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03BpaTHbie rnar01nbi

O.B. lJAfMHA

B03BPATHbIE fJIAfOJIbI B PYCCKOM H3bIKE.

OnHCAHHE H YllOTPEBJIEHHE

y.,eonoe nocotiue no PYCCICOMY .R3bllC)' OM uuocmpaunux y.,a~UXCJl

MOCKBA 2009

Y,lJ,K 808.2 (075.8)-054.6 EEK 81.2 Pyc-96

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PeueH3eHTbI:

A.H. Hesaeea, nporpeccop, ,l1,OKTOP nenaroraxecxnx HaYK; M.J!. fbq6oeCKafl, nporpeccop, KaH,l1,H,l1,aT <pHJIoJIOmQeCKI1X HaYK

qUHHa,O.B.

q12 B03BpaTHbie rnaronsr B PYCCKOM H3b1Ke.OnHcaHHe H ynoTpe6J1eHHe:

YQe6HOe nocofiae no PYCCKOMY ~3bIKY M~ HHocTpaHHblx yaamaxca / O.B.qaruHa. - M.: PYCCKHH ~3bIK. KYPCbI, 2009. - 264 c.

ISBN 978-5-88337-088-4

IToco611e nocsauieuo OAHOM 113 aKTYaJIbHblX TeM KaK B JII1HrBHCTHKe, TaK H B MeTo,a:Hxe nperronaaaaax pyccsoro 1I3blKa KaK HHOCTpaHHoro. B KHHre paCCMaTpHBalOTCli HaH60JIee npencraasrensnsre CeMaHTH'leCKl1e paspaztu B03BpaTHblX marOJIOB.

Teoperasecxas sacrs nocofias a.a:peCOBaHa maBHbIM 06pa30M npenonaearemo. MarepHaJI :nOM qaCTI1 o606lll.eH B eane CHCTeMaTI13HpYIOlll.I1X ra6JIHIJ.. TIpaKTHqeCKali xacrs co: nepaorr 60JIblllOe KOIlI1qeCTBO ynpaacaemdi, cnoco6CTBYIOlll.HX pa3BI1TI1IO MOHOJIOmQeCKOI1

11 ,ll,l1aJlOmQeCKOH peuu.

Ilocofiae azipecosano I1HOCTpaHHblM YQalll.HMClI, snanetounoa PYCCKHM 1I3blKOM B 06beMe

6a30BOro xypca (II-III cepTH(lmKall,HOHHble YPOBHI1).

Pa60TaTb no nocotimo MO)l(HO KaK nOA PYKOBOACTBOM npenoztaearena, TaK H caMOCTOll-

TeJlbHO.

ISBN 978-5-88337-088-4

© I13AaTeJlbCTBO «PYCCKHM 1I3bIK». KYPCbl, 2009 © 4anIHa O.B., 2009

PenpoAYIJ.HpOBaHl1e (socnpoaaseneaae) AaHHoro 113AaHHlI JlI06blM cnocofioa 6e3 ziorosopa C H3,ll,aTeJlbCTBOM sanpeuiaercs.

COAEP>KAH~E

npE,l(HCJIOBHE 5

lJACTh nEPBAR. JIHHrBO,l1,H,lJ,aKTH'leCKOe onacaaae B03BpaTHbiX raaronoe 7

l. CeMaHTHqeCKHe paspansr B03BpaTHbIX marOJIOB 8

1. C06CTBeHHO-Bo3BpaTHbIe rnaronsr (OH YMbIBaeTCJl.) 8

2. B3aI1MHO-B03BpaTHble rnaronsr (MbI nOCCOpHJJHCb.) 11

3. B03BpaTHble rnaronsr 3MOUHM (J/ 06pa.aOBaJJCJl.) 15

4. B03BpaTHble rnaronsr KOJIHQeCTBeHHbIX 11 KaqeCTBeHHblX

113MeHeHHM (,l1,eKaY3aTI1BHble rnaronsr) <.aeHb yJVIHHHlICJl.) 24

5. KOCBeHHO-B03BpaTHbIe rnaronsr

(MbI 6bICTPO )106PaJJHCb no )lOMa.) 27

6. B03BpaTHO-KaY3aTl1BHble rnaronu

(J/ CTPHryCb Y xopotuero napHKMaxepa.) 29

7. ITaCCI1BHO- KaQeCTBeHHble rnaronu (galIIKH 6blOTCJl.) 31

CeMaHTHKa npe.IUIO)KeHI1M C naCCHBHO-KaqeCTBeHHblMI1 rJIaroJIaMH 31

CHHOHI1MHSI npe.IUIO)KeHI1M C naCCI1BHO-KaqeCTBeHHbIMI1 marOJIaMH 32

COQeTaeMOCTb naCCHBHO-KaqeCTBeHHbIX rJIarOJIOB C HapeqmIMH 33

8. AIcrHBHo-6e306beKTHble rnaromr (Kpetmse XOKCTCJl.) 34

CeMaHTHKa npe.IUIO)KeHI1M C aKTHBHO-6e306beKTHbIMI1 marOJIaMI1 34

CI1HOHHMI1S1 npe.IUIO)KeHI1M C aKTHBHO-6e306beKTHbIMH marOJIaMI1 36

COqeTaeMOCTb aKTI1BHO-6e306beKTHblx rnaronos C HapeQI1S1MI1 38

9. n060QHO-B03BpaTHbIC rnaronsr <.aep)J(HTecb 3a llOpyrIHH.~ 39

10. B03BpaTHhle rnaronsr naCCI1BHOrO 3HaqeHI1S1

(B ropone CTPOJlTCJl HOBbIe )lOMa.) 40

YnOTpe6JIeHI1e B03BpaTHbIX marOJIOB B TpeXQJIeHHbIX

naCCI1BHbIX crpyxrypax 42

YnoTPe6neHMe B03BpaTHbiX marOJIOB B nByqJIeHHbIX

naCCMBHbIX cTpyK'rypax 44

YnOTPe6JIeHMe B03BpaTHbIX marOJIOB B OllHOqneHHbIX

naCCMBHbIX CTpyKrypaX , ", " 46

11. B03BpaTHble rnaronsr xaasnnaccamroro 3Ha'leHIDl

( Cytt CBapHJICJl.) ••.••...................•.•.•.•....•••................•...•.•........•.••..... 47

II. MHOr03HaQHOCTb B03BpaTHbIX rnaronos 51

r, III. Knaccadiaxanaa B03BpaTHbIX rnaronos (TafiJIHUbI) 55

f' \' ,. JIllTEPATYPA 69

8 . 'lJACTb BTOPAH. npaKTHKyM 73

I ! ..

I. CeMaHTM'leCKMe paapsnsr B03BpaTHbIX rnaronos 73

1. Co6cTBeHHo-B03BpaTHbIe rnaronu 73

2. B3aMMHo-Bo3BpaTHble rnaronsr 106

3. B03BpaTHble rnaronsr 3MOUMH : 122

4. B03BpaTHble rnaronsr KOJIM'IeCTBeHHbIX

H Ka'leCTBeHHbIX H3MeHeHMH (neKaY3aTHBHbIe rnaronu) 142

5. KocBeHHo-B03BpaTHble rnaronsr. ; 163

6. B03BpaTHo-KaY3aTHBHble rnaronsr 172

7. Ilaccasao- xasecraeaasre marOJIbI................................................ 186

8. AKTHBHo-6e306'beKTHhle rnaromr 191

9. n060tIHO-B03BpaTHble nraroma 203

10. B03BpaTJIble, rnaronu naccasnoro 3HaqeHHH 208

Ynorpetinenae B03BpaTHbIX marOJIOB B rpCXlJJIeHHbIX

naCCHBHbIX cTPYKTYPax 208

YnoTPe6JIeHHe B03BpaTHbIX rJIarOJIOB B JlByqneHHbIX

naCCHBHblX CTPYKrypax ······ .. · 213

YnoTPe6JIeHMe B03BpaTHblX rnaronoa B OJlHOqneHHbIX

naCCHBHbIX crpyxrypax 236

11. B03BpaTHble rnaronsr KBa3MnaCCHBHoro 3Ha'leHHH 245

II. MHoro3Ha4HocTb B03BpaTHbIX marOJIOB 254

npE.QHCnOBHE

nOC06He nOCBRIUeHO onHcaHHIO PYCCKHX B03BpaTHbIX rnaronos C n03HUHH npenonasaaas pYCCKOro H3bIKa KaK HHocrpaHHoro. OnbIT nOKa3bIBaeT, tITO B03- spatnue rnaronu TPYllHbI JlJlH H3YQalOIUHX PYCCKHH H3bIK, TaK KaK OHH xapaxrepa- 3Y1OTCH MHoro06pa3HeM ceMaHTHKH, scrynaior B pasasre CHHTaKCR'IeCKHe CBR3H, BXOMT B COCTaB npeJlJlOXeHHH pa3JlH'lHOrO Q:>OPMaJIbHOro YCTPOHCTBa. 13 nOCopHH paCCMaTpHBaIOTCR· HaH60JIee npezrcrasarensasre CeMaHTH'IeCKJle pa3PRJlbI B03- BpaTHbIX marOJIOB.

KHHra COCTOHT H3 nayx sacrea. 13 nepsoa 'laCTH naercs JIHHfBOJlHUaKTH'leCKOe onacaaae Ka)K,ll;OrO paspana, a BO BTOPOH 'laCnf npeacraanexsr ynpaxaeHHR, nanpaaneaaue aa OTPa60TKY ynoTpe6JIeHHH B03BpaTHblx marOJIOB B pexa. B cTPYKTYPHOM nnaae o6e 'laCTH CHMMerpH'lHbl: onacaaae Ka)K,lI;OrO CeMaHTHtIeCKOrO palpaaa marOJIOB B nepsoa 'laCTH nOnOJIHHeTCH rpeHHpOBO'lHbIMH yrrpaxHeHHHMH BO STOpOH.

Ilepsaa xacrs anpecosaaa npenonasaremo. 3necb rnaronu xaxnoro paspsna aHaJIH3HPYlOTCH no ceMaHTH'leCKHM H CHHTaKCH'leCKHM npH3HaKaM. 06paIUaeTcH BHHMaHHe ua ceMaHTH'leCKHe xapaxrepacraxa CTPYKTYP C B03BpaTHbIMH rnaroJIaMH, ocoeenaocra HX Q:>OpMaJIbHOrO vcrpoacrea.zreaoncrpapyerca BapHaTMBHOCTb CHHOHHMH'leCKHX cpencrs. Ocofioe MeCTO yneneao aHaJIH3ytPYJlHOCTeH, C KOTOPbIMH CTaJIKMBaeTCH nnocrpaanua yqaIUHHcH npa YnoTpe6JIeHHH CTPYKTYP C B03BpaTHbIMH marOJIaMH. (CJIyqaH irenpasansaoro ynoTpe6JIeHHR CJIOB OTMe'leHbI B nocotiaa 3HaKoM *.)

,B 3TOH xe 'laCTH npasenensr Ta6JIHUbI, npenCTaBJIHIOIUHe aHaJIH3HpyeMbIH MaTepHaJI B o606mCHHOM BHUe.

Bropas xacrs - «npaKTHKYM~ - COnepxMT CMCTeMY rpeHHpOBO'lHbIX ynpaxHeHHH. 3TO 3anaHI-!SI Ha Ha6JIIOJleHHe (nanpaaneuu aa aHaJIH3 CTPYKTypbI CMbICJIa npennoxeaaa H cnocoooa nepenaxa sroro CMbICJIa), na orpa60TKY npaBHJI ynoTpe6JIeHH51 TOH HJIH HHOH CTPYKTYPhI, rpaucrpopuaumo PaJJIH'lHbIX THnOB rtpenno)KeHHH KaK C onopon, TaK H 6e3 onopsr na oopaaeu. 3TH ynpaxnenas nOCJIenOBa-

5

TeJIbHO nonsonsr ysauraxca K aKTHBHOMY HCnOJIb30BaHHIO MaTepHaJIa C BbIXO.ll;OM B CB060.ll;HYlO HenO.ll;roTOBJIeHHYIO peas,

B xa-recrse HJIJIlOCTPaTHBHOrO xarepaana HCrrOJIb30BaJIHCb OTPbIBKH H3 XY.ll;O)((eCTBeHHbIX npoaaseneaaa, rry6JIHUHCTHKH, a TaK)((e npmrepsr, COCTaBJIeHnsre aBTopOM.

Ilocofine npennasnaseao MH pa60TbI C HHOCTpaHHbIMH yqamHMllCH sroporo H rpersero cepTHqmKaUHoHHbIX ypOBHeH otinrero BJIa.n:eHHH H3bIKOM. B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT ypOBHH ysauraxca MaTepHaJIbI nocotiaa MO)J(HO HCrrOJIb30BaTb BbI60pOqHO.

Pa60TaTb no KHHre MO)J(HO KaK non PYKOBO.ll;CTBOM npenonasarenn, TaK H caMOCTOHTeJIbHO.

ABTOP fJIy60KO rrpH3HaTeJIeH peueasearaa: nporpeccopy, .n;OKTOPY nenarornqeCKHX HaYK, 3aBe.n;YlOrue.H xarpenpoa PYCCKoro H3bIKa MAPXl1 A.M. Hesaeaoa H nporpeccopy Ka<pe.n;pbI PYCCKOro H3bIKa MAPXM, KaH.n;H):(ary <pHJlOJIOmqecKH:x HaYK M.)J,. ~KY60BCKOH aa .n;06pO)((eJIaTeJIbHYlO H ueaayio KPHTH:KY.

'"IACTb nEPBASI

nlttHrBOAlttAaKTltt"leCKOe onacaaae B03BpaTHbiX rnaronoa

B PYCCKOM H3bIKe HaCqHTbIBaeTCH orposotoe KOJIHqeCTBO B03BpaTHbIX (pediJIeKCHBHbIX) fJIarOJIOB. Bee OHH l1.MelOT B csoea COCTaBe rrocnpaxc -CJI. ITo nanHbIM «Ooparuoro CJIOBapH PYCCKoro H3bIKa}> [1974: 940], qHCJIO marOJIOB na -CJI COCTaBJIHeT 13 798. 3TO 60JIee TpeTH OT ofiutero KOJIHqeCTBa rnaronoe, KOTOPbIX B CJIOBape HaCqHTbIBaeTCH 37319. ITPH BceH OTHOCHTeJIbHOCTl1. 3THX noncxeros UH<Ppsr .n;aIOT peansxoe npencraanemre 0 3Haql1.TeJIbHOCTl1. ITJIaCTa B03BpaTHbIX rnaroJIOB B PYCCKOH marOJIbHOH JIeKCHKe. Tpa.n:HUHOHHO B Onl1.CaHHHX PYCCKoro H3bIKa KaK HHOCTPaHHoro BbmeJIJlJIHCb co6CTBeHHO-B03BpaTHoe, B3aHMHO-B03BpaTHoe H 06rueB03BpaTHOe 3HaqeHl1.H B03BpaTHbIX rnaronoa. KpOMe roro, rrOCT<pl1.KC -CJI HBJIHeTCH rrOKa3aTeJIeM CTPa.n;aTeJIhHOrO 3aJIOra. O.n;HaKO B nperronasaaaa PKM raxoe neneaae qaCTO OKa3hIBaeTCH CJIHIIIKOM 06ruHM. TaK, B COOTBeTCTBl1.H C rpa.ll;l1UHOHHOH KJIaCCH<pl1KaUHeH rJIarOJIhI Ha<JHHaTbC51, npOJIOJDKaTbC51H KOH<JaTbC51, otiosuaxarounre onpeneneaayio <Pa3Y .n;eHCTBHH, OTHOCHTCH K 06rueB03BpaTHhIM. O.ll;HaKO MH MHOCTPaHua npa BhI60pe <pOPMhI rJIarOJIa TaKaS! HH<popMaUHH HBJIHeTCH He.ll;OCTaTOqHoH. Hanpaxep, B HcrraHCKOM Sl3hIKe.n;JIH BbIpa)((eHl1.H 3HaqeHHH 'Hal.JaJIO nencreaa' (JICKII.WI HalJHHaCTC51) MO)l(eT HCrrOJIh30BaTbCSI KaK B03BpaTHbIH rnarox (La leccio6n se comienza), TaK H HeB03BpaTHblH (La leccion comienza). )J,JISI uenea nperronaaanaa PKM, KaK noxassraaer npaxraxa, HaH60JIee onpaB.n;aHHblM HBJIHeTCSI onacanue B03BpaTHhIX marOJIOB, rrOCJIe.n;OBaTeJIbHO yqHTbIBalOruee KaK cHHTaKCHqeCKHe, TaK 11 ceaaaraxecxae np113HaKH npennoxeaaa, B KOTOPhIX 3Tl1 rnaronu yrroTpe6JIS1IOTcSI. C yqeToM eroro B o6Yl.JeHHH PKM BbI.n;eJISllOT 11 Ha116oJIee npencraaarensaux pa3PMoB B03BpaTHblx marOJIOB~

I HaH60Jlee nOJlHOM H aayrpenae ynopanosennon npe.nCTaBJHIeTCH KJlaCcHQJHKaUIDI PYCCKHX B03- aparaux rnaronoa, npennoxennaa M.A. liIemlKHHbIM [WeJlSlKHH, 1991: 312-326].

7

I. CeMaHTM'feCKMe pa3pHAbi B03BpaTHbiX rnaronoa

1 . C06CTBeHHO-B03BpaTHble rnaronsi

C06CTBeHHO- B03BpaTHbIe (C06CTBeHHo-peq)JIeKCHBHbIe, pecpJIeKCHBHO-rrOCecCI1BHble) rJIarOJIbI rrepeztaior 3HaqeHI1e 'caM ce6J1'.

B rrpeLlIIO)l(eHI1HX C 3THMH fJIarOJIaMH lIMJI B rr03HllHH nonnexauiero - OAYrneBJIeHHOe cyurecraarensnoe, xaure acero JIHllO, npOH3BOMmee AeikTBHH HM caMHM c060ti (coccrseaaoa BHernHOCTblO, TeJIOM, BHyI'peHHHM COCTOHHHeM H T. A.). Cy61>eKT BKJIIOqaeT B cetia 3HaqeHI1e 06DeKTa. 3TOT HMelOmHti noceccasaoe 3HaqeHHe 061>eKT MO)l(eT 0603HaqaTb, nanpaaep, 'laCTb TeJIa cy6'heKTa (IIzypHTbCJl, CMopKaTbCJl), CBOtiCTBO ero nCI1XI1KH (nenpererscs, C/l.ep)/(lfBaTbCJl), ero OAe)l(,ll.y I1JII1 06YBh (O/l.CBaTbCJl, pesueserscs, 06yIJaTbCJl).

CpeAH c06CTBeHHO-B03BpaTHbIX fJlarOJIOB BhmeJIHIOT CJIeAYlOlUHe JIeKCHKOceMaHTHqeCKHe rpyrmsr:

1) rnaronsr co 3HaqeHHeM «rrp0I13BOAHTb TYaJIeT»: MblTbCR, yMblBIlThCR, IzyHIlTbCR, BbiTHPIlTbCH, HpH'liiCblBaTbCJl, 6PHTbCH, CTPH'IhCH, KPIlCHTbCH, MIl3RTbCJI (pa3Z.), Hy,aPHTbCH, P)'MJIHHTbCR, .4J'llIHThCR: .J/ MblJICH B BaHHoti H HC cnuuien 3BOHKa teneqione; llO-MOCMY, Tc6c nope IIOCTPH'IbCJr,

2) rnaronu, 0603HaqalOlUHe ABH)I(eHl1e onpeneneunoa qaCTbIO JII1lla ruIH TeJIa: lKMYPHTbCH, lI1J'PHTbCR(O rnasax), YCTIlBHTbCR(O B3fJIHAe), HRJIHTbCR(Zpy6. 0 rnasax, o B3fJIHAe), XMyJJHTbCJI(O B3fJ1J1Ae, 0 6pOBHX), HoryHHThCR(orrycTHTl> B3fJ1J1A, rnasa), HIlCYflHTbCH, HIlCTOPJlJKHBaTbCR(O cnyxe, 06 yuiax), CMOpKIlT~(O aoce), MOpIl(HTbCR (0 JI6e, noce), JU'TbCH(O utexax, 0 ry6ax), eJKHTbCH (0 nnesax), rop6HTbcJI (0 CnI1He), CyryJJHTbCH(O crnme), Hllm6aTbCJl(0 CnI1He), BblnpRMJIRTbcR(O cnane):

OH HeJIo,aBH)[(HOYCTaBHJICR B O/l.HY TO'lKy H He o6pal1.(aJI BHHMaHJfH Ha TO, 'ITO IIpOHCXO,DHT BOKPyr; Hy 'ITO ThI HIlXMJ'PHJICH! He uzyPbCH ns COllHlJC, 3TO Bpc/JHO;

3) rnaronu co 3HaqeHI1eM ',lleticTBI1H HM csoea OJl.e)K,llOHI1JIH 06YBblO': lJ,lfeBIlThCH, .pll3,4eBIlTbCJI, nO/l.BR3b1BaTbCR, nO/l.llORCblBIlThCR, K)'TIlTbCR, )'KYI'b1B1lTbCR, 311- K)'TbIBIlTbCH, 3RnaxHBIlTbCH, PIlCHIlXHBIlThCH, 06YSIlTbCR, PIl3YSIlThCR: JIcHa osesserc» C 60lIbllIHM BKyCOM; llPOXO,DHTe, pll3/l.eBaiI7'ecb;

4) fJIarOJIbI co 3HaqeHHeM 'aaneceuae ce6e spena': npocry/l.HThCH, HeperpeTbCH, nOpIlHHTbCR, nope3llTbCR, Hou,apanIlTbCR, )'llIH6HTbCH, OTPIlBHTbCR, 06J1HTbCR(CYnOM, COKOM), 06JKe'lbCJI: Bepa HPOCry/l.HJIIlCb H He JIpHIIIlIa ue ssnsru»; qatiHHK roPfl'lHti, CMOTpH, He o60lKl'Hcb;

5) rnaronu co 3Ha'leHI1eM 'nepeweuieaae B npOCTpaHCTBe': /l.BHrIlTbCR, HOJl)lHMIlTbCR, cnycKIlTbCR, KIlTHTbCR, CBJlJ1HBIlTbCJl, Ca,aHTbCR, JlOJKHTbCR: C3,l:UtTeCh, IIO-

8

)[(aJIyticTa; EClIH BaM TCCHO, Jl uory nO/l.BHHyTbCR; By1JeT y Hac ns BOCbMOM 3TaxC, BaM lIYlfIIIC nO/l.HRTbCR ne lIHljJTC; Jl IIpHBblK JIOlKHTbCR etters II03/l.HO;

6) rnaronu co 3Ha'leHI1eM 'C03HaTeJIbHOe B03AeticTBHe cy61>eKTa aa CBOe BHyI'peaaee COCTOSlHl1e': peuumc», c,aeplKHBIlTbCH, COCpe/l.OTO'lHBIlTbCR, KOHl~eHTpHpOBaTbCR, l'OTOBHTbCR, C06HPIlTbCR: Jl C TPY,DOM C/l.epJKHBaJICR, 'lTo6hI He paCCMC.JlTbCH; Jl ,DaBHO C06HPIlJICH IIOroBOPHTb C BaMH, HO HHKaK He uor pemHTbCJl.

Hexoropsre 113 npanenenasrx marOJIOB MoryI' I1MeTb BaJIeHTHOCTh aa AOrrOJInenae B KOCBeHHOM nanexe: uyuucnc« O/l.eKOlIOHOM, Ma3aTbCH KpeMOM, 06lIHBaTbCH XOlIO,DHoti BO,Doti, COCPC,DOTO<JlfBaTbCJl ue rlIaBHOM.

Cneuadiasxo B 3TOM CMhlCJIe nOBeAeHHe c06CTBeHHO-B03BpaTHhIX marOJIOB, 0603HaQaIOIlJ,I1X neacrsna HaA onexnoit HJII1 06YBbIO. OHI1 I1MelOT BaJIeHTHOCTb na AOnOJIHeHHe, KOTopaH MO)l(eT 6hITb peaJIl130BaHa, HO MO)l(eT 11 He peaJIH30BblBaTbCSI: OHa O/l.eJIIlCb B HOBOC nnetse. - OHa O/l.eJIIlCb; OH 3IlCTerH)'JlCR ne see ttyrosuuu. - OH 3IlCTerHYJICH; OHa nepeo6yJlIlCb B ,DoMaIIIHHC TaIIO<JKH. - OHa nepeoOYJlIlCb.

O,llHaKO yaHToHI1Ml1qHblX 11M marOJIOB 3Ta BaJIeHTHOCTh 'lame acero OCTaeTCSI HepeaJIH30BaHHoti. Cp.: OHa ouessc» B 3HMHee IIaJIbTO. - OHa peutenec» (=OHa CHJlJIa 3HMHee naJIbTO); OH 06YlICJl B xosanue 60TlfHKH. - OH pesync» (= OH CHHJI 60THHKH).

CJIeAyeT ooparars BHHMaHl1e aa TO, 'ITO B03BpaTHOMY rnarony O/l.eBIlThCR COOTBeTcTByeT nepexonnuf! fJIarOJI C npacrasxoti aa- HlI/l.eTb, nOCJIe KOTOPOro MO)l(eT ynOTpe6AAThCJI TOJIbKO HMSI CO 3HaqeHI1eM HeoAyrneBJIeHHOrO 061>eKTa: Ha,aeBIlTb «mo? O/l.e){(l(y, naJIbTO, KJpTKy, IllJlJWY, ryr/JlIH, CaIIOrJlI1 T. A. TJIaroJI)I(e o,aeTb'rpe6yer nOCJIe ce6H ynoTpe6JIeHHH TOJIhKO oAyrneBJIeHHOrO I1MeHH: o,aeBIlTb KOcO ?pe6eJiKa, MlIa.£I.IIIero 6paTa, 60lIbHOro "' T. A. (cp. 113BeCTHoe B $HJIOJIOfl1'leCKoti cpene ABYCTHrnHe: Hsuers O,De)[(l[y, O,DeTb Ha.acJK,Jzy). I1HOCTpaHUbI, He OCBe,t(oMJIeHHhle 06 3TI1X pa3JII1'lI1J1X,qaCTO AonYCKalOT onni6KI1: *ThI Y.KC Ha.aClICJl? "'B POCClfJl 3HMOti XOlIO,DHO, ueno nusesenc» TeIIJIO; *Jl CCrOjI,HJl onens TeIIJIhIH CBHTep.

MHOfl1ec06cTBeHHo-B03BpaTHbIe fJIarOJIbI MorYT I1MeTb COOTHOCI1TeJIhHbH: rrepexonasre rJIarOJIbI: OHa 3a)f(MypHlIaCb. - OHa· 3aJKM)'pHlla rnese; He cytynucHI - He cytyru. cnHHY; Ilptotetuncs. - Ilpnseui« BOlIOCbI.

CTOI1T 06paTHTb BHHMaHl1e ytIaWI1XCSI aa oco6eHHOCTI1 CI1HTaKCl1qeCKoti CI1HOHHMHH npe)lJlO)l(eHl1ti C B03BpaTHhIMH fJIarOJIaMI1 11 npeMO)l(eHl1ti C nepexonnsrMH. fJIarQJIaMH. 3Aecb oc060 BbIAeJISlIOTCSI CTPYKTypbI C B03BpaTHbIMH fJIaroJIaMI1, 0603HaqalOllll1MI1 ABl1)I(eHl1e onpenenemroa qaCThIO naua I1JIH. TeJIa, H COOTHOCI1- TeJIbHhIe C HH.MH CTPYKTYPhl C nepeXOAHhIMI1 fJIafOJIaMI1. lIT06hI npaBI1JIbHO noCTpOH.Tb npennoxeaae, ynorpetias B HeM raxon soasparasn! rnaron, H)')KHO YQI1-

9

TbIBaTb JIeKCl1lJeCKYID CO'IeTaeMOCTb nepexonaoro rnarona, a l1.MeHHO CeMaHTl1.KY CVlUeCTBI1TeJIbHOrO B rr03MUMM ,UorrOJIHeHM5I.

- ECJIM nepexonnsra rnaron B rrpe.!IJ10)KeHMM cnocotiea ynorpefinsrrsca TOJlbKO

B CO'IeTaHI1I1 C I1MeHaMI1, 0603HalJaIOlUMMM orrpenenenuyio sacrs JIMua MJIM TeJIa (HanpI1Mep, nOT)'lIHTb MO)KHO TOJIbKO rnss«, B3rJIJIJI, B30P; HaxMypHTb 6pOBH MJIM J106, npmecst» BOJIOCbl, 'BblCMopKaTb ROC), TO B COOTHOCI1TeJIbHOM C HMM npenJIO)KeHI1M C B03BpaTHbIM marOJIOM B n03MUI1H nozorexaurero 06bIlJHO nsrcrynaer I1M5I co 3Ha'leHMeM 'BJIMeJIbua', 'X0351HHa' 3TOH lJaCTH TeJIa [Ilere, 1968]: Iieeytux« noryttnne ssrnsu; - peBYlIJKa rrozyrrHJIaCb; Ileu He,aOBOJIbHO HaxMYPHJI 6pOBH. - j(eJJ. HeJJ,OBOJIbHO HaXMypHJICfl; KOT 3aJKMYPHJJ rness OT YJJ.OBOJIbCTBHfI. - KOT 3a-

)[{MYPJfJICfl OT YJJ.OBOJIbCTBHfI. •

ECJIM )Ke nepexonnu« rnaron B COCTaBe rrpe.!IJ10)KeHM5I MO)KeT ynorpefinarsC5I He TOJIbKO C MMeHeM, 0603Ha'laIOIll.MM sacrs JIMua HJIH TeJIa, HO H C HMeHaMM .upyroH ceMaHTHKH (aanpiorep, OTKPbITb MO)KHO He TOJIbKO rnsss, HO M CyMKy, no,aHHTb 11. rOJIOBY, I1 q)J]ar, csar» H PYKH, H rropyrIHH), TO B COOTHOCHTeJIbHOM C HI1M npe)l,JIO)KeHHH C rJIarOJIOM C -CH B rr03Hll,I1H nO,UJIe)KalUerO xame scero BbICTYnaeT He HMH co 3HalJeHHeM 'nnanensua', a CYlUeCTBHTeJIbHOe CO 3HalJeHHeM 'laCTH rena [Ilere, 1968]. MMH )Ke, aaasrsaromee 'nnanensua'. 'x03HHHa' 3TOH 'lacTI1 'rena, ynoTpe6J151eTcH B pO,UI1TeJlhHOM nanexe, Cp.: JIeHa YCTaJIO 3aKpbIJIa rnsse. - FJIa3a Jlenu YCTMO 3aKpblJIHCb (ttpt« HeB03MO)[{HOCTH *JIeHa YCTMO ssspuJIacb); IOHolIJa yttpstuo C)[{M ry6bI. - Ijr6b/ IOHOiliH ynpsuo ClKaJIHCb (*IOHoilia yttpnuo C}J(aJICfI).

