkstoffeigenschaften 249: Schlag-Biegeversuch mit unterschied-
Von F. Leonhardt, R. Walther und auf Spannungs- und Verformungszu- lich bewehrten Stahlbetonbalken
H. Dieterle. stande eines Spannbetonbehalters (1975).
Haken- und Schlaufenverbindungen in (1974). Von C. Popp. 10,00 EUR
biegebeanspruchten Platten. Von II. Hansson und F. Stangenberg.
13,10 EUR 250: Langzeitversuche an Stahlbetonstotzen.
Von G. Franz und G. Timm. Von K. Kordina.
Obergreifungsvollsttil1,e mit haken- 238: Einfluss wirklichkeitsnahen Werkstoff- Einfluss des Kriechens auf die Aus-
formig gebogenen Rippenstahlen verhaltens aufdie kritischen Kipplasten biegung schlanker Stahlbetonstotzen
(1973). schlanker Stahlbeton- und Spann- (1975).
Von K. Kordina und G. Fuchs. betontrager. Von K. Kordina und R. F. Warner.
14,10 EUR Von G. Mehlhorn. 11,10EUR
Berechnung von Stahlbetonscheiben
227: Schubversuche an Spannbetontragern im Zustand II bei Annahme eines wirk- 251: Versuche an wendelbewehrten Stahl-
(1973). lichkeitsnahen Werkstoffverhaltens betonsaulen unter exzentrischer Bela-
Von F. Leonhardt, R. Koch und (1974). stung (1975).
F.-S. Rostasy. 26,80 EUR Von K. Dorr, G. Mehlhorn, W Stauder Von S. Stocki und B. Menne.
und D. Uh/isch. 16,70 EUR 10,70 EUR
Verzeichnis der DAfStb-Hefte 5

Heft Heft Heft

252: Bestandigkeit verschiedener Betonar- 267: Zur Mindestbewehrung fur Zwang von 280: Nichtisothermer Feuchtetransport in
ten in Meerwasser und in sulfathaltigem Aul1enwanden aus Stahlleichtbeton. dickwandigen Betonteilen von Reak-
Wasser (1975). Von F. S. Rostasy, R. Koch und tordruckbehaltern.
Von H. T SchrOder, 0. Hallauer und F. Leonhardt. Von K. Kiessl und K. Gertis.
W Scholz. 15,50 EUR Versuche zum Tragverhalten von ZurWarme- und Feuchtigkeitsleitung in
Druck0bergreifungsstol1en in Stahl- Beton.
253: Spannbeton-Reaktordruckbehalter- Von J. Hundt.
lnstrumentierung. betonwanden (1976).
Von F. Leonhardt, F. S. Rostasy und Einfluss des Wassergehalts auf die
Von J. Nemet und R. Angeli. Eigenschaften des erharteten Betons
Versuch zur Weiterentwicklung eines M. Patzak. 15,00 EUR
(1977).
Setzdehnungsmessers (1975).
268: Einfluss der Belastungsdauer auf das Von M. J. Setzer. 14,40 EUR
Von C. Zeiger. 10,20 EUR
Verbundverhalten von Stahl in Beton 281: Untersuchungen Ober das Verhalten
254: Festigkeit und Verformungsverhalten (Verbundkriechen) (1976).
von Beton unter hohen zweiachsigen von Belon bei schlagartiger Beanspru-
Von L. Franke. 8,60 EUR chung (1977).
Dauerbelastungen und Dauerschwell-
belastungen. Festigkeit und Verfor- Von C. Popp. 7,90 EUR
269: Zugspannung und Dehnung in unbe-
mungsverhalten von Leichtbeton, wehrten Betonquerschnitten bei ex- 282: Vorausbestimmung der Spannkraftver-
Gasbeton, Zementstein und Gips unter zentrischer Belastung (1976). luste infolge Dehnungsbehinderung
zweiachsiger Kurzzeitbeanspruchung Von H. G. Heilmann. 15,50 EUR (1977).
(1976). Von R. Walther, U. utescher und
Von D. Linse und A. Stegbauer. 270: Eine Formulierung des zweiaxialen D. Schreck. 8,90 EUR
13,10 EUR Verformungs- und Bruchverhaltens
von Seton und deren Anwendung auf 283: Technische Moglichkeiten zur Erho-
255: Zur Frage der zulassigen Rissbreite hung der Zugfestigkeit von Seton
und der erforderlichen Betondeckung die wirklichkeitsnahe Berechnung von
Stahlbetonplatten ( 1976). (1977).
im Stahlbetonbau unter besonderer Von G. Rehm, P. Diem und R. Zimbel-
BerOcksichtigung der Karbonatisie- Von J. Link. 14,40 EUR
mann. 13, 10 EUR
rungstiefe des Betons (1976).
Von P. Schiess/. vergriffen 271: Untersuchungen an 20 Jahre alten 284: Experimentelle und theoretische Un-
Spannbetontragern ( 1976). tersuchungen zur Lasteintragung in
256: Warme- und Feuchtigkeitsleitung in Von R. Bohrer, K.-F. MOiier, H. Martin
Beton unter Einwirkung eines Tempe- die Bewehrung von Stahlbetondruck-
raturgefalles (1975). und J. Ruhnau. 13,10 EUR gliedern (1977).
Von J. Hundt. 15,80 EUR Von F. P. MOiier und W Eisenbieg/er.
272: Die Dynamische Relaxation und ihre 8,20 EUR
257: Bruchsicherheitsberechnung von Anwendung auf Spannbeton-Reaktor-
Spannbeton-Druckbehaltern (1976). druckbehalter (1976). 285: Zur Traglast der ausmittig gedrOckten
Von K. Schimmelpfennig. 13,30 EUR Von W Zema. 13,70 EUR Stahlbetonstutze mil UmschnOrungs-
bewehrung (1977).
258: Hygrische Transportphanomene in 273: Schubversuche an Balken mit veran- Von 8. Menne. 8,60 EUR
Baustoffen (1976). derlicher Tragerhohe (1977).
Von K. Gertis, K. Kies/, H. Werner und Von F. S. Rostasy, K. Roeder und 286: Versuche Ober Teilflachenbelastung
II. Wolfseher. 13, 1o EUR F. Leonhardt. 9,70 EUR von Normalbeton (1977).
Von P. Wurm und F. Daschner.
259: Entwicklung eines integrierten Spann- 10,70 EUR
betondruckbehalters fur wasser- 274: Witterungsbestandigkeit von Beton,
gekOhlte Reaktoren (SBB Typ ,,Stern" 2. Bericht (1977). 287: Spannbetonbehalter fur Siedewasser-
mit Stutzkessel) (1976). Von K. Walz und E. Hartmann. reaktoren mit einer Leistung von
Von G. JOptner, H. Kumpf, G. Molz, 8,40 EUR 1600MWe (1977),
B. Neunert und 0. Seidl. 11,50 EUR Von F. Bremer und W Spandick.
275: Schubversuche an Balken und Platten 6,80 EUR
260: Studie zum Trag- und Verformungsver-
bei gleichzeitigem Langszug (1977).
halten von Stahlbeton (1976). 288: Tragverhalten von aus Fertigteilen zu-
Von J. Eibl und G. Jvanyi. Von F. Leonhardt, F. S. Rostasy,
J. MacGregor und M. Patzak. sammengesetzten Scheiben.
26,80 EUR Von G. Meh/hom und H. Schwing.
11,00 EUR
261: Der Einfluss radioaktiver Strahlung auf Versuche zur Schubtragfahigkeit ver-
die mechanischen Eigenschaften von 276: Versuche an zugbeanspruchten Ober- zahnter Fugen (1977).
Beton (1976). greifungsstol1en von Rippenstahlen Von G. Mehlhom, H. Schwing und
Von H. Hilsdorf, J. Kropp und (1977). K.-R. Berg. vergriffen
H.-J. Koch. 8,40 EUR Von S. Stocki, B. Menne und H. Kup- 289: PrOfverfahren zur Beurteilung von
262: Experimentelle Bestimmung des raum- fer. 15,50 EUR Rostschutzmitteln fur die Bewehrung
lichen Spannungszustandes eines von Gasbeton.
Reaktordruckbehaltermodells (1976). 277: Versuchsergebnisse zur Festigkeit und Von W Manns, H. Schneider, R. Schon-
Von R. Stover. 13,10 EUR Verformung von Belon bei mehraxia- felder.
ler Druckbeanspruchung - Results of Frostwiderstand von Seton.
263: Bruchfestigkeit und Bruchverformung Test Concerning Strength and Strain of Von W Manns und E. Hartmann.
von Beton unter mehraxialer Belastung Concrete Subjected to Multiaxial Com- Zurn Einfluss von Mineralolen auf die
bei Raumtemperatur (1976). pressive Stresses (1977). Festigkeit von Belon (1977).
Von F. Bremer und F. Steinsdorfer. Von G. Schickert und H. Winkler. Von W Manns und E. Hartmann.
7,60 EUR 17,20 EUR 8,60 EUR
264 Spannbeton-Reaktordruckbehalter mit 290: Studie Ober den Abbruch von Spann-
heil1er Dichthaut fur Druckwasserreak- 278: Berechnungen von Temperatur- und
beton-Reaktordruckbehaltern.
toren (1976). Feuchtefeldern in Massivbauten nach
Von K. Kleiser, K. Essig, K. Cerff und
Von A. Jungmann, H. Kopp, M. Gangl, der Methode der Finiten Elemente
H. K. Hilsdorf.
J. Nemet, A. Nesitka, W Walluschek- (1977). Grundlagen eines Modells zur Be-
Wallfeld und J. Mutz/. 10, 70 EUR Von J. H. Argyris, E. P. Warnke und schreibung charakteristischer Eigen-
K. J. Wt/lam. 10, 10 EUR schaften des Betons (1977).
265: Traglast von Stahlbetondruckgliedern
unter schiefer Biegung (1976). -Von F. H. Wittmann. 14,40 EUR
Von K. Kordina, K. Rafla und 279: Finite Elementberechnung von Spann-
beton-Reaktordruckbehaltern. 291: Obergreifungsstol1e von Rippenstaben
0. Hjortht. 11,80 EUR unter schwellender Belastung.
Von J. H. Argyris, G. Faust, J. Szimmat,
266: Das Trag- und Verformungsverhalten E. P. Warnke und K. J. Willam. Von G. Rehm und R. Eligehausen.
von StahlbetonbrOckenpfeilern mil Zur Konvertierung von SMART I (1977). Obergreifungsstol1e geschweil1ter Be-
Rollenlagern (1976). Von J. H. Argyris, J. Szimmat und tonstahlmatten (1977).
Von K. Liermann. 12,90 EUR K. J. Willam. 11,50 EUR Von G. Rehm, R. Tewes und
R. Eligehausen. 10,70 EUR
6 Verzeichnis der DAfStb-Hefte

