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Windows, Baths, and Solar Energy in the Roman Empire

James W. Ring

American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 100, No. 4. (Oct., 1996), pp. 717-724.

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Mon Apr 2 07:49:36 2007
Windows, Baths, and Solar Energy in the Roman Empire

JAMES W. RING

Abstract sea."' One can infer fiom his writings that Seneca
Windows were a prominent feature of Roman archi- regrets this new style and, indeed, it is clear that he
tecture and were especially important in the magnifi- looks back with nostalgia on the days o f t h e Roman
cent bath buildings of the Roman Empire. A growing Republic when baths were properly and modestly
literature attests to the Romans' use of solar energy in
heating these large buildings. Edwin Thatcher claimed
dark.
in 1956 that the windows in such baths did not require Roman baths of the Early Empire were in the fore-
glazing. In this paper 1 refute this claim, drawing on front of developments both architecturally and tech-
rnodern ideas about solar energy, heat transfer, human nologically and thus make a very interesting study
comfort, and the effect of glazed windows to analyze in their own right. This point has been brought out
one room in the Forum Baths at Ostia. This analysis
is compared with that of Thatcher for the same room.
and ably developed by Yegiil' and Nielsen." Vaults,
In window size and solar orientation, this room is typ- domes, and large windows were first found in these
ical of Roman baths in many parts of the empire. The baths, where Greek orders were also first combined
solar science and technology of today is thus compared with Roman vaults. Hypocausts were developed and
with that of the Romans and with that ofThatcher's day.*
used to heat large rooms and, indeed, to heat the
imposing ensembles of large rooms that the great
INTRODUCTION imperial baths represented. According to Yegiil,
c.

I he importance ofwindows in architecture seems Seneca speaks of the recent invention of tubuli, or
indisputable. But in its chronological development hollow walls, which maintain an even temperature
Western architecture shows striking variation in in the lowest as well as the highest spaces. This in-
its treatment of windows. For example, medieval vention also prevents condensation on the walls and
churches of the Romanesque style were typically dark increases the area that radiates heat around the bath-
and lit only by small windows that pierced massive ers. In these large evenly heated spaces, thousands
masonry walls. One of the distinguishing features of bathers could be and often were accommodated.
c.

of later Gothic churches was the use of large win- Io supply sufficient water, extensive aqueduct systems
dows made possible by outside buttressing. The were developed. Furthermore, as Yegiil maintains,
Roman Empire prototypes, however, unlike their and is shown in a detailed fashion by D.B. Harden,
Romanesque successors, were often lit by magnifi- the Romans by this time had developed glassblow-
cently large windows. The Roman public baths of ing and were producing flat panes of window glass.-'
the Early Empire are very good examples of this Thus, with all of these elements in hand, it is not
anachronism. Seneca, writing in the first century A.D., surprising that the Romans would have utilized the
says of these baths: "Nowadays.. . people regard baths radiant energy of the sun to help heat as well as light
as fit only for moths ifthey have not been so arranged these magnificent buildings.
that they receive the sun all day long through the Indeed, so obvious is the Romans' interest in so-
widest of windows, if men can not bathe and get a lar heating through their use of large south-facing
coat o f t a n at the same time, and if they can not look windows that in 1956 Edwin Thatcher published a
out from their bath-tubs over stretches of land and paper in which he claimed that the large windows

* I wish to thank the American Academy in Rome for a Faculty Fellowship in 1993 during which research lead-
help in arranging visits to various Roman sites, including ing to this paper was completed.
Ostia, in 1985; the Corning Museum of Glass and Rakow 1 Sen. Ep. 86, trans. R.M. Gummere, 1986, as quoted by
Library for help in exploring Roman glass in 1991; Todd F. Yegiil, Baths and Bathingin Classical Antiquity (Cambridge,
Moore of the Physics Department at Hamilton College for Mass. 1992) 40.
his careful reading of the manuscript; Carl Rubino of the 2 Yegiil (supra n. 1).
Classics Department at Hamilton for his advice; Fikret Yegiil :3 I. Nielsen, Thermae and Balnea: The Architecture and Cul-
of the University of California at Santa Barbara and Ingrid tural History of Roman Public Baths (Aarhus 1990).
E.M. Edlund-Berry of the University of Texas at Austin for '
Yegiil (supra n. 1) 363-65; and D.B. Harden, "Domes-
reading an earlier version of this manuscript and advising tic Window Glass: Roman, Saxon and Medieval Studies in
about publication; and Richard de Dear of Macquarie Uni- Building History," in E.M. Jope ed., Studies in Building His-
versity, Sydney, for his advice about thermal comfort con- tory. Essays in Recognition 0fB.H. St. J. O'Neil (London 1961)
ditions in these baths. Finally, Hamilton College provided 39-63.
717
American Journal of Archaeology 100 (1996) 717-24
718 JAMES W. RING [AJA 100
o f t h e second-century Forum Baths at Ostia, which ing shortages and expense, the Romans, like the
he took to be unglazed, provide "a striking demon- Greeks before them, turned to solar heat."*
stration of the potentialities of the Roman heating
method and, in extension, of the principles of ra-
diant heating. It was this method that made the open T h e Forum Baths in Ostia were constructed early
rooms possible and, to date, we have not matched in the second century A.D. There is n o controversy
them in a modern building. It is evident that the about the existence of large windows in several of
Roman engineers had a greater confidence in ra- the rooms of these baths. These windows faced the
diant heating than we have a n d a greater knowledge south and hence would intercept the sun's beam ra-
of what it could accomplish."' diation most of the day, particularly from early after-
c.