Hexoropsr« B03BpaTHbiM rnaronav COOTBeTCTBYlOT nepexoznrsre rnaronsr C MeCTOI1MeHI1eM ce6H. Cp., uanpnvep, rnaronst J1ermTbCR - J1e'lHTb ceDR, 31llI{Hll.faTbCR - sstunuun» ceti», jJ.ep)/(aTbCH - jJ.ep)/(aTb ceti», Ha3b1BaTbCR - Ha3b1BaTb ceDH, M)"IHTbCfI - MJ"IHTb CeDH, OTpaBHTbCR - OTpaBHTb ceDR: Ha ttporsscennn scero pesrosope OHa JJ.epJKMa ceti« C 60JIbllIHM ,aOCTOHHCTBOM. - Ha npOTfIJKeHHH ecero pestoeope OHa ,aep)/(lUUICb C 60JlbIlIHM ,aOCTOHHCTBOM; OH JIe<[HT ceti« rpaBaMH. - OH J1e'lHTCR TpaBaMH; Jl ysepen, 'ITO HHKOJIaii CMOJKeT 3aWHTHTb cetis: - Jl ysepen, <[TO HHKOJIaii CMO)((eT 3aIl.fHTHTbCH; Te6e 3BOHHJIa KaKaJl-TO ,aeBYIlIKa, OHa He Ha3BaJIa cetis: - Tetie 3BOHHJIa KaKaH-TO ncsyuuce, OHa He Ha3BaJlaCb; Bepa CTpH)!((jT cetis: ceus, He Xo,aHT B nspnxusxepcsyto. - Bepa CTpHlKerCR caue, He XO,aHT B rrapHKMaxepcKYlO.

3Ha'leHHe HeKOTopbIX H3 3THX marOJIOB rrpOHCHHeTCH B KOHTeKCTe, nanpavep:

One M)"IaeTCH OT peBHOCTH (HeKOHTpOJIHpyeMoe, 6eCC03HaTeJIbHOe ,UeHCTBMe). - 3a'leM Bbl MyrIaeTe ceti« nsttpecnoii peBROCTblO? (rrpenrronaraercs, 'ITO 'leJIOBeK MO)l(eT B03,Uet1:cTBoBaTb aa CBOe COCTOHHMe).

10

2. B3aMMHo-Bo3BpaTHble rnaronbl

B3aI1MHO-B03BpaTHble rnaronsr rrepeaaror 06lUMH CMblCJI 'npyr npyra'. OHH I1MelOT 3HalJeHHe KOHTaKTHpOBaHH5I, B3aHMOOTHollleHMH. 3TH rnaronsr yrrorpetiJIHlOTCH B npe.!I1IO)l(eHHHX, 0603Ha'IaIOlUMX CJIO)KHYIO cMTyaL~I1IO, KOTOPa51 HBJIHeTCH CYMMOH nsyx 60JIee rrpocrsrx CHTyaUHH. CTpYKTYpa, B KOTOPOH ynOTpe6JIeH B3aI1MHO-B03BpaTHbIH rnaron, orracsmaer pasasre ,lIeHCTBHH 060HX yqacTHMKOB CMryauna: MbI C BHKTOPOM nepemtcueeeucs. - J! ttntuy BHKTOPY, Btttctop tttauer MHe; Jlena H Bepa 06HfIJIHCb. - Jlen« o6HJ/JIa Bepy, Beps 06HJlJIa J/eRY; Csute 1/ Ilet» llOCCOPHJIHCb. - Csiue IlOCCOpHJlCJl C Tlerett, Ilers nOCCOpHJICfl C Cetueti. B 3TMX caryauaax Ka)K)l,bIM ee yqaCTHHK 5IB1UIeTCH O)l,HOBpeMeHHo H cy6beKTOM M 06beKTOM rro OTHOllleHHIO npyr K npyry

HaM60JIee yrrOTpe6MTeJIbHbJ B3aMMHo-B03BpaTHbIe rnaronsr BCTpe'laTbCR, 3HaKOMHTbCJI, snopoeenc», npOll.faTbCR, aeJIOBaTbCR, lKeHHTbCJI, PJl3BO,aHTbCR, BlIJl.eTbcR, POroBJlPHBJlTbCH, neperoBJlpHBaTbcH, nepemeIlTbIBJlTbCH, nepecMeHBaTbCJl, C03BaHHBaTbcH, nepe3BJlHHBaTbcH, ODll.faTbCR, COBeTOBJlTbCR, oDMeHHBJlTbCH, CCOPHTbCR, MHPHTbCR, OD'bejJ.HHHTbCH H T. rr.

Ilepe-racnetnrue rnaronsr conepxar cneuaansasre <P0PMaJIbHO-rpaMMarH'IeCKHe noxaaaremr, CJIy)KalUMe D:JIH 0603Ha'leHI1Sl xareropan B3aMMHOCTH. no <popMaJIbHbIM CJIoBo06pa30BaTeJIbHbIM npasaaxav MO)((HO BbI.!IeJIHTh CJIe)l,YlOlUMe rpynnsr rJIarOJIOB:

1) B3aMMHO-B03BpaTHhIe rnaroma, COOTHOCHlUHeCH C rtepexonusrsra rnaronaMM H 06pa3YIOlUMecH OT HMX C IlOMOlUbIO rrocrdnrxca -CH. 3TH nepexozmste rnaroJIbl 0603Ha'laIOT ,UeMCTBMe, xoropoe MO)l(eT rrpOH3BO)l,MTbCH npa o,UHoBpeMeHHOM yqacTMH cy6beKTa 11 06beKTa: BCTpeTHTb - BCTPeTHTbCH, ODHHMaTb - ODHHMaTbCJl, ~eJ10BaTb - ae.nOBaTbCR, pyraTb - pyrJlTbCH,

2) B3aMMHO-B03BpaTHble rJIarOJIbI, xoropsre HeCOIlOCTaBMMbI C rrepexomrsrxra M He yrrOTpe6JIHIOTCSl 6e3 -CH: 3jJ.opOBaTbCH, ODll.faTbCH, copeBHOBaTbCR, 60POTbCR, CpJlJKaTbCH, paCCTaBaTbCR, COBeIl.fJlTbCH,

3) B3aHMHO-B03BpaTHbIe rnaronsr, KOTOPbIM COOTBeTCTBYIOT nepexonmre rnarOJIbI, HO nepexonauti H B03BpaTHbIM rnaroma He HlIeHTH'IHbI no CMbICJIY: jJ.eJIHTbCH, jJ.paTbCH, jJ.OI'OBapHBaTbCH, np0ll.faTbCR. COBeTOBaTbCH,

4) rnaronsr, y KOTOPbIX ana-reuae B3aMMHOCTH 06YCJlOBJIeHO HaJIM'lMeM -CH B COlJeraHMH C rtpacraaxaua. HaH60JIee lJaCTO yrroTpe6JlHlOTCSI rrpHCTaBKH c- B 3Ha'leHHH COe)l,I1HeHMH H aHTOHMMI1lJHaH eM rtpacrasxa pas- B 3Ha'leHI1H parse,lIHHeHHH: CXO,4HTbCR - PJlCXOjJ.HTbCR, C'be3lKaTbCH - pa3'be3)J(aTbCR, CJIeTaTbCRpa3.!leTJlTbCH, a TaIOKe npncraaxa nepe-: neperoBapHBJlTbCH, nepe3BaHHBaTbcH, ttepemeHTblBaTbCR, neperJ1Jl11.bIBJlTbCR, nepeK.!lHKaTbCR, nepeCMeHBaTbcH,

11

5) rnaronsr, He MMelOllJ;l1e cnennansastx <P0PMaJIbHO-rpaMMaTMlJeCKMX noKa3aTeJIeH 3HalJeHM5J. B3aMMHOCTM, HO nupaxaouiae 3TO 3HalJeHMe JIeKCMlJeCKM:

CPOPHTb, /1,Py;KHTb, BPJl)f(,aOBBTb, 6eCe/1,OBJITb, PB3I'OBBPHBBTb. 3TO He06xo.ll,MMO yqJ.lTbIBaTb B MHOCTpaHHOH aY.lI,MTOpMM, TaK KaK CTY.lI,eHTbI, y6e)!(.ll,eHHble B TOM, lJTO nmosoe 3HalJeHMe .lI,OJI)!(HO BbIpa)!(aTbC5J. TMrrOBbIMM <pOPMaJIbHbIMH rrOKa3aTeJI5J.MM, oIIm60lJHO rrpJ.lCOe.ll,HHHIOT -CH K 3THM rnaronass: =Mu pa3roBapHBaJIHCb sec» sevep, *IlpeIIO/1,aBaTClIb /1,OJIro 6CCC'!'(OBaJICR COMHOii. Cnenyer 06paTMTb BHMMaHMe, lJTO B OT.lI,eJIbHbIX CJIyqa5J.X B npezienax BH.lI,OBOM rrapbI O.ll,MH rnaron MMeeT -CR, a COOTBeTCTByIOIUMM eMY BH.lI,OBOH KOppeJI5J.T ynorpe6JI5J.eTC5J. 6e3 -CR. TaK, rnaron HeCOBepllIeHHoro BH.lI,a /1,PYJKHTb He MMeeT -CR, B TO BpeM51 KaK COOTHOCHTeJIbHbIM C HMM rnaron coaeptueaaoro BH.lI,a BKJIlO'IaeT B ce651 3TOT rrOCT<pMKC: HO'!'(P}'lKIITbCR. Cp.: MbI ,!.(PYJKHM ,!.(aBHO. - MbI IIO'!'(P)')Klf.1IHCb eme B tuxone. O.ll,HaKO anocrpaanu 06bIlJHO 06pa3yIOT rnaron aecosepuremtoro BMa C rrovoumo -CR, BblpaBHMBa5J. ero no HaM60JIee paCrrPOCTpaHeHHOMY cP0PMaJIbHOMY 06pa3UY: *MbI ,!.(P)')KHMCR.C EHKTOPOM )')Ke MHOro JIeT.

llpeMO)!(eHlU[ C B3aMMHo-B03BpaTHbIMM marOJIaMJ.I MMelOT CBOM CMHTaKCM-

xecxae oc06eHHOCTM. CrreUMcPMKa 3TMX rrpeMO)l(eHJ.lH rrp05J.BJUleTC5J. B cnocooax Bblpa)!(eHMSI nonnexantero. llOCKOJIbKY B3aMMHoe .lI,eHCTBJ.le MO)!(eT OCYIUeCTBJUlThCSI npu HaJIWmH He MeHee .ll.BYX yqacTHHKOB CHTYauJ.lJ.l, TO H HMeHa B rr03HUJ.lH nonnexauiero (06bIlJHO onyureaaeanue MMeHa) scerna MMelOT 3HalJeHHe MHO)!(eCTBeHHoCTH, «KOJIJIeKTMBHOCTH~>. 3TO 3HalJeHMe MO)!(eT 6blTb nepenaao:

1) HMeHeM B <popMe MHO)l(eCTBeHHoro lJHCJIa: J(py3bH BCTpeTHJIHCb IIOCJIe K8-

IfHKJ'JF,

2) COlJeTaHHeM nayx cYIUecTBHTeJlbHbIX B J.lMeHHTeJIbHOM naztexe C COlO30M H:

AH/1.peH H BHKTOP BCTpeTHJIHCb IIOClIC KaHHKJ'JF,

3) COlJeTaHHeM, cYIUecTBHTeJIbHOrO MJIH JIHlJHOrO MeCTOMMeHM5J. B HMeHMTeJIb"OM rraaexe B rr03HUHH nonnexamero C HMeHeM B TBOpHTeJIbHOM rra.ue)l(e C npenJIorOM c: AnP.peii BCTpCTHfICH C BHlcrOPOM IIOCJIC KaHHKYJF,

4) cYIUecTBHTeJIbHbIM C KOJIHlJeCTBeHHbIM onpeneneaaex CABB llPyra, ,D.Boe /1,PY- 3eH, HeCKOJIbKO YeJIOBeK): ,aBB llPyrB BCTpeTHlIHcb IIOClIC ,!.(OlIrHX KaHHKJ'lf,

5) cYIUecTBMTeJIbHbIM, HMeIOIUHM c06HpaTeJIhHOe 3HalJeHMe: ny6JIHKB, MO.llo/1,e)Kb, rpynHB, HBCeJIeHHe: Heiue tpytute BCTpeTHlIaCb IIOClIe KaHHKJ'lI.

Ba)!(HO 06paTHTb BHHMaHHe Y'IaIUHXCSI aa nexoropste oc06eHHOCTH cornacoBamUI nonnexauiero co cKa3yeMhIM:

• eCJlH B rr03HUHH nonnexamero ynorpefineno COlJeTaHHe HMeH C COlO30M H, eCJIH rtonnexcantee ssrpaxeao KOHcTPYKUMeH KTO 1-1 KTO (HBaH H Bepa),

12

TO rnaron yrroTpe6JI5J.eTC51 B <popMe MHO)l(eCTBeHHoro lJHCJIa: HBaH H Beps BCTpeTHJIHCb B KacjJe; J/, Hropt. H JIcHa H03HBKOJl.IH.llHCb tts tore;

• eCJIH nonnexamee BbIpa)J(eHO KOHCTPYKUHeH KTO C KeM (HBaH C Bepott), rnaron 06bIt:IH0 ynorpe6JI5J.eTC5J. B q,opMe MHO)!(eCTBeHHoro lJHCJIa: HBaH C Bepott H03HBKOMHJlHCb ns tote. O.ll,HaKO, eCJIH B HMeHHTeJIbHOM nane)J(e ynorpefineao MeCTOHMeHHe ennncrsemroro lJMCJIa (JI C Bepoif), rnarOJI asrcryrraer B <popMe ennacraenaoro 'IHCna: J/ C Bepoii II03HaKOMHnCJl Ha tore. Ilpa ,llMCTaHTHOM pacrrOJIO)!(eHHH HMeH rnaron yuorpefinsercx B q,opMe enaacraeaaoro l!MCJIa: HBaH H03HBKOMHJlCR C Bepott ns tore; OH n03HaKOMHJICH C Hett ne tore.

Bonpoc 0 BhI60pe KOHCrpYKUHH .lI,JI5J. BhIpa)!(eHM5J. KOJIJIeKTHBHoro cy6'beKTa ueJIeC006pa3Ho penrars, HCXO,ll5J. H3 era craryca, TaK, pasaoe B BOCrrpM5J.TMH roaopsutero rrOJIO)J(eHl1e nsyx cy6'beKTOB, npasaaaae caMOCT05J.TeJIhHOCTH Ka)!(.lI,Oro M3 HHX .lI,MKryeT He06xo.ll,MMOCTh cMHTaKCHlJeCKOM COlJHHMTeJIhHOM CB513M: J/ H HHKOJIatt 06MCHJlJlHCb enpecsu«. Pa3HhIH craryc cy6'beKTOB, aaneneaae rrepsoro cy6'beKTa npaoparerov [Tpaope Bona, 1992] rpe6Y1OT ynorpetinenaa crpyxrypsr Jl C HHKOJIBeM: J/ 06MeHRJIcR C HHKOJIaCM supeceun. Hexoropsre ysauraecs Y.lI,a'lHO Ha3bIBalOT TaKHe CTPYKTypbI «3fOHCTl1'leCKHMH». Ocofioro BHMMaHIDI rpefiyer 06paIUeHHe K O.ll,HOMY PYCCKOMY "3bIKOBOMY cPeHOMeHY, He HMelOIUeMY CMHTaKCl1'IeCKHX CrpYKTyPHbIX aHaJIOrOB B npyrnx 5J.3hIKax. 3TO KOHCTPYKUH5J. Mbl C HHKOJIBeM (MbI C HHKOJlaCM o6MeHRlIHcb a,apccaMH). 3.l1,ecb cyfisexrsr B BOCrrpM5J.THM rOBOp51IUero Ha.ll,eJI5J.IOTC5J. He TOJIhKO paBeHCTBOM, HO H e,llHHCTBOM, Hepa3pbIBHOCThIO, HepaCTop)J(MMOCThlO.

BrrpeMO)l(eHH51X C B3aHMHO-B03BpaTHhIMH marOJIaMH rrOMHMO neonyureaJIeHHOro cy6'beKTa B rr03HUMH nonnexauiero B HeKOTopbIX cny-raax MO)l(eT ynorpe6JIHThC" H cy6'beKT He-JlMUo: JIeHHHcKHtt IIPOCIICKT nepeceKBeTCH C JIOMOHOCOBCKHM; MOCKOBCKHH KPCMllb IIOCTpoeH TaM, me KOma-TO C./lHBaJIHCb MOCKBa-peKa 11 pexs HerlIHHHaR. fJIarOJIbI B TaKHX npeMO)!(eHH5J.X nepenaior 3HalJeHMe conono)KeHM5J. zrsyx npemreroa B npocrpancrae. OHH OTHOCMTeJIbHO HeMHOrOlJHCJIeHHbI: uepeceKBTbCR, CMbIKBnCH, CJlHBBTbCH. COe,t!HHHTbCR.

Maorae B3aHMHO-B03BpaTHbIe rnaronu MOry! MMeTh KOCBeHHoe <i>aKYJIhTaTHBHoe .llOrrOJIHeHHe /1,pyr C llPyroM (BCTpeY8TbCH /1,pyr C ,apyroM, CCOPHTbCH /1,pyr C 4pyroM. nepel'oBapHBBnCH llPyr C llpyroM): a '{eM BbI TaM neperoBBpHBBeTecb /1,pyr C upyrou? MbI C 6paTOM seems cOBeTyeMcR l!Pyr C upyrou; 3TH YlIHUbI nepeces«« IOTCH spyr C npyrou.

Cnenyer 06paTMTh BHHMaHHe ysauraxca aa TO, 'ITO B .l(aHHoH npeMO)J(HOna.lle)J(HoH KOHCTpYKUHH npennor CTaBHTC5J. BHYTPH CJIOBOCOlJeTaHH51, Me)!(.ll,Y ero

13

'laCT5IMH, TaK xe, KaK H B llPYfHX nanexasrx <p0pMaX: JIPyr 6C3 upyi», JIPyr K JIPYry, JIPyr 0 npyre H T. n.

Tpefiyer pa3b5lCHeHIUI B HHocrpaHHOM: aymrropna ynorpefineaue rJIarOJIOB C03B8HHB8TbCR - C03BOHHTbCR 11 nepe3B8HHB8TbCR. Inaron C npacrasxoa nepeynoTpe6JI5IeTC5I TOJIbKO B <popMe necosepmeaaoro Blllla: MbI gaCTO C Heil ttcpe- 3BaHJ1BaeMCR; Bepa H AHJIpcii BpeMR OT BpeMeHH nepe3BaHHBaJOTCR. <I>opMa COBepurennoro BM.l1,a, xoropaa aepeaxo ynoTpe6JI5IeTCSI B pe'lll HHOCTpaHueB, llJUI aroro rnarona HeB03MO)KHa: "'MbI C Hcil OJIHH pes ncpC3BOHHJlHCb. Inaron C03B8HHB8TbCR - C03BOHHTbCR MO)KeT ynorpe6JI5IThC5I KaK B <POp Me necosepurenaoro saaa, 0603Ha'laSl HeO.l1,HOKpaTHoe llei1cTBHe (06bIgHO ttepen TeM KaK BcrpeTHTbCR, MbI C03BaHHBaCMCH), TaK H B <popMe cosepureaaoro auna llJUI 0603Ha'leHIDI OllHOKpaTnoro .l1,ei1cTBHH ( CeroJIHH BegCpOM MbI 06H3areIIbHO JIOJDKHbI C03BOHHTbCH; j(aBail tiepen BblXOJIOM C03BOHHMCH). KpOMe roro, rJIarOJI C03B8HHBaTbCR - C03BOHHTbCR CO.l1,ep)l(HT .uonOJIHHTeJIbHbIH orreaox CMbICJIa 'llJUI xero', 'llJUI roro, '1T06hI': Korn« BbI sctpeneerecs? JJoKa He 3HaJO, 6y.aeM C03BaHHBaTbCR. 3TOT orreuox CMblCJIa orcyrcrsyer B npeMO)KeHHSlX C rJIarOJIOM nepe3BaHHB8TbCR. I103TOMY HeJIb3S1 CKasars: Kotue BbI sctpcsserecs? - "He 3HaJO, 6YJIeM nepe3BaHHBaTbCH.

Cnenyer HMerb B sany rpYJlHOCTH, C KOTOPblMH MO)KeT CTOJIKHyrbCSI yqamllM.C5I npa ynorperineaan rnarona (no};KeHHTbCRB cHryaUMHX, 0603Ha'lalOmHX O.l1,HOxparnoe ,llei1cTBMe. Cp.: MOH pOJIHTeJIH rrOJKeHHJIHCb B 1979 touy: - Moil OTCI{ )[(eHHJICR B 1979 roJIY. He06xoJll1MO 06paTMTb BHHMaHlle cryaerrroa na ro, 'ITO rJIarOJI JKeHHTbCR ynoTpe6JI5IerCH IIpl1 IIOMe)KameM - HMeHH co 3Ha'leHHeM JIHUa B <popMe eJlHHCTBeHHoro 'lMCJIa: HBaH )[(eHHJlCfI ns MapHH; )[(eHHCb ne MapHH, OHaJIeBymKa xopoiues. O.uHaKO IIPM nonnexaurev, Bblpa)l(eHHOM coseranaex .l1,ByX o.uYllIeBJIeHHbIX HMeH C COlO30M H (HBaH H MapHfI) HJIH O.l1,yuIeBJIeHHbIM HMeHeM BO MHO)KeCTBeHHOM '1HCJIe (po,aHTeJIH, cyttpytn), ynorpetinaerca rnaron C npncraBKOH no-: MOH pounrenn rrO)[(CHHllHCb cme B HHCTHryrC; KaK TOJIbKO OH11 no)[(CHHJIHCb, OHH pCmHJIH xyIIHTb xseptnpy. Y'IeT <pOPMbI nonnexamero n03BOJI5.[er npenorapanrn, pacnpocrpaaeanyio B pe-m HHOCTpaHueB 01lIll6KY: "'MoH POJIHTCJI11 )[(CHHJlHCb, a gCPC3 rOJI POJIHJICR R; *OHH rr03HaKOMHJlHCb JlCTOM, a oceuua )[(CH11JlHCb; "Mot: npyr nO)[(eHHJlCR ne uesytuxe H3 DOJIr8pHH; "'j[ ce osen» J[J06- JI/O H nO)[(eHJOCb Ha Heil.

HY)KHO HMeTb B BllllY TPY,llHOCTll nocnpaarna HHOCTpaHuaMI1 6JIll3KHX no 3BY'-laHl1lO, HO pa3HhIX no 3Ha'leHHlO marOJIOB cnopm» (T. e . .l1,I1CKyrl1pOBaTb, .l1,0- Ka3bIBaTb CBOlO TO'lKY 3peHHH) 11 CCOPHTbCR (T. e. KOH<pJIHKTOBaTb, npaxnonars), I1HocTpaHHbIe CTY.l1,eHTbI '1aCTO He pa3JIH'IaIOT I1X. Pacnpocrpanenaue 0IlIH6KH, 06YCJIOBJIeHHhIe KOHTaMHHaUHeH LJ.BYX <pOPM: "'Pa3rOBOp 6bIJI nnrepecnui», HO Y

14

Hac tiun« pesnuc MHeH11R, MbI CnOpHJIHCb ueJ[blil seuep (BMeCTO cnopHJ1H); "'Mbl C 6paTOM JKHBeM .ap}?KHO H nnxome He cnopHMCH (BMeCTO CCOpHMCR).

3. B03BpaTHbie rnaronsr 3MO,-,IIIM

Cpena marOJIOB na -CH 061lIllPHyIO rpynny COCTaBJIHIOT rnaronsr 3MOU,110HaJIhuoro COCTOSlHMH. I1x '1HCJIO COCTaBJI5.[eT 60JIee 100. OHI1 ynpaBJIHIOT pa3HhIMH na.l1,e)I(HhIMH <popMaMH.

CpaBHHM, nanpmrep, yrrpaanexne marOJIOB, Ka3aJIOCh 6hI, 6JIH3Kl1X ITO ceMaHTHKe: BOCXHmaTbCR My.>KCCTBOM - HO: npeKJIOHRTbCR ttepeu M}?KCCTBOM, B03- MJ'I.I1aTbCR rpy6ocTblO - HO: 3JlHTbCR ne tpytiocrs II T. n.

CYIUeCTBeHHYIO nououn, B 06yqeHllll ITpaBllJIhHOMY yrtpaaneamo marOJIOB 3MOUHH (cpenn KOTOPhIX 3Ha'lllTeJIhHyIO '1aCTb COCTaBJIHlOT B03BpaTHbIe rnaronsi) MO)KeT OKa3aTh KJIaCcH<pHKaUMH M.Jl. KPIO'lKOBOM. [KpIO'IKOBa, 1979]. 3Ta KJIaccH<pHKauml YCTaHaBJII1BaeT npHMyIO 3aBHCHMOCTh ynpaBJIeHHH rnarona OT ero ceMaHTllKH. B csoea xnaccadnrsauan M.J1. KplO'IKOBa HCXO.uHT as roro, 'ITO MHOnte H3 aaanaaapyenux eIO marOJIOB nOJIHCeMll'lHhI H <<ITpe.uCTaBJI5.[IOT C060M. COBOKYITHOCTb OT.ueJIbHhIX 3Ha'leHHH, T. e. JIeKCHKO-ceMaHTll'leCKHH BapHaHT. Ka)l(.lJ.blH ll3 JIeKCHKO-ceMaHTll'leCKllX napaaaros MHOr03Ha'lHOrO CJIOBa crpesorrca 06be.uHHllThCH c 6JIH3KHM eMY no O.uHOH H3 cexr JIeKCHKO-ceMaHTH'IeCKHM BapHaHTOM npyroro MHOr03HaQHOrO CJIOBa» [KpIO'lKOBa, 1979: 8]. M.J1. KpIO'IKOBa BbI.ueJI5.[eT KJIaCCbI rJIarOJIOB, rpynnapya HX no 06meMY ceMaHTH'IeCKOMY rtpaanaxy I10JIaraen, 'ITO 3Ta KJIaCCH<pHKaUHH MO)KeT 6blTb pacumpena aa C'IeT BKJIIO'IeHll51 B aee HOBbIX cevanrauecxax KJIaCCOB, B'laCTHOCTH rnarOJIOB '3aBbIllIeHHOH casrooueaKH' II rJIarOJIOB 'COMHeHI1H H CO)KaJIeHI1H'. npllBe.rr.eM ery KJIaCCH<pI1KaUMIO B03- BpaTHbIX rnarOJIOB 3MOIJ,HM..

1. fJIarOJIbI 'YBJIe'leHHH' (JBReKJlTbCR, H~peCOBJlTbCH, BOCXHLqJlTbCR, BOCTOPr8TbCH, H8CJ1aJK.!{8TbCH, JIJ06oBaTbcR, OlJ8POBMB8TbCR, ynHB8TbCH, nJIeHRTbCR, yMHJ1RTbCR, Boo;zymeBJIHTbCR, B,40XHOBJIHTbCH, rOp,4HTbCR, Y,40BJIeTBOpRTbCH, B03MYmaTbCR). Monens ynpaBJIeHHSI - MMH B T. n. 6e3 rtpennora: OR ynHBaJICH csoett HecgaCTHOil J[J060BbJO 11 OJI11HOgeCTBOM (Kamaee); )[(}[Borr11CbJO OH YBJIeK8eTCR C ,aeTCTBa; Bu usrepecyerecs reetpou?

2. fJIarOJIbI 'YJlHBJIeHllH' (Y4HBJIHTbCR,4HBHTbCH, nOpaJK8TbCR, H3yMJIRTbCR, P8- /{OB8TbCR, yMHJIRTbCR, YJIbI68TbCR, )'JK8CJlTbCR). MO.l1,eJIh ynpaBJIeHHH - HM5I a n, D. 6e3 npeanora: Oteu 06PMOBaJICR HaM (Ilaycmoecxuii); /IopaJKaJOCb isoea nausHOCTH.

15

3. Draronsr 'rrpeKJIOHeHIUI H caMoYHH'IH)I{eHHH' (npeKlIoHRTbCR, repsne», TYIIIeB8TbcH, J'HHlK8TbCR, npeCMblK8TbCH, npH6e,aHRTbCR). Monens yrrpaanenaa - nperoroxno-nanexnaa <popMa nepen + T. D.: IIpeKlIoHRJOCb ttepeu BaIllHM TaJIaHTOM; HeY;KeJIH TbI 6YJ(eIllb ttepei: HHM J'HHlK8TbCH?

4. fJIarOJIbI '3aBbIIIIeHHOH: caaoouenxa' (XB8CT8TbCR, XB8J1HTbCH(pa32.), 383H8- B8TbCH, KHYHTbCR, '1B8HHTbCH.(PG32.), XP8tiPHTbCR, xOPOXOpHTbcR(pa32.), nbDKHTbCH ipase.), PHCOB8TbCH, KP8COB8TbCH, KpHB.1lHTbCH; J10M8TbCH ipase.), BbIOeH,lJ,pHB8TbCH tpase.), Monem, ynpannenns - npennoxao-nanexnaa <popMa nepen + T. D.:

HHKoJIail JI106HT XB8CT8TbCR ttepeu 3HaKOMbIMH CBOHMH YCIIeXaMH; OH 383HaJICH nepen J(PY3bflMH.