Heft Heft Heft

292: Losung versuchstechnischer Fragen 304: Kunstharzgebundene Glasfaserstabe 316: Versuche zur Bestimmung der Trag-
bei der Ermittlung des Festigkeits- und als Bewehrung im Betonbau. fahigkeit stumpf gestoBener Stahl-
Verformungsverhaltens von Seton un- Von G. Rehm und L. Franke. betonfertigteilstotzen (1980).
ter dreiachsiger Belastung (1978). Zur Frage der Krafteinleitung in kunst- Von H. Paschen und II. C. Zillich.
Von D. Linse. 8,40 EUR harzgebundene Glasfaserstabe (1979). vergriffen
293: Zur Messtechnik tor die Sicherheits- Von G. Rehm, L. Franke und
M. Patzak. 9,40 EUR 317: Untersuchungen Ober die Schwing-
beurteilung und -Oberwachung von festigkeit geschweiBter Betonstahlver-
Spannbeton-Reaktordruckbehaltern 305: Vorherbestimmung und Kontrolle des bindungen (1981).
(1978). thermischen Ausdehnungskoeffizien- Teil 1: Schwingfestigkeitsversuche.
Von N. Czaika, N. Mayer, C. Amberg, ten von Seton (1979). Von G. Rehm, W Harre und
G. Magiera, G. Andreae und D. Russwurm.
Von S. Ziegeldorf K. Kleiser und
W Markowski. 11,50 EUR Teil 2: Werkstoffkundliche Unter-
H.K. Hilsdorf. 7,30 EUR
294: Studien zur Auslegung von Spann- suchungen.
betondruckbehaltern torwassergekOhl- 306: Dreidimensionale Berechnung eines Von G. Rehm und U. Nurnberger.
te Reaktoren (1978). Spannbetonbehalters mit heiBer Dicht- 17,20 EUR
Von K. Schimmelpfennig, G. Baatjer, haut tor einen 1500 MWe Druckwasser-
U. Eckstein, U. /ck und S. Wrage. reaktor (1979). 318: l;;:igenschaften von feuerverzinkten
10,70 EUR Von E. Ettel, H. Hinterleitner, J. Nemet, UberzOgen aufkaltumgeformten Beton-
A. Jungmann und H. Kopp. rippenstahlen und Betonstahlmatten
295: Kriech- und Relaxationsversuche an 8,10 EUR aus kaltgewalztem Betonrippenstahl.
sehr altem Seton. Technologische Eigenschaften von
Von H. Trost, H. Cordes und G. Abele. 307: Zur Bemessung der Schubbewehrung kaltgeformten Betonrippenstahlen und
Kriechen und ROckkriechen von Seton von Stahlbetonbalken mit moglichst Betonstahlmatten aus kaltgewalztem
nach langer Lasteinwirkung. gleichmaBiger Zuverlassigkeit (1979). Betonrippenstahl nach einer Feuerver-
Von P Probst und S. Stocki. Von W Moosecker. 8, 1O EUR zinkung (1981).
Versuche zum Einfluss des Belas- Von U. Nurnberger. 9,40 EUR
tungsalters auf das Kriechen von Seton 308: Tragfahigkeit auf schragen Druck von
(1978). BrOckenstegen, die durch HOllrohre 319: VollstoBe durch Obergreifung von
Von K. Wesche, I. Schrage und geschwacht sind. zugbeanspruchten Rippenstahlen in
W vom Berg. 14,40 EUR Von R. Koch und F. S. Rostasy: Normalbeton.
Spannungszustand aus Vorspannung Von M. Betzle, S. Stocki und H. Kupfer.
296: Die Bewehrung von Stahlbetonbau- VollstoBe durch Obergreifung von
teilen bei Zwangsbeanspruchung in- im Bereich gekrOmmter Spannglieder
(1979). zugbeanspruchten Rippenstahlen in
folge Temperatur (1978).
Von II. Cornelius und G. Mehlhom. Leichtbeton.
Von P Noakowski. vergriffen
10,10EUR Von S. Stocki, M. Betzle und
297: Einfluss des Feuchtigkeitsgehaltes und G. Schmidt-Thro.
des Reifegrades .auf die Warmeleit- 309: Kunstharzmortel und Kunstharzbetone Verbundverhalten von Betonstahlen,
fahigkeit von Seton. unter Kurzzeit- und Dauerstandbela- Untersuchung auf der Grundlage von
Von J. Hundt und A. Wagner. stung. Ausziehversuchen.
Sorptionsuntersuchungen am Zement- Von G. Rehm, L. Franke und K. Zeus. Von H. Martin und P Noakowski.
stein, Zementmortel und Seton (1978). Langzeituntersuchungen an epoxid- Ermittlung der Verbundspannungen an
Von J. Hundt und H. Kantelberg. harzverklebten Zementmortelprismen gedrOckten einbetonierten Betonstah-
8,60 EUR (1980). len (1981).
Von P Jagfeld. 10,00 EUR Von F. P MOiier und W Eisenbiegler.
298: Erfahrungen bei der PrOfung von tem- 25,20 EUR
poraren Korrosionsschutzmitteln tor 310: Teilweise Vorspannung - Verbund-
Spannstahle. festigkeit von Spanngliedern und ihre 320: Erlauterungen zu DIN 4227 Spann-
Von G. Rieche und J. Delille. Bedeutung tor Rissbildung und Riss- beton.
Untersuchungen Ober den Korrosions- breitenbeschrankung (1980). Teil 1: Bauteile aus Normalbeton mit
schutz von Spannstahlen unter Spritz- Von H. Trost, H. Cordes, U. Thor- beschrankter oder voller Vorspannung,
beton (1978). maehlen und H. Hagen. 19,90 EUR Ausgabe 07.88
Von G. Rehm, U. Nurnberger und Teil 2: Bauteile mit teilweiser Vorspan-
R. Zimbelmann. 8, 1O EUR 311: Segmentare Spannbetontrager im nung, Ausgabe 05.84
BrOckenbau (1980). Teil 3: Bauteile in Segmentbauart; Be-
299: Versuche an dickwandigen, unbe- Von K. Guckenberger, F. Daschnerund messung und Austohrung der Fugen,
wehrten Betonringen mit lnnendruck- H. Kupfer. 18,00 EUR Ausgabe 12.83
beanspruchung (1978). Tei! 4: Bauteile aus Spannleichtbeton,
Von J. Neuner, S. Stocki und 312: Schwellenwerte beim Betondruckver-
Ausgabe 02.86
E. Grasser. 8,60 EUR such (1980).
Teil 5: Einpressen von Zementmortel in
Von G. Schickert. 18,00 EUR Spannkanale, Ausgabe 12.79
300: Hinweise zu DIN 1045, Ausgabe
Dezember 1978. Bearbeitet von 313: Spannungs-Dehnungs-Linien von Teil 6: Bauteile mit Vorspannung ohne
D. Bertram und H. Deutschmann. Leichtbeton. Verbund, Ausgabe 05.82 (1989).
Erlauterung der Bewehrungsrichtlinien Von H. Herrmann. Zusammengestellt von D. Bertram.
(1979). Versuche zum Kriechen und Schwinden 34,30 EUR
Von G. Rehm, R. Eligehausen und von hochfestem Leichtbeton (1980).
B. Neubert. vergriffen 321: Leichtzuschlag-Beton mit hohem Ge-
Von P Probst und S. Stocki. halt an Mortelporen (1981).
301: Obergreifungsstol1e zugbeanspruchter 14,50 EUR Von H. Weig/er, S. Karl und C. Jaeger-
Rippenstabe mit geraden Stabenden 314: Kurzzeitverhalten von extrem leichten mann. 6,20 EUR
(1979). Betonen, Druckfestigkeit und Form-
Von R. E/igehausen. 12,90 EUR 322: Biegebemessung von Stahlleichtbeton,
anderungen. Ableitung der Spannungsverteilung in
302: Einfluss von Zusatzmitteln auf den Von K. Bastgen und K. Wesche. der Biegedruckzone aus Prismenver-
Widerstand von jungem Seton gegen Die Schubtragfahigkeit bewehrter suchen als Grundlage tor D1N4219.
Rissbildung bei scharfem Austrocknen. Platten und Balken aus dampf- Von E. Grasser und P Probst.
Von W Manns und K. Zeus. gehartetem Gasbeton nach Versuchen Versuche zur Aufnahme der Umlenk-
Spannungsoptische Untersuchungen (1980). krafte von gekrOmmten Bewehrungs-
zumJragverhalten von zugbeanspruch- Von D. Briesemann. 22,30 EUR staben durch Betondeckung und Bogel
ten UbergreifungsstoBen (1979). (1981).
315: Bestimmung der Beulsicherheit von
Von M. Betzle. 8,60 EUR Von J. Neuner und S. Stocki.
Schalen aus Stahlbeton unter Be-
rOcksichtigung der physikalisch- 14,50 EUR
303: QuerkraftschlOssige Verbindung von
Stahlbetondeckenplatten (1979). nicht-linearen Materialeigenschaften 323: Zurn Schubtragverhalten stabformiger
Von H. Paschen und II. C. Zillich. (1980). Stahlbetonelemente (1981).
10,70 EUR Von W Zema, I. Mungan und Von R. Ma/lee. 10,70 EUR
W Steffen. 7,60 EUR
Verzeichnis der DAfStb-Hefte 7

Heft Heft Heft

324: Warmeausdehnung, Elastizitatsmo- 336: Tragfahigkeit und Verformung von 347: Wirkung __der Endhaken bei Vollstol1en
dul, Schwinden, Kriechen und Rest- Stahlbetonbalken unter Biegung und durch Ubergreifung von zugbean-
festigkeit von Reaktorbeton unter gleichzeitigem Zwang infolge Auflager- spruchten Rippenstahlen.
einachsiger Belastung und erhohten verschiebung (1982). Von G. Schmidt-Thro, S. Stocki und
Temperaturen. Von K. Kordina, F. S. Rostasy und M. Betzle
Von H. Asch/ und S. Stocki. B. Svensvik. 10,70 EUR Obergreifungs-Halbstol1 mit kurzem
Versuche zum Einfluss der Belas- Langsversatz (Iv= 0,5 1p) bei zugbean-
tungshohe auf das Kriechen des Be- 337: Verhalten von Beton bei hohen Tempe- spruchten Rippenstah1en in Leicht-
tons (1981). raturen- Behaviour of Concrete at High beton.
Von S. Stocki. 15,90 EUR Temperatures (1982). Von M. Betzle, S. Stocki und H. Kupfer.
Von U. Schneider. 15,50 EUR Rissfli:!chen im Beton im Bereich von
325: Grol1modellversuche zur Spannglied- Obergreifungsstol1en zugbeanspruch-
reibung ( 1981). 338: Berechnung des zeitabhangigen Ver- ter Rippenstahle (1983).
Von H. Cordes, K. Schatt und haltens von Stahlbetonplatten unter Von M. Betzle, S. Stocki und
H. Trost. 10,70 EUR Last- und Zwangsbeanspruchung im H. Kupfer. 17,40 EUR
ungerissenen und gerissenen Zustand 348: Tragfahigkeit querkraftschlOssiger
326: Blockfundamente filr Stahlbetonfer- (1982). Fugen zwischen Stahlbeton-Fertigteil-
tigstotzen (1981). Von G. Schaper. 13,40 EUR deckenelementen ( 1983).
Von H. Dieterle und A. Steinle. Von H. Paschen und V. C. Zillich.
vergriffen 339: Stotzenstol1e im Stahlbeton-Fertig- vergriffen
teilbau mit unbewehrten Elastomer-
327: Versuche zur Knicksicherung von 349: Bestimmung des Wasserzementwer-
lagern (1982).
druckbeanspruchten Bewehrungssta- tes von Frischbeton (1984).
Von F. MOiier, H. R. Sasse und U. Thor- Von H.K. Hilsdorf. 10,70 EUR
ben (1981).
mahlen. vergriffen
Von J. Neuner und S. Stocki. 350: Spannbetonbauteile in Segmentbauart
8,60 EUR 340: Durchlaufende Deckenkonstruktionen unter kombinierter Beanspruchung aus
328: Zurn Tragfahigkeitsnachweis fur aus Spannbetonfertigteilplatten mit Torsion, Biegung und Querkraft.
Wand-Deeken-Knoten im Grol1tafelbau erganzender Ortbetonschicht - Con- Von K. Kordina, M. Teutsch und
(1982). tinuous Skin Stressed Slabs (1982). V. Weber.
Von E. Hasse. 14,50 EUR Behaviour in Bending (Biegetragever- Rissbildung von Segmentbauteilen in
halten). Abhangigkeit von Querschnittsausbil-
329: Sachstandbericht Massenbeton. Von J. Rosenthal und E. B/juger. dung und Spannstahlverbundeigen-
Von Deutscher Beton-Verein e. V. Schubtragverhalten (Behaviour in schaften.
Untersuchungen an einem Ober 20 Jah- Shear). Von K. Kordina und V. Weber.
re alten Spannbetontrager der Pliensau- Von F. Daschner und H. Kupfer. Einfluss der Ausbildung unbewehrter
brOcke Esslingen am Neckar (1982). 11,60 EUR Pressfugen auf die Tragfahigkeit von
Von K. Schafer und H. Scheef. schragen Druckstreben in den Stegen
8,60 EUR 341: Zurn Ansatz der Betonzugfestigkeit bei von Segmentbauteilen (1984).
den Nachweisen zur Trag- und Ge- Von K. Kordina und II. Weber.
330: Zusammenstellung und Beurteilung brauchsfahigkeit von unbewehrten und 16,70 EUR
von Messverfahren zur Ermittlung der 351: Belastungs- und Korrosionsversuche
bewehrten Betonbauteilen ( 1983).
Beanspruchungen in Stahlbetonbau- an teilweise vorgespannten Balken.
Von M. Jahn. 8,60 EUR
teilen (1982). Von Ganter Schelling und Ferdinand
Von H. Twelmeier und J. Schneefu/3. 342: Dynamische Probleme im Stahlbeton- S. Rostasy.
12,10 EUR bau- Teilweise Vorspannung - Plattenver-
331: Kleben im konstruktiven Betonbau Teil I: Der Baustoff Stahlbeton unter suche (1984).
(1982). dynamischer Beanspruchung (1983). Von Kassian Janovic und Herbert
Von G. Rehm und L. Franke. Von F. P. MOJJert, E. Keintzel und Kupfer. 23,90 EUR
12,40 EUR H. Charlier. 18,80 EUR 352.: Empfehlungen filr brandschutztech-
nisch richtiges Konstruieren von Be-
332: Anwendungsgrenzen von vereinfach- 343: Versuche zum Kriechen und Schwin- tonbauwerken.
ten Bemessungsverfahren filr schlan- den von hochfestem Leichtbeton. Ver- Von K. Kordina und L. Krampf.
ke, zweiachsig ausmittig beanspruchte suche zum ROckkriechen von hoch- Moglichkeiten, nachtraglich die in
Stahlbetondruckglieder. festem Leichtbeton (1983). einem Betonbauteil wahrend eines
Von P. C. Olsen und U. Quast. Von P. Hofmann und S. Stocki. Schadenfeuers aufgetretenen Tempe-
Traglast von Druckgliedern mit verein- 8,10 EUR raturen abzuschatzen.
fachter BOgelbewehrung unter Feuer- Von A. Haksever und L. Krampf.
angriff. 344: Versuche zur Teilflachenbelastung von Brandverhalten von Deeken aus Glas-
Von A. Haksever und R. Hass. Leichtbeton filr tragende Konstruktio- stahlbeton nach DIN 1045 (Ausg.
Traglast von Druckgliedern mit ver- nen. 12.78), Abschn. 20.3.
einfachter BOgelbewehrung unter Von H. G. Heilmann. Von C. Meyer-Ottens.
Normaltemperatur und Kurzzeitbean- Teilflachenbelastung von Normal- Eindringen von Chlorid-lonen aus
spruchung (1982). beton- Versuche an bewehrten Schei- PVC-Abbrand in Stahlbetonbauteile-
Von K. Kordina und R. Mester. ben (1983). Literaturauswertung (1984).
15,00 EUR Von P. Wurm und F. Daschner. Von K. Wesche, G. Neroth und
12,60 EUR J. W Weber. vergriffen
333. Festschrift ,,75 Jahre Deutscher Aus- 353: Einpressmortel mit langer Verarbei-
schul1 filr Stahlbeton" (1982). 345: Experimentelle Ermittlung der Steifig- tungszeit.
Von 0. Bertram, E. Bornemann, keiten von Stahlbetonplatten ( 1983). Von W Manns und R. Zimbelmann.
N. Bunke, H. Goffin, D. Jungwirth, Von H. Schafer, K. Schneider und Auswirkung von Fehlstellen im Ein-
K. Kordina, H. Kupfer, J. Schlaich, H. G. Schafer. 11,60 EUR pressmortel auf die Korrosion des
B. Wedlert und W Zema. Spannstahls.
22,60 EUR 346: Tragfahigkeit geschweil1ter Verbindun- Von G. Rehm, R. Frey und 0. Funk.
gen im Betonfertigteilbau. Korrosionsverhalten verzinkter Spann-
334: Versuche an Spannbetonbalken unter Von E. Cziesielski und M. Friedmann. stahle in gerissenem Beton (1984).
kombinierter Beanspruchung aus Bie- Versuche zur Ermittlung der Tragfa- Von U. NOrnberger. 30,60 EUR
gung, Querkraft und Torsion (1982). higkeit in Beton eingespannter Rund-
Von M. Teutsch und K. Kordina. 354: Bewehrungsfilhrung in Ecken und Rah-
stahldollen aus nichtrostendem auste-
10,20 EUR menendknoten.
nitischem Stahl. Von Karl Kordina.
335: Versuche zum Tragverhalten von seg- Von G. utescher und H. Herrmann. Vorschlage zur Bemessung rechtecki-
mentaren Spannbetontragern - Ver- Untersuchungen Ober in Beton einge- ger und kranzformiger Konsolen insbe-
gleichende Auswertung filr Epoxid- lassene Scherbolzen aus Betonstahl sondere unter exzentrischer Belastung
harz- und Zementmortelfugen (1982). (1983). aufgrund neuer Versuche (1984).
Von H. Kupfer, K. Guckenberger und Von H. Paschen und T. Schonhoff. Von Heinrich Paschen und Hermann
F. Daschner. 10,70 EUR vergriffen Malonn. vergriffen
8 Verzeichnis der DAfStb-Hefte