I his paper sets out to investigate this claim. Is noon to near sunset, which were the most popular
Thatcher's confidence in radiant heatingjustified? hours for Romans to bathe. These rooms indeed are
Could there be enough heating provided by the sun typical of baths built during this period in many parts
a n d the hypocaust to allow nude bathers to be com- of the empire.
fortable even though the large windows of the baths Thatcher gives attention to the whole set of large-
were open a n d unglazed? What d o the modern prin- windowed rooms but for o u r purposes let us con-
ciples of passive solar heating a n d the physics a n d centrate on one, room 3, which seems to have been
physiology of heat transfer tell us about the Forum a warm room, o r tepidarium. Figures 1 and 2 show
Baths a n d Thatcher's claim? the southern elevation and north-south section, re-
In addition, I take u p a point raised by Yegiil. H e spectively, of this room and its window. The dimen-
suggests that Thatcher has gone too far in his claims sions are those given by Thatcher.
for radiant heating: r .

I h e question is whether o r not the walls, vault,


In full admiration of the system's potential, I still and floor surrounding the nude bather o n all but
doubt if the implications of radiant heating should the window side can be maintained at a high-enough
be stretched that far. Not only is the evidence for win- temperature to ensure comfort. Thatcher approaches
dow glass and window frames (both in wood and the issue from the standpoint of the nude bather
metal) from the heated rooms of Roman baths across
the Mediterranean overwhelming, but Thatcher's the- exposed both to the radiant energy o f t h e sun and
sis, despite its theoretical possibility, seems to refute that given off by the surrounding heated room sur-
the precepts of simple economic logic. It may be that faces, holding that radiant energy, if the walls are
by heating the floor, the walls, and the vault to a high maintained at close to skin temperature, can by it-
degree, sufficient radiant energy could be released self establish a comfortable temperature. My ap-
to offset the effects of low air temperature on a cold
winter day, but why should fuel and energy be wasted proach, on the other hand, is to assume that com-
in order to make an open-air hot bath possible when fort will be determined by conditions in the room,
the same degree of warmth and comfort could be both the air temperature and the radiant temper-
achieved with much lower furnace activity and fuel ature being considered along with air currents, o r
consumption in a glazed and well-insulated room?" convective flows, and the relative humidity of the
This question is also raised by Jordan and Perlin in air as prescribed by the American Society of Heat-
an article about the use of solar energy in ancient ing, Refrigerating, a n d Air Conditioning Engineers
times.' They claim that by the first century B.C., (ASHRAE).Womfortable conditions for nude sub-
Rome had to import timber from the fringes of its jects have been studied carefully in climate cham-
domains, such as the Alpine regions, in part because bers. An example of one such study, which also shows
of the Roman love of bathhouses- there were 800 the importance of heat transfer at the skin surface,
baths in Rome alone in the third century A.D.- but is that of d e Dear, Ring, and Fanger.Io Also of im-
also because of the growth of industry and manu- portance is the air flow over the skin. This too has
facture. As they point out, "prices ofwood, charcoal, been studied and reported on by, for example, Fanger
and small firewood rose steeply. To avoid the grow- and his colleagues.~~