5. fJIarOJIbI 'aacueurxa H H3,L1;eBaTeJIbCTBa' (cMeHTbCH, H8CMeX8TbCH, norem8TbCR, H3,aeB8TbCH, H3MblB8TbCH, rJl)'MHTbCR, KYP8lKHTbCH). Mozrens ynpasneHHH - rrpeztnozoro-naztexnas <popMa Han + T. D.: ThI'lTO, H3,aeB8embCH neno MHOil? (U3 pase. perm); Pa60'lHC CO'lYBCTBCHHO nOCMeHBaJIHCb nen CTapHKaMH, )[(aJICH HX H B TO )[(e BpeMH IIOHHMafl BCe ctpeuenns, xotopue BhlIIaJIH HM B KOHue HX J(OJIroil )[(H3HH tF. CeMi/HoB).

6. Inaronsr 'He.uoBOJIbCTBa' (11J1:iK8TbCH, JKaJIOB8TbCH, OfiHlK8TbCR, lIJ'TbCJl, cep,l{HTbCH, 3JJHTbCN, pyr8TbCH, meB8TbcH). Monens ynpaaneuna - npeanoxao-nanexHaH <popMa na+ B. D.: EMYHe HpaBHJIOCb, 'ITO OHa BceM ne BCeXJKaJIyeTCH(TblHllHOB); BhI BIIpaBe cePIQITbCR ne MeHfI (CUMOHOB).

7. Inaronu '605l3HH' (OOHTbCH, 0118C8TbCH, ocreperaTbcR, unsru», CTfJ8JDHTbCH, )'lIGlC8TbCH, CTblJQlTbCH, CTeCHHTbCH, CM)'m8TbCH, CTOPOHHTbCH, ,aH'lHTbCR, rzyp8TbCN, 'IJ'lI(48ThCH). Monens yrrpaBJ1eHIUI - HMH B p. D.: 5l6bIJI tineronepen JfBaHOBY ss TO, 'ITO OH OT)"IHJI uen» OT IIPHBhI'lKH creCHHTbCH iTPOCTbIX Bemeii (IlaycmoeCKUU); One tiOHJI8Cb uerepn no nposa: B KOJIeHKax (TbIHflHOB).

8. fJIarOJIbI '6eCrrOKOH:CTBa' (fiecnoKoHTbCH, BOJlHOB8TbCH, TpeBOJKHTbCH, fiOHTbCH, on8C8TbCH, CtP8HIHTbCH, nyraTbcH). Monens ynpaanexas - npennoxHo-rra.ue)l{HaH <popMa 33 + B. D.: J/3a sse TaK fieCI10KOHJl8Cb, TaK fieCnOKOHJl8Cb iKamaeev; Y)[(aCHO TpeBOJK)'Cb ss Te6fl (MaRKoBcKUU).

9. Inaronsr '3a6oTbI, BOJlHeHHH H nesanu': a) 38fiOTHTbCH, l1e'lbcH(pa32.) (oxeas 3a6oTHTbC5I), BOJlHOB8TbCH, 6ecnoKoHTbCH, TpeBOlKJlTbCR. Monem, ynpaanenaa - npenncxno-nanexnaa <popMa 0 + D. D.: Oteu 6eCnOKOHTCH 0 uosepn; 6) rnaronsr «rpyCTHOH:» ceMaHTHKH: l1e'laJIHTbCH, KPyrIHHHTbCH, COCKyrIHTbCR. Monens ynpanJIeHHH - npennoaoro-nanexaax <popMa 0 + D. D. HJIH DO + .[1;. D.: TaHfI COCKyrIHJ18Cb no J(OM}'. C MeCTOHMeHHHMH 1-ro H 2-ro JIHua MH. q. - DO + D. D.: Jl COCKY'1HJlCH no sse.

16

10. fJIarOJIbI 'cOMHeHH5I H CO)l{aJIeHH5I' (coMHeB8TbcH, P830'l8POBblB8TbCH, p8- 3YBepHThcH, H3BepHTbCH, 06M8HhlB3TbCH, P3CK3HB8TbCR). Monem, ynpanneaua _ rrpe,UJIO)l{HO-rra.ue)l{HaH rpyrma B + D. D.: OH P830'l3POBaJICH B p860Te' He COMHe-

v '

B3JOCb B seiueu ttpssore.

PH.u rJIarOJIOB B HeKOTopbIX ceMaHTHqeCKHX xnaccax H~aeTCH B .uorrOJIHHTeJIbHhIX KOMMeHTapHHx. TaK, B ceMaHTHqeCKOM xnacce marOJIOB '3a60TbI BOJI-

, ,

HeHHH H nexamr CJIOBa «nesansnor« ceMaHTHKH (COCKyqHTbCfI, IIe'laJIHTbCJI,

KPY'lHHHThCfI) MMeJOT BapHaHT yrrpaanexaa DO + .[1;. D. (COCK}"lHThCfI IIO POMY):

J/ IIpHeXaJI ctons HeaaBHO, HO )'.JKe COCKY'lHlICJI no POMY. ,LJ,JHI MeCTOHMeHMH: 1- ro H 2-ro JIHua MHO)l(eCTBeHHoro qHCJIa CYIIIeCTByeT Mo.ueJIb DO + D. D.: BhI no Hac COCKY'lHJIHCh?; Jl COCKy'lHlICfI IIO sec. Cnenyer raxxe 06paTHTb BHHMaHMe ysaumxcs na aHOMaJIMIO BH.uOBOH: napsi CKY'l8Th - COCKY'lHThCfI, me B03BpaTHbIM HBMeTC5I TOJIbKO rnaron COBepIIIeHHoro sana, a COOTHOCHTeJIbHbIH: C HHM BH,UOBOH: KOppeJIHT He~.OBepIIIeHHoro BH.ua npencrannen HeB03BpaTHbIM rnarcnow. YqeT eroro ¢aKTa ziaer B03MO)l(HOCTb npenorsparnrs xacrsre B peqH HHOCTpaHueB OIIIH6KH rana *1/ CKY'la1OCb IIO J(OMY.

Hexoropue rnaronu MOryT asrcrynars B pa3HbIX ceMaHTMqeCKHX xnaccax, TaK, nanpavep, 06CTOHT .ueJIO C rJIarOJIaMH fiecnOKOHTbCH, BOJlHOB8TbCH, TpeBOlKHTbCH. Bstcrynaa B COCTaBe ceMaHTHqeCKOrO KJIaCca rJIaroJIOB '3a60TbI BOJIHeHHH rre-

, , ,

qaJIH , OHM COqeTaIOTCH C HMeHaMH, Ha3bIBaIOlUHMM 06beKT (rro TepMHHOJIOfMM

r.A. 30JlOTOBOH - 06beKTHo-.ueJIH6epaTHBHaH CHHTaKceMa [30JIOTOBa, 1988: 374- 375]). B 3TOM cnysae OHM MMeIOT Mo.ueJIb ynpaBJ1eHMH 6ecnOKOHTbCJI 0 KOM.

T~ )l{e r~aroJIbI MOryT OTHOCMTbC5I M K ceMaHTMqeCKOMY xnaccy marOJIOB '6ecrrOKOMCTBa . 3n:eCb aa aaaxemre n:eJIM6epaTMBa HaCJIaMBaeTC5I eiue H sna-renae Kaysaropa [30JIOTOBa, 1988: 362], rrosozia xaxoro-ro qYBCTBa, M rnaron B 3TOM CJIy'Me yrrpasnaer <pOPMOH 33 + B. D.: 6eCIIOKOHTbCfl, TpeBOJKHTbCfI, BOJIHOB8TbCfl 38 .l(O'lh; cp. raxxe: ctpeiunrscn sa nom; ncttyrsrscs ss ucn» (HO: "nytnrscs 0 Posepn, *oIIacaTbcfl o uosepn).

Pasasre ceMaHTMqeCKMe BapMaHTbI MMeeT M rnaron 60HTbCH. B O.uHOM cnyxae ~H BXO.uMT B xnacc marOJIOB '605l3HM' M HMeeT npn ce6e 06beKT B <popMe p. D.

ea npennora co 3HaqeHMeM MCTOqHMKa onacnocra, roro, qTO MO)l(eT rrpWIMHllTh spen: 60flTbCfl c06aK, XOJIo.aa, tposu. B ztpyrov cnyxae OH BXO.uMT B xnacc rnaroJiOB '6eCrrOKOH.CTBa' C yrrpaBJI5JeMOH. <pOPMOH. aa + B. D., MMeIOlUeH. 3Ha'1eHMe 'npenMeT 6ecnOKOHCTBa', MJIH TO, 'ITO MO)l(eT rrony-nrn, npen, Cp.: 1/ 6010Cb M01jJ03a. _

J/6 .. C

010Cb ss csoe rOPJIo. nenyer OTMeTMTb, 'ITO sa MMeHeM, BbICTYrraIOIUMM B nan-

HoH. CTpYKType B <popMe 33 + B. D., CKpbIBaeTC5I uenas cMTyaUM5I. 0603HaqaeMOe 11M nOHHTMe MMeeT nenocpencrsenno OTHOIIIeHMe K cy6beKTY, COCTaBJIHeT npen-

2_ 98

17

MeT ero 3aJ1HTepeCOBaHHOCTM: Jl60/OCb ss CBOe topno (= Y MeH.SI 60JIbHOe ropno, M.SI 601OCb, qTO MOry rrpocrymrrsca); Jl60/OCb se CBO/o CYMK)'(= 51 Mory noreP.SlTb, 3a6blTb, acnauxars, nopaars CYMKY). Onpenenars rrpMHa,uJIe)I(HOCTb rnaroJIa K TOMY MJIM MHO My ceMaHTMqeCKOMY xnaccy M Y.SICHMTb TaKMM 06pa30M MO.lleJIb yrrpaBJIeHM.SI MHOCTpaHeu CMO)KeT 6e3 rpyna, eCJIH rrpe.ll)10)KHTb eMY conocrasars 06beKTbI nsyx PO.llOB, OTHOC.SIIUMXC.SI K marOJIY 60HTbCH: (MOp03 - suoposse, nosau; 6eJIbe ne 6aJIKOHe, sscyxs - ypo)f(aii H T. rr.).

B qMCJIO rnaronos 3MOUHOHaJIbHOrO COCTOHHM.SI BXO.llMT6oJIblllOe KOJIMqeCTBO rnarorrsasrx rrap, COOTHOCMTeJIbHbIX rro rrpH3HaKY nepexonaocrn/uenepexonnocnr (B03M)'ll(RTb - B03MymRTbCH, )'B.IleKRTb - )'B.IleKRTbCH, BOCXHll{RTb - BOCXHll{RTbCH, Y/l.HBJIHTb - YllHBJlHTbCH, pa,aOBRTb - pa,aOBRTbCH, H3)'MJIHTb - H3)'MJIHTbCH, 06HlKRTb - 06HlKRTbCH, 3JIHTb - 3JIHTbCH, nyrRTb - nyrRTbCH, CTPRHIHTb - CTPRHIHTbCH, CMJ71(RTb - CM]'ll{RTbCH, 6eCnOKOHTb - 6eCnOKOHTbCH, ne'laJIHTb - ne'laJIllTbCH M np.). B yqe6Hblx uenax ueJIeC006pa3HO npencraears CJIoBoo6pa30BaTeJIbHble ocofieaHOCTM marOJIOB pa3HbIX ceMaHTMqeCKMX KJIaCCOB B BH,lle Ta6JIHUbI.

Oco6eHHOCTM ynoTpe6neHMR -Cs:I

y rnaronoa 3MO~MM pa3HbiX CeMaHTMLleCKMX Kl1aCCOB

Cl)0pMa rnarona
CeMaHTH'ieCKHM xnacc He ynoTpe6nSleTcSl YnoTpe6nSleTcSI H C -Cs:I
6e3 -Cs:I H 6e3 -Cs:I
1. rnaronbl 'YBne'ieHHSI' HaCJ1a)K.IJ;aTbC.SI YBJIeKaTb( C.SI)
yrrMBaTbC.SI o-rapossrearst C.SI)
JI106oBaTbC.SI HHTepeCOBaTb( C.SI)
rOp.llMTbC.SI BOCXHIUaTb(C.SI)
BOCTopraTb(C.SI)
fIJ1eH.SITb(C.SI)
YMMJ1.S1Tb( C.SI)
BOO.llYllleBJI.SITb( C.SI)
B.llOXHOBJI.SITb( C.SI)
B03MYIUaTb( C.SI)
Y.llOBJIeTBOp.SlTb(C.SI) 18

IIpoaOJIJlCeHue matinuuu

Cl)0pMa rnarona
CeMaHTH'ieCKHM xnacc He ynoTpe6nSleTcSl YnoTpe6nSleTcSI H C -Cs:I
6e3 -Cs:I H 6e3 -Cs:I
2. rnaronbl 'YAHBneHHSI' YJIbI6aTbC.SI Y.llMBmlTb( CH)
,llMBMTbC.SI nopaxarst CH)
M3YMJIHTb( CH)
YMHJI.SITb(C.SI)
panosarst C.SI)
vxacarstca)
3. rnaronbl 'npeKnOHeHHSI rrpeKJIOHHTbC.SI YHM)KaTb( C.SI)
H caMoYHH'iHlKeHHSI' Tep.SlTbCH
TYllleBaTbC.SI
npecsruxarsca
4. rnaronbl '3aBblweHHoM XBaCTaTbC.SI XBaJIMTb( C.SI)
cassoo u eHKH' 3a3HaBaTbC.SI
KMqHTbCH
qBaHMTbC.SI
xpa6pHTbC.SI
pMcOBaTbC.SI
KpacOBaTbC.SI
J10MaTbCH
KPHBJI.SlTbCH
xOPOXOPMTbC.SI
ITbI)KHTbC.SI
BbIIIeH.llpl1BaTbC.SI 19

Ilpooonxcenue matinuuu

t1)opMa rnarona
CeMaHTH~eCKHH xnacc He ynoTpe6nSleTcSI YnoTpe6nSleTcSI H C -C~
6e3 -C~ H 6e3 -C~
5. rnaronbl 'HacMewkH H CMeHThCH noreuiarstcn)
H3AeBaTenbcTBa' YXMhlJUlThCH
HaCMexaThCH
113)l.eBaThC5I
113MhIBaThCH
mYMI1ThcH
K)'pa)l(I1TbCH
6. rnaronbl )lYTbCH 0611)1(aTb( CH)
, HeAoBonbCTBa' nJIaKaThCH pyraTb( CH)
3JI06HThC5I 3JII1Th( C5I)
)l(aJIOBaThC5I CepJl.I1Tb( CH)
7. rnaronbl '60Sl3HH' 60HTbC5I nyraTb( CH)
onacarsca CTpaUIMTb( C5I)
oCTeperaThC5I ~acaTb( CH)
CTOPOHI1TbCH CThlJl.I1Tb( C5I)
Jl.I1'HlThCH cMymaTh( C5I)
'I~aTbCH
'IypaThcH
8. rnaronbl 605IThCH 6eCnOK0I1Tb( CH)
'6ecnoKoHcTBa' onacarscs BOJIHOBaTh(cH)
rpeBO)l(I1Th( C5I)
crpaurnrst CH)
nyrarsr C5I) 20

OKOH"taHue matinuuu

t1)opMa rnarona
CeMaHTH~ecKHH KJ1acc He ynoTpe6nSleTcSI YnoTpe6nSleTcR M C -C~
6e3 -C~ H 6e3 -C~
9. rnaronbl '3a6oTbl, ne'IhC5I 3a60TI1Th( C5I)
BonHeH11U1 M ne~anM' KPy'!HHHTbC5I BOJIHOBaTb(C5I)
COCKy'!HThC5I fiecnoxoarst C5I)
TpeBO)I(MTh( C5I)
ne'IaJII1Tb( CH)
10. rnaronbl 'coMHeHMSI H COMHeBaThC5I paaosapoasraarsf CH)
cOlKaneHMR' 113Bep11ThC5I pa3yaep5ITb(C5I)
paCKa5ITbCH 06MaHbIBaTh( C5I) Maorne rriaronsr, COOTHOC5IIUl1eCH no npl13HaKY nepexonaocrs/aenepexonHOCTh, 06pa3YIOT B COCTaBe npeD)lO)l(eHI15I CI1HOHI1MI1'leCKI1M pan, COCT05IIUHM H3 4erbJpeX 'IJIeHOB: Jl y,aHBHJlCJl ee 6eCne'lHOCTH; Jl6blJJ YJIHBJIeH ee 6eCne'lHOcTbJO; OHa J'JIIfBHJla MeHJl ceoeit 6eCne'lHOCTbJO; Ee 6eCne'lHOCTb MeHJl YJIHBHJla.

YnOTpe6JIeHHe rtpennoxeaaa TOM HJII1I1HOM crpyxrypst <PYHKUI10HaJIhHO ofiycJlOBJIeHO. PaCCMOTpl1M 60JIee nOJl.p06HO Ka)l(Jl.YIO 113 3TI1X CTpYKTYP.

JI Y,!{HBHJlCH ee 6eCneYHOCTH.

CTPYKTYPbI C B03BpaTHbIMH rJIarOJIaMH 06Hap~I1BaIOT paaaoofipaaae yrrpasJmeMbIX naztexnux <pOPM I1MeHI1. KaK H3BeCTHO, 3Ta <popMa 3aBI1CHT OT npana)lJIe)l(HOCTH rnarona K TOMY HJIH HHOMY ceMaHTH'leCKOMY xnaccy ('YBJIeQeHH5I', ~YJl.HBJIeHH5I', 'HeJl.OBOJIhCTBa', '605I3HH', '6ecnOKOMCTBa', '3a60TbI, BOJIHeHHH 11 neQaJIH'): Jl YBJIeKaJOCb (jJHJlaTeJlHeii (T. II.); Jl Y,!{HBJIJlJOCb tsoett HaHBHOCTH (a, n.); OH 06H,aeJlCH ne TBOH CJIOBa (na + p. n.); OH ncttyrencs rsoero B3FJIHP.a (p. n.); Jl6ecnOKOJOCb se HCXOJI 3TOro uene (aa + B. n.); Iletp TpeBO){(HTCJl 0 6pare (0 + n. n.).

OHa Y,!{HBHJIa MeHH cBoeii 6eCneYHOCThlO.

Ee 6eCneYHOCTh Y,!{HBHJla MeHH.

Ka)l(Jl.YIO 113 3TI1X crpyxryp xapaxrepnayer onna 11 'ra xe oc06eHHOCTb - Jl.BOMCTBeHHbIM crrocof 0603Ha'IeHHH npH'IHHhI.

21

3Ta .n;Boi1cTBeHHOCTb cnoco6a ssrpaxena» npWIMHhI 06YCJ10BJIeHa CBOMCTBOM QeJ10Be'IeCKOM: nCMXMKM. ITo YTBep)!(.LJ;eHMIO H.,ll. APYTIOHOBOM:, 'IeJ10Be'IeCKaH nCMXMKa YCTPOeHa TaK, 'ITO J1IO.n;M CKJ10HHbl MCKaTb MCTO'IHMK CBOMX 3MOUMM: He CTOJ1bKO B 06'beKTMBHOM: CMzyaUMM, CKOJ1bKO B npyrnx J1IO.n;HX. «TaK, napany C J10mKOM, YCTaHaBJ1MBalOllleM 3aKOHbl npaBMJ1bHOrO pa3BMTMH MbICJ1M, B H3bIKe OTPa)!(aeTCH )!(MTeMCKaH J10rMKa, YCTaHaBJIMBaIOIUaH CTepeOTMn 'IeJ10Be'IeCKOrO nOBe.n;eHMH» [ApYTIOHOBa, 1976: 154]. 3Ta nsoncmeanocn, npnpoznr nCMXM'IeCKMX COCTOHHMM, MX opMeHTaUMH TO na C06bITMH, TO na J1MUO - npM'IMHY 3TMX C06bITMM: «onpeaeneaHblM 06pa30M OTpa)!(aeTCH M «na rpasoaarnxe 'IYBCTB». CeMaHTI1'IeCKaH .n;BOM:CTBeHHOCTb rnarona 060pa'IMBaeTCH ero CMHTaKCM'IeCKOM .n;BoMCTBeHHOCTblO» [TaM )!(e: 155], 'ITO rrpOHBJIHeTCH B B03MO)!(HOCTM COBMeIUeHMH B O.n;HOM CTPYKTYpe MMeHI1 J1Mua M Ha3BaHMH C06bITMH (OHB YAHBHJIB MeHH CBoeH HBHBHOCTblO). «ITpM'IMHa TeM caMbIM pa3.n;BaMBaeTCH aa J1MUO-BMHOBHMKa M Co6bITl1e-rrpM'IMHY» [TaM )!(e]. Ilpa 3TOM MMH J1Mua-BMHOBHI1Ka 3aHMMaeT rr03MUMIO nonnexautero, a C06bITMHnpH'IHHbI - .n;orrOJ1HeHMH B TBOpMTeJ1bHOM rraaexe: IIymKHH IIOpa)[(aJI scex CBOHMll rJry60KHMH H pa3HOCTOpOHHHMH 3HBHHHMH (H. TUXOHoe); IIymKHH IIOpa3HJI MeHfJ. CBOHM KOJI,aOBCKHM npOJIoroM K «PyCJIaHY» (EYHUH); OH PHCOBaJI aKBapeJIbIO -ll IIJIeHHJI MeHH CTpaCTHOH Me'IToii CTaTb )[(HBOIIHCaeM (EYHUH).

ITpeMO)!(eHHH 3TOM: CTPYKTYPbI CTHJ1I1CTM'IeCKM HeMTPaJIbHbl. YCBoeHMe I1X 06h1'IHO He npencrannaer Tpy.n;HOCTeM MH MHOCTpaHHbIX yqaIUMXCH.

DOJ1ee CJ10)KHbIMM .LJ;J1H HHOCTPaHHbIX crynerrron OKa3bIBalOTCH npeMO)KeHMH sroporo THna: C nOMe)KaIUHM - C06bITI1MHbIM MMeHeM CO 3Ha'IeHMeM npnuaHbI: Ee 6eCneYHOCTb y,aHBHJIa MeHH. OpMeHTalJ,MH 60J1bIIIMHCTBa nnnoeeporteaCKHX H3bIKOB na TaKMe CMHTaKCH'IeCKMe nOCTpoeHMH, rne B eCTeCTBeHHOM pe'IH HOCMTeJ1eH: H3bIKa n0311UMH nOMe)KaIUerO 3aHHTa 06bI'IHO CYllleCTBMTeJ1bHbIMM CO 3Ha'IeHMeM J1Mua, npnnonjrr K TOMY, 'ITO yqaIUMMcH 6bIBaeT TPy.n;HO CTPOI1Tb npenJ10)!(eHHH C nOMe)KaIUHM - MMeHeM APyrHX KaTerOpHH:. Ho nOCKOJ1hKY HHOCTPaHnsre ysaunreca .n;OJ1)KHhI OCBOMTb pa3J1I1'IHhIe CPYHKUHOHaJIhHble CTHJ1M, MX neofiXO.n;MMO HayqMTb CTPOI1Tb npeMO)!(eHHH He TOJ1bKO C nOMe)!(aIUMM - J1HUOM, HO H C nOMe)KaIUMM - HMeHeM a6CTPaKTHOM: ceMaHTMKM: MeHH JIOpa3HJIO 06HJlHf IOJKHOro CBeTB (Ilaycmoecsuiiv; B Jlyrauo HX IIOpa3HJI COBceM HTaJIbHHCKItH X8PBKrep ropO,aB (Kamaees. ITpeMO)!(eHMH 3TOM crpyxrypu 06Hap~MBaIOT OT'IeTJ1MBOe THfOTeHHe K KHIDKHOM pe-ru.

JI y,aHBJIeH ee 6eCneYHOCTblO.

Illnpoxoe pacnpocrpaaeune B pena MMelOT CTPYKTYPhI C KpaTKMMM crpanaTeJ1bHbIMH npH'IaCTHHMH, 06pa30BaHHbIMH OT rrepcxonaux mar0J10B 3MOUHOHaJIb-

22

uoro COCTOHHHH: Jl HHlJYTb He 6blJI 3TlfM oropyeH (Flaycmoectcuii); JI 6blJI B3BOJIHOB8H CJIyglfBIIIHMCH (CUMOHoe).

3TH CTPYKTYPbI MMelOT nOCTOHHHYIO CPOPMY. I1MH CO 3Ha'IeHMeM J1HUa ynorpe6J1HeTCH B cpopMe HMeHMTeJIbHorO naaexa; CJIOBO, 0603Ha'Ia1OIUee 3MOlJ,MOHaJIbHOe COCTOHHHe, BbIpa)KaeTCH KpaTKMM CTPa.uaTeJIbHbIM npW'IaCTMeM; MMH, 0603Ha'Ia1OIUee npW'IHHy eroro COCTOHHMH, scerna yrrOTPe6JIHeTCH B cpopMe TBOpHTeJIbHoro nanexa, He3aBHCHMO OT ynpaaneaaa rnarona, OT xoroporo 06P.a30BaHO nanaoc npH'IaCTMe. Cp.: nop83HTbCJI, YJOlBHTbCJI, 06P;UOB8TbCJI(EfeMY?), HCnyraTbCJI, CM)'THTbCJI (Efe20?); B3BOJIHOBaTbCJi, o6eCnOKOHTbCJI, BCTf!:BOlKHTW:! (0 KOM?); 06I1,l{eTbCJI, 0603JIHTbCJI, pBcCepJOlTbCJI (na K020?); HO: HOpaJKeH, YJOIBJIeH, o6pM_~BaH, Hcnyr8H, cMymeH, B3BOJIHOB8H, 06eCHOKoeH, BCTpeBOlKeH, 0611lKeB, 0603JIeH, pacceplKeH (EfeM 'I).

Hazro y-nrrsmars, 'ITO AaHHbIe CTPYKTYPbI HMelOT OT'IeTJIHBO BbIpa)KeHH~ CTHJ1MCTM'IeCKYIO 06YCJIOBJ1eHHOCTb. OHM IIIHPOKO ynOTPe6MTeJ1bHbI B KHH)KHOH pe-m, B )KaHpe OCPMUl-laJIbHo-.n;eJIOBOM: nepenacxn: 06Il.(eCTBeHHOCTb ueiuero paH~ns otiecttoxoeue COCTOHHHeM HCTOpHlJeCKHX JIaMHTHHKOB; JI rnytioxo B03MyraeH IIHCbMOM HHJKeHepa Iletposa; JI,oporott M3Tp H npyt! J[ 6e3MepHO B3BOJIHOBaH BamHM 60JIee lJeM apsrouennuu IIo,aapKOM (Bptocoe).

OT 60J1bIIIHHCTBa nepexonaux mar0J10B 3MOlJ,HOHaJIbHOrO COCTOHHMH MO)KHO 06pa30BaTb KpaTKHe crpanarensasre npn-racrna, HO MHor.n;a 3TO HeB03MO)!(HO. B OAHMX CJ1yqaHX orpaHM'IeHHH na 06pa30BaHHe KpaTKHX CTPa.uaTeJIbHbIX npasacTHH: 06'b5ICHHIOTCH MOPCPOJIOrH'IeCKMMM npM'IMHaMH. TaK, He MO)!(eT 6bITb 06pa30- BaHO xparxoe CTPa.n;aTeJIbHOe npaaacrne OT rnarona )'lKHCH}'Tb. B npyrax cnysasx 3TO MorYT 6bITb CTHJIMCTM'IeCKMe orpaHM'IeHHH. Hanpnvep, MaJIoynoTPe6HTeJIbHa <popMa xparxoro CTPa.uaTeJIbHOrO npM'IaCTMH OT rnarona 3aHHTepeCOB~Tb: l!033HH sennrepecossne MeHH eIl.(e B ,aeTCTBe. - *J[ 6blJI 3aHHTepeCOBBH II033Helf etue B uetCTBe (BMeCTO: J[ 3aHHTepeCOBaJICH JI033Hett eIl.(e B ,aeTCTBe). OT xparxoro crpanarem-aero rrpH'IaCTHH 38HHTepeCOB8H cneaver OTJIM'IaTb 6JIH3KOe no 3BY'IaHHIO M no <popMe xparxoe npanararensaoe 3BHHTepeCOBBH e EfeM. Kparxoe npanararensHoe 38HHTepeCOB8H e EfeM BKJ1IO'IaeT B CBOIO ceMaHTM'IecKYIO CTPYKTYPY 3JIeMeHT CMbICJIa 'XOTeTb, H~aTbCH B 'IeM-JIM6o', xoroporo HeT B 3Ha'IeHHH rnarona HBrepecossrs, HHTepeCOB8Tb(ca) M xparxoro CTpa.uaTeJIbHOrO npH'IaCTHH 3aHHTepeCOBaH. Cp.: MeHfI 3alfHTepeCOBaJI 3TOT 3KCIIepIIMeHT. / J[ 3allHTepeCOBaJICH 3THM 3KcnepHMeHTOM; J[ 6bIJI 3allHTcpeCOBaH 3TlfM 3KcnepHMeHTOM. (MHe 3TOT 3KCnepIIMeHT nnrepecen.) - J[ 3allHTepeCOBaH B 3TOM 3KcnepHMCHTe. (3TOT 3KCIIepHMeHT MHe BaJKeH 11 HYJKeH, OH HMeeT JIpaKTHlJCCKYIO aCHHOCTb.)

23

4. B03BpaTHbie rnaronsi KonM~eCTBeHHbIX M Ka~eCTBeHHbIX M3MeHeHHM (AeKaY3aTMBHble maronsr]

DOJlbWYIO rpyrrny rnaronon B PYCCKOM $I3bIKe COCTaBJl$llOT B03BpaTHhle rnaroJlbI co 3HalJeHHeM KOJlHlJeCTBeHHbIX 11 KaqeCTBeHHbIX 113MeHeHHH Tl1na )'BeJ1HYHBaTbCJI, )'MeHbHIaTbCJI, y.rryqHIaTbcJll1 T. n. B03BpaTHble rnaronu KOJlHlJeCTBeHHbIX H KaqeCTBeHHhlX H3Mel1eHHH ynorpefiarensnu BO scex crpepax pesra - 6hITOBOH, ny6JlHUHCTHqeCKOH, 0<pHUHaJlbHO-lIeJlOBoH. Hurepec K 3TOti ITp06JIeMe ITOCTOJIHHO nOBblHIaerCJl; Teuttcpsrype eosayxs K Be'lepy nOHH3HTCJl; COTPYJ(HH'IeCTBO Me)f(J!}' nsuuoo: YHHBepCHTeTaMH nOCTOJIHHO paCHIHpJleTCJl.