Heft Heft Heft

355: Untersuchungen zur Vorspannung 367: Verbundverhalten von Bewehrungs- 375: Grundlagen und Verfahren fiir den
ohne Verbund. stahlen unter Dauerbelastung in Nor- Knicksicherheitsnachweis von Druck-
Von Heinrich Trost, Heiner Cordes und mal- und Leichtbeton. gliedern aus Konstruktionsleichtbeton.
Bernhard Weller. Von Kassian Janovic. Von Roland Molzahn.
Anwendung der Vorspannung ohne ObergreifungsstoBe geschweiBter Einfluss des Kriechens auf Ausbiegung
Verbund. Betonstahlmatten. und Tragfahigkeit schlanker StOtzen
Von Karl Kordina, Josef Hegger und Von Gallus Rehm und Rudiger Tewes. aus Konstruktionsleichtbeton (1986).
Manfred Teutsch. ObergreifungsstoBe geschweiBter Von Roland Molzahn. 13,40 EUR
Ermittlung der wirtschaftlichen Beweh- Betonstahlmatten in Stahlleichtbeton 376: Trag- und Verformungsfahigkeit von
rung von Flachdecken mit Vorspan- (1986). Stotzen bei groBen Zwangsverschie-
nung ohne Verbund (1984). Von Gallus Rehm und Rudiger Tewes. bungen der Deeken.
Von Karl Kordina, Manfred Teutsch und 14,50 EUR Von Peter Steidle und Kurt Schafer.
Josef Hegger. 20,90 EUR Versuche an StOtzen mit Normalkraft
368: Fugen und Aussteifungen in Stahl- und Zwangsverschiebungen (1986).
356: Korrosionsschutz von Bauwerken, die
betonskelettbauten (1986). Von Rolf Wohlfahrt und Rainer Koch.
im Gleitschalungsbau errichtet wurden
(1984). Von Bernd Hock, Kurt Schaferund Jorg 22,60 EUR
Von Karl Kordina und Siegfried Schlaich. vergriffen
377: Versuche zur Schubtragwirkung von
Droese. 16,70 EUR 369: Versuche zum Verhalten unterschiedli- profilierten Stahlbeton- und Spann-
357: Konstruktion, Bemessung und Sicher- cher Stahlsorten in stoBbeanspruchten betontragern mit OberdrOckten Gurt-
heit gegen Durchstanzen von balken- Platten ( 1986). platten (1986).
losen Stahlbetondecken im Bereich Von Josef Eibl und Klaus Kreuser. Von Herbert Kupferund Klaus Gucken-
der lnnenstotzen (1984). 13,40 EUR berger. 14,00 EUR
Von Udo Schaefers. vergriffen 378: Versuche Ober das Verbundverhalten
370: Einfluss von Rissen auf die Dauerhaf- von Rippenstahlen bei Anwendung des
358: Kriechen von Seton unter hoher zent- tigkeit von Stahlbeton- und Spannbe- Gleitbauverfahrens.
rischer und exzentrischer Druckbean- tonbauteilen. Teilbericht I:
spruchung (1985). Von Peter Schie/31. Ausziehversuche, Proben in Utting her-
Von Emil Grasser und Udo Kraemer. Dauerhafligkeit von Spanngliedern un- gestellt.
15,30 EUR ter zyklischen Beanspruchungen. Von Gerfried Schmidt-Thro und Sieg-
359: Versuche zur ErmOdungsbean- Von Heiner Cordes. fried Stocki.
spruchung der Schubbewehrung von Beurteilung der Betriebsfestigkeit von Teilbericht II:
Stahlbetontragern. SpannbetonbrOcken im Koppelfugen- Versuche zur Bestimmung charakte-
Von Klaus Guckenberger, Herbert bereich unter besonderer BerOcksich- ristischer Betoneigenschaften bei An-
Kupfer und Ferdinand Daschner. tigung einer moglichen Rissbildung. wendung des Gleitbauverfahrens.
Vorgespannte Schubbewehrung (1985). Von Gert Konig und Hans-Christian Von Gerfried Schmidt-Thro, Siegfried
Von Jurgen Ruhnau und Herbert Gerhardt. Stocki und Herbert Kupfer.
Kupfer. 25,20 EUR Nachweis zur Beschrankung der Riss- Teilbericht 111:
breite in den Normen des Deutschen Ausziehversuche und Versuche an
360: Festigkeitsverhalten und Strukturver- Ausschusses fiir Stahlbeton ( 1986). ObergreifungsstoBen, Proben in Berlin
anderungen von Belon bei Tempera- Von Eilhard Wolfe/. vergriffen bzw. Koln hergestellt.
turbeanspruchung bis 250 °C (1985). Von Klaus Kluge, Gerfried Schmidt-
Von Jurgen Seeberger, Jorg Kropp und 371: Tragfahigkeit durchstanzgefahrdeter Thro, Siegfried Stocki und Herbert
Hubert K. Hilsdorf. 18,80 EUR Stahlbetonplatten-Entwicklung von Kupfer.
361: Beitrag zur Bemessung von schlanken Bemessungsvorschlagen ( 1986). Einfluss der Probekorperform und der
Stahlbetonstotzen fiir schiefe Biegung Von Karl Kordina und Diedrich Nol- Messpunktanordnung auf die Ergeb-
mit Achsdruck unter Kurzzeit- und ting. vergriffen nisse von Ausziehversuchen (1986).
Dauerbelastung - Contribution to the Von Gerfried Schmidt-Thro, Siegfried
372: Literaturstudie zur Schubsicherung bei Stocki und Herbert Kupfer.
Design of Slender Reinforced Con-
nachtraglich erganzten Querschnitten. 27,40 EUR
crete Columns Subjected to Biaxial
Bending and Axial Compression Con- Von Ferdinand Daschner und
Herbert Kupfer. 379: Experimentelle und analytische Un-
sidering Short and Long Term Loadings tersuchungen zur wirklichkeitsnahen
(1985). Versuche zur notwendigen Schubbe-
Bestimmung der BruchschnittgroBen
Von Nelson Szilard Ga/goul. wehrung zwischen Betonfertigteilen
unbewehrter Betonbauteile unter Zug-
21,50 EUR und Ortbeton.
beanspruchung, (1987).
Von Ferdinand Daschner.
362: Versuche an Konstruktionsleichtbeton- Von DietmarScheidler. 16,70 EUR
Verminderte Schubdeckung in Stahl-
bauteilen unter kombinierter Beanspru- beton- und Spannbetontragern mit 380: Eigenspannungszustand in Stahl- und
chung aus Torsion, Biegung und Quer- Fugen parallel zur Tragrichtung unter Spannbetonkorpern infolge unter-
kraft ( 1985). BerOcksichtigung nicht vorwiegend schiedlichen thermischen Dehnverhal-
Von Karl Kordina und Manfred ruhender Lasten. tens von Belon und Stahl bei tiefen
Teutsch. 13,40 EUR Von lngo Nissen, Ferdinand Daschner Temperaturen.
und Herbert Kupfer. Von Ferdinand S. Rostasy und Jochen
363: Versuche zur Mitwirkung des Betons Scheuermann.
in der Zugzone von Stahlbetonrohren Literaturstudie Ober Versuche mit sehr
hohen Schubspannungen (1986). Verbundverhalten einbetonierten Be-
(1985). tonrippenstahls bei extrem liefer Tem-
Von Jorg Schlaich und Hans Schober. Von Herbert Kupfer und Ferdinand
Daschner. vergriffen peratur.
14,50 EUR Von Ferdinand S. Rostasy und Jochen
364: Empirische Zusammenhange zur Er- 373: Empfehlungen fur die Bewehrungsfiih- Scheuermann.
mittlung der Schubtragfahigkeit stab- rung in Rahmenecken und -knoten. Versuche zur Biegetragfahigkeit von
formiger Stahlbetonelemente (1985). Von Karl Kordina, Ehrenfried Schaaff Stahlbetonplattenstreifen bei extrem
Von Karl Kordina und Franz Blume. und Thomas Westphal. liefer Temperatur (1987).
11,80 EUR Das Obertragungs- und WeggroBen- Von Ganter Wiedemann, Jochen
verfahren fiir ebene Stahlbetonstab- Scheuermann, Karl Kordina und
365: Experimentelle Untersuchungen be- Ferdinand S. Rostasy. 19,90 EUR
wehrter und hohler PrOfkorper aus tragwerke unter Verwendung von Tan-
Normalbeton mittels eines zwangungs- gentensteifigkeiten ( 1986). 381: Schubtragverhalten von Spannbeton-
armen Krafteinleitungssystems (1985). Von Poul Colberg Olsen. vergriffen bauteilen mit Vorspannung ohne Ver-
Von Manfred Specht, Rita Schmidt und bund.
374: Schwingfestigkeitsverhalten von Von Karl Kordina und Josef Hegger.
Hartmut Kappes. 16, 1O EUR
Betonstahlen unter wirklichkeitsnahen Systematische Auswertung von Schub-
366: Grundsatzliche Untersuchungen zum Beanspruchungs- und Umgebungsbe- versuchen an Spannbetonbalken (1987).
Gerateeinfluss bei der mehraxialen dingungen (1986). Von Karl Kordina und Josef Hegger.
DruckprOfung von Seton (1985). Von Gallus Rehm, Wolfgang Harre und 21,50 EUR
Von Helmut Winkler. 29,00 EUR Willibald Beul. 14,50 EUR
Verzeichnis der DAfStb-Hefte 9