' E.D. Thatcher, "The Open Rooms of the Terme del ch. 8.
Foro at Ostia," MAAR 24 (1956) 169-264. R.J. de Dear,J.W. Ring, and P.O. Fanger, "Thermal Sen-
"egul (supra n. 1) 383. sations Resulting from Sudden Ambient Temperature
B.Jordan and J. Perlin, "Solar Energy Use and Litiga- Changes," Indoor Air 3 (1993) 181-92.
tion in Ancient Times,"SolarLaw Reporter 1.3 (1979)583-94. 11 P.O. Fanger, A.K. Melikov, H. Hanzawa, and J.W. Ring,
Jordan and Perlin (supra n. 7) 587. "Air Turbulence and Sensation of Draught,"Energy and Build-
" ASHRAE Handbook, 1977 Fundamentals (New York 1977) ings 12 (1988) 21-39.
WINDOWS, BATHS, AND SOLAR ENERGY IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE

grade

Fig. 1. Southern elevation o f room 4 at the Forum Baths o f Ostia

The problem then becomes one of the transfer neutral environment. On the contrary, they expect
of heat from the hypocaust and the sun to the room to feel hot. Thus, strictly speaking, we are not deal-
and from the surfaces of the room to the outside ing with the usual comfort scale but rather with
mainly through the large window. These processes one biased toward the hot end. For example, the
determine the temperatures of the surfaces and thus seven-point ASHRAE scale (cold, cool, slightly cool,
the convective drafts and air temperature. Relative neutral, slightly warm, warm, hot) would allow using
humidity, of course, depends on the vapor pressure of only the upper point in the warm rooms of the
water in the space. In room 4, which apparently had baths. According to Thatcher, the temperatures of
no pools or baths, the relative humidity would not the walls and floors of these rooms were -40' C
have been particularly high, perhaps about 50%.The (or - 100' F).12 In fact, this is in the range of evapo-
temperature and convective flows were thus the pri. rative regulation (sweating)that is adjacent to but not
mary determinants of human comfort in this room. part of the comfort zone, i.e., these are, according
Naked bathers do not expect or want a thermally to ASHRAE, "uncomfortable" conditions.

ly Thatcher (supra n. 5 ) 190-94.


JAMES W. RING [AJA 100

Fig. 2. North-south section of room 4 at the Forum Baths of Ostia

We take conditions to be like those assumed by that temperatures of 70' F for these surfaces will
Thatcher: outside temperature isjust below freezing, cause the nude bather to radiate heat to them as
:30° F,'' the interior surfaces of the room are at well as losing heat to them by convection (and con-
100° F, and the sun is shining in the window during duction if in contact with them). These will not be
December at 250 British thermal units (BTU)lft'lhr, warm conditions for him but rather ones somewhat
assuming a clear sky. Further, we take the temper- on the cool side. The thermal properties of the ma-
ature of the hot gases at the top of the hypocaust terials, i.e., conductivity and coefficients of heat trans-
below the floor to be 400° F, which is consistent with fer for radiative or convective flow, can be found in
the experiments of RookL4with a small hypocaust the appropriate part of the ASHRAE Handbook.1"
in Welwyn, England, although somewhat above the With these parameters known, calculations can
temperature ( - 300° F) found by KretzschmerlVn be made for the heat flows as shown below in table
experiments in Saalburg, Germany. For the purposes 1. The heat flows without and with glass are shown
of the argument here, any temperature u p to 400° F diagrammatically in figures 3 and 4, with figure 3
can be posited. The crucial heat flow is that out showing inflows and figure 4 outflows. Here we are
through the open window, and if we assume 400° F concerned with the comparison of flows in versus
we are estimating the maximum heat flow in and flows out, for if they are not equal, the temperature
thus giving Thatcher the best chance of being cor- of the walls and the room will not be constant at,
rect. As does Thatcher, I too assume that the floor and or close to, the desired 100° F.
inside wall surfaces are held at - 100° F, including Certain caveats about these calculations ought to
the inside of the vault, which, although unheated by be made clear. None of these heat flows can be said
tubuli, by convection and radiation will be at nearly to be precisely defined. The problems in calculation
100' F if the walls are also at this temperature. Note are:

This is, according to Thatcher (supra n. 5) 182-83, I-' T Rook, "The Development and Operation of Roman
a quite possible temperature in Ostia in December orJan- Hypocausts," JAS 5 (1978) 269-82.
uary, and in my own experience a low but not outlandish li F. Kretzschmer, "Hypokausten," SaalbJb 12 (1953) 7-41.
one. "'ASHRAE Handbook (supra n. 9) ch. 11.
19961 WINDOWS, BATHS, AND SOLAR ENERGY IN T H E ROMAN EMPIRE

radiation sun's beam radiation

Fig. 3. Heat flows into room 4 with open windows (left) and glazed windows (right)