B03BpaTHbIe rnaronsr KOJlHlJeCTBeHHblX 11 KaqeCTBeHHhIX H3MeHeHHH xapaxTep113YlOT lIeHcTBHe, $IBJleHHe, rrpenver C pa3HhIX CTOpOH.

Inaronst KOJIHqeCTBeHHblX H3MeHeHHH 0603HaqalOT KaK H3MeHeHHe paanepa Bo06111e ()'BeJIHYHBaTbCJl, YMeHbHI3TbCJI, YMHOJK3TbCJI, COKpalI(aTbCJl), TaK H H3MeHeHH$I OTneJIhHhlX rrapaaerpos - BhICOThI (noBblHIaTbCJl, nOHIDK3TbCJI, CHJDKaTbCJl), ,WIHHhI (YMHHHTbCJl, )'KOpaYHBaTbCJI), WHpHHhI (paCHIHpJlTbCH, Cy;KaTbCH), my- 611HhI (ymy6JlJ1TbcJl), CKOPOCTH (YCKOPHTbCJl, y6blCTPJlTbCJl, 3aMeMJlTbCJI): B 3TOM TOllY tnpesc JKy]JHaJIa )'BeJIHYHJICJl; Y'leHble C tpeeotott OTMe'lalOT, 'lTO B IlOCJIellHlJe J(eCJITHJIeTHJI tesatepetyps ne ITJIaHeTe nOBb/HIaeTCJI; Y'leJIOBeKa, KOTOPblti MaJIO llBHraeTCJI, pa60TOCIlOCo6HOCTb 6bICTpO CHJDKaeTCJl.

Inaronsr KaqeCTBeHHbIX H3MeHeHl1H TaIOKe MOryr XapaKTepH30BaTh 06beKT B TIJlaHe 06111eH OueHKH «<XOpOWHe» HJlH «rrnoxne», n03HTHBHhle HJIH neraraaaue 113MeHeHHH) - Y.llJ"lHIaTbCJl, YXYl1IllaTbCJl, H co CTOPOHhI KOHKpeTHhIX H3MeHeHHH (CHJIhI, npOlJHOCTH, TOqHOCTH, ueasr, CJIO)l{HOCTH, neca H rn.) - YKpenJlJlTbCJI, YCHJlHB3TbCJl, ynPOYHJlTbCH, OCJIa6J1JlTbCJI, yroYHJlTbCJl, y,aOPOllGlTbCJl, y,aeHIeBJIJlTbCJl, YCJlOJKHJlTbCJI, ynPOlU3TbCJI, YKPynHJlTbCJI, )'TJlJKeJIJlTbCJI, o6JIerrIaTbcJI, 060Ta1U3TbCJI, 06e/UlJlTbCJI, OYHlI(aTbCJl H T. zt.: B xOJ(e J(HCKyCCIJH pa3HOrJIaCHJI Me)!(JJY suctyne- 1011(HMH 060CTPHJIHCb; OTHOllleHHJI Me)f(Jzy netunun CTpaHaMH 3Ha'lHTeJIbHO yJIyqIHHJIHCb; K KOHlI.Y J(HJI serep YCH.!IHJlCJI.

B npeztnoxenasx C rnaronava naHHOH ceMaHTHKH nonnexamee 'lame scero - aficrpaxraoe cymecrnarem.aoe co 3HaqeHl1eM HBJleHHH, lIeHCTBl1$1 HJIl1 npouecca: ilPOTHBOpeYHJl Me)!(JJy rpymtnpossnun YFfry6JIHIOTCfl; lfHCJIeHHOCTb HaCeJIeHHfl B 3TOM psttonc yuensuieetcs; MaCTepCTBO XYllO)f(HHKa IlOBbICHJIOCb; Ilpouecc Bbl- 31IOpOBJIeHHH 60JIbHOrO 3aMellJIIJJICfl.

B POJlH rronnexauiero TaIOKe ynoTpe6JlHIOTC$I KOHKpeTHhle neonytueanenrrste HMeHa: Iiopore 3lleCb psctunpnercs; OT perynnpnux cjJH31J'IeCKHX TpeHHpOBOK MbllHQbl YKpenJIfllOTCJI. He ynoTpe6JUIIOTC$I B 3TOH n03HUHH HMeHa co 3Ha'IeHHeM nnua: *CnopTcMeH YCHJIlfJICR; * Pe6eHoK YJI)"lllIHJICR.

24

B03BpaTHhIM rnaronau KOJlHqeCTBeHHbIX H KaqeCTBeHHblX H3MeHeHHH COOTseTCTBYIOT nepexolIHble marOJIb!: YJI]"IHl3TbCJI - YJIyrJHl3Tb, YXY.l{U13TbCH - YXYAmaTb, paCHIHpJlTbCJI - paCHIHpHTb, nOBblHIaTbCJI - nOBbllHaTb, CHIDKJlTbCJI - CHIDKJlTb, yMeHbHIaTbCJl- )'MeHbHIaTb H T. n.: Meptupyr aBT06yca YMHHHJlCJI. - Meptupyr aBro6yca YMHHHJlH; TeMaTHKa xcypHaJIa paCHIHpHJI3Cb. - )/(ypHaJI P3CHlHPHJI TeM8THKY; Y CTyJ(CHTOB nOBblCH.!I3Cb CTHnCHJ]HJI. - Cryueuteu nOBblCHJIH CTHrrCHj]HIO.

Ha1160Jlee TPYJJ:HhIM llIDI anocrpaunee HBJUIeTC$I YHCHeHHe MOP<POJIOmqeCKOH q,OPMbI rnarona B COCTaBe npe,WIO)l{eHH$I, BhI60p onnoro H3 nsyx rnaronos, COOTHOCHlllHXCSl no npH3HaKY rrepexonaocrs/aenepexonaocrs. KaKoBhI Kpl1TepMM pasrpaHl1lJeHH$I B peql1 B03BpaTHbiX M nepexonasix marOJIOB llaHHoH ceMaHT11KH?

OnbIT pa60TbI B HHocrpaHHoH aYlIl1TopMM nOKa3bIBaeT, 'ITO rrpn otiparnenan K naHHOH JIeKCHKO-ceMaHTHlJeCKOH rpynne rnaronos Ha1160Jlee onpaanaansnr HBMeTCSI nonxon, Y'IHTbIBafOml1H: conepxarensnsre xapaKTepHCTMKM rnarona.

fJIarOJIbI co 3HaqeHHeM KOJIHqeCTBeHHbIX H KaqeCTBeHHbIX H3MeHeHHH MO)f(HO pa31IeJIHTb aa nse rpynrru B COOTBeTCTBl1l1 C Bblpa)l{aeMbIM 3HaqeHHeM: 'nenars KaKHM' (nOBblHIJlTb = ztenars BbIlIIe; CHIDKJlTb = nenars HM)I{e; YXYl1IllaTb = nenars xyxe; paCHIHPJlTb = nenars 11l11pe, )'BeJ1HYHBaTb = nenars 60JlblIIe) If 'CTaHOBHTbCSI KaKHM' (nOBbI1HaTbCJI= CTaHOBl1TbCH: asnue, CHlf)KJJTbCH= CTaHOBHTbCH: HIDKe, yxy,am3TbCH= CTaHOBHThCSI xyxe, paCHIHpJlTbCJI= CTaHOBMTbCSllIIl1pe, )'BeJ1HYHBaTbCJI= CTaHOBHTbCSI 60JIbwe). Draronsr, nepeaaiounre saaseaae 'nenars KaKHM', TaK nassmaesrue KaY3aTHBHbIe rnaronsr, HMelOT q,OPMY rrepexozmoro rnarona: MOCKOBCKHti YHHBCPCHTCT P3CIHHpHeT COTPYllHIJ'lCCTBO C upyrnu« By:JaMH; FOCYllapCTBO )'BeJ1H'lHBaeT nouotus MHorOJ(eTHbIM CCMbJlM.

B 06pa30BaHHH rnaronos co 3HaqeHHeM 'CTaHOBHTbCSI Kal<HM', HJIH nexaysaTHBHblX rJIarOJlOB [HenSlJlKOB, CHllbHHUKHH, 1969], HCnOJlb3YlOTCSI pasusre CJIOaootipaaoaarensaue MOlIeJIH.

1) qallle scero lIeKaY3aTHBHble rnaronsr ofipasyiorca.nyrexr npacoennaenas -CH: K rrepexonaoxry rnarony: COTpYllHH'leCTBO MOCKOBCKOTO YHHBepCHTCTa C llPYrHMIJ BY3aMIJ paCHIHpJleTCH; Ilouotus rocynepctse sororonernuu CCMbflM )'BeJ1HYHBaeTCJI. TaKoH cnocoti 06pa30BaHH$I rJlarOJIOB KOJIMlJeCTBeHHbIX H KaqeCTBeHHblX M3MeHeHHH, MMelOlllMX KOMnOHeHT CMbICJIa 'cTaHoBHThCH KaKHM', HaH60JIee pacnpOcTpaHeH. HMeHHo n03TOMY 60JIblIIHHCTBO M3 HHX HMeeT nocrdmxc -CSI .. Onaa- 1<0 ,llaHHbIH: cJloBo06pa30BaTeJlbHbIH cnocof OXBaTbIBaeT He see rnaronsr co aaaxeHMeM 'CTaHOBHThCSI KaKHM'. CymecTBYIOT H ztpyrae cnocofisr HX 06pa30BaHH$I.

2) Coornomeuue 'nenars KaKHM' / 'cTaHoBHThCSI KaKHM' MO)l{eT nepenasarsca 11 CynnlleuiBHblMH OCHOBaMR, xopaesue MOp<peMbl KOTOPbIX JIHlIIeHbI $OPMaJlbHOM 6JlH30CTH (ttoeumsrs - B03pacTaTb, CHlf){(aTb - ITaJlaTb). Cp.: ilPIJMCHCHHC

25

HOBOfi TeXHOJlOrHH IIOBhICHJlO IIPOH3BO,aHTeJlhHOCTh Tpy,aa. - B pesyntaere IIpHMeHeHHJl HOBOfi TeXHOJlOrHH IIPOH3BO,aHTeJlhHOCTh tpyue B03pOCJ1a; Pa3BHTHe teJIeBHl!eHHJl H BHl!eO CHlUKaeT HHTepeC K IIOCemeHHlO KHHOTeaTpOB. - B pe3YJIhTaTe pa3BHTHJl TeJleBlfJIeHHJl H BH,aeO HHTepeC K IIOCemeHHlO KHHOTeaTpOB HlI,l{aeT.

3) Erne OlUIH cnocof oopaaoaanas lIeKaY3aTlIBHbiX rJlarOJIOB 3aKJIlOlJaeTCH B npMcoeDJIHeHHH K OCHOBe rtpanararensncro <popMaHTa -ers (tinesner», cnetiet», xyuers, ,aemeBeTh) M -ars iuopoxsrs): DBOmH nonetuesenu, a phI6a IIO,aopO)[(aJIa;i MHe HMO neuuoro ttoxyners. I

I

YCBoeHHe yqaUlHMMcH 3TMX cnocooos CJIoBoo6pa30BaHM5I n03BOJIHeT npeno-I

nasarerno rrpenorspartrrs 60JlbIllYIO rpynny OIllM6oK, nOCKOJIbKY CTYlIeHTbI, Hel ocaeaosereaaue 0 pa3JIWIHbiX B03MO)I(HOCTHX 06pa30BaHM5I rnaronos co 3HalJe-! HMeM 'CTaHOBMTbCH KaKMM', aepeztxo MCnOJlb3YIOT ellMHCTBeHHO H3BeCTHYIO MM' MOlleJlb, KOHCTPYHPYH rnaron no HaH60Jlee npOllYKTMBHOM MOlleJlM C nOCT<pMK~1 COM -CH: * llPOH3Bo,aHTeJlhHOCTh tpyu« B03POCJ1RCb; * Httrepec K 3TOfi IIp06JleMe: ynaJICJl; * H8,l!Jl HOxy,aeJ1RCb. I

BTOPYIO rpyrmy TMnHlJHbIX OllIM60K npellCTaBJlHIOT HapYllIeHM5I HOPM pelJM,'i CBH3aHHble C 06pa30BaHMeM rtp e dmxcax s n sr x marOJIOB KOJlMlJeCTBeHHblX H1 KalJeCTBeHHbIX M3MeHeHMM. B COOTBeTCTBHM C HopMaMM PYCCKOro H3blKa HaH60-J nee MHOrOlJHCJIeHHYIO rpynny cpena HMX COCTaBJIHIOT rnaronu C npe<pMKCOM y-::

YBeJlHlfHBaTh( CJl), ymy6JlJlTh( CJl), YJV1HHJlTh( CJl), YKOpalfHBaTh( CJl), YKpeIIJIJITh(CJl), I YKPYIIHRTh(CJl), YJlygIIIaTh(CR), YMeHhIIIaTh(CJl), YIIPomaTh(CJl), YCHJlHBaTh(cR),l YCKOPJlTh(CJl), YCJlO)[(HJlTh(CR), yxyntuerucs). Ho BMeCTe C TeM p5IlI rnaronon 3TOH JleKCMKO-ceMaHTMlJeCKOH rpyrmsr ofipaayerca C rroaouisto npyrnx npednrx-, COB, HanpMMep pac-- paCllIHpJlTh(CJl), C- - CHH)[(aTh(CJl), 3a- - 3aMe,aJlRTb(CR)'1 00- - IlOBhIllIaTh(CR), 0- - OCJla6JlJlTb(CJl). TI03TOMY 06yqeHMe McnOJlb30BaHHIOl onpenenemroro npedmxca lIJIH 06pa30BaHMH roro MJIH MHoro rnarona nOMorae'Fl1. MCKJllOlJHTb OllIM6KM rana *YMe,aJlJlTbCJl, "yeuuumc«, *YJllHPJlThCR, xoropsre ysaIIlMeCH 1I0nYCKalOT non B0311eHCTBMeM HaM60JIee npOllYKTHBHOH MOlleJIM C npeJ ~~~~. :

Cnetraansnoro paCCMOTpeHM5I 3aCJI}')KMBaeT nortpoc 0 CMHOHHMMM npenno ... j

~ I

)J(eHMM C B03BpaTHbIMM rnaronavn. MHOfMM M3 HMX COOTBeTCTByIOT CTpYKTYPbl Cl

npanonepexozrasnr rnaronov. Ozraa M3 HaM60Jlee paCnPOCTpaHeHHbIX CMHOHMMH"'1 lJeCKMX CTPYKTYP - HOMHHaTHBHO-aKKY3aTMBHble npennoxeaaa C nOllIIe)J(aUlMM-li MMeHeM C06bITMHHOH, HJIM npon03MTMBHOM ceMaHTMKM: 1) Kypcnne yxy,amae~ COH; 2) BHTaMHHbl nosuuuuot COIIPOTHBJlJleMOCTh oprsnnsue; 3) D.H. TOJICTOU, 060raTHll PYCCKYJO mcrepstypy BeJIHlfaiillIHMH IIpoH3Be,aeHHRAm. CTPYKTYpa CMbIC~ JIa TaKMX npennoxeaaa MO)J(eT 6bITb npencraanena B BHlIe 60JIee npOCTbIX CMTya1

26

WIH, CBH3aHHbIX npJ1lIMHHO-CJlellCTBeHHbIMH OTHOllIeHM5IMM: lJeJlOBeK ZYPHT, H B pesynume 3TOro ero COH yxymusetcs. TIPMlJMHHO-CJlellCTBeHHbIM xapaxrep OTHOllIeHMM Me)J(.llY lIBYMH CMTYaUHHMM, <POPMMpYIOIIlMMM CTPYKTYPY CMbICJla 3TO[0 TMna rrpaxonepexonmex KOHCTPYKUMM, 06YCJIOBJlMBaer M <P0PMY COOTHOCMTeJlbHbIX C HMMM KOHBepCHbIX npennoxenaa. HaM60Jlee pacnpocrpaaensr TaKMe xonsepcasre CTpYKTyPbI, rae MM5I, COOTBeTCTBYIOIIlee rronnexamexy npavonepexoznroro npennoxemrs, rrpMHMMaeT <POPMY npellIIO)I(HO-nCllle)I(HOH rpynnsr co 3HalJeHMeM npMlJMHbI, a MMH, 6bIBllIee 1I0rrOJlHeHMeM B npaaorrepexonaoa CTPYKType, CTaHOBMTCH nonaexauraa KOHBepCHOH KOHCTpYKUMM. Draron B KOHBepcHoM npennoxeaa« scerna ynoTpe6J1HeTCH C nOCT<pMKCOM -CH: 1) COH H3-3a zypeHHJl yxyuuteercs; 2) Bnsroueps BHTaMHHaM COIlpOTHBJIJleMOCTh opraHH3Ma ttoeutuseTCJl; 3) Bnerousp« JI.H TOJlCTOMY PYCCKaJl nnrepetype 060raTHJlaCh BeJlHlfafillIHMH IIpOH3Be,aeHHJlMH.

5. Kocaeaae-aoaeparaere rnaronsi

KOCBeHHO-B03BpaTHhle rnaronsr 0603HalJalOT lIeMCTBMe, npOM3BOllMMoe JIMUOM B CBOIO nOJIb3Y, B c06CTBeHHbIX arrrepecax: Ilo ropous MhI,aOOPaJIHCb K Belfepy; COOHpRiiCJl tiuctpee, a TO Mbl OII03,aaeM. B 3TOM 3HalJeHHM aaorna MCrrOJIh3YlOT TepMMH «6eHe<paKTMBHbIH» (cp. ozmoxopeanoe cYIIlecTBMTeJlbHOe «6eHe<pHC», OT rppauuyscxoro benefice, T. e. rrpM6hIJIb, nonsaa). I1MH co 3HalJeHMeM JIMua, B rrOJIh3Y xoroporo COBepllIaeTCH lIeHCTBMe, 3aHMMaeT B rrpennoxeaasx C KOCBeHHO-B03BpaTHhIMM marOJIaMM n03M:UMIO rronaexamero.

HaM60JIee yrrorpetiarensau CJlellYIOUlMe KOCBeHHO- B03BpaTHbie rnaronsr; YCTPRHBRTbCH, 003aBO,aHTbCH, 3RHHCblBRTbCJl, OOPRIIlRTbCJl, COrJ1RHlRTbCH, OTKR3blBaTbCH, YJ{OBJIeTBOpHTbCJl, COBepHleHCTBOBRTbCJl, yKJIlI,l{blBRTbCJl, lI,l{RHTHPOBRTbCJl, opHeHTHpOBaTbCJl, 311J!RBRTbCH (uenuo, BOHpOCOM), onpe,aeJ1HTbCH: JI 3RHaCJ1RCb IlpO,aYKT8MH ne uenyto He,aeJllO; Ceunrecs, YCrpRHBaiiTecb noynotinee; Bu yxe 3aHHCaJIHCb us 3KCzypCHlO? ECJlH BbI lfTO-TO IlOTepJlJlH, 06PRTHTecb B 61OpO 3a6hlTblX Bemefi; Bu XOPOlliO YCTPOHJ1HCb Ha HOBOM MeCTe? JI IlpHeXaJI B POCCHlO.COBepHleHCTBOBRTbCH 8 PYCCKOM sautee.

PHlI rnaronon 3TOM: rpynnsr 06bellMHeH 06UlHOCThlO MOP<P0JIOrMlJeCKMX noxa- 3aTeJIeH. DOJlbllIYIO rpynny rJIarOJIOB COCTaBJlHIOT CJIOBa C xopnesr C lJepellYlOIIlMMHCH rnacnsnm -6Hp-/-6ep- C rrpMCTaBKaMM BbI-, 1I0-, CO-, aa-, OPH-, y- (BIJOHpaTbCR, J{o6HpaTbCH, COOHPRTbCR, HROHpaTbCH, HPHOHPRTbCH, y6HPRTbCH): B IIOCJleJ{Hce epeu» MHe pePKO y,aaeTCJl Bbl6paTbCH B teetp; 06hl'lHO Jl ,aOOHPRIOCb,aO pa60ThI ss

27

nonsacs; HSOepHCh tepttenn« H JKPH; TbI )')Ke He MaJTeHbKHH, nope tiu re6e HSOPSThCR YMa-pa:JYMa; MHC H8.ll0 HCMHOro HpHOPSThCR B KBapTHpc.

CrpYKTYPbI C nepeq]fCJIeHHbIMH rnaronasra pa3JIWIalOTCH cPoPMOH BbJpIDKeHHH 06beKTa (nononaenas), a TaIOKe ero 06H3aTeJIbHOCTbIO HJIH <paKYJIbTaTHBHOCTbIO. OJ],HH KOCBeHHO-B03BpaTHble rnaromr B COCTaBe npeJ],JlOXeHHH MOryT HMeTb J],OnOJIHeHHe B KOCBeHHbIX naaexax, a npyrae yrrOTpe6JIHIOTCH 6e3 J],onOJIHeHHH.

1) HaH60JIee pacnpocrpaaeanoa <pOPMOH J],onOJIHeHHH HBJIHeTCH <popMa TBOparensnoro rranexa 6e3 npennora: 3snSCSThCR HpO)1J'KTSMH, TepneHHeM; 003aJJO~hCR ceMheii, y,aOBJIeTBOpRThCR OTBeTOM: K tpeuuer« rousi« OH, HaKOHeu, 003SBMCR ceMheil; MOH cotieceaun« HC y,aOBJIeTBOpHJICR OTBeTOM H llPo.aOJl)[(aJI peccttpetunset» MCHJ1 nsnuue.

2) HepeJ],KH TaIOKe CJIyqaH ynoTpe6JIeHHH J],onOJIHeHHH B <popMe pOJ],HTeJIbHOro naaexa. 3TO MoxeT 6bITbpoJ],HTeJIbHbIH nanex 6e3 npennora, ynoTpe6JIeHHblH J],JIH 0603Hal.JeHHH KOJIHl.JeCTBa C marOJIaMH C npacrasxoa aa-: Ha6paTbCJl ouut«, TepneHHR, HaeCTbCJ1 cyns, KsmH; HallHTbCJ1 qJllO, M0J10KS; HalfHTaTbCJ1 ,aeTeKTHBOB, HacMoTpCTbCJ1 tjJHJ1hMOB y;KJlCOB, HaCJlymaTbCJ1 SHeK,l{OTOB. B03MO)I(HO TaIOKe yrrorpe6JIeHHe J],onOJIHeHHH B <popMe POJ],HTeJIbHOro naaexa C npennorou J],O nOCJIe rnarOJIOB C npHCTaBKOH J],O- B 3Hal.JeHHH J],OCTHxeHHH ueJIH (a06HpaTbCJ1 ,ao ps60TlJ, .a03BaHHBaTbCJ1 ,ao TOBSPHII{S, ,aocrygaTbCJ1 no coce,as): JI ,a06HpaJOCb /JO PSOOTbJ sec; Bees Belfep He uor no TeOR ,a03BOHHTbCJ1. nOCJIe marOJIOB co 3Hal.JeHHeM HenpHHTHH l.Jero-JIH60 ynorpeonaerca J],onOJIHeHHe B <popMe POJ],HTeJIbHOrO rranexa C npennoroxr OT (oTKa3bIBaTbCJl OT PSOOTIJ, OT /JM, OT aKTHBHOii /JeJlTeJ1hHOCTH):

K CO)f(aJICHHJO, J1 BbIH}?K.aCH OTKa3aTbCJ1 OT seiuero npe;QIOlKeHHR; Tlocne suxon« ns llCHCHJO OTCa 1l0JlHOCTbIO yCTpaHHJlCJ1 OT BCJ1KHX uen.

3) B03MO)I(HO TaJOKe ynOTpe6JIeHHe J],onOJIHeHHH B npyrax KOCBeHHblX nanexax C npennorox H 6e3 npennora - npHCJIYlIIHBsn.cR, npHCMS7pHBSThClI, RpHrJI1I,JUJBJIThClI, npHBR3IJBSThClI, /l/J8llTHPOBSThCR (K lIe.MY?); OOPJUl{SThCR (K KOMY? Kyoa?): ECJl~ BbI lJTO-TO 1l0TCPJlJlH, OOPSTHTeCh B OlOpO H8XO/JOK K .ae.xzypHOMY; JI/JIlnTHpoBSThCA (K lIe.MY?): OH)')KC BllOJ1He a.aSRTHPOBaJIClI K HOBOii OOCTsHoBKe; Y Hero MHOro 3Ha· KOMblX, HO OH peaxo npHB1I3b1BSeTCR K KOMY-HHOY/Jh 1l0-HaCT0J1LUeMy, CorJIsmSThClI (na limo ?): Hettpscno Tbl COrJISCHJICR HS 3TO npe/1,llOlKeHHe, ny-nue OTKaJKHCb 01 sero; OpHeHTHpOBaThClI, onpe/JM1IThCR, COBepmeHCTBOBaThCR (8 iteM?): JI C Tpy.aOM OPHeHTllPyIOCh B He:JHSKOMOM MecTe; JI HHKaK HC Mary OHpI$MHThClI B CBOHX lKe':' JIaJlHRX; JI ttpuexsn COBepmeHCTBOBSThCR B PS3roBOPHOil npBKTHKe. '

4) PHJ], KOCBeHHO-B03BpaTHbIX marOJIOB MoxeT ynoTPe6JIHTbCH 6e3 J],onOJIHe~ HHSI. TaKoBbI, nartpaxep, rnaronu C npacrasxoa aa- B 3Hal.JeHHH nOJIHOTbI, ncsep-

28

naHHOCTH )leHCTBHH (HsroBOPHTbCR, HtnyJ1RThCR, IIJlHrpSThCR, Hs6eraThCR): Pe6eHoK HtnyJ1RJ1CR If C stmetnrou 1l006CPaJI; 3a ,aeHb OH HSOeraJICR H cpssy YCHYJ1.

6. B03BpaTHo-KaY38TIIIBHble maronsr

K B03BpaTHo-KaY3aTHBHblM MoxeT 6bITb oraeceua YCTOHl.JHBaH JIeKCHKO-ceMaHTHl.JeCKaH rpyrma marOJIOB, 0603Hal.Ja1OIUHX )leHCTBHe, BbInOJIHHeMOO J],JIH xaKOrO-JIH60 JIHua ,upyrHM JIHUOM, 06bIl.JHO npodieccaoaanoa. DOJIbIIIHHCTBO H3 HHX OTHOCHTCH K TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIM npooeccaoaansasra rnaronax, ynoTpe6.tmeMbIM B CHTYaUHH «3aKa3 B MeCTe 06CJIy)l(HBaHHH KJIHeHTa» [HeMJIKOB, 1977: 36]. 31'0 MOryr 6bITb rnaronsr C03Hal.JeHHeM: a) 'aafiora 0 anoposse' (KoHcYJIllrlfp0BaThCR, JIelfHTbClI, Hs6J1IO,aSThCR, OOCJ1e/JoBsTbCR, onepHpoBSTbClI, npoBepRThCR): M0J16a6ymKa JIelfHTCJ1 y roueotters; 6) 'o6yqeHHe, o6pa30BaHHe' (BoCnHTblB8TbCH, KOHCYJ1bTHPOBSThCR, TpeHHPOBaTbCR, yqHThCR, 3K3aMeHoBsn.cR): JIeBHTaH ygHJ1CJ1 )[(JfBOllHCH Y 3HaMeHHTOrO Cespecose; B) 'aafiora 0 co6CTBeHHoH saeuraocra' (6PHTbCR, npHqeCblBSThCR, C7plPlbCR, o,aeBsThClI, KP8CHTbCR, rpHMHPOBSTbCR): 3Ta sxtpncs opeB8eTCJ{ y useectnoro uouemop« BJ1lfCClIaBa 3aiiaeBa; JI scerue ctpntyc» Y 3TOro rrapHKMaxepa; r) 'nonyseaae H <pHKcaUHH onpeneneanoro CTaTYca' (3aRIICIJBSTbcs, nponHCJJBaTbClI, peI'HCTPHPOBaTbCR): )[(eJIaIOLUHe 1l0CX8Tb Ha 3KCKypCHIO uoryr 38JlHC8TbCR Y CTapOCTbr,)l) 'nonyseane noprpernoro cxoncrsa' (CHHM8TbClI, tjJoTOIpstjJHPOBaTbCR): Y sroro cjJOTOMaCTepa CHHMaIOTCJ1 unotne H3BCCTHbIe sprnctu.

B npeJ],JlOXeHHHX :nOH CTPYKTYPbI o6a HMeHHbIX KOMnOHeHTa 0603Hal.JalOT JIHUO. Ilpa 3TOM HMSI B n03HUHH nonnexamero 0603Hal.JaeT JIHUO, J],JIH xoroporo COBepllIaeTCH )leHCTBHe. MCTHHHbIM)I(e areHCOM, HCnOJIHHTeJIeM J],eHCTBHH, HBJIHeTCH JIHUO, ssrpaxeaaoe HMeHeM B <popMe y + p. D. Ilpn TaKOM cnoco6e rrpencraaJIeHHSI OTHOllIeHHH Mex,uy yqacTHHKaMH CHTYauU" OHa ceMaHTHl.JeCKH CXHMaeTCSI, upencraer KaK HepaCl.JJIeHeHHaH. Ha yposne CMblCJIa OHa MO)KeT 6blTb HCTOJIKOBaHa TaK: JIHUO A J],eJIaeT TaK, l.Jro6bI JIHUO E BbInOJIHMO HaJJ. HHM ,ueHCTBHe, Ha3BaHHoe B03BpaTHbIM rJIarOJIOM. I1HbIMH CJIOBaMH, JIHUO A CTaHOBHTCSI xaysaropov Ll,aHHOro Ll,eHCTBHH. OTclOJ],a BbITeKaeT BIDKHoe J],JIH npenonasaaaa PKI1 rronoxeHHe: B KOHCTpYKUHH C B03BpaTHbIM rnaronoss «He MOXeT 6bITb nOJ],JleXaIUHM HMH JIHu,a, necnocooaoro HHHUHHpOBaTb CHTYaUHIO: *rO,aOBaJIbIH pe6eHOK 1l0CTpHrCJ1 Y nepuxuexepsx [Iemourene, 1981: 177].

tho KacaeTCSI peansnoro HCnOJIHHTeJISI,ueHCTBHSI, TO OH MoxeT 6bITb HMruIHUHTHO BbIpIDKeH B KOHCTPYKUHH co 3Hal.JeHHeM 06CTOSlTeJIbCTBa MeCTa: 50J1bHOii Ha6JlIOllaeTCJ1 B paiiOHHoii 1l0J1HKJIHHHKC; TYPHCTbI llHTaIOTCJ1 B pecropeue rocT'lfHHabI; C(jJOTOrpacjJHpyiiCJ1 B natueu aTCJ1he; B Hallleii llapHKMaxepcKoii BbI MO-

29

xere 06CllJ')KHTbCJl no npeJIBapHTeJIbHOii 3anHCH HJIH B nOPJIJIKe 06zaeii O'lepeJIH (u3060fl6/leHUJl).