Heft Heft Heft

382: Berechnen und Bemessen von Ver- 392: Dynamische Probleme im Stahl- 402: Kunststoffbeschichtete Betonstahle
bundprofilstaben bei Raumtemperatur betonbau - Teil II: Stahlbetonbauteile (1989).
und unter Brandeinwirkung (1987). und -bauwerke unter dynamischer Be- Von Gallus Rehm, Rainer Blum,
Von Otto Jungbluth und Werner Grad- anspruchung (1988). Elke Fielker, Reinhard Frey, Dieter
wohl. 16,70 EUR Von Josef Eibl, Einar Keintzel und Junginger, Bernhard Kipp, Peter
Hermann Chartier. vergriffen Langer Klaus Menzel und Ferdinand
383: Unbewehrter und bewehrter Belon un- Nagel. 29,00 EUR
ter Wechselbeanspruchung (1987). 393: Querschnittsbericht zur Rissbildung in
Von Helmut Weig/er und Karl-Heinz- Stahl- und Spannbetonkonstruktionen. 403: Wassergehalt von Belon bei Tempera-
Rings. 12,10 EUR Von Rolf Eligehausen und Helmut turen von 100 °C bis 500 °C im Bereich
384: Einwirkung von Streusalzen auf Belone Kreller. des Wasserdampfpartialdruckes von
unter gezielt praxisnahen Bedingungen Korrosion von Stahl in Belon - ein- o bis 5,0 MPa.
(1987). schliell.lich Spannbeton (1988). Von Wilhelm Manns und Bernd Neu-
Von Reinhard Frey. 7,80 EUR Von Ulf Namberger, Klaus Menzel bert.
Armin Lohr und Reinhard Frey. Permeabilitat und Porositat von Belon
385: Das Schubtragverhalten schlanker vergriffen bei hohen Temperaturen (1989).
Stahlbetonbalken - Theoretische und Von Ulrich Schneider und Hans
experimentelle Untersuchungen fOr 394: Nachweisverfahren fOr Verankerung, Joachim Herbst. 14,00 EUR
Leicht- und Normalbeton. Verformung, Zwangbeanspruchung
Von Helmut Kirmair. und Rissbreite. Kontinuierliche Theo- 404: Verhalten von Belon bei mall.ig erhoh-
Rissverhalten im Schubbereich von rie der Mitwirkung des Betons auf ten Betriebstemperaturen (1989).
Stahlleichtbetontragern (1987). Zug. Rechenhilfen fOr die Praxis (1988). Von Harald Budelmann. 24,70 EUR
Von Kassian Janovic. 18,80 EUR Von Piotr Noakowski. vergriffen 405: Korrosion und Korrosionsschutz der
386: Das Tragverhalten von Belon- Ein- 395: Berechnung von Temperatur-, Feuchte- Bewehrung im Massivbau
fluss der Festigkeit und der Erhartungs- und Verschiebungsfeldern in erharten- - neuere Forschungsergebnisse
bedingungen (1987). den Betonbauteilen nach der Methode - Folgerungen fOr die Praxis
Von Helmut Weig/er und Eike Bielak. der finiten Elemente (1988). - Hinweise fOr das Regelwerk
13,40 EUR Von Ho/ger Hamfler. 30,00 EUR (1990).
Von Ulf Narnberger. vergriffen
387: Tragverhalten quadratischer Einzelfun-
damente aus Stahlbeton. 396: Rissbreitenbeschrankung und Min- 406: Die Berechnung von ebenen, in ihrer
Von Hannes Dieterle und Ferdinand destbewehrung bei Eigenspannungen Ebene belasteten Stahlbetonbauteilen
s. Rostasy. und Zwang (1988). mil der Methode der Finiten Elemente
Zur Bemessung quadratischer Stot- Von Manfred Puche. 31,20 EUR (1990).
zenfundamente aus Stahlbeton unter Von Ganter Borg. vergriffen
zentrischer Belastung mil Hilfe von 397: Spezielle Fragen beim Schweill.en von
Bemessungsdiagrammen (1987). Betonstahlen. 407: Zwang und Rissbildung in Wanden auf
Von Hannes Dieterle. 23, 10 EUR Gleichmall.dehnung von Betonstahlen Fundamenten (1990).
(1989). Von Ferdinand S. Rostasy und Wolf-
388: Wandartige Trager mil Auflagerver- Von Dieter Ru/3wurm. 16, 10 EUR gang Henning. 25,70 EUR
starkungen und vertikalen Arbeitsfugen
(1987). 398: Zur Faltwerkwirkung der Stahlbeton- 408: Druck und Querzug in bewehrten
Von Jens Gotsche und Heinrich Twel- treppen ( 1989). Betonelementen.
meiert. 17,80 EUR Von Hans-Heinrich Osteroth. Von Kurt Schafer, Ganther Schelling
389: Verankerung der Bewehrung am End- vergriffen und Thomas Kuchler.
auflager bei einachsiger Querpressung. Altersabhangige Beziehung zwischen
Von Get1ried Schmidt-Thro, Siegfried 399: Das Bewehren von Stahlbetonbau- der Druck- und Zugfestigkeit von Be-
Stack/ und Herbert Kupfer. teilen - Erlauterungen zu verschiede- lon im Bauwerk - Bauwerkszugfestig-
Einfluss einer einachsigen Querpres- nen gebrauchlichen Bauteilen (1993). keit - (1990).
sung und der Verankerungslange auf Von Rolf Eligehausen und Roland Von Ferdinand S. Rostasy und Ernst-
das Verbundverhalten von Rippenstah- Gerster. 25,70 EUR Holger Ranisch. 25,70 EUR
len im Belon.
Von Get1ried Schmidt-Thro, Siegfried 400: Erlauterungen zu DIN 1045, Belon und 409: Zurn nichtlinearen Trag- und Verfor-
Stocki und Herbert Kupfer. Stahlbeton, Ausgabe 07.88. mungsverhalten von Stahlbetonstab-
Rissflachen im Belon im Bereich einer Zusammengestellt von Dieter Bertram tragwerken unter Last- und Zwangein-
auf Zug beanspruchten Stabveran- und Norbert Bunke. wirkung (1990).
kerung (1988). Hinweise fOr die Verwendung von Von Helmut Kreller. 21,50 EUR
Von Get1ried Schmidt-Thro. Zement zu Belon.
Von Justus Bonzef und Karsten 410: Kunststoffbeschichtungen auf standig
27,90 EUR
Rendchen. durchfeuchtetem Belon - Adhasions-
390: Einfluss von Betongiite, Wasserhaus- Grundlagen der Neuregelung zur Be- eigenschaften, EignungsprOfkriterien,
halt und Zeit auf das Eindringen von schrankung der Rissbreite. Beschichtungsgrundsatze (1990).
Chloriden in Belon. Von Peter Schie/31. Von Michael Fiebrich. 20,40 EUR
Von Gallus Rehm, Ulf Namberger; Erlauterungen zur Richtlinie fOr Belon
Bernd Neubert und Frank Nenninger. mil Fliell.mitteln und fOr Fliell.beton. 411: Untersuchungen Ober das Tragver-
Chloridkorrosion von Stahl in gerisse- halten von Kocherfundamenten (1990).
Von Justus Bonzef und Eberhard
nem Belon. Von Georg-Wilhelm Mainka und
Siebel.
A- Bisheriger Kenntnisstand. Heinrich Paschen. 22,60 EUR
Erlauterungen zur Richtlinie Alkali-
B - Untersuchungen an der 30 Jahre Reaktion im Belon (1989). 4. Auflage
alten Westmole in Helgoland. 412: Mindestbewehrung zwangbean-
1994 (3. berichtigter Nachdruck). spruchter dicker Stahlbetonbauteile
C - Auslagerung gerissener, mil unver- Von Justus Bonzef, Jargen Dahms und
zinkten und feuerverzinkten Stah- (1990).
Jargen Krell. 38,60 EUR Von Manfred Helmus. 24,70 EUR
len bewehrten Stahlbetonbalken
auf Helgoland (1988). 401: Anleitung zur Bestimmung des Chlorid- 413: Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur
Von Gallus Rehm, Ulf Namberger und gehaltes von Belon. · Bestimmung der Druckfestigkeit des
Bernd Neubert. vergriffen Arbeitskreis: PrOfverfahren - Chlorid- gerissenen Stahlbetons bei einerQuer-
391: Biegetragverhalten und Bemessung eindringtiefe. zugbeanspruchung (1990).
von Tragern mil Vorspannung ohne Leitung: Rupert Springenschmid. Von Johann Kol/egger und Gerhard
Verbund. Schnellbestimmung des Chloridgehal- Mehlhorn. 27,90 EUR
Von Josef Zimmermann. tes von Belon.
Experimentelle Untersuchung zum Bie- Von Horst Domer, Ganter Kleiner. 414: Versuche zur Ermittlung von Scha-
getragverhalten von Durchlauftragern mil Bestimmung des Chloridgehaltes von lungsdruck und Schalungsreibung im
Vorspannung ohne Verbund (1988). Belon durch Direktpotentiometrie. Gleitbau (1990).
Von Bernhard Weller. 25,70 EUR (1989). Von Karl Kordina und Siegfried
Von Horst Dorner. vergriffen Droese. 19,30 EUR
10 Verzeichnis der DAfStb-Hefte