1) The dinlensions are not always precisely known. 5) I estimate the temperatures of the lower sus-
I use those given by Thatcher. pensura (floor) surEace and the inner surfaces of the
2) In some cases the materials are only guesses tubuli from Rook's and Kretzschmer's experiments.
as the upper part of the room has disappeared. Gen- 6) The solar beam radiation is calculated here
erally I follow 'Thatcher's suggestions. in the same way as it was by Thatcher, agreeing also
3) I assume, as does Thatcher, that the vault is not with the method used by King and Hamilton" to
heated. test the performance of a solar classroom at Hamil-
4) The optical quality of Roman glass varies widely ton College at close to the same latitude as Ostia.
and that used at Ostia in these baths is not known. 7) Convective flows are notoriously hard to cal-
A transmission of 50%, assumed here, is probably culate, but since such flows do occur in solar houses
a quite conservative estimate. we can expect to achieve order of magnitude results

conduction

t though vault

T conduction through vault

flovs though glass

Fig. 4. Heat flows out of room 4 with open windows (left) and glazed windows (right)

17 J.W. Ring and A. Hamilton, "The Solar Classroom at Research Institute TP-245-430, Washington, D.C. 1979)
Hamil ton College," Proceedings, Conference on Solar Heating 107-11.
and Cooling Systems, Colorado Springs, Colorado (Solar Energy
722 JAMES W. RING [AJA 100
Table 1. Heat Flows for Room 4 with Glazed and much more than adequate to provide the outward
Unglazed Windows flow (80,000 BTUlhr) in radiation, conduction, and
convection through the glazed window and in con-
Units of
Direction and 100,000 duction through the vault. The sun alone on sunny
Source of Flow B'TUlhr days could provide most of the energy to maintain
100° F temperatures. Indeed, even with the fires Fe-
Into room duced on sunny days, there would probably be some
Hypocaust (full heat) 4O
.
Sun (clear day at winter solstice) thermal energy stored in the floors and walls that
Unglazed window 1.3 would maintain the temperature as the sun goes
Glazed window 0.7 down. O n days when the sun is obscured by clouds,
TOTALS the hypocaust with a reduced fire, or being on only
Unglazed window 5.3 part of the time, could by itself easily maintain the
Glazed window 4.7 temperature even with the outside temperature at
Out of room (outside temperature = 30' its coldest point of the season, i.e., the design tem-
Conduction perature of 30° F.
Natural convection and radiation 'The stored thermal energy, which may come from
Unglazed window either the sun o r the hypocaust o r both, can be
Glazed window
handled quite easily by the heavy masonry walls,
'TOTALS
vault, and floor of this room. With such surround-
Unglazed window
Glazed window ings extra heat in the room can pass readily by con-
duction into the masonry without heating the air
Net Flow ( + = into room) in the room excessively, i.e., much above 100° F. At
Unglazed window
Glazed window night, when the sun is down (even with the fire out),
this stored heat will flow back into the room to offset
the cooling that inevitably will occur. Note that
using the solar designer's formulas.lx Natural rather wooden shutters closing the window area at night
than forced convection is assumed, i.e., there is no would enhance this storage considerably. Such heat
wind blowing. With wind the convective flow is storage is an important element in solar house de-
greater, and could be much greater at high-wind sign and the Romans seem to have incorporated this
velocities. element into their designs as well. 'The thickness of
Under such circumstances we can expect only to the floor, o r suspensura, is especially interesting in
estimate these flows. Even with these rough estimates, this regard and it may be that the thickness chosen,
however, some important conclusions can be i.e., 15 in, is not necessary structurally but aids in
reached. The estimates for glazed and unglazed win- long-term heat retention.
dows are given in table 1 above. The details of the Thus, we see that Yegiil is correct in his claim that
calculations follow in an appendix. the Romans would have been wise to use glass in
their bath windows. Furthermore, we see that
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Thatcher is probably overly enthusiastic in claiming
The results of the calculations summarized in table such efficiency for radiant heating. Indeed, with
1 and in the appendix indicate that with an open the windows open, the rooms in these baths could
window the input is - 530,000 ETUlhr while the not have been maintained at 100' F and a nude
-
outflow is 5,290,000 BTUlhr. In such a case it is ob- bather would soon have become very chilly. Thatcher
vious that equilibrium is not possible and that the neglected to consider fully the very great heat flow
100' F surfaces will rapidly cool toward 30' F. The out of the room due to the convective flow through
same would be true for a nude bather whose skin the open window. H e does not completely ignore the
temperature normally should be - 93' F. Indeed the possibility of an air current but claims that such a
outflow would equilibrate with the inflow only when current would only exist with no wind, and normally
the wall and floor surfaces are within lo0 F o r less there would be some wind. H e then says, "A wind
of the outside temperature, i.e., at 54O0 F. pressure of any but the lowest magnitude would nul-
O n the other hand, if the window is glazed the lify the action and set in motion the various air cur-
heat from the hypocaust (400,000 B'TUlhr) would be rents already described."""These currents, 'Thatcher