Hepenxo lfhl51 co 3HaqeHlfeM rrO}])IlfHHOrO lfCrrOJIHlfTeJUI ,n:eRCTBlf51 nononanTeJIbHO ynovmraerca B KOHTeKCTe. Hanpauep: CbIH Y MeHJl- OH CTOJIbKO KHHr HanHCaJI! a geM nHIIIeT? a CeJIbCKOM X03JliicTBe - KaK H 'lT0 Hj')[(HO nenett: On pensiue B otiiuectse «3HaHHe» JIeK1(HH rlHTaJI. Bee ,4HpeKTOpa KOJIX030B Y Hero KOHCYJ1bTH]JOBaJIHCb. OH HM roBOPHT, 'lT0 HJ'lKlIO ,4eJI8Tb, a OHH IlOTOM eAYT ne MeCTa H TaKH JIeJIalOT. OH CTOJIbKO 6JIaropapHocTeii nOJIygHJI! BeJIb nOHHMaeTe, HHKTO )[(e nnsero He 3HaeT, He yueet: A OH BCe paCTOJIK}'eT, H nee 3HalOT, 'ITO K geMY (no 1I. Koss).

CTPYKTYPbI C B03BpaTHO- KaY3aTlfBHbIMlf rnaronasor 06pa3yJOT YCTOitqlfByJO rrapanaraarasecxyio CB5I3b co crpyxrypava C COOTBeTCTBYIOlll.lfMlf nepexomtuMI1 rnaronaxa: OHa neql1TC5I Y roveonara. - Be JIe'lHT rOMeonaT;MoJlOAaJI 6aJIepHH8 ymotec» Y YJIaHoBoii. - MOJIOAYJO 6aJIepHHY ysnne YJ1aHosa; HlOPMHJI8 Ijrp'leHKO CHHMaJIaCb y pexnccepe PJl3aHOBa. - 1I1OPMHlIJ' Typvenxo CHHMaJI pe)[(HCCep PJl3aHOB.

CTPYKTYPbI C B03BpaTHO-KaY3aTlfBHbIMlf marOJIaMI1 11 COOTHOCI1TeJIbHble C HlfMlf rrpennoxemer C nepexoaasnra rnaronascr pa3JIlfqaIOTC5I cnocotioanpenCTaBJIeHlf5I caryanan. ECJIlf rosopmnexy H~O rrpezcranars ClfTYal(I1IOC noaal(lflf peam-soro I1CrrOJIHlfTeJI5I ,n:eitcTBlf5l, lfCrrOJIh3YIOTCSI CTpYKTYPblC nepexonnsraa marOJIaMI1: EeJIe'lHT roueottet; Ee crpIDKeT MOJIHbIii ttspnxuexep. Ilpn neooxonaMOCTlf )I(e onacars caryaumo C rroamraa lfHlfl(l1aTOpa ,n:eitcTBI151, yrroTpe6n5lIOTC5I CTPYKTYPbI C B03BpaTHbIMlf rnaronaua: One JIe'lHTCJl Y roueonsre; One crpiceetCJl Y MOJIHOrO napHKMaxepa. Ha 3TOM npnnuane lfCrrOJIb30BaHlf51 B03BpaTHOKaY3aTlfBHbIX marOJIOB, lfCXO,n:5I «113 nepcrrexransr anauaaropa onacsrsaevoa CI1- Tyal(lflf» [Iemoureae, 1981: 177], nocrpoea ClfHTaKCI1C TeKCTOB 6lforpaqmqeCKOrO )I(aHpa, B KOTOPbIX qaCTOTHbI cnenyioume KOHCTPYKl(I1I1: )J(HJIJlPJIH (AJIeKCaHJ{p OCHnOBH'l (1806-1871} ... ygHJICJl Y otus O . Il. )J(HJIJlPAH H JIBOlOPOJIHOro 6pare p. H. )/(nJIJlPAH; EbIKOBCKHii M. p. (180 1-1885} ... ygHJICJl y.a.H. )/(nJIJlPAJl (U3 tiuoeptupuuecxoeo CJl06apJl «30oliue MOCK6bl». M., 1998).

Bsrecre C reM cymecTBYIOT KOHTeKCThI, B KOTOPbIX roaopaurevy Ba)l(HO orrpe ... nemrrs cnryatnno C rrosnnaa xaxnoro lf3 ee yqacTHI1KOB, If B 3TOM cnysae BbIcxaauaaaae MO)l(eT CTPOlfThC5I C npasnesenaev 060lfX qJIeHOB CHHOHI1MlfQeCKoit napu B npenenax MaJIOrO orpamoreaaoro TeKCTOBoro rrpOCTpaHCTBa: «'Iero BbI01 Hac XOTHTe?» - CnpOCHJI JIHpeKTOp EpHTaHCKoro MY3eJl. «5/ xosy y sse aHr8)[(HpOBaTbCJl. Bepuee, 'lT06bI BbI MeHJl aHra)[(HpOBaJIH, BOT nero Jl XO'lY». «3TO B TaKHX-

30

to uttsnex 'lT06bI Jl sec CTaJI aHr8)[(HpOBaTb?» - CKa3aJI JIHpeKTOp Bpnrencxoro MY3eJl (D. Epotpeee. «Mocxea - Ilemyuoaov:

OT B03BpaTHo-KaY3aTlfBHhIX marOJIOB, o6'be,n:I1HeHHhlx 061l(lfM CMhICJIOM 'He cax ce651' [Koaaaneea, 1981: 83], cnenyer ormrsars co6cTBeHHo-Bo3BpaTHhIe rnarOJIhI co 3HaQeHl1eM 'caM ce651'. nplfHa,UJIe)I(HOCTb rnarona K TOMY MJIlf lfHOMY Pa3- p5ILLY YCTaHaBJIlfBaeTC5I B KOHTeKCTe. Cp.: (1) mranor Me)l()J,Y napaen If nesynrxoa: - Ilpesue, 'ITO TbI cau CTpH)[(eIIIbCJl? - Ilpesns. Hy H 'ITO? - A tomero. TOJIbKO npnuet« TaKaJI ects: KTO ceu CTpIDKeTCJl, HHKOma He )[(eHHTCJl (K/rjJ «Bcmpemuucs y [onmana»). 11 (2) Korns MbI IIIaraJIH MeJKPY Illecroti H IlHTOii JIHHHJlMH MHMO rrapHKMaxepcKoii, Jl CKa3aJI Meptspnre: - BOT ClOJIa Jl CrpH'lbCJl XOJKY. 3pecb OPHH crapbIii ttspntosaxep ecrs ... (D. Illedmep). 113 npaxepa (1) 5ICHO, qTO QeJlOBeK cau cosepmaer Ha,U C060R ,Ueti:cTBlfe, a B rtpmrepe (2) OH rrpe,UOCTaBJUleT 3TO nenars LLPyrOMY nany (rtoxaaarensno, qTO rnaronu 3TOti: ceuairraxa B KlfTaRCKOM 513hIKe rax If Ha3bIBaIOTC5I «npenocranareasmera» [RXOHTOB, 1981: 152], TaK KaK O,llHO JIHUO «npenocraanaerx ce651 B pacnopaxeaae ztpyroro lfCnOJlHlfTeJUI ,Ueti:cTBl15I.

7. naccMBHO-Ka&feCTBeHHble rnaronsr

CeMaHTUKa npe,lJ,J70)f(eHuilt C naCCUBHO-Kal.leCTBeHHbIMU rneroneun

K naCCI1BHO- KaqeCTBeHHbIM (o6beKTI1BHO- MO,UaJIbHblM) rnaronav OTHOC5ITC5I rnaronst, 0603HaqaIOIl(lfe caoacraa npensreroa If neutea: 3Ta ttocyus 6beTCJl; JJ B03bMYSAopory 3TOT KOCTlOM: OH He MHeTCJl; C}'MKa osen» npetctnun»: OHa MOeTCJl, 3aCTerHsaeTCH us MOJIHHlO, pygKa y Hee CHHMaeTCJl.

I1M51 B noaauna nonnexamero B crpyxrypax C naCClfBHO-KaQeCTBeHHhIMlf rnaronaaa 0603HaqaeT npezraer, lfMelOll(lfti: KaKOe-Jllf60 xapaxrepnoe CBOti:CTBO. OHO Bcer,n:a ssrpaxeno HeO,llYllleBJIeHHbIM cyutecrsarem.nsra. Inaron 0603HaQaeT naaHoe CBOti:CTBO KaK ,lleti:cTBlfe, KOTOPOMY MO)l(eT noneeprarsca npezmer. TaK KaK sro CBoti:CTBO HMeeT rrOCT05lHHhIti: xapaxrep, rnaron yrrOTpe6Jl5leTC5I B <popMe HeCOBepllleHHoro Blf,lla nacrosurero HeaKTYaJIbHOrO BpeMeHH: Ilnectuscce JIOMaeTCH; CTeKJIO 6beTCH; MeJI KPOIIIHTCH.

Ha 3TOM nocrpoen CHHTaKCHC PYCCKlfX rrOCJIOBlfl(, o6061l(aIOIl(lfX na OCHOBe nOBce,UHeBHoro onsrra aapona caoacrsa neurea H npenxeros: C pa,aOCTH KYJIpn BblOTCH, C nessm: ceK}'TCH; me TOHKO, TaM H pBeTCJl; PbI6a nOpTHTCJl C roJIOBbI.

HaH60Jlee yrrorpefiarensnsr naCCI1BHO-KaQeCTBeHHhIe rnaronu CJle,llYIOIl(I1X JieKCHKo-ceMaHTHQeCKlfX rpyrrrr:

31

1) rJIarOJIbI co 3HaqeHI1eM 'cnocotiaocrs rtonseprarsca paapyureamo' (6HTbCR, KPOIlJHTbCR, J10M8TbCR, nOpTHTbCR, PB8TbCR): He 3a6YlIb y6paTb MJ/CO B XOJIO-

lIHJlbHHK, OHO 6blCTPO IlOpTHTCfI. .

2) Inaronu co 3HaqeHReM 'cnocotiaocrs nonseprarsca H3MeHeHIDIM' (J'IIYTbCR, MHTbCR, naYK8TbCH, pa3BapHBaTbCR, paCTBopRTbCR, paCrarHBaTbCR, Ca,l{HTbCR):

KaKYJO xopoiuyto txen» Tbl KYIlHJla - OHa He MHeTCfI H He Ca,llHTCfI; PHC CHJlbHO pa3BapHB8CTCfI; BH38HbIC setun CHJIbHO BbITflrHB8IOTCH.

3) Draronu co 3HaqeHI1eM 'crtocofiaocrt, nonseprarscs TeXHOJIOmqeCKOH 06- pa60TKe H B03,UeHcTBHIO' (rJIa,n;HTbCR, M6lTbCR, CTHpaTbCH, YHCTHTbCH; BapHTbCH, MBPHTbCR, T)7IIHTbCR; C06HpaTbCR, pa36HpaTbCR, CKJllI,4b1BBTbCH, Pa:JJQJHrBTbCR): CKa)J(JfTe, 3Ta C}'MK8 MOCTCJl? MOJIOlIOe MfiCO )[(8PHTCJl tiuctpee, lfeM ctspoe; 3T01 McxaHH3M pa36HpaeTCH; 3T0T cton CKJl8JIbIBaeTCJl.

CIlfHOHIlfMIlfR npe,D,flO>KeHIlfU C naCCIlfBHO-Ka'-leCTBeHHbIMIIf rneroneu« CTPYKTYPbl C rraCCHBHO-KaqeCTBeHHbIMH rnaronava HMelOT CBOH Ha60p CHHOHHMHqHbIX Cpe)lCTB.

1) B ceMaHTHqeCKOH CTpYKType npennoxenaa C rraCCHBHO-KaqeCTBeHHbIMR rnaronaxn CO)lep)l{HTCSl 3JIeMeHT CMbICJIa 'MOryr nonseprarscs )leikTBRIO, BbIpIDKeHHOMY HHqmHRTKBoM HeB03BpaTHoro rnarona'. HaH60JIee OrqeTlIHBO 3TO rrpOHBJUleTCH npa CHHOHHMHqeCKHX rrpe06pa30BaHIDIx CTpYKTYP C rraCCHBHOKaqeCTBeHHbIMH rJ1aroJIaMR B cOOTBeTCTBYIOI..UHe rro CMbICJIY npeanoxeaaa co CJIOBaMH M01KHo/HeJlb3R. Ilpn o6pa30BaHHH MO,UaJIbHbIX MO,UHQ>HKaUHii sroro THrr3 rrpOHCXO,llHT nepecrpoaxa CTpYKTYPbI: H3MeHHeTCH cpopMa HMeHHblX KOMrrOHeHTOB, YTpaqHBaeTCH rrOCTcpHKC -CD H B upeofipaaoaamroe npeanoxeaae BBO,llHTCD nape-rae M01KHO HlIH HeJIb3K. 3ra KpOBaTb paCKJl8JIbIBaeTCJl. - 3zy KpOBaTb MO)[(HOpaCIOJ8j]bIBaTb; 3Ta JIaMIIa IlOBopalfHBaCTCH B pa3HbIC CTOPOHbI. - 3ry JIaMtty MO)[(HO ttoeopesnser» B pesnue CTOPOHbl; 3ra lHy6a He lfHCTHTCH 06bllfHblMlJ. CpClIcTBaMH. - 3zy llly6y HCJIb3H lfHCTHTb 06bIlfHbIMH CpclIcTBaMH.

2) Bee CTPYKTYPbI rnna Ilocyns 6beTCJl HMelOT CHHOHHMHqHbIH KOppeJIHT C ,lleHcTBHTeJIhHbIM npasacraea HaCTOHI..Uero BpeMeHH C nOCTQ>HKCOM -CD: Ilocyns 6beTcR. - Ilocyns 6bIOlll8flCH; CTOll P8CKJIa,llbIBaeTCfI. - CTOll paCKJl8j]bIBaIOlllHIiCfI; 0601£ MOIOTCfl. - 0601£ MOIOlllHeCfI; Bytunxe 3aBHH'lHBaCTCfI. - EyrbIJIKa 3aBHH'lHB8IOlH8flCfl; Ilonxe BbIJIBHraeTCH. - [JOJ1Ka Bbl.4BHraIOLU8flCfI.

I1HOr)la B HeHOpMl1pOBaHHO«, HeKO,UHcpHUHpOBaHHOH pesa HOCRTeJIeH Sl3bIxa B03MO)I(HbI Q>0PMbl: *3aBHH'lHBaIOlllHe 6yrbIJIKH; *3TH CTaK8HbI He6bIOIaHC. Hepenxo TaKHe «yceqeHHbIe» CPOPMhI npasacrua ynorpefinsnorca B O,llHOM psny C npHJIaraTeJIbHbIMH: *y MeHH Ha KYXHC 060H MOIOLUHC, oven» KpaCHBbIe.

32

Oum6KH raxoro pona qpe3BblqaHHO Bblpa3HTeJIbHbT. OHH novoraror YHCHHTb cneUH<pHKY rrpaxacrasrx <pOPM, CHHOHHMHqHbIX naCCHBHO-KaqeCTBeHHbIM B03- BpaTHbIM rnaronax. OHa COCTOHT B TOM, qTO C YTpaTOH Y rrpH'-IaCTHSl nocrdnrxca -CD KaK HaH60JIee nOKa3aTeJIbHOrO B CPOPMaJIbHOM nnane H OqeBH)lHOrO .LlJlH rosopanrero npasaaxa rnaroJIbHOCTH (KOTopaH ~e caxa rro eerie accoumrpyerca C )leHCTBHeM) YCHJIHBaeTCH anaseuae npasaaxa, KOTOPbI« SlBJ1SleTCSl BTOPOH COCTaBJUIIOI..UeH rH6pH)lHO:H <pOPMbI rrpHQaCTIDI. TaKHM 06pa30M, cpafiarsraaer MexaHH3M KOMrreHcaUHH: sa CqeT YTPaTbI 3HaqeHHSl ,lleHCTBHH YCHJIHBaeTCSl 3HaQeHHe npa- 3HaKa. B C03HaHHH rosopsurero 3Ta <popMa socnpaaaaaerca I<.aK 0603Ha'la1OIIIaSI npasaax npenxera 'crtocofiasni nonaeprarscs ,n:eHcTBHlo'.

3) 0 }lOMHHHpYlOIIIeM 3Ha'leHHH npasnaxa B CTpYKTYpe CMbICJIa rnarona B npeanoxeansx rnna Ilocyua 6beTCJl, CroJI pa31IBHraeTCH CBH,lleTeJIbCTByeT H TOT ¢aKT, 'ITO MHome "3 HHX CHHOHHMH'lHbl npanararensasnr, qallle scero 3TO OTHOCHTeJIbHble npanararensasre C CYCPCPHKCOM -H-: Croll pa3j]BHraCTCH. - Croll pes,4BJDKHoli; 30HT CKJIa,llbIBaeTCJl. - 30HT cxneiutott; Mstpec Ha,llYBaeTCfI. - Marpac Ha,llYBHOIi; £{CXOJI CHHMaCTCH. - £{CXOJI C'bifMHblli; CHlIeHbC OTKH/IbIBaCTCJl. - CH.4eHbe OTKHj]HOe; flOTOJ1KH HaTJlrHBaIOTCJl. - IIOTOJ1KH nerssatue. B03MOXHbI CJIyqaH H npHJIaraTeJIbHbIX C CY<P<PHKCOM -K-: MeTaJIJI KYeTCJl. - MeT8JTJI KOBKHi1; HOrTH JIOMaIOTCfl. - HOrTH JIOMKHe; BOCK IlllaBHTCH. - Bocs IlJ1aBKHH. (Cp, TaKxe: flJIaBKHe IlpeJIOXpaHHTeJIH - T. e. npenoxpanaremr, xoropste I1JTaBSlTcSl).

4) naccHBHO-Ka'leCTBeHHoMY rnarony B COCTaBe CTpYKTYPbI Ilocyue 6beTCJl MO)l(eT COOTBeTCTBOBaTh onpeneneaae B cpopMe cymecrsarensaoro B KOCBeHHOM naaexe, 06pa30BaHHoro OT rnarona. Cp.: Tlsnsto He 3aCTerHBaeTCJl. - Ilsneio 6e33aCTe)[(KH; C}'MKa 3aCTerHBaeTCJl H8 «MOJIHHJO». - CYMKa C 3aCTe)[(KOIi Ha «MOllHHIO».

5) Hepenxo naCCHBHO- KaqeCTBeHHOMY marOJIY MoxeT COOTBeTCTBOBaTb azrseKTHBHpOBaHHoe npasacrne C CY<P<PHKCOM -eM-/-HM-: ATOM paCIaeIlJIJleTCH. - ATOM paCIaCIlJIJleM(bIli); Ko(jJc paCTBOpJleTCJl. - Kod» paCTBopHMbIli; Ilsrno HC BbIBOlIIfTCfI. - flHTHO HeBblBolIHMoe; JKHBoTHble )[(HPbl TPY.4HO YCBaHBaIOTCH. - .£HBOTHbIC )[(JfPbl rpY.4HO ycssnseeuue; CHlICHbe Y cryns perynnpyercs. - CH.4eHbe y ctyns pcryJJHPYCMOC; EblTOB8fI TeXHHKa BCTpaHBaeTcH. - 5bITOBaH rextoo» BCTpaHBaeM8fI.

CO'-leTaeMOCTb naCCIlfBHO-Ka'-leCTBeHHbIX rneronoe C Hape'-lURMIIf

B crpyxrype MHomx npe.LlJlOXeHHH c rraCCHBHO-KaqeCTBeHHbIMH rJIaroJIaMH liepe,llKO conepxarcs OueHOqHbIH onpenemrrens. OH MO)l(eT fibITh nsrpaxea aapeql1SlMH XOPOIlJO, J1erKO, CBo6o,!{HO, 6e3 TpY,4a, nnoxo, C TpY,40M H T. n., a TaKXe

33

cpaBHHTeJIhHhlMH KOHCTpYKu;mIMH C COlO30M UK: CJIOBaPb,aaJIJI f{HTaCTC9 osent JIerKO; CJIOBapb,aaJIJI snraerc« KaK 3aHHMaTeJIbHbIH ,aCTeKTHB; Koxs C 3TOH pbI6bJ CHlfMaCTC9 6C3 tpyus; Kosa: C 3TOii PbI6bI CHHMaCTCH KaK gyJIOK.

Ecnn rosopan, 0 COqeTaeMOCTH rraCCHBHO-KaqeCTBeHHhIX marOJIOB C aapexa- 51MH MephI H crenena, TO C ,lI,aHHhIMH marOJIaMH COqeTaIOTC5I npeaayniecrseaao nape-rns CO 3HaqeHHeM rrOJlHOH CTeneHH npasaaxa B OTpHu;aTeJlbHhIX npeanoxeHH5IX: ,aHBaH COBceM·He paCKJIa.I(bIBaeTC9; ITOJIKa a6COJIJOTHO He BbI,l(BHraeTC9; 3Ta xpecx« COBepmeHHO He pectsopnetcs B soae. IlaCCHBHO-KaqeCTBeHHhle rnarOJIhI He COqeTaIOTCH C HapeqH5IMH 60JIhllIOH CTeneHH npasaaxa: *,alfBaH Of{CHb paCKJIa,;J.bIBaCTC9; "Ilsmao osens sectetnseercs; *lJeXOJI osen» CHHMaeTC9. Cp, B03MO)I(Hhle B peqH HHOCTpaHu;a <pOPMbI: *,aHBaH COBcpmCHHO paCKJIa,;J.bIBaCTC9; *ITOJIKa a6COJIJOTHO BbI,aBHraCTC9.

8. AKTHBHO-6e306'beKTHble rnarcnst

CeMaHTIIIKa npell/lO>KeHVfM C aKTVfBHo-6e306beKTHblMVf rneroneu«

AKrHBHo-6e306beKTHble rnaronsr 0603HaqalOT ,lI,eHCTBHe KaK nOCTOHHH}'IO. xapaxrepayto xepry cytisexra. B 60JlhllIHHCTBe cnysaen 3TH rnaronu xapaxrepa- 3YIOT MHp )l(HBOH npaponu. OHH 0603HaqaIOT arpeCCHBHYIO HJIH 3aUmTHYIO peaKlJ,HlO KOrO-JlH60 HJIH xero-nnfio na Qhe-TO B03,lI,eHCTBHe: IzyCaTbCH (0 cofiaxe), IJ,apanaTbCH (0 KOIllKe), JIHraTbCH, 6pIJKaTbCH (0 JlOIlla,II,H), 6o,4aTbcH (0 xopose), nJIeBaTbCH (0 Bep6JIIO,lI,e), KJIeBaTbCH (0 xypax), Il{IInaTbCH (0 rycax). l1.MeHHo TaK OHH BocnpHHHMaIOTC5I HOCHTeAAMH PYCCKoro Sl3hIKa. BOT OTPhIBOK H3 CTHXOTBO-j peHH5I zterckoro noara Ba,II,HMa JIeBHHa C xapaxrcpnsrv Ha3BamieM «KTo KaK cna-, CaeTC5I», uacsnuenaua CTpYKrypaMH C 3THMH rJlarOJIaMH:

«fAAHh, - roBOPIO eMY, - K03JIHK 60,lI,aerCH -

TeM H cnacaercs». «fJI5IHb, - rOBoplO eMY, - JIOllIa,II,h 6phIKaercH, Ilaxe JIHraeTcSI\

KaK nonysaerca,

TaK H cnacaercs».

Ba)l(HO OTMeTHTh, 'ITO ,lI,eHCTBI1H, 0603HaLJaeMhle 3THMH marOJIaMI1, ncerna nanpaaneuu aa norenuaansasra 06beKT, «sucrynaionraa B xasecrae CTHMYJI5ITOpa

34

OTBeTHOH (pa3pflaKa nama. - O. lJ.) peaxnna na ,lI,eHCTBI1H cy6beKTa» [IIIeJIHI<<<H, 1991: 321-322]. Y6eUHTeJlbHhIM no,UrBep)l(lleHHeM 3TOMY MO)KeT nOCJIy)KHTb 3nH30,U H3 paccxasa A.Il. qexoBa «Xaueneoa», repoa KOTOPOro XPIOKHH, nOCTpauaBllIHH OT yxyca uiemca, B03MYlllaeTcH: - TaK TbI xycersc», OKaHHHaH? <. .. > HbIHf{e He BCJICHO KYCaTbC9! Ilocrpanaaunrji ysepaer; QTO cofiaxa KHHYJlaCh ira Hero nepsas: - H;zy 9, setue 6JIaropo,aHc, suxoro HC tporato, If BPpyr 3Ta TlOPJIaH HH C toro HH C cera se ttsneu ... OUHaKO cBHueTeJIH yrsepxnaior ofiparnoe: - OH, seuie tinsroponne, IJHrapKOii eii B xepto Jl)JJ/ cuexe, a OHa - He 6YPb uyp« H TJlTlHH. TaKHM 06pa30M, nepen HaMH HaJIHUO .ueHCTBl1e, cnpOBOUHpOBaHHoe caMHM YKyrneHHbIM, n03TOMY nosenemre IUeHKa MO)KeT 6hITb pacueneao I1MeHHO KaK peaKUHSI Ha.ueHCTBHH cy6beKTa.

I1M5I B n0311lJ,I1H nonnexamero B npe,lI,JlO)KeHHHX C aKTMBHO-6e306beKTHbIMH [JIarOJlaMH - 06bI'-lHO cynrecrmrrensaoe onynresneaaoe. qaIUe scero 3TO Ha3BaHHH )KHBOTHbIX: He IIOPXOPH K 3TOii cotisxe - OHa KYCaeTC9; - KaKoti JIaCKOBblii KOTeHOK! MO)J(HO, 9 ero nornsscy? - OCTOPO)J(HO, OH usptutsetcs.

Kpoxe roro, B n03HU;HH nO,lI,Jle)Kamero MO)KeT yrtotpefinarscs HMH CO 3HaQeHHeM mma: - Msnuui, HPH noutpstt C Csutett. - A OH He PcpeTC9?

HepeAKO B POJIH nonnexaurero ssrcrynaer HeouyrneBJIeHHOe HMH co 3HaqeHHeM npe.uCTaBI1TeJlH pacrarensuoro Ml1pa: KpaIIHBa )[()[(eTC9; IlIHIIOBHHK KOJIeTCH; «(OH IIpHHec MHC 6CJIbIC P03bI, MYCKaTHbIC 6CJIble p03bI ... Jl CMCJUlaCb: «He f{TO AlHe p03bI? TOJIbKO KOJIlOTCH 60JIbHO» (Ax.MamOBa)~

Hnorna nonnexauiee MO)KeT 6hITb asrpaxeno npe.uMeTHhIM HeO.ll.yrneBJIeHHbIM HMeHeM (MbIJIO IaHIVIeTC9; CBHTCP KycacrCH) HJIH a6CTpaKTHbIM HMeHeM (lleHbI KycalOTC9). Inaron B 3TllX CJlyqMX npnofiperaer MeTa<pop11QeCKOe 3HaQeHHe.

B nozrrsepxneaae IllHPOKOH ynoTpe6llTeJIbHOCTH aKTHBHo-6e306beKTHbIX fJIarOJlOB npHBe.ueM OrpbIBOK H3 nOBeCTH B. Ilaaosok «Cepexa», onacsrsaiouma nOJIHbIH. onaCHOCTeH MHP, KaKI1M OH BH,UHTCH nHTHJIeTHeMY pe6eHKY: «ITcT)'XH KJIIOJOTC9, KOlIlKH uspsnesotc«, KpaIIHBa )[()[(erCfl, JIlOPH TOJIKaJOTC9, MaJIbf{HmKH uepyrcs, 3CMJIH CPblBaCT KO)[(), C KOJIeH, xorne tuuiaetu», - H Ccpe)[(a BCCb IlOKpb/T U8paIIHHaMH, CCa,;J.lfHaMH If CHH9KaMH. Ilourn KaJK)1blii PCHb f{TO-TO CJIyrlaeTC9».

Ilpa Bc(~M MHoro06pa3HH B03MO)KHbIX CHTyaUHH QHCJIO rnaronos, ynorpefinaeMhIX B HHX, orpamrteao: HX He fionee nonyropa ueC5ITKa .

I nOKa3aTeJlhHa HCTOPIDI, paCCKa3aHHIDI CTaphIM 60TamIKOM-CeJleKUI10HepOM, KOTOPblM 3aHHMaJlC~ BblBe.ueHl1eM HOBhIX COPTOB p03. OH O'IeHb JII0611J1 CBOM UBeThI, He:lKHO YXruKJiBaJl3a HI1MI1, pasroBapHBaJl C HI1MI1. Ha TpenlH ron Y p03 nponana unmu. Hcxesxa Heo6xOlll1MOCTh B sanurre - He crano I1 Heo6xo.uI1MOCTH B 0PYllHH OTpa:lKeHH~ arpeCCI1H.