Heft Heft Heft

415: Programmgesteuerte Berechnung be- 427: Verminderte Schubdeckung in Beton- 440: Untersuchung zur Durchlassigkeit von
liebiger Massivbauquerschnitte unter tragern mil Fugen parallel zur Tragrich- faserfreien uild faserverstarkten Beton-
zweiachsiger Biegung mil Langskraft tung bei sehr hohen Schubspannungen bauteilen mil Trennrissen.
(Programm MASQUE) (1990). und nicht vorwiegend ruhenden Lasten Von Masaaki Tsukamoto.
Von Dirk Busjaeger und Ulrich Quast. (1992). Gitterschnittkennwert als Kriterium fur
31,20 EUR Von Ferdinand Daschner und Herbert die Adhasionsgote von Oberflachen-
416: Betonbau beim Umgang mil wasser- Kupfer. 14,00 EUR schutzsystemen auf Belon (1994).
gefahrdenden Stoffen - Sachstands- Von Michael Fiebrich. 18,30 EUR
bericht (1991 ). 428: Entwicklung eines Expertensystems
Von Thomas Fehlhaber, Gert Konig, zur Beurteilung, Beseitigung und Vor- 441: Physikalisch nichtlineare Berechnung
Siegfried Mangel, Hermann Poll, beugung von Oberflachenschaden an von Stahlbetonplatten im Vergleich zur
Hans-Wolf Reinhardt, Carola Reuter, Betonbauteilen (1992). Bruchlinientheorie (1994).
Peter Schie/31, Bernd Schnutgen, Von Michael Sohni. 20,40 EUR Von Andreas Pardey. 36,50 EUR
Gerhard Spanka Friedhelm Stangen- 429: Der Einfluss mechanischer Spannun-
berg, Gerd Thielen und Johann- 442: Versuche zum Kriechen von Belon bei
gen auf den Korrosionswiderstand mehrachsiger Beanspruchung-Aus-
Dietrich Womer. 37,60 EUR
zementgebundener Baustoffe (1992). wertung auf der Basis von errechneten
417: Stahlbeton- und Spannbetonbauteile Von Ulrich Schneider, Erich Nagele elastischen Anfangsverformungen.
bei extrem liefer Temperatur- Ver- Frank Dumat und Steffen Holst. Von Henrie Bierwirth, Siegfried Stocki
suche und Berechnungsansatze fur 20,40 EUR und Herbert Kupfer.
Lasten und Zwang (1991). Kriechen, ROckkriechen und Dauer-
Von Uwe Pusch und Ferdinand 430: Standardisierte Nachweise von haufi-
standfestigkeit von Belon bei unter-
S. Rostasy. 22,60 EUR gen D-Bereichen (1992).
schiedlichem Feuchtegehalt und Ver-
Von Mattias Jennewein und Kurt
418: Warmbehandlung von Belon durch wendung von Portlandzement bzw.
Schafer. 20,40 EUR
Mikrowellen (1991). Portlandkalksteinzement (1994).
Von Ulrich Schneider und Frank 431: Spannungsumlagerungen in Verbund- Von Dirk Nechvatal, Siegfried Stocki
Dumat. 30,00 EUR querschnitten aus Fertigteilen und und Herbert Kupfer. 20,40 EUR
419: Bruchmechanisches Verhalten von Ortbeton statisch bestimmter Trager
infolge Kriechen und Schwinden un- 443: Schutz und lnstandsetzung von Beton-
Belon unter monotoner und zyklischer bauteilen unter Verwendung von Kunst-
Zugbeanspruchung (1991 ). ter Berucksichtigung der Rissbildung
(1992). stoffen - Sachstandsbericht- (1994).
Von Herbert Duda. 17,20 EUR
Von Ganther Ackermann, Erich Raue, Von H. Rainer Sasse u. a.
420: Versuche zum Kriechen und zur Rest- Lutz Ebel und Gerhard Setzpfandt. 51,60 EUR
festigkeit von Belon bei mehrachsiger vergriffen
Beanspruchung. 444: Zurn Zug- und Schubtragverhalten von
Von Norbert Lanig, Siegfried Stocki und 432: Lineare und nichtlineare Theorie des Bauteilen aus hochfestem Belon (1994).
Herbert Kupfer. Kriechens und der Relaxation von Von Gerd Remmel. 23,60 EUR
Kriechen von Belon nach langer Belon unter Druckbeanspruchung
Lasteinwirkung. (1992). 445: Zurn Eindringverhalten von FIOssig-
Von Norbert Lanig und Siegfried Stocki. Von Jing-Hua Shen. 12,90 EUR keiten und Gasen in ungerissenen
FrOhe Kriechverformungen des Betons Bet on.
(1991). 433: Zur chloridinduzierten Makroelement- Von Thomas Feh/haber.
Von Heinrich Trost und Hans Pasch- korrosion von Stahl in Belon (1992). Eindringverhalten von FIOssigkeiten in
mann. 24,70 EUR Von Michael Raupach. 23,60 EUR Belon in Abhangigkeit von der Feuchte
421: Entwicklung radiographischer Unter- der Probekorper und der Temperatur.
suchungsmethoden des Verbundver- 434: Beurteilung der Wirksamkeit von Stein- Von Massimo Sosoro und Hans-Wolf
haltens von Stahl und Belon (1991). kohlenflugaschen als Betonzusatzstoff Reinhardt.
Von Andrea Steinwedel. (1993). Untersuchung der Dichtheit von Vaku-
22,60 EUR Von Franz Sybertz. 23,60 EUR umbeton gegenuberwassergefahrden-
den FIOssigkeiten (1994).
422: Prufung von Beton-Empfehlungen und 435: Zur Spannungsumlagerung im Spann- Von Reinhard Frey und Hans-Wolf
Hinweise als Erganzung zu DIN 1048 beton bei der Rissbildung unter sta- Reinhardt. 27,90 EUR
(1991). tischer und wiederholter Belastung
Zusammengestellt von Norbert Bunke. (1993). 446: Mod ell zurVorhersagedes Eindringver-
33,30 EUR Von Nguyen Viet Tue. 18,30 EUR haltens von organischen FIOssigkeiten
423: Experimentelle Untersuchungen des in Belon (1995).
436: Zurn karbonatisierungsbedingten Ver- Von Massimo Sosoro. 17,20 EUR
Trag- und Verformungsverhaltens lust der Dauerhaftigkeit von AuBenbau-
schlanker Stahlbetondruckglieder mil
teilen aus Stahlbeton (1993). 447: Versuche zum Verhalten von Belon
zweiachsiger Ausmitte.
Von Dieter Bunte. 27,90 EUR unter dreiachsiger Kurzzeitbean-
Von Rainer Grzeschkowitz, Karl
Kordina und Manfred Teutsch. spruchung.
437: Festigkeit und Verformung von Belon Tests on the Behaviour of Concrete
Erweiterung von Traglastprogrammen bei hoher Temperatur und biaxialer
fur schlanke Stahlbetondruckglieder under Triaxial Shorttime Loading.
Beanspruchung - Versuche und Von Ulrich Scholz, Dirk Nechvatal,
(1992). Modellbildung- (1994).
Von Rainer Grzeschkowitz und Ulrich Helmut Asch/, Diethelm Linse, Emil
Von Karl-Christian Thienel. Grasser und Herbert Kupfer.
Quast. 23,60 EUR
22,60 EUR Auswertung von Versuchen zur mehr-
424: Tragverhalten von Befestigungen un- achsigen Betonfestigkeit, die an der
ter Querlasten in ungerissenem Belon 438: Hochfester Belon, Sachstandsbericht,
Teil 1: Betontechnologie und Betonei- Technischen Universitat- MOnchen
(1992). durchgefOhrt wurden.
Von Werner Fuchs. 29,00 EUR genschaften.
Von Jngo Schrage. Evaluation of the Multiaxial Strength of
425: Bemessungshilfsmittel zu Eurocode 2 Teil 2: Bemessung und Konstruktion Concrete Tested at Technische Univer-
Teil 1 (DINVENV 1992 Teil 1-1, Aus- (1994). sitat Munchen.
gabe 06.92). Von Gert Konig, Harald Bergner, Von Zhenhai Guo, Yunlong Zhou und
Planung von Stahlbeton- und Spann- Rainer Grimm, Markus Held, Gerd Dirk Nechvatal.
betontragwerken (1992). Versuche zur Methode der Verfor-
Remmel und Gerd Simsch.
3. erganzte Auflage 1997. mungsmessung an dreiachsig bean-
Von Karl Kordina u. a. 40,90 EUR 19,30 EUR
spruchten Betonwurfeln.
426: Einfluss der Probekorperform auf die 439: Ermudungsfestigkeit von Stahlbeton Tests on Methods for Strain Measure-
Ergebnisse von Ausziehversuchen- und Spannbetonbauteilen mil Erlau- ments on Cubic Specimen of Concrete
Finite-Element-Berechnung- ( 1992). terungen zu den Nachweisen gemaB under Triaxial Loading (1995).
Von Jurgen Mainz und Siegfried CEB-FIP. Model Code 1990 (1994). Von Christian Dialer, Norbert Lanig,
Stocki. 19,30 EUR Von Gert Konig und lreneusz Daniele- Siegfried Stocki und Colestin Zeiger.
wicz. 21,50 EUR 25,70 EUR
Verzeichnis der DAfSlb-Hefte 11

Heft Heft Heft

448: Veranderung des BelongefOges durch Durchli!ssigkeit von iiberdriickten 468: Stahlfaserbeton fOr Diehl- und Ver-
die Wirkung von Sleinkohlenflugasche Trennrissen im Belon bei Beaufschla- schleiBschichten auf Betonkonstruk-
und ihr Einfluss auf die Beloneigen- gung mit wassergefahrdenden Fliissig- tionen.
schaften (1995). keiten. Von Burkhard Wienke.
Von Reiner Hardt/. 18,30 EUR Von Norbert Brauer und Peter Schiel!,/. Einfluss von Stahlfasern auf das Ver-
Untersuchungen zum Eindringen von schleiBverhalten von Betonen unler
449: Wirksame Belonzugfestigkeil im Bau- Fliissigkeiten in Belon, zur Dekonta- extremen Betriebsbedingungen in
werk bei friih einsetzendem Tempe- mination von Belon sowie zur Dicht- Bunkern von Abfallbehandlungsanla-
raturzwang (1995). heit von Arbeitsfugen (1996). gen (1996).
Von Peter Onken und Ferdinand Von Hans Paschmann und Horst Von Thomas Hocker. 26,90 EUR
S. Rostasy. 20,40 EUR Grube. vergriffen
469: Schadensablauf bei Korrosion der
450: Priifverfahren und Untersuchungen 458: Umweltvertri!glichkeit zementgebun- Spannbewehrung (1996).
zum Eindringen von Fliissigkeiten und dener Bausloffe - Sachstandsbericht Von Gert Konig, Nguyen Viet Tue, Tho-
Gasen in Belon sowie zum chemischen - (1996). mas Bauer und Dieter Pommerening.
Widerstand von Belon. Von Inga Hohberg, Christoph MOiier, 16,10 EUR
Von Hans Paschmann, Horst Grube Peter Schiel!,/ und Gerhard Volland.
und Gerd Thielen. 20,40 EUR 470: Anforderungen an Slahlbelonlager
Untersuchungen zum Eindringen von thermischer Behandlungsanlagen fOr
Fliissigkeiten in Belon sowie zur Ver- 459: Bemessen von Stahlbelonbalken und feste Siedlungsabfi!lle.
besserung der Dichtheit des Betons -wandscheiben mit Offnungen (1996). Von Georg Zimmermann.
(1995). Von Hermann Ulrich Hoffmann und Kurt Temperaturbeanspruchungen in Stahl-
Von Hans Paschmann, Horst Grube Schafer. 26,90 EUR betonlagern fOr feste Siedlungsabfalle
und Gerd Thielen. 23,60 EUR (1996).
460: FlieBverhalten von Fliissigkeiten in
451: Beton als sekundi!re Dichtbarriere durchgehend gerissenen Betonkon- Von Ralf Bruning. 36,50 EUR
gegeniiber umweltgefahrdenden Fliis- struktionen (1996).
Von Christiane Imhof-Zeitler. 471: Zurn Bruchverhalten von hochfeslem
sigkeiten (1995). Belon bei einer Zugbeanspruchung
Von Michael Aufrecht. vergriffen 32,20 EUR
durch formschliissige Verankerungen
452: Wcihlerlinien fOr einbetonierte Spann- 461: Grundlagen fOr den Entwurf, die Be- (1997).
gliedkopplungen. rechnung und konstruktive Durchbil- Von Ralf Zeitler. 17,20 EUR
- Dauerschwingversuche an Spann- dung lager- und fugenloser Brucken
(1996). 472: Segmentbalken mit Vorspannung ohne
gliedkopplungen des Litzenspann- Verbund unter kombinierter Beanspru-
verfahrens D & W. Von Michael Potzl, Jorg Schlaich und
Kurt Schafer. 21,50 EUR chung aus Torsion, Biegung und
Von Gert Konig und Roland Sturm. Querkraft.
- Dauerschwingversuche an Spann- 462: Umweltgerechter Riickbau und Wie- Von Horst Falkner, Manfred Teutsch
gliedkopplungen des Biindelspann- derverwertung mineralischer Bau- und Zhen Huang.
gliedes BBRV-SUSPA II (1995). stoffe- Sachstandsbericht (1996).
Von Gert Konig und lreneusz Eurocode 8: Tragwerksplanung von
Von Peter Grub/ u. a. 32,20 EUR Baulen in Erdbebengebielen
Danielewicz. 16, 1O EUR
463: Contee ES - Computer Aided Con- Grundlagen, Anforderungen. Vergleich
453: Ein durchgi!ngiges lngenieurmodell zur sulting fOr Belonoberfli!chenschaden mit DIN4149 (1997).
Bestimmung der Querkrafttragfi!higkeit (1996). Von Dan Constantinescu. 16,10 EUR
im Bruchzustand von Bauleilen aus Von Gabriele Funk. vergriffen 473: Zurn Verbundlragverhallen laschen-
Stahlbeton mit und ohne Vorspannung verstarkler Belonbauleile unler nichl
der Festigkeitsklassen C 12 bis C 115 464: Sicherheilserhcihung durch Fugenver-
minderung - Spannbeton im Umwelt- vorwiegend ruhender Beanspruchung.
(1995).
Von Manfred Specht und Hans bereich. Von Christoph Hankers.
Scholz. 23,60 EUR Von Jens Schutte, Manfred Teutsch und lngenieurmodelle des Verbunds ge-
Horst Falkner. klebler Bewehrung fOr Belonbauleile
454: Tragverhalten von randfernen Kopf- Fugen in chemisch belasteten Beton- (1997).
bolzenverankerungen bei Betonbruch bauteilen. Von Peter Holzenkampfer.
(1995). Von Hans-Werner Nordhues und 30,00 EUR
Von Guochen Zhao. 20,40 EUR Johann-Dietrich Womer.
Durchlassigkeil und konstruktive 474: lnjizierte Risse unler Medien- und La-
Konzeption von Fugen (Fertigteilver- sleinfluss.
455: Wasserdurchli!ssigkeit und Selbsl-
heilung von Trennrissen in Belon bindungen) (1996). Teil I: Grundlagenversuche.
(1996). Von Marko Bida und Klaus-Peter Von Horst Falkner, Manfred Teutsch,
Von Carola Katharina Edvardsen. Grote. 31,20 EUR Thies ClauBen, Jurgen Ganther und
23,60 EUR Sabine Rohde.
465: Dichlschichten aus hochfestem Faser- Teil 2: Bauleilunlersuchungen.
456: Zurn Schubtragverhalten von Fertig- beton. Von Hans-Wolf Reinhardt, Massimo
platten mit Ortbetonerganzung. Von Martina Lemberg. Sosoro, Friedrich Paul und Xiao-feng
Von Horst Georg Schaferund Wolfgang Dichlheit von Faserbetonbauteilen Zhu.
Schmidt-Kehle. (synlhetische Fasern) (1996). Oberfli!chenschutzmaBnahmen zur
Oberflachenrauheit und Haftverbund. Von Johann-Dietrich Womer, Erhcihung der chemischen Dichlungs-
Von Horst Georg Schafer, Klaus Block Christiane Imhof-Zeitler und Martina wirkung.
und Rita Dre/I. Lemberg. 29,00 EUR Von Klaus Littmann.
Zur Oberflachenrauheil von Fertig- 466: Grundlagen und Bemessungshilfen Korrosionsschutz der Bewehrung bei
platten mit Ortbetonergi!nzung. tor die Rissbreitenbeschri!nkung im Einwirkung umwellgefahrdender Fliis-
Von Horst Georg Schaferund Wolfgang Stahlbeton und Spannbelon sowie sigkeilen (1997).
Schmidt-Kehle. Kom-menlare, Hinlergrundinformatio- Von Romain Weydert und Peter
Ortbetonerganzte Fertigteilbalken mit nen und Anwendungsbeispiele zu den Schiel!,/. 27,90 EUR
profilierter Anschlussfuge unler hoher Regelungen nach DIN 1045. EC2 und
Querkraftbeanspruchung (1996). 475: Transport organischer Fliissigkeilen in
Model Code 90 (1996). Belonbauleilen mil Mikro- und Biege-
Von Horst Georg Schaferund Wolfgang Von Gert Konig und Nguyen Viet Tue.
Schmidt-Keh/e. 30,00 EUR rissen.
21,50 EUR Von Xiao-feng Zhu.
457: Verbesserung der Undurchlassigkeit, 467: Verstarken von Betonbauteilen - Eindring- und Durchslrcimungsvor-
Besti!ndigkeit und Verformungsfahig- Sachstandsbericht- (1996). gange umwellgefahrdender Sloffe an
keit von Belon. Von Horst Georg Schaferu. a. feinen Trennrissen in Belon (1997).
Von Udo Wiens, Fritz Grahn und 18,30 EUR Von Detlef Bick, Heiner Cordes und
Peter Schiel!,/. Heinrich Trost. vergriffen
12 Verzeichnis der DAfStb-Hefte