J.D. Balcomb ed., Passive Solar Buildings (Cambridge,


lX Iq Thatcher (supra n. 5 ) 233-34.
Mass. 1992) 149-52.
19961 WINDOWS, BATHS, AND SOLAR ENERGY IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE 723

believed, flowed from north to south, o r vice versa, Thatcher, it seems, was too sanguine about radiant
across the room; in the north wall they passed heating but, nevertheless, the Romans deserve high
through the door, cracks around the door, o r the praise for their use of solar energy. Even Seneca, n o
lunette at the top of the vault, and in the south wall, admirer of conspicuous consumption a n d easy liv-
through the upper part of the window. ing, might have admired the frugality that the com-
This assertion seems incorrect because a wind bination of "the widest of windows" a n d glass panes
blowing in, o r eddying through the southern win- in baths demonstrated.
dow, will not nullify the convective effect. Rather it
Appendix
will cause a change from natural convection to forced
convection, changing and distorting the geometry
of the convective loop and, as a result, increasing Calculations o f H e a t Flows f o r Room 4
the mixing of cold and hot air and thus increasing the with a n d without Glazing
heat loss above that caused by natural convection A. Heat flows into the room:
alone. T h e net result would be to set the 52.5 x 10' (i) The heat flow through the suspensura: this is a heat
BTLJlhr heat loss calculated above as a minimum conduction problem where Q, the heat flow per hour,
value and in windy situations to expect this loss to is given by:
be even greater with the concomitant effect of an
Q = - kAAT with k the thermal conductivity of the
e\.en faster lowering of the bath temperature, more Ax
quickly chilling the nude bather. concrete slab, Ax the thickness of the
slab, A the cross-sectional area, and AT
Note that the natural convective flow calculated
the temperature difference between
here is only a rough estimate. But it is about 10 times
the top and bottom of the slab.
the inflow so that even if it is overestimated by a fac- Using British engineering units with
tor of two, it still will be many times greater than the k = 11 BTU-inl°F-ft2-hr(value used by Thatcher)
inflow. With wind, it will be even greater than cal. A = 1,200 ft2
culated here. AT = 400 - 100 = 300° F (using maximum hot
Finally, to return to Yegiil's point, the estimates gas temperature under suspensura)
of heat flows here show not only that nude bathing Ax = 15 in
in Roman baths would not have been possible with- Q = 2.6 x lo5 BTUlhr
out glazing but also that with glazing during sunny (ii) The heat flow through the heated walls:
days, the sun with only a little help from the hypo- k = 7.0 BTU-inl°F-ft2-hr(value used by Thatcher)
caust and its furnaces, and hence little wood burned, A = 1,760 ft2 (3 vertical walls)
could have maintained the temperature of these AT estimated to be 200 - 100 = 100° F
-
room surfaces at 100° F. Furthermore, on cloudy Ax = 9 in
days the hypocaust with only a low o r intermittent Q = 1.4 x 10QTUlhr
fire would have been able to sustain this tempera- (iii) The sun's radiant energy in through the window:
ture. And even at night the large thermal storage In December in Rome, the sun at noon is only about
capacity would have kept temperatures from drop- 24O above the horizon and the sun's beam intensity is
ping very fast so that by the next morning the amount approximately 250 BTUlhrlft2. Note that compared
-
of heat necessarv to return to 100' F mieht " have
with 228 at the winter solstice, the noon value on a south-
facing vertical surface at equinox would be 285 x cos
been relatively small. Thus with a normal mix of
sunny days, a considerable savings of fuel could b e 4Z0, o r 212 BTUlhrfft2 at this latitude of 42' N. At the
summer solstice this value would be 116. At noon, re-
accomplished even in the depths of winter. At other
gardless of the season, the sun's beam radiation on this
seasons even more savings could be expected. T h e
surface would always be at its maximum for the day.
sun would therefore provide a substantial part of Note also that these intensity values agree with those
the heat required. This result, of course, is in accord used bv Thatcher:
with Jordan and Perlin's observations about the in- A = 560 ft2
creasing cost of fuel during this period of rapid Q = 250 A cos 24' = 1.3 x lo5 BTUlhr
growth of Roman industry, commerce, manufacture, o r with Roman glass:
and population. Fuel costs would have provided a Q 0.65 x 105 BTUlhr
strong incentive for using glaz.ed windows and the Thus, the total energy input 5.3 x lOQTUlhr, i.e.,
sun's energy. the sum of the above items, or with glass a 4.65
x lo5 BTUlhr.
In summary, the Romans apparently did display
considerable know-how in the design of their baths B. Heat flows out of the room:
when judged by the standards a n d practices of mod- (iv) Conduction through vault to the outside:
e r n science a n d technology 2,000 years later. k = 7.0 BTU-inl°F-ft2-hr,as in the walls
724 J.W. RING, WINDOWS, BATHS, AND SOLAR ENERGY IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE

A = 1,880 ft' Using A = 280 ff', H = 10 ft, and AT = 70° F as


AT = 100-30 = 7 0 ° F above:

Ax = 24 in Q = 6.7 x lo6 FKUlhr

Q = 3.8 x 104 BTUlhr This is 25% more than the estimate above. I use

(v) The natural convective flow through the open the smaller number in table 1.
window: (vi) The radiant heat flow through the window:
Here the convective loop will have hot air exiting Here the Stefan-Boltzman law governs the heat flow
through the top of this large window and cold air corn- (the same equation used by Thatcher).
ing in at the bottom. See figure 4. This flow will be caused Q = oAE(T14 - Tz4)
by the stack effect in which hot, less dense gas is forced with o = 1,730 x lo-" BTUIhr-ft'.(OF a b ~ o l u t e ) ~
out of the room at the top of the window and, by the A = area of body in question (the window in this
same effect, cold air that is more dense will flow in at case)
the bottom. Solar house designers use the formula given E = 0.9, a factor accounting for emissivities and sol-
below to calculate this air flow.2') id angles subtended by the hot and cold bodies
CFM = 9 . 4 ~ ~ ~ - as seen through the window. Again this is the
where A,* is the effective area (ft2) through which value used by Thatcher.
the flow enters andlor leaves the space, and-H is the T I and T2 are 560' F and 490' F absolute, respec-
effective height of this area. In this case the AeKis half tively, for the hot inner surfaces at 100° F and
the area of the window while H is half the height of outside surfaces (or air) at 30° F.
the window as half the window is used for outward flow Q = 3.5 x 104 BTUlhr
and the other half for inward flow, or A,E 260 ft2, If the window is glazed, a combination of convection,
H 10 ft (mean height), and AT = 100 - 30 = 70' F radiation, and conduction across boundary layers of air
and: both on the inside and outside as well as the glass itself
CFM = 7.0 x 104 fGlmin can be treated according to the following e q ~ a t i o n : ' ~
Then the heat transferred will be: Q = UAAT
Q = CFM x 60 x AT x 0.018 where U = 1.10 BTUlhr-ft2-OF,which includes all
where 0.018 is the volumetric specific heat of air in three types of heat flow
BTUlfts at these temperatures. A = area in ft2 of window = 560
Q = 5.2 x 10VTUlhr AT = 70' F
Note that another equation for this convection heat Q = 4.3 x lo4 BTUlhr
transfer mentioned by Balcomb is that of Weber and
K e a r n e ~ ,who
~ ' arrived at it by similitude modeling and
full-scale testing:
Q = 4.6 W(dAT)"I2where W is width and d is height DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
of opening, which when converted to the vari- HAMILTON COLLEGE
ables used above becomes CLINTON, NEW YORK 13323
Q = 13 A- (AT)"" JRING@ITSMAILl.HAMILTON.EDU

Balcomb (supra n. 18) 149-52. Amherst, Massachusetts, October 1980 (American Section of
21D.D. Weber and R.J. Kearny "Natural Convection the International Solar Energy Society,Newark, Del. 1980)
Heat Transfer through an Aperture in Passive Solar Heated 1037-41.
Buildings," Proceedings, 5th National Passive Solar Conference, 22ASHRAE Handbook (supra n. 9) ch. 11.