35

Banospexeuasre XapaKTepHCTHKH aKTHBHO-6e306beKTHblX rJIarOJIOB onpe.!I.e~ JIHIOTCH xapaxreposr 0603HaqaeMOrO HMH .!I.eMCTBHH KaK nOCToHHHOro CBOMCT~~ OHH scerna ynOTPe6mnOTCH B uecosepureaaoa Bane, B $opMe sacrosmero He, aKTYaJIbHOrO BpeMeHH: He tiotaec», MOH co6aKa HC syceetc«. ~

,l1,eHcTBHe aKTHBHO-6e306beKTHblx marOJIOB npellCTaBJIHeTCH KaK B03MO)l(H~ HMelO111ee MO.!I.aJIbHO-~OTeHI..(HaJIbHOe aaaseaae: cotisxs syceetcs-« CJIe.!I.OBaTeJIb HO, OHa MO)l(eT YKYCHTb KOrO-JlH6o; KOIIIKa uepensetc« - T. e. OHa MO)l(eT OU panars qeJIOBeKa (OTCIOJla H npyroe Ha3BaHHe 3THX rnarOJIOB - aKTHBHO-nOTeH; uaansnue) .

06'beKT npn TaKHX rnaronax MbICJIHTCH KaK o606111CHHhIM, T. e • .!I.eMCTBHe cy6 exra MO)l(eT 6hITb HanpaBJIeHO na moooro, Xapaxrepao, 'ITO nOTeHI..(HaJIbHOe .!I.e CTBHe aKTHBHo-6e306beKTHbIX marOJIOB MO)l(eT 6bITb OTHeceHO TOJIbKO K )K}fBO· My CYllleCTBY. 3TO CJIeJlyeT HMeTb B Bany npa onpenenemra TpaHc$opMaI..(HOHHhI )303MO)l(HOCTeH npeanoxenna. Hanpanep, eCJIH npa TpaHc$opMal..(HH npennoxe HHH IIcTYx KnIOeT. .. ceMaHTHqeCKHM 06beKTOM MO)l(eT 6hITb H npenxer (3epHO M )I(MBOe CYllleCTBO (xepaax), TO B rrpellJlO)l{eHHM Ileryx IOlIOeTCH nOTeHUHaJIhH .!I.eifC'[BHe MO)l{eT 6hITb OTHeceHO TOJIbKO K )I(lfBOMY CYllleCTBY. Cnenyer 06paTH BHHMaHHe HHOCTpaHHbIX ysautaxca, 'ITO na CHHTaKCHqeCKOM yposae 06beKT np B03BpaTHbIX rnaronax naanoro 3HaqeHHH HHKorJla He yrrOTpe6JIHeTCH. (fl03T MY HX naoma aaasmaror euie a6COJIlOTMBHbIMH rJIarOJIaMH, HlIH a6COJIIOrnBa a6COJIIOTHBHO-nOTeHI..(MaJIbHbIMH marOJIaMH.)

CUHOHI1MMR npel1/10>KeHMM C aKTMBHO-6e306beKTHbIMI1 marOJ1aMU

Ilpennoxena» c aKTHBHo-6e306beKTHbIMH rJIarOJIaMH HMelOT CMHOHMMH'IH aapaaraaasre KOppeJIHTbI.

1) Ilpexne scero, anecs CTOMT Ha3BaTb MOllaJIbHbIe MOJlmimKaI..(HH. 3TH MO.!I.H <pHKaUHH He sarparasaior <P0PMY MMeHHoro KOMnOHeHTa - OHa OCTaCTCH npe HeM. lhMeHHeTcH TOJIhKO $opMa rJIarOJIa: YTpalJHBaeTCH -CJI H MeHHeTCH ero BIf nonaa xapaxrepncraxa - rnaron rrpMHMMaeT <POPMY HH<plfHHTHBa COBepllIeHHO BMa, a B rpynny cxaayenoro BBO.!I.HTCH rnaron MOYb B 3-M .mnre: 3m cotisx» C{leTCH. - 3Ta cooexe MOJKCT yKYCHTb; KOTeHoK uspetteetcs. - KOTeHoK MO)[(' ouepettere.

YqCT oco6eHHOCTeM MOll:aJIbHbIX MO,lllf<pHKauHM CTPYKTYP sroro rnrra HMe npaxrasecxoe aaaseuae ,llJIH rtpertoztaaarena-pycncra, KOTOPblH nonxea nOMOq~

Ht-IOCTpaHHo~y CTY.lleHTY OC03HaTb llaHHbIH $eHoMeH, 'lTo6bI yqaUJ.HHcH H3~ ... · .•.... }l{aJI THnMqHOM B TaKMX CJIY'laHX OIlIH6lG1.: *3zy cotiexy MO)f(HO YKYCHTb; * KOTeH;

.

36

MOJKHO ouepsners, xoropas B03HHKaeT no aHaJIOfHH co cTPYKTypaMH: 3ry IIIy6y MO)[(lfO 'fHCTHTb; 3ry JlaMny MOJKHO nosopssnset» 8 pa3HbIC cropottu.

2) nOqTH see aKTHBHo-6e306beKTHble B03BpaTHble rnaronsr HMelOT CHHO· HI1MH'lHbIe KOppeJIHThI 6e3 -CJI (){(C'fbCH - ){(e'fb, KYcaTbCH - zycaTb, uapallaTb~ CJl - uapallaTb, JlHraTbCH - JlHraTb, 6pbIKaTbCH - 6phIKaTb, 60)JaTbCH - 60)JaTh; Klle8aTbCH - IOlC88Tb, LUHllaTbCH - llJHllaTb, JKaJIHTbCH - JKaJIHTb, TOJlKaTbCH ~ TOJIK8Tb, pyrencs - pyraTb). 3TH HeB03BpaTHble rnaronst yrrOTpe6JIH1OTCH B npen .. JIO)l(eHHH B TOM )l(e 3Ha'leHHH, 'ITO H COOTHOCMTeJIbHble C HRMH B03BpaTHble axTHBHO-6e306beKTHhle fJIarOJIhI. A nOCKOJIbKY OHH nepenaior anaseaae .lleHCTBHJI KaK nOCTOHHHoro CBOHCTBa cytrsexra, OHH YTPa'lHBaIOT $YHKUHIO nepexonaocra [51HKo-TpHHMUKaH, 1962: 199]. Cp.: Kpsnnee sceetcs. -KpanHB8)[()f(eT; KOPOBbl 60,aaJOTCH. - KOp08bI 60J/8IOT; Tlsem« JKaJIJITCH (npocm.). - Ilnenu JKaJIHT. 31H CTPYKTYPbI B3aHM03aMeHHeMhI.

3) Jlpennoxean« rana Kpsttnse )[()f(eTCH MOryT HMeTb H npyrae CHHOHHMH'l· mre sapaaraaaste KOppeJIHTbI, B 'laCTHOCrn CHHOHMMHqHble a.llbeKTlfBHble crpyxTYPbI.

DOJIbllIHHCTBO aKTHBHO-6e306'beKTHbIX KOHCTPYKUHM HMeeT COOTHOCHTeJIb~ HbIH KOppeJIHT - rrpHJIaraTeJIbHOe C cy$$HKCOM -a'l-/-Y'l-: Kpenuse )[()f(eTcH. - Kpsnnss sayns»; illHllOBHHK KOJlCTCH. - illHllOBHI1K KOJlIOt{HH; Cotieia K)'caeTCJl. - Cotiua: xycese«; TeJleHOK 6PbIK8CTCH. - TeJleHOK 6PhTK}"fHH; KOp08B 6o,aacTcH. - Kopose 6o)JygaH; Iletyx KJIIOeTcH. =Tletyx KJIe8a'fHH (npocm.); CT8- pyxa pyr8cTCH. - Ctspyxs pyra'lf1R (npocm.).

HHocTpaHHoMY yqameMycH - 6Y.llymeMY <pHlIOJIOry BIDKHO 3HaTb, 'ITO CY<P<pHKCbI COBpeMeHHbIX npMJIaraTeJIbHhIX -a'l-/-Y'l- COOTHOCHTCH C uepKOBHO-CJIaBSlHCKHMH cyw$HKcaMH .lleHCTBHTeJIbHbIX npMqaCTMH -aw.-/-ym.- (){(IYLUHH, K)'calOWHH, KOJlIOLUHii). B naureu cnysae B «m6pHllHOM» xapaxrepe npnxacraa, ero B03MO)l(HOCrn O.llHOBpeMeHHO nepenasars 3Ha'leHHe H npasaaxa H .lleMCTBHH noMHHHpyeT snasenae .!I.eHCTBHH, rrOCKOJIhKY 3TO rrpasacnre HMeeT <POPMY .lleHCTBlf~ TeJIbHoro 3aJIOra, a xapaxrepasyeuoe HM cYllleCTBMTeJIbHOe 0603HaqaeT arenca.

B03MO)l(Hble B COBpeMeHHOM pe'lH <pOPMbI .lleHCTBHTeJIbHOrO npmacraa HaCTO~IUero BpeMeHH aa -CJI, CHHOHHMHqHble aKTHBHo-6e306beKTHhIM rnaronax (~YWaHCH xpsttnee, KOJlIOWHiiCH IIIHllOBHHK, 60)JaIOLUaJlCH KopOBa) H ynorpetiJIeHHble B TOM )l(e 3Ha'leHHM, BocnpMHMMalOTCH KaK pe3YJIbTaT C03HaTeJIbHOM JIHTepaTYPHO-H3hIKOBOH o6pa6oTKH H MaJIoyrroTpe6HTeJIbHbI B eCTeCTBeHHOM pe'llf HOCHTeJIeH ~3bIKa. OHH MOryT BCTpelJaTbC5I B KHM)I(HOH penn. TIpHMepoM TaKOrO lie'-laCTOro ynOl'pe6JIeHHH MO)l(eT 6bITb 3arOJIOBOK CTaThH «Ilmoiouiaacn xofipa»

37

[«3BpHKa-87»: 192] - 06 OLlHOM H3 BHLlOB a<PPHKaHCKMX 3MeM, BbIIlYCKalOIUHX He rrpOTHBHHKa CTPyMKI1 ana, npasonamero K CJIerrOTe.

4) Hexoropsre CTpYKTYPbI C aKTHBHO-6e306beKTHbIMH rJIarOJIaMI1 rrpeotipasy IOTCH B rrpe)lJIO)J(eHHH C npMJIaraTeJIbHbIMI1 C CY<P<PI1KCOM -JIHB-, TaK)J(e I1MeIOIUHrI 3HaqeHI1e CKJIOHHOCTI1 K LleMcTBHIO: Beui MaJIb'lHK He J(epeTCJI? (I1MeeTCH B BI1.UY He J(palJJIHBblH lIH MaJIb'lHK?); Crepyxs y Hero 6paHHTCJI. - Ctspyxe y Hero 6paHlJ JIHBaH. II Ha060pOT: EOJ(JlHBOH xopose 60r por He J(aeT (nocn.v. - Kopose, KOTOpa; 6oJ(aeTCJI, 60r por He J(aeT; j(pa'lJIHBblH ttetyx )[(HpeH He 6bIBaeT (nocn.s. - IIeT)'Jl KOTOPbIH J(epifTCJI, )[(HpeH He tiuseei:

Xapaxrepno, 'ITO npanararensaste 11 C CY<P<PI1KCOM -a'l-/-Y'l-, H C CY<P<PI1K COM -JIHB- OTHOCHTCH K Ka'leCTBeHHbIM npMJIaraTeJIbHbIM. OHI1 MOryT I1MeTb xa: rrOJIHYIO, TaK H KpaTKYIO <POPMY: illHIlOBHHK KOJIIO'lHH. - illHIlOBHHK KOJIIO~ MaJIbgHIIIKaJ(pagJIHBbIH. - MaJIb<fHIIIKaJ(palJJIHB. OHH MOryT H3MeHHTb crenea HHTeHCI1BHOCTI1, xapaxrep npOHBJIeHH5I npasaaxa: B Mae xpeunee He TaKaH)[([,Y se», KaK B aBrYCTe.

Bee 3TI1 npI13HaKI1 «KaqeCTBeHHOCTI1» npOHBmlIOTCH H B rJIarOJIbHblX CTPYKTY pax: B Mac xpattnee )J()[(eTCH HC TaK CHJIbHO, KaK B estycre; TCIlCPb, xotus IIcTbK noiucn B IIIKOJIY, OH )'JKc HC J(cpeTCJI, KaK pettuue.

COl.{eTaeMOCTb aKTl4BHO-6e306beKTHblX tneronoe C Hapel.{l4f1Ml4

AKTHBHo-6e306beKTHbIe rJIarOJIbI COqeTalOTCH C HapeqH5IMH MepbI H CTeneHI' BbI60p KOHKPeTHoro nape-nor 3aBI1CHT OT roro, C KaKMM THnOM npe)lJIO)J(eHHM MI HMeeM .[(eJIO - C YTBepLlHTeJIbHbIMH MJIH OTpHIJ,aTeJIbHbIMH. B YTBep.[(I1TeJIbHbl npe)lJIO)l(eHHHX rJIarOJI COqeTaeTCH C HapeqHHMI1 co 3HaqeHHeM 60JIbIllOif crenen npnanaxa - TepMI1H 1O.,l1.. Anpecaua [Anpecsn, 1974: 65] - O"leHb, CHJIbHO, y;KJlc. HO (pase.v: Kpettnsa O'lCHb )fOl(eTCJI; KOMapbI CHJIbHO KYcaIOTCH; CBHTep )'JKaCH KOJICTCH. B OTpHIJ,aTeJIbHbIX npe)lJIO)l(eHH5IX rJIarOJI CO'leTaeTCH C HapeqHHMH, 0603 HaqalOIIJ,HMH nOJIHYlO creneirs npuaaaxa - TepMHH 1O.,l1.. Anpecaaa [AnpeCHI' 1974: 65] - COBceM, COBepHleHHO, aOCOJIIOTHO: B Mac xpettnsa COBCCM HC )J()[(eTCJ CBHTCP COBCCM HC KOJICTCH. Cp, OIllH6KH, xacrsre B pexa HHOCTpaHIJ,eB: "Kpettns COBceM )J()[(eTCJI; "Kouepu COBepllIeHHO KYcaIOTCJI; *P03bI COBepllIeHHO KOJIIOTCJ * KOTeHOK COBCCM uepetteetcs.

He COqeTaIOTCH aKTHBHO-6e306beKTHbIe rnaronsr C HapeqHHMI1 KaqeCTBeHHO OIJ,eHKH (JICrKO, C TPY,£(OM, XOPOllIO, IVlOXO H T. n.): "Kpsttnss XOPOllIO, JIerKO KYc, eTCJI; *KoTeHoK TPY,£(HO uapetteercs. Mexny TeM)lJIH HHOCTpaHIJ,eB TaKHe OIllH( KH xapaxrepnst. OHI1 B03HHKalOT no aHaJIOrHI1 co CTpyKTypaMI1, co.[(ep)J(aIIJ,HMH

38

CBoeM COCTaBe naCCHBHO-KaqeCTBeHHbIe rJIarOJIbI TI1na Kotbe XOPOillO paCTBOpJIeTCJI; j(HBaH JIerKO paCKlIa,l(bIBaeTCJI.

9. n060"lHO-S03spaTHble maronei

K n060'lHO-B03BpaTHbIM OTHOCHTCH rJIarOJIbI, 0603HaqalOIUHe KOHTaKT Cy6bexra C o6beKToM, 06blqHO HenO.[(BH)J(HbIM MJII1 <pI1KCHpoBaHHbIM: HaXOJ(HCb ne 3CKaJIaTOpe, ,4eplKHTeCb 3Jl nop)'"IHH; Jl He 3aMeTHlI B tpsse KaMHJI H 601IbHO y,£(apHJICJI 00 Hero. B npe)lJIO)l(eHI1HX C TaKHMH rnaronasor 06beKT caMHM <paKTOM cnoero CYllleCTBOBaHHH CTHMYJIHpyeT Ha3BaHHoe .[(eMCTBHe: eCJIH 6bl He 6billO B rpase KaMHH, rOBOpHIIJ,HM 6bI He cnOTKHYJICH; eCJIH 6bI na JIeCTHHIJ,e He 6bIJIO nopy-mea, TO M He sa 'ITO 6billO 6bl nepxarsca,

B npe)lJIO)l(eHHHX C TaKHMI1 rJIaroJIaMI1 cytrsexr, 3aHI1MaIOIUI1M CHHTaKCI1qeCKYIO n03I1IJ,I11O rronnexamero, 06bIqHO Bblpa)l(eH OLlYIlleBJIeHHbIM I1MeHeM CO 3HalJeHI1eM JIHIJ,a, pexe )J(I1BOTHoro. 06beKT, KaK npaBMJIO, - CYIlleCTBI1TeJIbHOe HeOLlYrneBJIeHHOe, 0603HaqalOIUee npemrer MJIH sacn, rena )J(I1BOro cymecrsa: Pc6eHOK yrKHYJICa roJIOBOH B no;zymK)' H KPCIlKO CIlaJI; KOIIIKa repJIaCb 0 nom X03RHHa; JI BIDKy, BaM TPY,£(HO HJ(TH. OOOnpHTecb 0 MOe nneso. Pexe cyesexr - HMJ! ueonyureanenaoe: 30HT 3auenHJICa 3a nyrDBHlIJ' H HHKaK HC paCKpblBaJICR.

HaH60Jlee ynOTpe6I1TeJlbHbI cJIe.[(YIOIIJ,I1e n060QHO-B03BpaTHbIe rnaronsr: ,£(ep}/(aTbCR(3a 'tmoY), opaTbCR(3a 'tmoY), XBaTaTbca(3a 'tmoY), uenJIJlTbCR(3a «mo Z), y,£(apRTbca(060 'tmoY), CryKJlTbca(pa32.) (060 'tmoY), CnOTMKaTbCa(060 «mo Z), onupaTbca(060 «mo r na «mo Z), yrKHyrbCR(60 'tmo?), yHHpaTbC5I (60 nmcY).

Bee n060'lHO-B03BpaTHbIe rJIarOJIbI Tpe6Y1OT .[(onOJIHeHHSI B BHHHTeJIbHOM nanexe C npennorava sa, 0 (06), B. BbI60p KOHKpeTHoro npennora 3aBHCHT OT xapaxrepa KOHTaKTa cy6beKTa H 06beKTa.

,l1.onOJIHeHMe B <popMe aa + B. n. ynOTpe6J1HeTCH 06bIqHO 'rorzta, xorna pens H.neT 0 MeXaHMqeCKOM coe.[(MHeHMM, CIJ,eITJIeHMM cy6beKTa 11 ofrsexra, - nepxencs se ttepnns, sa PYKH, se PY'lKY nsep«, ss IlOPY'lHH; B3HTbCR 3a PY'lKY nsepn, nett.!lHTbCR se nyrosnuy; XBaTaTbCR 38 BOJIOCbI: B03bMeMca ss PYKH, ,£(PY3bR, 'lTo6 He ttponscts IlOO,£(HHOgKe (OKYOJICa6a); Jl)'JKe B3RJICa ss p)'"IKy,£(BepH, 'lTo6bJ yHTH, }fo supyr IlepeJ(YMaJI H petuun OCTaTbCH; C 6aJIKOHa ClIeTeJI8 fJbR-TO Py6811IKa H 3al{enHJIaCb se BeTKy,£(epeB8. Cp. TaK)J(e ynOTpe6JIeHHe TaKMX rnaronos B PYCCKHX nOCJIOBHIJ,ax: YTon81OIaHH XBaTaeTCH 38 COJIOMHHKY; He '£(ep)[(aJICR ss tpuey; 8 3a XBOCT He YJ(epJKHllIbCR; B3HJICR se ry»; He rOBOpJf, 'ITO He ,£(10)[(.

lJ,orrOJIHeHHe B <popMe 0 + B. n. ynOTpe6JISleTCH 06bIqHO rorna, xorna cyfrsexr lOJIbKO conpnxacaerca C 06beKTOM M xorna MX B3aHMo.[(eMCTBMe HOCMT xapaxrep COOTHOIlleHI1S1 60JIbIlleM H MeHbIlleM nJIOIlla.[(M, TOqKM H nJIOma.[(M, - y,£(apHTbCH 0

39

xsueu»; YIIIH6HTbCfl / ctyxnyrscs tpase.) 06 yron IllKarjJa, oti nepeso; OIIHpaTbCfl 0 CTCHY; ClIOTbIKaTbCfl 0 1I0pOr, 0 KaMCHb; 6HTbCfl KaK pbl6a 06 JIe,a: ROJIHbl 6blOTCJJ o 60PT tcopstins; - Iloseuy' Y Tc6fl ttepesssene pyxs? - Y.4apHJ1Cfl o uepeso; RbI ... XOPfl H3-3a CTOJIa, fl 60JIbHO y,aapHJJCH 06 yron; 3,aCCb BblCOKHii 1I0pOr, cuotpnte He cnOTKHHTeCb 0 Hero. -