Heft Heft Heft

476: Zuverlassigkeit des Verpressens von 489: Mindestbewehrung tor verformungs- 503: Untersuchungen zum Einfluss der
Spannkanalen unter BerOcksichtigung behinderte Betonbauteile im jungen bezogenen Rippenflache von Beweh-
der Unsicherheiten auf der Baustelle Alter (1998). rungsstaben auf das Tragverhalten von
(1997). Von Udo Paas. 23,60 EUR Stahlbetonbauteilen im Gebrauchs-
Von Ferdinand S. Rostasy und Alex- und Bruchzustand (2000).
W Gutsch. 25,70 EUR 490: Beschichtete Bewehrung. Ergebnisse Von Rolf Eligehausen und Utz Mayer.
sechsjahriger Auslagerungsversuche. 20,90 EUR
477: Einfluss bruchmechanischer Kenn- Von Klaus Menzel, Frank Schulze und
grol1en auf das Siege- und Schubtrag- Hans-Wolf Reinhardt. 504: Schubtragverhalten von Stahlbeton-
verhalten hochfester Belone (1997). Kontinuierliche Ultraschallmessung bauteilen mil rezyklierten Zuschlagen
Von Rainer Grimm. 27,90 EUR wahrend des Erstarrens und Erhartens (2000).
von Belon als Werkzeug des Qualitats- Von Sufang La. 24,70 EUR
478: Tragfahigkeit von Druckstreben und
managements (1998).
Knoten in D-Bereichen (1997). 505: Biegetragverhalten von Stahlbeton-
Von Hans-Wolf Reinhardt, Christian
Von Wolfgang Sundermann und Kurt bauteilen mil rezyklierten Zuschlagen
Schafer. 29,00 EUR U. Gro/3e und Alexander Herb.
18,30 EUR (2000).
Von Matthias Mei/3ner. 29,00 EUR
479: Ober das Brandverhalten punktge-
491: Der Einfluss der freien Schwingungen
stotzter Stahlbetonplatten (1997). 506: Verwertung von Brechsand aus Bau-
Von Karl Kordina. 25,70 EUR auf ausgewahlte dynamische Para-
meter von Stahlbetonbiegetragern schutt (2000).
480: Versagensmodell tor schubschlanke (1999). Von Christoph Maller und Bernd
Balken (1997). Von Manfred Specht und Michael Dora. 24,70 EUR
Von Jurgen Fischer. 19,30 EUR Kramp. 31,20 EUR
507: Betonkennwerte tor die Bemessung
481: Sicherheitskonzept tor Bauten des 492: Nichtlineares Last-Verformungs-Ver- und Verbundverhalten von Belon mil
Umweltschutzes. halten von Stahlbeton- und Spannbe- rezykliertem Zuschlag (2000).
Von Daniela Kiefer. tonbauteilen, Verformungsvermogen Von Konrad Zilch und Frank Roos.
Erfahrungen mil Bauten des Umwelt- und Schnittgrol1enermittlung (1999). 19,30 EUR
schutzes. Von Gert Kc5nig, Dieter Pommerening
Von Johann-Dietrich Wc5rner, Daniela und Nguyen Viet Tue. 508: Zulassige Toleranzen tor die Abwei-
Kiefer und Hans-Werner Nordhues. 26,90 EUR chungen der mechanischen Kennwer-
Qualitatskontrollmal1nahmen bei Be- te von Belon mil rezykliertem Zuschlag
tonkonstruktionen (1997). 493: Leitfaden tor die Erfassung und Sewer- (2000).
tung der Materialien eines Abbruchob- Von Johann-Dietrich Wc5rner, Pieter
Von Otto Krogge/. 21,50 EUR
jektes ( 1999). Moerland, Sabine Giebenhain, Harald
482: Rissbreitenbeschrankung zwangbe- Von Theo Rommel, Wolfgang Katzer, Kloft und Klaus Leiblein.
anspruchter Bauteile aus hochfestem Gerhard Tauchert und Jie Huang. 16,70 EUR
Normalbeton (1997). 18,80 EUR 509: Bruchmechanisches Verhalten jungen
Von Harald Bergner. 25,70 EUR
494: Tragverhalten von Stahlfaserbeton Betons (2000).
483: Durchlassigkeitsgesetze tor FIOssigkei- (1999). Von Karim Hariri. 24,70 EUR
ten mil Feinstoffanteilen bei Betonbun- Von Yong-zhi Lin. 23,60 EUR
510: Probabilistische Lebensdauerbemes-
kern von Abfallbehandlungsanlagen.
495: Stoffeigenschaften jungen Betons; Ver- sung von Stahlbetonbauwerken -
Von Klaus-Peter Grote.
suche und Madelle (1999). Zuverlassigkeitsbetrachtungen zur
Einfluss von Stahlfasern auf die Durch-
Von Alex-W Gutsch. 29,50 EUR wirksamen Vermeidung von Beweh-
lassigkeit von Belon (1997). rungskorrosion (2000).
Von Ralf Winterberg. 22,60 EUR Von Christoph Gehlen.
496: Entwerfen und Bemessen von Beton-
484: Grenzen der Anwendung nichtlinearer brOcken ohne Fugen und Lager (1999). 24,20 EUR
Rechenverfahren bei Stabtragwerken Von Stephan Engelsmann, Jc5rg
Schlaich und Kurt Schei.fer. 511: Hydroabrasionsverschleil1 von Beton-
und einachsig gespannten Platten. oberflachen.
Von Rolf Eligehausen und Eckhart 25,70 EUR
Belon und Mortel tor die lnstandset-
Fabritius. zung verschleil1geschadigter Beton-
497: Entwicklung von Verfahren zur Beur-
Rotationsfahigkeit von plastischen Ge- bauteile im Wasserbau (2000).
lenken im Stahl- und Spannbetonbau. teilung der Kontaminierung der Bau-
stoffe vor dem Abbruch (SchnellprOf- Von Gesa Haroske, Jan Vala und
Von Longfei Li. Ulrich Diederichs. 27,40 EUR
Verdrehfahigkeit plastizierter Trag verfahren) (2000).
-werksbereiche im Stahlbetonbau Von Jochen Stark und Peter Nobst.
512: Zwang und Rissbildung infolge Hydrata-
(1998). 20,90 EUR
tionswarme - Grundlagen Berechnungs-
Von Peter Langer. 37,60 EUR 498: Kriechen von Belon unter Zugbean- modelle und Tragverhalten (2000).
spruchung (2000). Von Benno Eierle und Karl Schikora.
485: Verwendung von Bitumen als Gleit- 27,40 EUR
schicht im Massivbau. Von Karl Kordina, Lothar Schubert und
Von Manfred Curbach und Thomas Uwe Troitzsch. 16,70 EUR 513: Belon als kreislaufgerechter Baustoff
Bc5sche. 499: Tragverhalten von stumpf gestol1enen (2001).
Versuche zur Eignung industriell ge- Fertigteilstotzen aus hochfestem Seton Von Christoph Maller. 65,50 EUR
fertigter Bitumenbahnen als Bitumen- (2000).
gleitschicht (1998). 514: Einfluss von rezykliertem Zuschlag aus
Von Jens Minnert. 29,00 EUR Betonbruch auf die Dauerhaftigkeit von
Von Manfred Curbach und Thomas
Bc5sche. 21,50 EUR Belon.
500: BiM-Online - Das interaktive lnfor-
Von Beatrix Kerkhoff und Eberhard
mationssystem zu ,,Baustoffkreislauf im Siebel.
486: Trag- und Verformungsverhalten von Massivbau" (2000).
Rahmenknoten (1998). Einfluss von Feinstoffen aus Beton-
Von Hans-Wolf Reinhardt, Marcus
Von Karl Kordina, Manfred Teutsch und bruch auf den Hydratationsfortschritt.
Schreyer und Joachim Schwarte.
Erhard Wegener. 34,30 EUR Von Walter Wassing.
21,50 EUR
Recycling von Belon, der durch eine
487: Dauerhaftigkeit hochfester Belone 501: Tragverhalten und Sicherheit beton- Alkalireaktion gefahrdet oder bereits
(1998). stahlbewehrter Stahlfaserbetonbau- geschadigt isl.
Von Ulf Guse und Hubert K. Hilsdorf. teile (2000). Von Wolfgang Aue.
19,30 EUR Von Ulrich Goss/a. 20,40 EUR Frostwiderstand von rezykliertem Zu-
schlag aus Altbeton und mineralischen
488: Sachstandsbericht zum Einsatz von 502: Witterungsbestandigkeit von Belon. Baustoffgemischen (Bauschutt) (2001 ).
Textilien im Massivbau (1998). 3. Bericht (2000). Von Stefan Wies und Wilhelm Manns.
Von Manfred Curbach u. a. Von Wilhelm Manns und Kurt Zeus. 48,60 EUR
22,60 EUR 17,80 EUR
Verzeichnis der DAfStb-Hefte 13