Draronu OlHlfJaTbCH H 06JIOKOTHTbCH HMelOT nsa aapnanra ynpaanenas: 01lJl, paTbCH, 06JJOKa'lHBaTbCH 060 sro H Ha 'ITO. Bubop KOHKPeTHOrO sapaaara 3aBHeH~ OT xapaxrepa onopsr, KOTOPOH MO)l(eT socnonsaosarscs cytisexr, EelIH 3TO sepra-, KaJIbHaR onopa, ynoTpe6AAeTCR npennor 0 (060): OlIHpaTbCfl 0 CTCHY, 0 CTBOJI pc, pese: OHa OlICpJIaCb 0 CTBOJI 6epe3b1 H 0 'leM-TO IIYMaJIa. EelIH 3TO rOpH30HTaJIb~ HaR onopa, B03MOX<HO ynorpefineaae $OpMbI Ha sro: CTapHK Tfl)J(CJIO OnHpaJICIJ

~~~~. ;

Ha Bbl60p npennora BJIHReT TaKX<e H pasaep orropsr, EelIH onopa HMeeT OTHO, CHTeJIbHO 601IbllIYIO TIJIOIUaL(b, npennoxrarenea BbI60p npennora sa: 06JTOKOTHTb, Cfl u« lIOPOKOHHHK, ottnpetscs ne ClIHHKY ctyns. EelIH )l(e onopa HMeeT oTHoeHl TeJIbHO He6oJIbllIYIO TIJIOIUa,llb, 601Iee ynorpefiarenea npennor 0: 06JIOKOTHTbCfl ~ lI~H~. I

L(onolIHeHHe B $opMe B + B. n. ynoTpe6JIReTCR rorna, xorna cy6'beKT aanpaslIReT yeHJIIDl BHYTpb otrsexra: YTKHYTbCfl FOJIOBOii B lIO.ayIlIKy, BOTKHyrbCfl B KO..¥Ql BOH3HTbCfl B PCPCBO, yttuperscn B CTCHY: CrpCJIa BOH3HJ1aCb B ,aepeBO. .

~

10. B03BpaTHbie rnaroms naccaaaoro 3Ha~eHMA i

l

B npaxraxe npenonasaaaa PKI1 B 'IHelIe B03BpaTHbIX rnaronos paccMaTpHBal

IOTeR B03BpaTHble rnaronsr C naCCHBHbIM, HJIH crpaaarensasnr! 3Ha'leHHeM. PmJ HCClIe,llOBaTelIeH OTHOCRT rnaronsr C -CH, HMelOIUHe crpanarensaoe 3Ha'leHHe~,. lIH'IHbIM $opMaM rnarona (CM., nanp., [3aJIH3HRK, 1977: 6-7]), npOTHBOnOCTaBJI TaKHM o6pa30M ornensaue caMOCTORTeJIbHble rnaronsr C -CH H $OpMbl rnarono .. C -CH, npoassonasre OT HeB03BpaTHbIX rnaronoa. L(AA npaKTH'IeCKOrO OBJIa,lleH PYCCKHM H3bIKOM KaK HHOCTpaHHbIM raxoe paarpanasenae npe,llCTaBJIHeTCH He, CYIUeCTBeHHbIM, n03TOMY B ornrcauaa rnaronos aa -CH C naCCHBHbIM 3Ha'leHHe~ MbI cnenyea aa TeMH JIHHrBHCTaMH, xoropsie HCnOJIb3YlOT TepMHH «B03BpaTHbI~

I TepMHHbl (<ITaCCHBHbIll» H «CTpauaTeJIbHbli1:» B )laHHOM rrocoGHH rrOHHMalOTCR KaK pasnosxavnue B 3TOi1: patiore Mbl GY)leM B OCHOBHOM rrpH)lep)lG!BaTbCR nepsoro H3 HMX KaK GOJIee nOHRTHoro .nn.I anocrpanues.

40

rlIarOlI»,!lJUI o603Ha'leHHJI scex rnaronos C -CH [faBpHJIOBa, 2004: 43]; [.HHKO- TPHHHUKaR, 1962: 4].

B npaxraxe rrperroaaaanas PKI1 Mbl HCXO,l(HM H3 roro, 'ITO naccaaasre eTpYKTYPbI BXOMT B onn03HUHlO «aKTHB-naccHB», B KOTOPOH naccanasre eTpYKTYPbI }lBJIRIOTeR npOH3BO,llHbIMH OT aKTHBHbIX. TaK, B npennoxeaaax llIKOJIY ctposr MOJIO,ablC pa60'lHC (1)- Illxone CrpOHTCfl MOJIOPbIMH pa60lfHMH (2) HeXO,llHOH:

HBJIReTCR aKTHBHaR KOHCTPYKUHR (1), B KOTOPO:ti: nonnexautee B $opMe HMeHHrensaoro nanexa HMeeT saaseaae peansaoro cy6'beKTa, HJIH npOH3BO,llHTeAA ,l(e:ti:CTBIDl, areaca, a nononaenae B $opMe BHHHTeJIbHOrO rranexa 0603Ha'iaeT 06'beKT. B rrpeaasonaoa OT 3TOro npennoxeaa» naccnsnoa CTpYKTYPe (2) HaPYIIIeHO COOTBeTeTBHe «rtonnexamee - cytrsexr» [Xpaxoscxaa, 1974: 29]. B naccaanoa cTpYKTYPe B n03HUHlO rronnexamero Bbl.llBHraeTCJI HM5I co 3Ha'leHHeM oosexra, H TaKHM o6pa30M B rpaacrpopaapoaaauoa npe.ll1IO)l(eHHH naaaoe HM5InOBbIlliaeT CBO:ti: CHHTaKCH'IeCKHH.paHr.

B cospexeaaoa npaxraxe rrpenonaaaaaa PKI1 paanenaerca TO'lKa 3peHIDl rex JIHHrBHeTOB, xoropsre yraepxnaior; 'ITO CneUHaJIbHOrO «naccaaaoro. 3Ha'ieHIDl He CYIUecTByeT [XpaKoBcKHH, 1974: 24]. AKTHBHble H rraccasaue npe.ll1IO)l(eHHR npa cosnaneana JIeKCH'IeCKoro cocrasa B HH$opMaTHBHoM TIJIaHe paBHOueHHbI. OHH pa3JlH'IaIOTCR nodiopue, a He no 3Ha'leHHIO. B 'IeM )l(e eoeTOHT crreuarpaxa Ka)J{,lloH $OpMbI?

Axrnanue H naccasasre CTPYKTYPbI, 0603Ha'iaR O,llHY H TY )l(e CHTYaUHIO, pasJIH'laIOTCg cnocooox.ee npe,llCTaBJIeHHH. Hanpnvep, npe.lllIO)l(eHIDl Xop HClIOJIHflCT pYCCKHe seposnue IIeCHHH XOPOM HCIIOJIHflIOTCfl PYCCKHC HapopHbIC ttecnn ettnCbIBalOT onay H TY )l(e caryaumo, HO C PaJHO:ti:: opnearanaea. B aKTHBHo:ti: $opMe sa ornpasayio TO'lKY fieperca cy6'beKT ,lle:ti::cTBHH (xop), a B naccnaaoa - 06'beKT (rrecHH). B 3aBHCHMOC1,'H OT sanas, xoropsie CTORT nepen roBOpRIUHM, OH Bbl.llBHraer B n03HUHlO nonnexaurero TO TOT, TO ,llpyro:ti:: KOMnOHeHT.

O,llHOH H3 saxneaurax lIHHrBHCTH'IeCKHX COCTaBJIRIOIIIHX naCCHBa RBJIgeTCR ~opMa cxaayevoro. B naCCHBHbIX crpyxrypax cxaayesroe MO)l(eT 6bITb supaxeao rJIarOlIOM aecoaepureaaoro sana C -CH HJIH KpaTKHM crpanarensasnr npnsacrneM. Inaron necoaepureanoro sana C -CH MO)l(eT asrpaxart, rrpouecc neacrsaa (3TO 3o,aHHe CrpOHJIOCb tpn ropa), noaropmouieeca ,lleHCTBHe (TaKHe 3paHHfllfacTO CTpOHJIHCb B XVIII BeKe), OTHed~HHOCTb ,lle:ti::CTBHH K npOllIJIOMY ( 3T0 :maHHC CrpOHJIOCb CI1l.e MOHM lIpa,aepOM). 3Ha'leHHe pe3YJIbTaTa .ue:ti:cTBHH nepenaercs KpaTKHM CTpa.uaTelIbHbIM npH'IaCTHeM cosepureaaoro BHlla (3TO 3paHHC 1I0CTpoeHO se PBa roo,a).

4-98

41

xsuetn; YIIlH6HTbCfI / CTYKHyrbCfI tpase.) 06 yron IIIKa(jJa, 06lIepeBO; OIIHpaTbCfI 0 CTeHY; CilOTbIKaTbCfI 0 IIOpOr, 0 xsuen»; 6HTbCfI KaK pbI6a 06 JlelI: BOJlHbI ObIOTCJl o OOPT Kopa6J1fI; - flOgCMY Y Te6fI IIepeBfI3affa PYKa? - Y,a;apHJlCJl o,!{epeBO; BbIXO,IIfI H3-3a CTOJIa, s 60JlbHO y,!{apHJlCR 00 yron; 3,IIeCb BbICOKHii IIOpOr, CMOTpHTC He CHOTKHHTecb 0 Hero. -

Draronu OHHpaTbCH H OMOKOTHTbCR HMeIOT nsa sapaaara ynpaBJIeHIDI: OOHpaTbCR, OOJIOKa'lHBaTbCR 000 'ITO H Ha <fTO. Bufiop KOHKpeTHoro sapaaara 3aBHCHT OT xapaxrepa onopsr, KOTOPOil: MoxeT BOCrrOJIb30BaTbC.H cy6beKT. ECJIH :310 BepTHKaJIbHa.H onopa, ynorpefinaercs npennor 0 (060): OIIHpaTbCH 0 CTeH)', 0 CTBOJI ,IIC' pess: OHa OIICpJlaCb 0 CTBOJI Oepe3b1 H 0 <feM-TO IIYMaJIa. ECJIH 3TO rOpH30HTaJIbHa.H orropa, B03MO)I{H0 ynorpetinenae <pOPMbl Ha 'ITO: CTapHK TfI)/(eJIO OHllpaJICIJ Ha HaJIKy (0 IIaJIKY).

Ha BbI60p npeanora BJIH.HeT TaKXe H paaxep onopsr. ECJIH onopa HMeeT OTHOCHTeJIbHO 60JIbllIyIO IIJIOm;a.L(b, npennosrarenea BbI60p npennora aa: OMOKOTHTb· CfI ne IIOIIOKOHHHK, ottnperscs Ha CIIHHKY cTYJIa. ECJlH xe orropa HMeeT OTHOCHTeJIbHO He60JIhlllyIO IIJIOm;a.1lb, 60JIee ynorpefiarenen npeanor 0: 06JIOKOTHTbCfI c IIepHJIa.

llOnOJIHeHHe B <popMe B + B. D. ynoTPe6JI.HeTC.H rorna, xorna cy6beKT nanpasMeT YCHJIH.H BHytpb 06beKTa: ytxnytscs ronosoti B IIOIIYIIIKy, BOTKHyrbCfI B KOJKj, BOH3HTbCfI B nepeso, YIIHpaTbCH B CTCHY: Ctpena BOH3HJIaCb B .l{epeBO.

10. B03BpaTHbie rnaronsr naceaeaorc 3Ha~eHMA

B npaxrnxe rtpertonasaaaa PKI1 B qHCJIe B03BpaTHbIX marOJIOB paccuarpaaaIOTC.H B03BpaTHble rnaronsr C rraCCHBHbIM, HJIH crpanarensusrsr; 3HaqeHHeM. Paz HCCJICD:OBaTeJIeM OTHOC.HT rnaronu C -CD, lfMeIOm;lfe crpaaarensaoe 3HaQeHHe, I JIHqHbIM <popMaM rnarona (CM., aanp., [3aJIH3H.HK, 1977: 6-7]), rrpOTHBOrrOCTaBJIID TaKHM 06pa30M oraensasre caMOCTO.HTeJIbHbIe rnaronsr C -CD H <pOPMbI rJIarOJIOI C -CD, npoaaaomrste OT HeB03BpaTHbIX marOJIOB. ,ll.Jrn npaxrasecxoro OBJIa.L(eHID PYCCKHM H3bIKOM KaK HHOCTpaHHbIM raxoe paarpaaaseaae rrpelICTaBJIHeTC.H ne. cyuiecreeausnr, n03TOMY B onacauaa marOJIOB na -CD C naCCHBHbIM 3HaqeHHe, MbI cnenyest sa TeMH JIHHrBHCTaMH, xoropsie HCnOJIb3YlOT TepMHH «B03BpaTHbd

I TepMI1HbI «naCCI1BHbIH~ M «crpanarensasni: B ,!J,aHHOM nocoban nOHI1MaJOTCli KaK paBH03Ha'lHbIC B :noH paoore MbJ 6YLleM B OCHOBHOM npaaepxaaarscs nepsoro 113 HHX KaK 60Jlee nonsrsoro an MHOCTPaHueB.

40

rnaron» D:JIH 0603HaQeHH.H BCeX marOJIOB C -CD [faBpHJIOBa, 2004: 43]; [HHKO- TPHHHUKa.H, 1962: 4].

B rrpaxrnxe npenonaeaaas PKI1 MbI HCXO.n:HM H3 roro, qTO naccasusre crpyxTYPbI BXOll.HT B orrrr03HUHIO «aKTHB-rraCCHB», B KOTOPOM naccaanue CrpYKTYPbI 5IBJI.HIOTC.H rrpOH3BOlIHbIMli OT aKTHBHbIX. TaK, B npeznoxenaax lliKOJIY CTpOJ/T MOJIO,IIbIC pa60gHC (1) - lllxons CTpOHTCfI MOJIOlIbIMH pa60<fHMH (2) HCXO.n:HOil: 5IBJI.HeTC.H aKTHBHa.H KOHCrpYKUH.H (1), B KOTOPOM nonnexautee B <POp Me HMeHHrensaoro naaexa iiMeer 3HaQeHHe peansaoro cy6beKTa, HJIH npoaaaomrrena .n:eil:CTBIDI, areaca, a lIOrrOJIHeHHe B <popMe BHHHTeJIbHOrO nanexa 0603HaQaer 06beKT. B npoaseonaon OT sroro npennoxeana naCCHBHoM crpYKTYPe (2) napynreao COOTBeTCTBHe «noaxexamee - cytrsexr» [XpaKoBcKHM, 1974: 29]. B naccannoa crpYKTYPe B n03HUHIO noanexauiero BbID:BHraeTCH HM.H co 3HaQeHHeM 06beKTa, H TaKHM 06pa30M B rpaHc<popMHpoBaHHoM npeanoxeaaa ztaaaoe HM.H nossnnaer CBOM CHHTaKCHQeCKHM. panr

B coapeaenaoa npaxraxe npenonaaaaaa PKI1 paanenaerca TOQKa 3peHH.H rex JIHHrBlfCTOB, xoropsre YTBep)K.IJ:aIOT, QTO crrenaansaoro «naCClfBHorO»3HaQeHIDI He cymecrsyer [XPaKOBCKHM, 1974: 24]. Axrmnrsre H naccasnue npennoxeaaa npa cosnaaeaaa JIeKCHQeCKoro COCTaBa B HH<popMaTHBHoM IIJIaHe paBHOueHHbI. OHH pa3JllllIaIOTC.H rro <popMe, a He rro 3HaqeHHIO. B QeM xe COCTOHT cneuaoasa Kax.n:oH: <pOPMbI?

Axrasaue If naccasasre CTPYKTYPbI, 0603HaQaH O.n:HY H TY xe cHTyaUHIO, pasJIHqaIOTC.H cnocoeox ee rrpe.n:CTaBJIeHIDI. Hanpmrep, npennoxeaaa Xop HCIIOJIHJICT PYCCKHC HapOlIHbIC IIeCHH H XOPOM HCIIOJIHJIIOTCfI PYCCKHC H8PO,IIHbIC IICCHH OUHCbIBaIOT O.n:HY H TY xe caryaumo, HO C pa3HOM 0pHeHTaUHeH:. B aKTHBHOH: <popMe aa ornpasayio roQKY 6epeTC.H cy6beKT .n:eMCTBHH (XOp), a B rraCClfBHOM - 06beKT (rrecHH). B 3aBlfCHMOCTH OT saaas, xoropsre CTO.HT nepen roBOp.Hm;HM, OH BbID:BHraer B rr03HUlfIO noanexainero TO TOT, TO npyron KOMrrOHeHT.

. OlIHOH: H3 BaXHeMlllHX JIlfHrBlfCTlfQeCKHX COCTaBJI.HIOIUHX rraccnaa HBJI.HeTC.H <POPMa cxasyevoro, B rraCCHBHblX CTPYKTYpax cxaayexroe MoxeT 6bITb sapaxeao fJIaroJIOM aecosepmeaaoro BlID:a C -C.H HJIH KpaTKHM crpanarensmav rrpHQaCTHeM. Draron aecosepureaaoro BH.n:a C -CD MoxeT supaxars npouecc .n:eH:CTBH.H (3TO 3,4affHC CTpOHJIOCb TpH rO,4a), nOBTOp.HIOm;eeC.H .n:eMCTBHe (TaKHe 3,IIaHHH gaCTO CTpOHlIHCb BXVIII BeKe), OTHeceHHOCTb .n:eMCTBIDI K npOllIJIOMY (31"0 3lI8HHe CTpOHlIOCb eme MOHM IIpa.aelIoM). 3HaQeHHe pe3YJIbTaTa .n:eMcTBH.H nepenaerca KpaTKHM cTpa.n:aTeJIbHbIM rrpHQaCTHeM coaepureanoro BH.n:a (3TO 3IIaHHe IIOCTpoeHO se lIBa rO,4a).

41

Crenens Bblpa)l(eHHOCTH HMeHHbIX KOMrrOHeHTOB B rraCCHBHbIX npeanoxena- 51X MO)l(eT 6bITb paanaxaoa.

B 3aBHCHMOCTM OT crenean BbIpa)l(eHHOCTH cytisekra M 06beKTa MO)l(HO BhI,lleJIHTb TpH BH,lla CTPYKTYP: rpexxnenaue (peaJIhHhlti Cy6beKT ,lleticTBH5I Ha3BaH): ' Illxone CTPOHTCJl MOJIO.abIMH pa60<fHMH; ,llByqJIeHHbIe (peansnua cyfrsexr .Ileti-, CTBM5I He Ha3BaH): ,40M CTpOHTCH H O.IlHOqJIeHHble (HH cyfisexr; HM 06beKT He Ha3- BaH): KYPHTb senpeumcrcs.

YnoTpe6neHMe B03BpaTHblX rneronoe B TpeX'-IneHHblX naCCMBHblX CTPYKTYPax

I

3HaKOMCTBO HHOCTpaHHhIX yqamHXC5I C TeMoti «B03BpaTHbIe fJIarOJIhI B rrac- j CHBHbIX crpyxrypax- 06blqHO HalJHHaeTC5I C TpeXqJIeHHhIX rraCCMBHhIX npennoxc-" HMti. TpexqJIeHHa51 naCCHBHaH CTpYKTYpa rrpOH3BO.IlHa OT aKTMBHoti. B naccaaaon cTpYKTYpe B rr03MUHIO rronnexautero BbI,llBMraeTC5I MM5I co 3HaqeHHeM o6'beKTal .IleHCTBM5I, a MM5I co 3HaqeHMeM peansaoro cytisexra .IleticTBM5I nepexoznrr B rr03H~ UHIO .IlOnOJIHeHM5I B TBOpHTeJIbHOM nanexe: lliKOJIY CTPOHT uononue pstioene. -, lllxons CTPOHTCJl MOJIO.abIMH pa60<fHMH. . j

B JIHHrBOMeTO.IlMqeCKoti mrreparype OCHOBHoe BHHMaHMe Tpa,llMUMOHHO y,lle-' JI5IJIOCb <pOPMaJIhHhIM rrpe06pa30BaHH5IM aKTMBHhIX CTpyKTYP B rraCCMBHhIe, Ha-1 ueJIeHHbIM na rtonyxemre «aepaansnoro. OTpa)l(eHM5I aKTHBHoti: <pOPMhI Pa60<fHe1 CTPOJlT .aOM. - ,40M CTPOHTCH pa60<fHMH. O.IlHaKO raxoti rronxon He acxpsrsaer ' cnenarpaxa xaxnoro xneaa COOTHOCHTeJIbHoti: napsr npennoxenaa. Ba)I(HO Ha-1 yqHTb cTY.IleHTa HCrrOJIb30BaTb naccasnsre CTPYKTYPbI B pena. l

MCrrOJIh30BaHHe TpeXqJIeHHbIX rraCCMBHbIX CTPYKTYP CTMJIMCTHqeCKM 06ycnoB-~ JIeHO. B )l(HBOti: paaroaopnon peqM OHH BCTpeqaIOTC5I HeqaCTO. OHM MCrrOJIh3YIOTC5I, ~ fJIaBHbIM 06pa30M, B «KHM)I(HOM» 513hIKe, 513hIKe cpencrs MaccoBoti HH<j)opMaUMlfl (panao, rasersr, TeJIeBM.IleHHe), HayqHoti: M O<pHUHaJIhHO-.IleJIOBoti peqM. I1 MHo-l CTpaHHbIe ysaumeca, OCBaMBalOmHe HOBYIO 513hIKOBYIO CHCTeMY, ,llOJI)I{HhI Y5ICHHTh i M5I ce651 3TY oc06eHHOCTb <PYHKUMOHMpOBaHH5I TpeXqJIeHHOrO naCCHBa. )1

Ba)l(HO raxxe rrpMH5ITb BO BHMMaHHe H TO, 'ITO TpeXqJIeHHbIe arearnsnue nac-l CHBHbIe npeMO)l(eHH5I ecn, He BO scex 513bIKax. 3TO C03.IlaeT H3BeCTHble TpY.IlHO-":

CTM,llJI5I yqamHXC5I, B P0.IlHbIX 513bIKax KOTOPbIX orcyrcrayer COOTBeTCTBYIOmHti'i CTPYKTYPHhIM aHaJIOr. Bee 3TO nofiyxnaer npenonaaarens qeTKO Bbl5lBHTb HaH60-1 nee ouiynnrsre rpasoaarnuecxae npH3HaKH :3TOM 513hIKOBOM xareropua, YCTaHo-:1 BHTh csoero pozta MapKepbI, xoropsre MOfJIH 6hI novo-rs cTY.IleHTY 0.IlH03HaqHO j onpenemrrs xapaxrep npennoxeaaa, Y5ICHHTb ero cneuadmxy.

42

Ilpexne scero, He06xo.IlMMO ortpenemrrs TOT xpyr npennoxenaa, xoropsre cnOC06HhI npe06pa30BhIBaThC5I B naCCMB. HaH60JIee llJIO,llOTBOPHO CJIe.IlYIOmee onpe,lleJIeHHe, nocrpoeaaoe C yqeToM <P0PMaJIhHbIX H ceMaHTMlJeCKHX rrpH3HaKOS:

B naccasmre npeztnoxeaaa rrpe06pa3YIOTC5I JIHlllh re HOMHHaTHBHO-aKKY3aTHBHhIe CTPYKTYPhI, rne nsa «llOH5ITH5I, CB5I3aHHbIe Me)l(,llY c060ti: KaK rrpOH3BO.IlHTeJIh Jl,eHCTBM5I M npenxer, aa KOTOPbIM 3TO .Ileti:CTBMe nanpaaneso, rrOJIyqaIOT ceMaHTMqeCKHe xapaKTepHCTMKH cyfisexra M 06beKTa» [Anncoaa, 1973: 57]: 113.aaTeJIbcTBo «HaYKa» BblIlYCKaeT nnrepetypy lIO pa3HbIM OTpaCJIJlM 3HaHHii. - H3.aaTeJIbCTBOM «HaYKa» BbllIYCKaeTCH nnrepsryps lIO pa3HbIM OTpaCJIJlM 3HaHHH. Inaron B TaKHX npennoxemrax B lllHPOKOM CMhlCJIe HMeeT aaasenae neacrsaa (peansnoro MJIM HHTeJIJIeKTYaJIbHoro): CTpOHTb,CO~8B8Tb, opraHH30BblB8Tb,HHC8Tb, <fHT8Tb,H306- pa;KaTb, PHCOB8Tb H T. rr.

CTOHT OTMeTMTh, 'ITO B rraCCMBHhIX rrpeMO)l(eHH5IX .IlOrrOJIHeHHe B <popMe TBOpHTeJIbHOrO naaexa, oanaaaiontec peansaoro rrpOH3BO.IlMTeJI5I neacrsaa, B CTPYKTYPHOM nnane 51BAAeTC5I He06513aTeJIhHhIM [KopOJIeB, 1969]. YCTpaHeHHe sroro KOMrrOHeHTa 06e,llH51eT npeanoxenne B nnaae HHcpopMaTHBHoti ueHHOCTH, O,llHaKO He napyuraer ero CMHTaKCMqeCKoti: u.eJIOCTHOCTH. Cp.: Bnneru ttponstorcs BO.aHTeJIeM TOJIbKO Ha OCTaHoBKax. - Bnneru lIpo.aaIOTCH TOJIbKO us OCTaHoBKax.

B HeKOTopbIX noc06H5IX no PKM MO)l(HO BCTpeTHTb npauepsr naCCMBHbIX CTPYKTYP, xoropsre BhIfJI5I.ll5lT HCKYccTBeHHbIMH: KaKHe ttpenueru H3Y<faIOTCJl BaMH? (1); KeM lIpHHHMaIOTCH 3K3aMeHbl? (2); Xy.ao)[(}fHueii KapOJIHHOii Mepxc co6HpaIOTCJl.aeTcKHe PHCYHKH B MOCKOBCKHX llIKOJIaX (3). B 3TMX nproaepax TBOpHTeJIbHhlti rranex arenca, Bblp3)l(eHHhIM. MeCTOHMeHMeM (1, 2) MJlH HMeHeM C06CTBeHHbIM (3), K3)I(eTC5I HeeCTeCTBeHHhIM. B TpeXqJIeHHhIX rraCCMBHbIX KOHCTpYKUH5IX C B03BpaTHhIM fJIarOJIOM JIHqHhle MeCTOHMeHH5:I H HMeHa c06CTBeHHbIe B areHTHBHOM 3HaqeHHH 06hIqHO He yrroTpe6JI5IIOTC5I. DOJIee xapaxrepasr TpeXqJIeHnsre CTPYKTYPbl, rae, no E.H. HHKHTHHOti, «xareropaansaaa ceMaHTMKa HMeHH B TBOpHTeJIhHOM nanexe - Ha3BaHH5I nporpeccaa, ,llOJI)I(HOcTeti:, 0CPHUHaJIhHbIX JIHU., COUMaJIbHhIX pOJIeM 'IeJIOBeKa < ... >. C HMeHaMH <PYHKll,HM (Ha3BaHH5IMM .IlOJI)l(HOCrea) KOppeJIHpYIOT Ha3BaHM5I .IleM.CTBMM., xoropsre CBOM.CTBeHHbI HCKJIIOqHTeJIhHO :nOM <PYHKUHH, perYJI5lpHO H CTaH,llapTHO HCrrOJIH5IIOmHeC5I HMM» [HHKHTHHa, 2004: 233]. B PYCJIe sroro 06b5lCHeHM5I CTaHOBHTC5I nOH5ITHbIM, nOlJeMY HOPMaJIblio Ii eCTeCTBeHHO ynorperinenne TBOpHTeJIbHoro nanexa arearusnoro 3HalJeHH5I B crpyxrypax ,40IzyMeHTbI IlO.aIlHCbIBaIOTCH .aHPCKTOPOM MJIH Jlexepcttso BbIIlHBaeTCJl 60JIbHbIMH IlOCJIe cnu, rne «arenc PYKOBO.IlCTByeTC5I He c06CTBeHHoti: BOI!eH, a aexoropsnr XO.IlOM npenrrncaaasrx seutea, rrOp5l.IlKOM, KY.Ila OH anacaa KaK

43

HCrrOJIHHTeJIb» [HHKHTHHa, TaM xe], H noxexy HeJIb3S1 CKa3aTb: ,£(OJ<yMCHTbl IIOPIIHCblBalOTCJl HBaHOM HJIH lJait BblllHBaCTCJl ,aHPCKTOPOM 80 BPCMJl ttepepsms:

B HHOCTPaHHOH aY,llHTOpHH O'leHb Ba)f(HO otipautars BHHMaHHe aa <P0PMY rnarOJIa B COCTaBe rraCCHBHOH CTPYKTypbl, T. K. <popMa rnarona B rraccase onpeaenaer CMbICJI npennoxeaaa. OHa MO)f(eT ssrpaxare npouecc ,lleHCTBHH HJIH ero pe3YJIbTaT. Tlpouecc ,lleHCTBIDI nepenaercs B03BpaTHbIM rnaronox aecoaepmenaoro BHlla (J(OM crpOHTCJl / CTPOHJICJl/6y,aCT CTPOHTbCJl). 3HaqeHHe pesynsrara rrepenaerca KpaTKHM CTpa.IlaTeJIbHbIM npaxacraev cosepureaaoro BH,lla (J(OM IIOCrpOCH /6'bJJI IIOCTpoeH / 6y,aCT IIocrpOCH).

Ilpenonaearens nonxen HayqHTh CTY,lleHTaYCTaHaBJIHBaTb 'lencyro CBH3bMe)f(ss <popMaMH rnarona B aKTHBHOH H rraCCHBHOH crpyxrype. fJIaroJIY aecoaepureaaoro BHlla B COCTaBe aKTHBHOH CTPYKTYPbI scerna coorsercrsyer rJIarOJI C -CJI B naccaeaon: CT)',aCHTbl )'HHBCpCHTcTa C03,aa1OT CT)',aCHlJCCKHH CTpOHTCJIbHblH OTpsu: - CT)',aCHTaMH )'HHBcpcHTCTa C03,aaeTCJl CT)',aCHlJCCKHH CTpOHTeJIbHblll OTpJlJ!. B TO)Ke BpeMSI fJIarOJI coaepmeaaoroeaaa B aKTHBe perynspao rtpeofipaayercaa COCTaBe rraCCHBHOH crpyxrypu B KPaTKoe crpanarensnoe npasacrae: CT)',aCHTbl J'HHBCpCHTCTa C03J(aJIH CT)',acHlJCCKHII crpoHTcJIbHbIII OTpJlJ!; - CT)',aCHTaMH YHHBepCHTCra C03J(aH CT)',aCHlJCCKHII CTpOHTCJIbHblH OTpJlJ!.

YSlCHeHHe sroro <l.JaKTa novoraer npenomparars THnH'!Hble omH6KH: POM8H «THXHH ,£(OH» HanHCaJI 1ll0JIOXOB. - *POMaH «THXHH ,£(OH» HaIlHCaJICR 1ll0JIOXOBbIM. -'- *POMaH« THXHH ,£(OH» IIHcaH 1ll0J10XOBblM; MOCKOBCKHH J'HHBCPCHTeT nOCTpOHlI Ka38KOB. - *MOCKOBCKHit )'HHBCPCHTCT CTpOeH K83aKOBbIM. - "MoeKOBCKHH )'HHBepCHTer nOCTpOHJ1CR K838KOBblM. 3TH OIllH6KH 06YCJIOBJIeHbl KOHTaMHHaUHeH <l.J0pM. I1HOCTPaHHbIH yqalllHMcSI rrbITaeTCSI caMOCTOSlTeJIbHO CKOHCTpYHpOBaTb HOBoe CJlOBO, rrpOH3BOJIbHO 06'be,llHHSISI 'laCTH nsyx rnaronsasrx CJIOB (IIOcrpOCH, IIOCrpOHJICJl; HanHC8H, nHCaJICJl) B rrpOH3BOJlbHbIX KOM6HHaUHSIX (*CTpOCH, *IIOCTPOHJICJl H naxe *IIOCTpOCHCJl, *CTpOCHCJl; *IIHcaH, *HanHCaJICJl, *HanHCaHCJl, *IIHCaHCJl).

Ynorpe6neHVte B03BpaTHbiX tneronoe B ,lJ,By'meHHbIX naCCVtBHblX crpyxrypsx

B COBpeMeHHOM PYCCKOM Sl3bIKe cpenn rraCCHBHbIX CTPYKTYP npe06JIa,AaIOT ,llByqJIeHHble crpyxrypsr C HeBblpa)f(eHHbIM areHCOM: ,£(OM cwe CTPOHTCJl; 3ra KHHra y;KC He nponeercs. 3Ta xepra He SlBJ1S1eTCSI OTJIM'lMTeJ1bHOM oc06eHHOCTbIO PYCCKOH H3bIKOBOH CHCTeMbI. Ee3areHTHBHbIe rrpennoxenna acrpesaiorca M BO MHOrnx npyrnx sasrxax - aHrJ1Mi.f.cKOM, HeMeUKOM, rrOJ1bCKOM, BeHrepCKOM, CPHHCKOM H ztp,

44

,ll.ByqJIeHHbIe naccasaue CTPYKTypbI C HeBblpa)f(eHHbIM areHCOM HCnOJIb3yK>TCSI B rex CJlyqaJIX, xorna rrpOH3BOllHTeJIb ,lleHCTBHH HJIH HeH3BeCTeH (KP8)f(H 06bllJHO COBeplHaJIHCb HOlJblO) , HJIH HH<popMaUIDI 0 HeM HeCYllleCTBeHHa (C06paHHC ttepeHOCHTCJl H8 sestps). B 3THX rrpellJ10)KeHHHX HMeHHoH KOMrrOHeHT CO 3Ha'leHMeM npOH3BO,llHTeJIH ,lleHCTBIDI He SlBJlHeTCSI CrpYKTYPHO He06xo,llHMbIM.,ll.;rn ,llByqJIeHHbIX rraCCHBHbIX rrpellJ10)KeHHH 60JIee He06xo,llHMbl JIOKaJIbHbIe pacnpocrpamrrena (B YHHBCpCHTerC npOBo,aHTCJl KOHrjJCpeHUHJl) HJIH reanopansaae pacnpocrpaaarena (Bctpes« nCpCHOCHTCJl Ha.38BTpa).

)lByqJIeHHbIe naCCHBHbIe CTpYKTYPbI C B03BpaTHblMH marOJIaMH HeCOBepureanoro BHlla MMelOT COOTHOCHTeJIbHbIH CHHOHHMHqeCKHH BapHaHT - neonpe,lleJIeHHO-JIH'lHble rrpellJ10)KeHHSI C nepexozmsnr rnaronox HeCOBepIIIeHHoro sana:

Illxons CTpOHTCJl. - lllKOJ1Y CTpOJlT; CTOJIOB8Jl PCMOHTHPYCTCJl. - CTOllOBYIO peMOHTHpYIOr.