Heft Heft Heft

515: Analytische und nurnerische Untersu- 523: Bestiindigkeit verschiedener Beton- 537: Zurn Einfluss der Oberfliichengestalt
chungen des Durchstanzverhaltens arten irn Meerwasser und in sulfat- von Rippenstiihlen auf das Trag- und
punktgestotzter Stahlbetonplatten haltigern Wasser (2003). Verforrnungsverhalten von Stahlbeton-
(2001). Von Ottokar Hallauer. 96, 10 EUR bauteilen (2003).
Von Markus Anton Staller. Von Utz Mayer. 44,20 EUR
43,50 EUR 524: Mehraxiale Festigkeit von duktilern
Hochleistungsbeton (2002). 538: Analyse der Transportrnechanisrnen
Von Manfred Curbach und Kerstin tor wassergefiihrdende Flussigkeiten
516: Sachstandbericht Selbstverdichtender Speck. 68,30 EUR in Beton zur Berechnung des Medien-
Beton (SVB) (2001). transportes in ungerissene und geris-
Von Hans-Wolf Reinhardt, Wolfgang 525: Erliiuterungen zu DIN 1045-1; 2. uber- sene Betondruckzonen (2002).
Brameshuber, Geraldine Buchenau, arbeitete Auflage (2010) Von Norbert Brauer. 45,40 EUR
Frank Dehn, Horst Grube, Peter Grub/, 64,30 EUR
Bernd Hillemeier, Martin Joo/3, Bert 539: Alkalireaktion irn Bauwerksbeton. Ein
Kilanowski, Thomas Kruger, Christoph 526: Erliiuterungen zu den Norrnen Erfahrungsbericht (2003).
Lemmer, Viktor Mechterine, Harald DIN EN 206-1, DIN 1045-2, DIN 1045-3, Von Wilfried Bc5deker.
MOiier, Thomas MOiier, Markus DIN 1045-4 und DIN EN 12620; 26,30 EUR
Plannerer, Andreas Rogge, Andreas 2. uberarbeitete Auflage (2011).
Schaab, Angelika Schie/31 und Stephan 88,40 EUR 540: Trag- und Verforrnungsverhalten von
Uebachs. 33,80 EUR Stahlbetontragwerken unter Betriebs-
527: Fullen von Rissen und Hohlraurnen in belastung (2003).
517: Verforrnungsverhalten und Tragfiihig- Betonbauteilen (2006). Von Thomas M. Sippel.
keit dunner Stege von Stahlbeton- und Von Angelika E/3er. 58,40 EUR 27,30 EUR
Spannbetontriigern rnit hoher Beton- 528: Schubtragfiihigkeit von Betonergan-
gote (2001). 541 : Das Errnudungsverhalten von Dubel-
zungen an nachtriiglich aufgerauten befestigungen (2003).
Von Karl-Heinz Reineck, Rolf Wohl- Betonoberfliichen bei Sanierungs- und
fahrt und Harianto Hardjasaputra. Von Klaus Block und Friedrich Dreier.
ErtuchtigungsrnaP.,nahrnen (2002). 38,80 EUR
54,20 EUR Von Konrad Zilch und Jurgen Mainz.
518: Schubtragfiihigkeit liingsbewehrter 20,80 EUR 542: Charakterisierung, Modellierung und
Porenbetonbauteile ohne Schubbe- Bewertung des Auslaugverhaltens urn-
529: Betonwaren rnit Recyclingzuschliigen. weltrelevanter, anorganischer Stoffe
wehrung. Von Christoph MOllerund Peter Schie/31. aus zernentgebundenen Baustoffen
Therrnische Vorspannung bewehrter Rezyklieren von Leichtbeton (2002). (2003).
Porenbetonbauteile. Von Hans-Wolf Reinhardt und Julian Von Inga Hohberg. 52,40 EUR
Kriechen von unbewehrtern Poren- Kammel. 32,20 EUR
beton. 543: Mikrostrukturuntersuchungen zurn Sul-
530: Nachweise zur Sicherheit beirn Ab- fatangriff bei Beton (2003).
Kriechen des Porenbetons irn Bereich bruch von Stahlbetonbauwerken durch
der zur Verankerung der Liingsbeweh- Von Winfried Malorny. 19,60 EUR
Sprengen.
rung dienenden Querstiibe und Trag- Von Josef Eibl, Andreas Plotzitza, Nico 544: Hochfester Beton unter Dauerzuglast
fiihigkeit der Verankerung (2001 ). Herrmann. (2003).
Von Ferdinand Daschner und Konrad Sprengtechnischer Abbruch, Erpro- Von Tassilo Rinder. 37,70 EUR
Zilch. 55,90 EUR bung und Optirnierung (2000).
Von Hans-Ulrich Freund, Gerhard 545: Gebrauchsverhalten von Bodenplatten
519: Betonbau beirn Urngang rnit wasser- aus Beton unter Einwirkungen infolge
Duseberg, Steffen Schumann, Helmut
gefiihrdenden Steffen. Zweiter Sach- Last und Zwang (2004).
Roller, Walter Werner.
standsbericht rnit Beispielsarnrnlung Von Peter Niemann. 65,00 EUR
36,50 EUR
(2001).
Von Rolf Breitenbucher, Franz-Josef 531: Gro(?,technische Versuche zur Nass- 546: Zu Deckenscheiben zusarnrnenge-
Frey, Horst Grube, Wilhelm Kanning, aufbereitung von Recycling-Baustoffen spannte Stahlbetonfertigteile tor de-
Klaus Lehmann, Hans-Wolf Reinhardt, rnit der Setzrnaschine. rnontable Gebiiude (2003).
Bernd SchnOtgen, Manfred Teutsch, Von Harald Kurkowski und Klaus Von Georg Christian Wei/3.
Ganter Timm und Johann-Dietrich Mesters. 39,90 EUR
Wc5rner. 52,10 EUR Einflusse der Aufbereitung von Bau- 547: Durchstanzen von Bodenplatten un-
schutt tor eine Verwendung als Beton- ter rotationssyrnrnetrischer Belastung
520: Fruhe Risse in rnassigen Betonbautei-
zuschlag (2003). (2004).
len - lngenieurrnodelle tor die Planung Von Werner Reichel und Petra Heldt.
von GegenrnaP.,nahrnen (2001). Von Maike Timm. 49,10 EUR
42,80 EUR
Von Ferdinand S. Rostasy und Matias 548: Die Druckfestigkeit von gerissenen
Krau/3. 39,20 EUR 532: Die Bernessung und Konstruktion von Scheiben aus Hochleistungsbeton
Rahrnenknoten. Grundlagen und Bei- und selbstverdichtendern Beton unter
521: Sachstandbericht Nachhaltig Bauen spiele gerniiP., DIN 1045-1 (2002).
rnit Beton (2001). Berucksichtigung des Einflusses der
Von Josef Hegger und Wolfgang Rissneigung (2005).
Von Hans-Wolf Reinhardt, Wolfgang
Roeser. 62,80 EUR Von Angelika Schie/31. 56,30 EUR
Brameshuber, Carl-Alexander Graub-
ner, Peter Grub/, Bruno Hauer, Katja 533: Rechnerische Untersuchung der 549: Zurn Gebrauchs- und Tragverhalten
Haske, Julian Kammel, Hans-Ulrich Durchbiegung von Stahlbetonplatten von Tunnelschalen aus Stahlfaser-
Litzner, Heiko Lanser, Dieter Ru/3- unter Ansatz wirklichkeitsnaher Steifig- beton und stahlfaserverstiirktern Stahl-
wurm. 31,10 EUR keiten und Lagerungsbedingungen und beton (2004).
unter Berucksichtigung zeitabhiingiger Von OlafHemmy. 74,20 EUR
522: Anwendung von hochfestern Beton irn Verforrnungen (2006).
Bruckenbau. 550: Zur Querkrafttragfiihigkeit von Balken
Von Konrad Zilch und U/i Donaubauer.
Von Konrad Zilch und Markus Henn- Zurn Trag- und Verforrnungsverhalten aus stahlfaserverstiirktern Stahlbeton
ecke. (2004).
bewehrter Betonquerschnitte irn Grenz-
Erfahrungen rnit Entwurf, Ausschrei- Von Joachim Rosenbusch.
zustand der Gebrauchstauglichkeit.
bung, Vergabe und Tragwerksplanung. Von Wolfgang Krager und Olaf 47,60 EUR
Von Andre MOiier, Hans Pfisterer, Mertzsch.
Jurgen Weber und Konrad Zilch. 67,70 EUR 551: ZurWirkung von Steinkohlenflugasche
Erfahrungen rnit der Bauaustohrung auf die chloridinduzierte Korrosion von
und MaP.,nahrnen zur Gewahrleistung 534: Sicherheitskonzept tor nichtlineare Stahl in Beton (2005).
der geforderten Qualitiit. Traglastverfahren irn Betonbau (2003). Von Udo Wiens. 63,30 EUR
Von Markus Hennecke, Gert Leon- Von Michael Six. 51,90 EUR
hardt und Rolf Stahl. 552: Randbedingungen bei der lnstandset-
Betontechnologie (2002). 535: Rotationsfiihigkeit von Rahrnenecken zung nach dern Schutzprinzip W bei
Von Volker Hartmann und Werner (2002). Bewehrungskorrosion irn karbonati-
Schrub. 37,60 EUR Von Jan Akkermann und Josef Eibl. sierten Beton (2005).
43,70 EUR Von Romain Weydert. 38,50 EUR
14 Verzeichnis der DAfStb-Hefte

Heft Heft Heft

553: Traglast unbewehrter Seton- und 566: Untersuchung des Trag- und Verfor- 579: Modellierung des Feuchte- und Salz-
Mauerwerkswande Nichtline- mungsverhalten!? von Stahlbetonbal- transports unter Beriicksichtigung
ares Berechnungsmodell und kon- ken mi! grol1en Offnungen (2007). der Selbstabdichtung in zement-
sislenles Bemessungskonzepl fur Von Martina Schnellenbach-Held, Ste- gebundenen Baustoffen (2010).
schlanke Wande unler Druckbeanspru- fan Ehmann, Carina Neff. Von Petra Rucker-Gramm.
chung (2005). 36,20 EUR 69,00 EUR
Von Christian Glock. 67,70 EUR
567: Sachstandbericht Frischbetondruck 580: Zur Korrosion von Stahlschalungen in
554: Sachslandbericht Sulfatangriff auf Be- fliel1fahiger Belone (2006). Fertigteilwerken (2011 ).
ton (2006). Von C.-A. Graubner, H. Beitzel, Von Till F. Mayer. 51,90 EUR
Von R. Breitenbucher, D. Heinz, M. Beitzel, W Brameshuber, M. Brun-
K. Lipus, J. Paschke, G. Thielen, ner, F. Dehn, S. Glowienka, R. Hert- 581: Verwendung von Steinkohlenflugasche
L. Urbanos, F. Wisotzky. 50,80 EUR le, J. Huth, 0. Leitzbach, L. Meyer, zur Vermeidung einer schadigenden
Ch. Motzko, H. S. MOiier, H. Schuon, Alkali-Kieselsaure-Reaktion im Seton
555: Erlaulerungen zur DAfStb-Richtlinie T. Proske, M. Rathfelder, S. Uebachs. (2010).
,,Wasserundurchlassige Bauwerke aus 24,60 EUR Von Karl Schmidt. 65,00 EUR
Belon" (2006). 18, 10 EUR
568: Abschatzung der Wahrscheinlichkeit 582: Betonbauteile mit Bewehrung aus
556: Probabilistischer Nachweis der Wirk- tausalzinduzierter Bewehrungskorro- Faserverbundkunststoff (FVK) (2010).
samkeil von Mal1nahmen gegen friihe sion - Baustein eines Systems zum Von Jorg Niewels, Josef Hegger.
Trennrisse in massigen Belonbauteilen Lebenszyklusmanagement von Stahl- 64,30 EUR
(2006). betonbauwerken (2007).
Von Matias Krau/3. 52,40 EUR 583: Beitrag zu den Schadigungsmecha-
Von Sascha Lay. 47,30 EUR nismen in Betonen mit langsam
557: Querkrafttragfahigkeil von Stahlbeton- 569: Sachstandbericht Hiittensandmehl als reagierender alkaliempfindlicher
und Spannbelonbalken aus Normal- Betonzusatzstoff-Sachstand und Sze- Gesteinskornung (2010).
und Hochleislungsbeton (2007). narien fur die Anwendung in Deutsch- Von Oliver Mielich. 65,30 EUR
Von Josef Hegger, Stephan Gartz. land (2007).
35,50 EUR 584: Verbundforschungsvorhaben ,,Nach-
Von 0. A/3brock, W Brameshuber, haltig Bauen mit Seton"
558: Zur Dauerhaftigkeil von AR-Glas- A. Ehrenberg, D. Heinz, E. Lang, Potenziale des Sekundarstoffeinsatzes
bewehrung in Texlilbelon (2005). Ch. MOiier, R. Pierkes, E. Siebel. im Belonbau - Teilprojekt B.
Von Jeanette Orlowsky. 33,30 EUR Von Bruno Hauer, Roland Pierkes,
35,50 EUR 570: Einfluss- der Mischungszusammenset- Stefan Schafer, Maik Seidel, Tristan
zung auf die friihen autogenen Ver- Herbst, Katrin Rubner, Birgit Meng.
559: Herslellungszustand verformungs- Efliziente Sicherstellung der Umwelt-
behinderter Bodenplatten aus Belon formungen der Bindemittelmatrix von
Hochleistungsbetonen (2007). vertraglichkeit von Belon - Teilprojekt
(2006). E (2011).
Von Silke Agatz. 36,00 EUR Von Patrick Fontana. 38,20 EUR
Von Wolfgang Brameshuber, Anya Voll-
560: Sachstandberichl Obertragbarkeit von 571: Konzentrierte Lasteinleitung in diinn- pracht, Joachim Hannawald, Holger
Frost-Laborpriifungen auf Praxisver- wandige Bauteile aus textilbewehrtem Nebel. 87,70 EUR
hallnisse (2005). Seton (2008).
Von Manfred Curbach, Kerstin Speck. 585: Verbundforschungsvorhaben ,,Nach-
Von E. Siebel, W Brameshuber, haltig Bauen mi! Seton"
Ch. Brandes, U. Dahme, F. Dehn, 36,50 EUR
Ressourcen- und energieefliziente,
K. Dombrowski, \I. Feldrappe, 572: Schlussberichte zur ersten Phase des adaptive Gebaudekonzepte im Ge-
U. Frohburg, U. Guse,A. Hu/3, E. Lang, DAfStblBMBF-Verbundforschungsvor- schossbau - Teilprojekt C (2011).
L. Lohaus, Ch. MOiier, H. S. MOiier, habens ,,Nachhaltig Bauen mit Seton" Von Josef Hegger, Tobias Dre/3en,
S. Palecki, L. Petersen, P. Schroder, (2007). 97,80 EUR Norbert Will, Hartwig N. Schneider,
M. J. Setzer, F. Weise, A. Westendarp, Christian Fensterer, Norbert Hanen-
U. Wiens. 36,00 EUR 573: Korrosionsmonitoring und Bruchortung
vorgespannter Zugglieder in Bauwer- berg, Marten F. Brunk, Thorsten Bley-
561: Sachslandberichl Ultrahochfesler Be- ken (2008). er, Konrad Zilch , Christian Muhlbau-
lon (2008). Von Alexander Holst. 66,60 EUR er, Roland Niedermeier, Andre MOiier,
Von M. Schmidt, R. Bornemann, Andreas Haas, lngo Heusler, Herbert
K. Bunje, F. Dehn, K. Droll, E. Fehling, 574: Zur Validierung quantitativer zersto- Sinnesbichler. 69,40 EUR
S. Greiner, J. HoNath, E. Kleen, rungsfreier Priifverfahren im Stahlbe-
tonbau am Beispiel der Laufzeitmes- 586: Verbundforschungsvorhaben ,,Nach-
Ch. MOiier, K.-H. Reineck, haltig Bauen mit Belon"
I. Schachinger, T. Teichmann, sung (2008).
M. Teutsch, R. Thiel, N. \I. Tue. Von Alexander Taffe. 52,90 EUR Lebenszyklusmanagementsystem zur
39,30 EUR Nachhaltigkeitsbeurteilung - Teilpro-
575: Verbundverhalten von Klebebeweh- jekt D (2011).
562: Eigenschaften vonwarmebehandeltem rung unter Betriebsbedingungen Von Peter Schief3/, Christoph Gehlen,
Selbstverdichtendem Belon (2006). (2009). Marc Zintel, Ernst Rank, Andre Borr-
Von Michael Stegmaier. 54,60 EUR Von Kurt Borchert. 60, 1O EUR mann, Katharina Lukas, Harald Bu-
delmann, Martin Empelmann, Gunnar
563: Zur wasserstoflinduzierten Span- 576: Mechanismen der Blasenbildung bei Heumann, Tilman W Starck, Sylvia
nungsrisskorrosion von hochfesten Reaktionsharzbeschichtungen auf Be- Kef3/er. 50,00 EUR
Spannslahlen - Untersuchungen zur ton (2009).
Dauerhaftigkeit von Spannbetonbau- Von Lars Wolff. 52,50 EUR 587: Verbundforschungsvorhaben ,,Nach-
teilen (2005). haltig Bauen mit Belon"
577: Zusammenfassender Bericht zum Ver- lnformationssystem ,,NBB-lnfo" - Teil-
Von Jorg Moersch. 38,80 EUR
bundforschungsvorhaben ,,Obertrag- projekt F (2011 ).
564: Experimenlelle und theoretische Un- barkeit von Frost-Laborpriifungen auf Von Hans-Wolf Reinhardt, Joachim
lersuchungen der Frischbeloneigen- Praxisverhaltnisse" (2010). Schwarte, Christian Piehl.
schaften von Selbstverdichtendem Von Harald S. MOiier, Ulf Guse. 38,80 EUR
Seton (2006). 27,40 EUR
Von Timo WOstholz. 45,40 EUR
578: Experimentelle Analyse des Tragver-
565: Zerstorungsfreie Priifverfahren und haltens von Hochleistungsbeton unter
Bauwerksdiagnose im Betonbau - mehraxialer Beanspruchung (2011).
Beitrage zur Fachtagung des Deut- Von Manfred Curbach, Silke Scheerer,
schen Ausschusses fur Stahlbeton Kerstin Speck, Torsten Hampel.
in Zusammenarbeit mit der Bundes- 126,00 EUR
anstalt fur Materialforschung und
-priifung, 11.03.2005 Berlin (2006).
27,80 EUR
Verzeichnis der DAfStb-Hefte 15

Heft Heft Heft

588: Der Stadtbaustein im DAfStb/BMBF- 595 (en): Commentary on the DAfStb Guide- 604: Frostbeanspruchung und Feuchte-
Verbundforschungsvorhaben ,,Nach- line "Strengthening of concrete haushalt in Betonbauwerken (2013).
haltig Bauen mil Belon" - Dossier zu members with adhesively bonded Von Frank Spore/. 158,40 EUR
Nachhaltigkeitsuntersuchungen - Teil- reinforcement" with Examples
projekt A. (2014) 63,50 EUR 605: Zur Rheologie und den physikalischen
Von Carl-Alexander Graubner, Thor- Wechselwirkungen bei Zementsuspen-
sten Bleyer, Marten F. Brunk, Tobias 596: Vereinfachtes Rechenverfahren zum sionen (2012).
Drel3en, Christian Fensterer, Chri- Nachweis des konstruktiven Brand- Von Michael Haist. 78,50 EUR
stoph Gehlen, Andreas Haas, Norbert schutzes bei Stahlbeton-Kragstotzen
(2013). 606: Unbewehrte Betonfahrbahnplatten
Hanenberg, Bruno Hauer, Josef Heg- unter witterungsbedingten Beanspru-
ger, lngo Heus/er, Sylvia Ke/3/er, Tor- Von Dietmar Hosser, Ekkehard Rich-
ter. 25,60 EUR chungen (2014).
sten Mie/ecke, Christian Piehl, Hans- Von Sam Foos. 111,40 EUR
Wolf Reinhardt, Carolin Roth, Peter 597: Erweiterte Datenbanken zur OberprO-
Schie/31, Hartwig N. Schneider, Joachim fung der Querkraftbemessung fOr Kon- 607: Modell zur Beschreibung des Eindrin-
Schwarte, Herbert Sinnesbich/er, Udo struktionsbetonbauteile mil und ohne gens von Chlorid in Belon von Ver-
Wiens, Konrad Zilch. 56,20 EUR Bogel (2012). kehrsbauten (2013).
Von Kar/cHeinz Reineck, Daniel A. Von Gesa Kapteina. 63,90 EUR
589: Zerstorungsfreie Ortung von GefOge-
storungen in Betonbodenplatten Kuchma, Biro/ Fitik. 192,40 EUR 608: Auswirkungen der Bewehrungskorrosi-
(2010). 598: Mischungsentwurf und Fliel1eigen- on auf den Verbund zwischen Stahl und
Von Harald S. MOiier, Martin Fenchel, schaften von Selbstverdichtendem Be- Belon (2013).
Herbert Wiggenhauser, Christiane Mai- ton (SVB) vom Mehlkorntyp unter Be- Von Christian Fischer. 58,20 EUR
erhofer, Martin Krause, Andre Gardei, rOcksichtigung der granulometrischen
Frank Mielentz, Boris Milman, Mathias 609: Untersuchungen zum Verbundverhal-
Eigenschaften der Gesteinskornung ten von Bewehrungsstaben mittels
Ro/fig, Jens Wostmann. 84,60 EUR (2012). vereinfachter Versuchskorper (2013).
590: Materialverhalten von hochfestem Se- Von Andreas Hu/3. 57,30 EUR Von Anke Wildermuth. 132,60 EUR
ton unter thermomechanischer Bean- 599: Bewehren nach Eurocode 2 (2013).
spruchung (2010). 610: Einfluss der Bauteilgeometrie auf die
Von Josef Hegger, Martin Empel- Korrosionsgeschwindigkeit von Stahl
Von Sven Huismann. 65,00 EUR mann, Jurgen Schnell, Jorg Moersch, in Belon bei Makroelementbildung
591: Sachstandbericht Versti:lrken von Christian Albrecht, Guido Bertram, (2014).
Betonbauteilen mit geklebter Beweh- Norbert Brauer, Thomas Sippel, Marco Von Jurgen Warkus. 113,60 EUR
rung (2011). Wichers. 98,80 EUR
Von Konrad Zilch, Roland Niedermeier, 611: Sedimentationsverhalten und Ro-
600: Erlauterungen zu DIN EN 1992-1-1 bustheit Selbstverdichtender Betone
Wolfgang Finckh. 77,50 EUR und DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA(Eurocode 2) (2014).
592: Praxisgerechte Bemessungsansatze (2012). 98,80 EUR Von Dirk Lowke. 93,60 EUR
fOr das wirtschaftliche Verstarken von 601: Dauerhaftigkeitsbemessung von Stahl-
Betonbauteilen mil geklebter Beweh- 612: Bestimmung und Bewertung des elek-
betonbauteilen auf Bewehrungskorro- trischen Widerstands von Seton mit
rung - Verbundtragfilhigkeit unter sta- sion - Tei I 1: Systemparameter der
tischer Belastung geophysikalischen Verfahren (2014).
Bewehrungskorrosion (2012). Von Kenji Reichling. 94,00 EUR
Von Konrad Zilch, Roland Niedermeier, Von Peter Schie/31, Kai Osterminski,
Wolfgang Finckh. 71,20 EUR Bernd /secke, Matthias Beck, Andreas 613: Untersuchungen zur Leistungsfahig-
593: Praxisgerechte Bemessungsansatze Burkert, Jens Lehmann, Armin Faulha- keit von nationalen und europi!ischen
fOr das wirtschaftliche Verstarken von ber, Michael Raupach, Jorg Harnisch, lnstandsetzungsmorteln (2015).
Betonbauteilen mit geklebter Beweh- Jurgen Warkus, Wei Tian, Christoph Von Wolfgang Breit, Joachim Schulze
rung - Verbundtragfahigkeit unter nicht Gehlen. 50,80 EUR und Delphine Schwab 49,30 EUR
ruhender Belastung (2013) 602: Dauerhaftigkeitsbemessung von Stahl- 614: Erlauterungen zur DAfStb-Richtlinie
Von Harald Budelmann, Thorsten Leus- betonbauteilen auf Bewehrungskorro- Stahlfaserbeton (2015).
mann. 44,50 EUR sion - Teil 2: Dauerhaftigkeitsbemes- 38,30 EUR
594: Praxisgerechte Bemessungsansatze sung (2012).
Von Harald S. MOiier, Edgar Bohner, 614 (en): Commentary on the DAfStb Guid-
fOr das wirtschaftliche Verstarken von line "Steel Fibre Reinforced Con-
Betonbauteilen mit geklebter Beweh- Christian Fischer, Jasko O:ibolt, Chri-
stoph Gehlen, Kai Osterminski, Peter crete" (2015) 47,90 EUR
rung - Querkrafttragfi!higkeit
Von Konrad Zilch, Roland Niedermeier, Schie/31, Stefanie von Greve-Dierfeld.
Wolfgang Finckh. 50,40 EUR 68,60 EUR

595: Erli!uterungen und Beispiele zur 603: Gotebewertung qualitativer PrOfauf-


DAfStb-Richtlinie ,,Verstarken von Se- gaben in der zerstorungsfreien PrOfung
tonbauteilen mil geklebter Bewehrung" im Bauwesen am Beispiel des lmpuls-
(2013) radarverfahrens (2012).
Von Konrad Zilch. 50,80 EUR Von Sascha Feistkorn. 70,80 EUR

Hinweis auf Oberarbeitete und erganzte Hefte der Schriftenreihe des DAfStb:
Heft 220: 2. Oberarbeitete Auflage 1991
Heft 240: 3. Oberarbeitete Auflage 1991 (vergriffen)
Heft 400: 4. Auflage 1994 (3. berichtigter Nachdruck) vergriffen
Heft 425: 3. erganzte Auflage 1997
Normen-Download-Beuth-Arcadis-KdNr. 7888555-LfNr. 7605648001-2016-08-10 09:30

r-
'"""
(1)
ti)
-,
V,
ti)
il""t'

~
Normen-Download-Beuth-Arcadis-KdNr. 7888555-LfNr. 7605648001-2016-08-10 09:30

r-
"""""
(1)
(I)
-,
u,
(1)
r+

e,
I 1111
9 783410 652793

ISSN 0171-7197
ISBN 978-3-410-65279-3