Ilpa pafiore Ha.IlllByqJIeHHbIMH rraCCHBHbIMH crpYKTYPaMH cnenyer 06paTHTb BHMMaHHe aa npezotoxenas C B03BpaTHbIMH marOJIaMH cosepureaaoro BH,r:t;a rana IIepe,aalJa 3aKOHlJHJIaCb; Ilenu nOBbICHllHCb; Crena pa3PYl1lHJIaCb, xoropste CTYnenrsr aepenxo CrpOSlT B OTBeT aa npocsfiy npenonasarena nepenars B rraCCHBHOM <l>opMe cozepxaane npellJ10)f(eHMH IIepc,aalJY 38KOHlJHlIH; liens: 1I0BblCHJIH; CTeHY pa3pymHJIH. Ilpeanoxeuae THIIa IIepe,aaqa 38KOHQHJIaCb, COOTHOCHMoe C lIepe,aalJY 3aKOHlJHJIH, CTYlleHTbI OTHOCSIT K naccasasns, nOCKOJIbKy CJIOBO, 0603- aasajomee 06'beKT, B HOMHHaTHBHo-aKKY3aTHBHoH crpyxrype CTaHOBI.fTCH BCHHOHHMH'lHOM npennoxeaaa nonnexaunoa.

CHHOHHMIDI crpyxryp raaoro rana 'laCTOTHa. OHa xapaxrepna, nartpasrep, llJ1S1 npaxonepexonaux npellJ10)f(eHHH C <l>a3HcHbIMH fJIarOJIaMH COBepIIIeHHoro sana Ha'laTb, KOH'lHTb, npo,aOJllKHTb, 3JlBepHlHTb, npeKpaTHTb: IIeperOBopbllIPO,aOJ[)KHfIH. - Ileperosopu IIPO,aOll)[(HllHCb; llJIH CTPYKTYP C rJIaroJIaMH KOJIHtIeCTBeHHbIX H Ka'leCTBeHHbIX M3MeHeHHM YJIY'lHlHTb, YXYIQ1lHTb, YBeJIH'IHTb, )'MeHbHlHTb, noeuCHTb, nOHH3HTb, paCHlHPIITb, CY3HTb, yr;ry6HTb H T. rr.: Ilopoty paCIHHpHllH. - ,£(OPOra paCIHHpHllaCb; .lI.J1H crpYKTYP C fJIarOJIaMH «paapyurenaa» CJIOMaTb, HcnoprHTb, crepers, nopBaTb: 5)'Mary 1I0PBaJIH. - Byuai« IIOpBaJIaCb.

O,llHaKO OTHOCHTb K naCCHBY CTPYKTYpbI rnrra Ilopoi« pecutupnnect. nenpaBOMepHO. Bo-nepssrx, aKTHBHhle crpyxrypsr C fJIarOJIaMH coaepurenaoro BH,lla B naCCHBe MOryl HMeTb TOJIbKO <P0PMY xparxoro CTpan.aTeJ1bHOrO npH'!aCTIDI (Ilopora paCIHHpeHa). BO-BTOPbIX, eCJIM 06paTHTbCH K crpyxrype CMbICJIa npeanoxenaa (1) Ilopoty P8CIHHpHllH. - (2) Ilopors pecuinpunscs. - (3) Ilopot« pectunpens, TO aerpynao 3aMeTHTh, 'lTO TOJIbKO rrpennoxeaas (1) H (3) COBrran.aIOT rro 06'beMy npeacraaneaaux B HHX rrOHHTHH, TaK KaK o6a OHH aupaxaror nayxaxranrayio

45

CHTYal.unO, T. e. CI1TYaUHlO C .nBYMH yqacTHI1KaMI1, KOTOphIe XOTH H He ssrpaxeasr CI1HTaKCl1lJeCKI1, HO MomH 6bI 6hITb BOCCTaHOBJIeHbI 113 KOHTeKCTa.

I1HalJe 06CT0l1T neno C rrpe,llJIO)f(eHHeM (2), B KOTOPOM B03BpaTHbIH rnaron SlBJIHeTCH AeKaY3aTHBHbIM 11 I1MeeT 3HalJeHMe 'CTaTh KaKI1M', a COOTHOCI1TeJIbHbni C HI1M neoexonnua KaY3aTI1BHhIH rnaron - 'AeJIaTh KaKl1M'. Ho, KaK 113BeCTHO, lJl1CJIO aKTaHTOB KaY3a'fI1BHoro rnarona na e,llI1Hl1uy npesuuraer lJMCJIO aKTaHTOB ,lleKaY3aTI1BHOrO rnarona: lJTo6hI nopora pacurapnnacs, aano, lJT06hI KTO-TO ee pacllIMPI1JI· Ho npennoxeaas rnrra Ilopors paCIIIHpHJIaCb He conepxar I1H<popMal.I1111 o .lIeHTeJIe, ° xaysarope ,llefiCTBI1H. 3TO npennoxeaan C e,llI1HCTBeHHhIM ysacruaKOM CHTyaUI1I1: flepeJ(a'la sssepumnecs; LJeHbI nOBbICHJ1HCb; CTeHa pa3PYIIIHJIaCb. OHM He MorYT 6bITh ,llOrrOJIHeHbI cy6'beKTOM .lIeHCTBI1H (HeJIb3H CKa3aTh: "Ilepeusve sseeptunnscs TeJIeBe;ZYIlIHM; *QeHbI nOBblCHJIHCb ToCKOMCTaTOM; "Ctenspes-, pymHJIaCb canepaMH). I1x norrrnree paccvarpnsan, B O,llHOM pxny C TaKI1MI1 )f(e:

O.lIHOaKTaHTHbIMI1 CTpYKTYPaMI1, KaK /(OJKJ(b KOH'lHJICfl; Teuiteperyps B03JzyXa no_! BbICHJIaCb; Hscuttu psspyutnnecs. .:

Yttotpetinenne B03BpaTHbiX meronoe B O,D,HOllneHHbIX naCCUBHblX ctpvxryoex

B03BpaTHhIe rnaronsr yrrorpefinmorcn 11 B O.lIHOqJIeHHhIX rraCCI1BHhIX CTPYKTYPax, T. e. B crpyxrypax C <pOPMaJIhHO He Bhlpa)[(eHHbIM cy6'heKTOM 11 06'beKToM .:

ITPH OII11CaHl111 cHTYaUI1H cy6'beKT 11 o6neKT OCTalOTCH sa Ka,llPOM: Bo speu« B3J1eTa H ttocsnsi« CaMOJIeTa pesouenayerc» ttpttcrernyri, peMHH; 3J(eCb He pespeumercs xypsrt»; XOJ(HTb no JIbJ(Y 3anpemaeTCfl. B CTpYKTYpax raxoro pona «CHI1MaeTCH. rrponmorrOCTaBJIeHl1e 0)lHocy6'beKTHhIX H .lIBycy6beKTHhIX ouenox» [lI1MeJIeBa, 1980: 244]. OHI1 rtepenaior o606meHHoe 3HaqeHl1e. ITo CBoeH <popMe 3m npeztno)[(eHI1H HBAAIOTCH 6e3JII1QHhIMI1. fJIaBHblfi QJIeH B HI1X BhIpa)f(eH B03BpaTHhIM rnarOJIOM HCB B <popMe 3-ro JIMua eAMHCTBeHHoro t.IMCJIa cpennero pona,

OOJIhllIl1HCTBO B03BpaTHblX marOJIOB, yrr01pe6JIHeMbIX B O,llHOQJIeHHbIX rracCI1BHbIX crpyxrypax, MO)f(HO 06'be,llMHMTb B zrse JIeKCHKO-CeMaHTI1QeCKMe rpynnsr. B nepBYIO rpynrry BXO.lIHT rnaronsr co 3HaQeHI1eM BOJIeM3bSlBJIeHMH: 3anpemaeTCJI, paspemsercs, peKOMeHJ(yeTCJI, noproerc», npeJ(.!1araeTCJI, npHKa3blBaeTCJI, nossreeTCJI: KYPHTb snecs He pespeiusercs; XOJ(HTb tto JIbJ(y ssnpeiuserce. MOJIOJ(OJKeHaM ns CBa,ab6y He nOJIaraeTCJJ J(apJlTb HO)J(JI. Bo BTOPYIO rpynrry BX0.lJ.SlT rnaronsi co 3HaQeHMeM nJIaHMpOBaHHH: nJlaHHpyerCJI, HaMeqaeTCa, npe)lJ'CMaTpHBaeTCH, npennOJlaraeTca: 3J(ecb npennonsreercn nOCTpOHTb HOBbJIi toprosutt KOMnJIeKC.

ITocJIe Ha3BaHHbIX rJIarOJIOB 06bIQHO ynorpefinsercn I1HqmHHTI1B: Bo BpeMfl· Cn~KTaKJJfl BXOJ(HTb B 3pllTeJIbHblii 3aJI 3allpemaeTcfl; B 6YJ(ymeM rouy B HailleM

46

paiioHe nsueseerc» OTKPblTb HOBbItt uercsni! CM. CrpYKTYPbI sroro rnna eraJIl1crnlJeCKI1 HeHrpaJIbHbI.

OOJIbllIl1HCTBO O.lIHOCOCTaBHbIX rraCCHBHhIX npeMO)[(eHHH HMeeT COOTHOCI1- reJIbHbIH CHHOHI1MI1QHhlfi BapHaHT B sane .lIBYCOCTaBHoro npe.lIJIO)f(eHMH C nonJIe:>KamHM - OrfJIaroJIbHhIM cyutecrsarensasnr, o6pa30BaHHbiM OT I1H<pMHMTI1Ba B COCTaBe O.lIHOlJJIeHHoro rraCCI1Ba, 11 cKa3yeMbIM - B03BparHbIM marOJIOM: bOJIbHOMY pexouennyerc» rynsti. ne CBeJKeM B03J(yxe. - bOJIbHOM)' pexouenuyetc« nporynxs Ha CBeJKeM B03J(yxe; bOJIbHOM]1 peKOMeHJ(yKJTCfl ttporynsn ns CBeJKCM B03JI.YXe. Taxne rrpe.lIJIO)l(eHI1S1 C OTrrrarOJIhHhIMI1 cyureCTBI1TeJIbHbIMI1 THrOTelOT K KHI1)[(Hofi pesn.

CTPYKTYPbI C B03BpaTHbIMI1 rJIaroJIaMI1 nrna KypHTb 3anpemaeTcflMoryr I1MeTb COOTHOCI1TeJIbHbIH CI1HOHI1MMQeCKI1H sapaaar C KpaTKMM crpanarensnsnt npusacTHeM cosepureaaoro sana KYPllTb senpetueno. B peaJIbHOM peQeBOM yrrorpetinemm 3TH CTpYKTYPbl BocnpMHHMalOTCH KaK paBH03HaQHble. Hanpmrep, B O.lIHOM Mara311He MO)[(HO YB".lIeTb npenyrrpexneaue BXOJl.llTb C co6aKaMH senpeuuiercs, a PH.lIOM, B COCe.lIHeM - BXOJ(HTb C co6aKaMH senpeiueno. I1JIH .lIpyrofi npnxep: aa 6epery osepa B 30He OT.lIbIXa ynasuryro 11 npopxaaeauryro or CTapOCTH Ta6JII1lJKY KynaTbCJJ He pa3pelliaeTCfl3aMeHHlOT HOBolt Kynersc« He psspetueno. Cp. TaK)[(e npyrae pacnpocrpaneanue npavepsr B3al1M03aMeHbI B03BpaTHbIX marOJIOB 11 KparKMX CTpa.II.aTeJIbHbIX npI1QaCTI1H: K KOHl(Y ntons nnsnnpyercs (3anJIaHHpOBaHO) CJ(aTb B 3KCnJIyaTal(llJO nOJ(3eMHYJO aBTOCTOflHKY; Heueneerc« ('HaMe'leHO) BBeCTH B J(ettcTBlle HOBYIO JIHHHJO MeTpO; Cerosns B CBfl3H C 06HJIbHblMH cueronenau« BJIa,aeJIbaaM JIH'IHOro serotpencttoptn peKOMeHJl.yeTcfl (pCKOMeH/IOBaHO) eosnepsamc« OT nOC3J(OK.

11. B03BpaTHbie rnaronsr KBa3HnaCCHBHO'-O 3HalLleHHH

B npe.lIbI.lIymeH rnase HapMY C B03BpaTHbIMI1 rnaronaun, yrrorpefinaextsrMI1 B naCCMBHbIX CTPYKTYPax' 6bIJII1 npnseneasr cJIYQal1, xorna mrocrpaaasre yqaJl~l1ecH aenpasoaepao orHOCHT K naCCI1BHbIM KOHCTPYKl.II1M, xoropsre B .lIefiCTBl1reJIbHOCTI1 raKOBbIMI1 He HBJIHIOTCH. Cpenn TaKI1X «nceB.lIOnaCCMBHbIX», I1JII1 «KBa3I1naCCMBHbIX», CTPYKTYP oco6oe MeCTO 3aHI1MaIOT npe.lI.1IO)l(eHHH C B03Bpar'HblMI1 rJIarOJIaMM coeepuremroro BMa 11 COOTHOCI1TeJIhHbIe C HI1MI1 HOMMHaTMBHOaKI<y3aTI1BHble npeWIO)J{eHMH.

ECJII1 cpasnars B03MO)[(HOCTI1 CI1HOHI1MI1QeCKI1X npeoripaaosaana npeanoxeHl1ii TYPHCTbI cotipsm« CYXHe BeTKH un« KOCTpa (1) 11 Typncru CBapllJIH o6eJJ ne kOCTpe (2), TO HerpY.lJ.HO 3aMeTI1Tb, lJTO rrpenrroxeaue (1) I1MeeT COOTHOCI1TeJIb-

47

HhIM CHHDHHMHqeCKHM BapHaHT, rrDCTpDeHHhIM rro $DpMe KJlaCCJ.I1IeCKDM rraCCHB-, HDM CTPYKTYPhI: TypHCTaMH C06paHbJ C}'XHe BCTKH P.JIJl KOCTpa. 3.IJ,eCh 3Ha'leHH~' npOH3BO.IJ,HTeJUl.IJ,eMCTBH51 nepenaercs $OpMOM TBOPHTeJIbHDrona.n:e)Ka,a 3Ha-) xenae D6beKTa ,lleMCTBHH - $OpMDM HMeHHTeJIbHDrD nanexa, Cxaayesroe.asrpa ... l )KeHD KpaTKHM CTPa.n:aTeJIhHhIM npaxacraea. Taxas.rpopxa CTpYKTYPhI HBJIJIeTCH! e,llHHCTBeHHD BD3MD)K}i()H .IJ.JIjJ nepenaxa KDHBepcHbIX OTHDIlleHHH HDMHHaTHBHO aKKY3aTHBHDM KDHCTPYKUHH, nepenaiomea o,THDIlleHHe «nearens , ,lleHCTBHe: . D6beKT ,lleMCTBIDI».

qTD KaCaeTCH npe,UJID)KeH}UI (2), TO. DHD TO)Ke MD)KeTHMeTbCDDTHDCHTeJIbHbI CHHDHHMHqHhIH BapHaHT B $DpMe rraCCHBHDrD D6DpDTa ( TypHCTaMH CIJaPCH 0 ne KOCTpe). O,llHaKD oro scero JIHllIh ,llDrrYCTHMhIH BapHaHT. )l.JIsI naaaoro npe.n" JID)KeHHH 6DJIee eCTeCTBeHHa KDHBepCHM cTpYKTYPa:. YzypUCTOB CBapHJ1CR :o6e. ne KOCTpe. IIpeDfipa30BaHHH TaKDrD $DPMaJIbHDro.YCTpDHCTBa ocD6eHHO xapax repast .IJ.JIH HOMHHaTHBHD-aKKY3aTHBHbIX CTPYKTYPC rnarDJIaMH4>H3H'IeCKHX XHMHqeCKRX H3MeHeHHH. fJIarDJIhI ~nDM ceMaHTHKH CDCTaBJIHIOT.6DJIbllIO,HIlJlaC! B PYCCKDM H3blKe, rrD3TDMY lJ HHDCTpaHHDH aY,llHTDpHH aa HHXCTOHT 06paTH DCD6De BHHMaHHe.

CneUH$HKY <PYHKUHDHHpDBaHHHTaKDrD pona «KBa3HnaccHBHblXt).4>oPM 3HaqHTeJIhHQH creneua npoacaser HCCJIe,Il,QBaHHe B.W., fasPHJ10BDH {faSpH.llOBa 2004; 54]. B npe.llJID)KeHHHX C nepexonasnsa rJIaroJIaMH DHa npennaraer p83JIlAa naa rana areaca: areHC-HCrrDJIHHTeJ1b.H areHC-HHHIJ;HaTOp,K areHCY-HClIDJIHH'Fe. JIIO B.W. faBpHJIDBa QTHDCHT TaKQH ran areaca, xorna npeofipaaosaaae 06'be rrpDHCXD,llHT sa G'lel'}IOCToHHHoro nparoxa CHJI areaca, ero saepraa, M)'CKYJIhHO HJIH HHTeJIJIeKTYaJIhHoR. 3TD npe.IJ,JID}KeHHH rarra Pa60'lHc'crpOJlT,aOM; IIHCa IIHIlICT HOBbIH pOMaH; }Ja'lHHKH C06HPaJOT rpH6bI; PbJ68KH JIOBHT pu6y. BDTJIH. qHe DT areHca-HcrrDJIHHTeJIH areHC-HHHUHaTDp TpaTHT CBDIO 3HeprmD JIHWh',UJI C03,llaHHH YCJIOBHH .IJ,JIH DCYllIeCTBJIeHHH H3MeHeHHit BD6beKTe. AreHC,llaeTTOJIq . K pa3BHTHIO 3THX H3MeHeHHM, xoropsre ,L{aJIbWe rrpDHCXO)lHTyxe caMDnpDH3BOJlb HD, 6e3 ero ysacras: ,lla'lHHKH CYIlIaT rpH6bl; X03HHKa)f(apHT pb/6y.,

THn areaca B npeAJID)KeHHH onpenenaer xapaxrep rrepeXD,L{HDCTII raarona ECJIH nonnexamee HMeeT snaseaae arenca .... HCrrOlIHHTeJIH,. TO. nepeXQ,L{HOCTb ras KQrD rnarona B.M. faBpMJIDBa Ha3hIBaeT rtpeotipaayiourea. ECJIH )Ke nO.IJ.JIe)J(awe 06D3HaqaeT areaca-aaauaaropa, TO. H nepexonaocrs rnarona 6Y.IleT Ha3bIBaT HHHUHHPYIDllleM nepexoaaocruo [raBpHJIDBa, 2004: 46].

B npaxraxe npenonasanas PKM DCHDBHoe BHHMaHHe 06blqHQ ofipauiaerc na HDMHHaTHBHD-aKKY3aTHBHble CTPyKTYPhl C nepexonasrera fJlaroJIaMH npe06, pasyiotuero 'rnna. )J,ei1cTBHTeJlbHO, KDHBepCHbIMH KQPpeJIHTaMHTaKHX npeM

48

)l(eHHit C marOJIaMH aecoaepureaaoro sana MQryI' 6bITb ronsxo CTpYKTYPbI, nocr .... poeHHb1e no KJIaCCJ.I1IeCKoit <pQPMYJIe naccasaoro Q6QPQTa, rne cxaayenoe MO)KeT 6&11& sapaxeao TQJIbKD $OpMOM VHCB + -CJI: Pa60rmc ctposr ~OM. - }JOM ctpoJ{1'CH pa60'lHMH.

BBeJJ.eHHe B JlHHrBQMeTO,L{H'leCKHW Q6HXQ,ll nDHHTHH «nepexo,llHDCTb HHHUHHpyromero rana» 06'hRCIDleT 3aKDHOMepHbIH xapaxrep xoxsepcasrx rtpeotipaaosaHHH HOMHHaTHBHD-aKKY3aTHBHblx cTpYKTYP co CKa3yeMblM - fJIarOJIDM HHHl(HlI" pyromeH nepeXO.llHOCTH B $DpMe cOBepWeHHQrQ BH,lla. ,ll)rn KQHBepcHBOB TaKOrD THna xapaxrepao HCROJlbJOBaHHe cxasvesroro - B03BpaTHoro rnarona eoaepureaHQro BllIla C noc1$HKcoM -CJI: X03RHKa ne K)'XHC y;KC nOJKapHJIa pbI6y. - Y xo- 3f1HKH Ha K)'XHC yxcc IIO)f(apHJ18Cb pbI6a.

B· HHDCrpaHHQH· ay.n;HTOpHH Ba)KHO raxxe OTMeTHTb II TO, 'lTD B KOHBepcHhIX crpyxrypax, OQQTBeTCTBYIOIURX HOMHHaTHBHO-aKKY3aTHBHbIM npe,lJ,.J10)KeHHHM C marQJIOM HHH1UfHPYIOmeH nepeXO.llHOCTH, cy6beKT peryJI5IpHD npHHHMaeT q,opMY y +p. ft. Taxas q,DpMa cy6beKTa .IJ.JIH KQHBepCIIBQB naanoro rana HBJIHeTCR npe06rraIJ,aIOIlleH. Cp.: Mama ne 6aJIKOHC cytuur 6eirbe. - Y Meus« Ha 6aJIKOHC CymHTCR 6elIhif.

B HHQCTpaHHDit ay.n;HTopHH qaCTO B03HHKaeT sonpoc 0 paJJIJ.I1IHH Me)K,lly $opMaMH TMna MRco nO)f(apHJIOC1> H MflCO noxspeno. 3To pa:mWUfe MDXHO npOCJIe,IlHTb, aHaJIH3HPY.st ynorpetineaae 3THXq,OPM B cmvauasx: MflCO JK1lpHTCR)'JKC IIOJI'laca. Hssepuoe, y;KC nOJK1lpHJ1OC6, IIOpa BbIKllIO'l8Tb (1) M Hto Y uecceronss:

H8 o6c;a? - ECTb pu58, 'RO'JlCllpeHO MaCO. BbI6JIpaif, rna XOYCIlIb (2). B caryanaa (1) marOJIC -cJI:(noxapHJIOCb) 06Q3HaqaeT ,L{eitCTBHe, KQTDpDe ,Il,DCTHfJIQ pe3YJIbrara. BcmyaUHH (2) xparxoe crpanarensaoe npaxacrae (IIO)f(apeHo) nQKa3b1BaeT He TQJIbKO 'pe3YJIltTaT .n;eitcTBIDI, HO H CQXpaHeHHe 3TQrD pe3YJIbTaTa.

CneUHaJlbHOH QTpa60TKH B HHOCTpaHHQH aY,llHTDpHH rpe6YIOT CTpYKTYPbI, QnHCblBaIOIllHeq,YHKUHQHHPQBaHHe pasaoropona 6bITQBDH TeXHHKH, TIpH60pOB H MexaHH3MOB, B3HBWHX aa cefia BbIITDJIHeHHe pa60Tbl, KOTQPM paasure BblnOJIHMach qeJIQBeKOM. Ilponeccsr, ocyurecrsnaeasre TeXHHtIecKHMH YCTpOHCTBaMH,B.I1. faBpHJIOBa Ha3b1BaeT UHUU,UUPYeMbLMU mexuoeennuuu npoueccauu, MD,lleJIHPYI<>IIJ;HMH aarponoreuasre (T. e. BblnQJIHHeMble qeJIDBeKDM) npoueccsr. Ilpeano)KeHHH,onHCblBaIOmHe HHHUHHpyeMble TeXHQreHHble npoueccsr, HMelOT KBa3HnaCCHBHblit xapaxrep [Iaspanoaa, 2004: 54].

TaK, HHHUHHPyeMbIM TeXHoreHHbIM npQueCCOM HBJIHeTCH npouecc, QnHCaHHblH B.H.faBpHJlOBOH B npaxepe JjCJ1be CTJIpaCTCR B CTHPaJIbHOH M8IlIHHC, rne fJIaroJI CTHpileTCII 0603HaqaeT npouecc crapxa 6eJIbH KaK BbIIIOJIHeHHe onepauaa MexaHH3MoM, Mo.neJIHpyromHM CTHPKY 6eJIbH qeJIDBeKOM, T. e. qeJIQBeK yCTyI1HJI

49

pOJIb MCnOJIHMTeJUI CTH:parrbHOH MaUIMHe,a CaM nonyxan pOJIb H:HMUMaTopa ::ITOr npouecca, B npmrepe )J(e ECJIbe ctnpectcs BPYGHJ'1O rnaron CTHpaeTCfI oooanasae npouecc CTH:PKM KaK BbInOJIH5IeMbIH CaMH:M lfeJIOBeKOM.

CTPYKTYpa, OnH:CbIBalOmaH anrponorennsni rrpouecc, HBJIHeTC5I naCCH:BHO~ Crpyxrypa, OrrH:CbIBalOma5I H:HH:UH:H:PyeMbIH rexaoreaasnt npouecc, nepexonn B pa3PM KBa3MrraCCMBHbIX. n03TOMY KBa3H:rraCCMBHaH crpyxrypa B CTHPaJIbHQ uaiunne 6eJIbe ys» ttoctnpenocs 6e3ynpelfHa,a naCCH:BHaH CTpYKTYpa C rJIarOJIOl coaepurenaoro BM,lIa (omaoxa, sacraa B peua mrocrpaauea. - 0. l.f.) rpaMMaTIt secxa aertpasansna; *ECJIbe ysco nOCTHpaJIOCb BpygHYJO [faBpH:JIOBa, 2004: 54! B 3TOM cnysae B03MO)J(Ha TOJIbKO Q:>opMa xparxoro crpanarensnoro rrpasacrie cosepurenaoro BM,lIa: ECJIbe ysce nOCTHpaHO BpygHYIO.

Ilepeuexs onepanan, BbII10JIH5IeMbIX 6bITOBbIMM rrpafiopaun, JIerKO MO)J(H np0.l1.0JDKl1Tb: Kypnu« XOPOlliO trpoitexnecs B rpHJIC; Xneti noucytutoicx B TOCTCP~ Cyn noaorpescs B MHKpOBOJIHOBOii nClJKC. Illnpoxoe H:CnOJIb30BaHH:e KOMnbIO TepOB nopoznino eCTeCTBeHHble reneps B cOBpeMeHHoH pesa KBa3MnaCCHBHble n: rpaMMaTMlfecKoH npupone cPOPMhl: TeKCT ys» nCpeBeJICfI (Orpe,UaKTHPOBaJICfI, 01 C/JopMaTHpOBaJICfI, pecueserenc« H: T. n.).

KBa3H:naCCHBHoe aaasenae H:MeeT TaK)J(eH PM marOJIOB coaepuremroroann co 3HalfeHHeM «paspyrneaaa», MJIM «JlecrpYKTMBHhIX~> marOJIOB: 'pa3fiHThCJI, CJllJ MaThcR, nOpBaThCR, nOTpecKaThcR, nOl{apanaTbCR, paccblnaTbcH, pa3.11HTbCR, H3MJI't/J CR, HcnoprHTbCR 11 JlP.: Kspsnnsut CJIOMaJICJl; Pyteuixo TIOpBaJIaCb; 'Ismxe pa361J JIaCb. Ilosra KIDKJlOMY H:3 HMX coorsercrsyer nepeXOLJ,HbIH rnaron. 3T11 nepexozuns rnaronsr, ynorperinemrsre B COCTaBe HOMH:HaTH:BHO-aKKY3aTl1BHOH CTPYKTYpbI, sa KOHoMepHo rrpH:06peTaIOT B KOHBepcHoM npennoxeaan cP0PMY CB + -CH.

fpaMMaTH:lfeCKa5I pafiora no yrrorpeoneamo B IIHOCTpaHHOM aYLJ,H:TOpH:H: BO:] BpaTHbIX marOJIOB co 3HalfeHH:eM paspyurenna JlOrrOJIH5IeTCH nexca-recxoa, He peLJ,KO nnocrpaaasre ysaunreca Jl]I5I OrrH:CaHH:5I JIlO60ro .l1.ecrpYKTIIBHOro ,lIeHCTBR 01lm60'lHO H:CnOJIb3YIQT rJIarOJI CJlOMaTbCR. «CJIOMaTbC5I», rro MX MHeHlIlO,MO)J(e He TOJIbKO CTYJI I11IM xapannaur, HO H: CTeKJIO, Jl)J(lfHChI H T. Jl. Bornpnuepu TaK~ OllIH60K: JI ceroans JKJIY uecteps, *Y MeHJl B KOMHaTe CJIOMaJIOCb CTeKJlO (BMed TO pa36HJIOCb CTCKJlO); *YMeHfI CJIOMaJIaCb KYpTKa (BMeCTOnOpBaJIaCb)'11 T. 11 CJIeJlyeT otipautars BHI1MaHHe y-tautaxcst na TO, '-{TO BbI60p rJIarOJIa 3aBHCI1T 0 CBOHCTB onacsiaaevoro npenxera H MaTepl1arra, H3 KOTOPOro OH CJleJIaH: Ilnars nOpBaJIOCb (0 TKaHHX); 3CPKaJIO pa36HJloCb (0 CTeKJIe); CryJI CJIOMaJICJl (0 zrepe Be, MeTaJIJIe, nnacrvacce); MOJIOKO pa3JIHJIOCb (0 )J(HLJ,KOCTI1); MYKa paCCbIJTaJIaC (0 CbInY'lI1X BeIIIeCTBax: necox, COJIb, xpyna, nopourox 11 T. n.).

50

II. MHOr03Ha'iHOCTb B03BpaTHbiX rnaronoa

)lmI PYCCKI1X B03BpaTHbIX marOJIOB xapaxrepna MHor03HalfHOCTh. Pa3JII1'lHble 3HaqeHHH MO)ICeT I1MeTh nosra KIDKJlbIM B03BpaTHbIM rnaron, Hepeaxo cpezra HJ1X BCTpelfalOTCH H OMOHHMhI.

Ipaanuu Me)l(JlY MHoro3HalfHbIM B03BpaTHbIM rJIarOJIOM 11 OMOHHMOM 3hI6-

KM H: neonpeaencaaa. B03MO)I(H0, HMeHHO nosroxy MHorHe TOJIKOBhIe CJIOBapH: PYCCKoro H3bIKa onpenenmor HX 3HatIeHHH KaK 3Halfel:tllH OJlHOrO H: roro )ICe MHor03HalfHoro CJIOBa. Cospeueanue H:CCJIe.l1.0BaTeJIH, rrpM3HaBaH, tITO «rpaHI1IIhI MHor03HalfHoro CJIOBa H: OMOHH:Ma B rnarone sooeme M B B03BpaTHOM rnarone B 'laCTHOCTM oc06eHHO He5ICHhI H: IllaTKH~), npennaraior HCXO,nHTb H:3 HaJIMlfH:H B PycCKOM 5I3bIKe MHoro3HalfHbIX B03BpaTHbIX rnaronos [51HKo- TPMHMUKaH, 1962: 29}. IlPOMJIJIlOcrpHpyeM 3TO rrpMMepaMM HaH60JIee 'laCTOTHbIX marOJIOB.

COEI1PATbC5I:

1) LJ;aBHo co6HpalOcb norosopars C BaMM, HO HHKaK He MOry peunrrsca. (co6cm-

8eHHO-6036p. )

2) Ka)I(JlhlM ron B Q:>eBparre BbII1YCKHIIKM namea llIKOJIhI co6i1palOTCH na rpa;:IHUM-

OHHbIH aexep BcrpetIH. (63aUMHo-6036p.)

3) ABTOM06MJIli :3TOH MapKH co6HpalOTCJi caMhIMM orrbITHhIMH MaCTepaMM H: TOJIb-

KO BpyqHYIO. tnaccuen.)

4) LJ;HBaH JIerKO paCKJIa;:IbIBaeTcH 11 JIerKO C06HpaeTCH. (naccueno-xasecme.)

PA3BI1PATbC5I:

1) LJ;eJIo 0 Pa3BO.l1.e pa3611PaeTCH B paMoHHoM cyne. tnaccuen.)

2) MexaHM3M Y 3TMX sacoa He pa36HpaeTCH. (naccueno-xanecme.)

3) HHKTO JIyqIlle I1BaHoBa He pa36HpaeTCH B 3THX nonpocax. (KOC6eHHO-6036p.)

rOTOBI1TbC5I:

1) ChIH roTOBHTCH nocrynars B YHI1BepCHTeT. (c06cm6eHHo-6036p.)

2) rOTOBHTCH K H3JlaHH:IO HOBoe cofipanae COlJHHeHHH A.C. TIYIIIKHHa. inaccuen.)

3) 3TO 6JIIOJlo rOTOBHTCH oseas JIerKO. (naccueno-xasecme.)

CHI1MATbC5I:

1) 3Ta cYMKa O'leHb YJl06HaH, PY'lKa y aee JIerKO CHHMaeTCH. (naccueno-xasecme-)

2) «CHHMaeTCH KHHO~) (Pao3uHcKUU). (naccuen.t ..

3) 3Ta axrpnca CHHMaeTCH ceasac Y MOJIO.l1.0ro TarraHTJIHBOrO pezorccepa. (603-

6pamHO-KaY3amU8. )

51

KPACI1ThC5I:

1) Pa3Be OHa Ha1YPaJlbHruI 6JIOH)1;I1HKa? OHa KpaCHTCJI. (co6cm6eHHo-6038p.)

2) Ilepen TeM KaK noxpsrrs UlKaZYJII<Y JIaKOM, ee nosepxnocrs )],BIDK)l,bI KpacHTC OJIH<i>OH. inaccuen.)

3) OcropO)I(HO, He acnasxaaca 06 )],Bepb - OHa erne He BblCOXJIa rrOCJIe peMOHT H KpaCHTCJI. (axmueuo-tiesotisesmn.;

4) 3Ta rxaas JIerKO IqJaCHTCJI B m060H UBeT. tnaccueno-xauecme.)

MhIThC5I:

1) W3BHHHTe, WrOPb He MO)J(eT rrO)J;OHrH K reJle<i>oHy,oH MoeTCJI B BaHHOH: (CO~ cm6eHHO-6036p. )

2) Ilpexze lleM nonseprnyrs OBOIllH 3aMop03Ke B 3aBO)l,CKHX YCJIOBHHX, OHH TIIla reJIbHO MOIOTCJI. (naccuen.s

3) TIJIaCTHKOBaH Me6eJIb OlleHb raraemrma: OHa nerxo MoeTCH. (naCCU6HQ tcaxecme.t

PACllI11 PHThCH:

1) B 3rOM MeCTe nopora paCIDHpJleTCJI. (oeKaY3amu6.)

2) .l1.opora pacmapaeres pa60llHMH crpoaynpaanenaa, inaccuen.)

YfJIY6JIHThOI:

1) Ilocne )]'O)J()l,eH PYCJIO pexa ymy6J1J1eTCJI. (oeKaY3amu6.)

2) PyCJIO pexa yrJIY6JIJleTCJI fH)l,pocrpOHTeJIHMH. (naccuen.i

YBEJII1QI1BAThCH:

1) 3apITJIaTa Y pa60llHX exeroaao yseJlII'IHBaeTCJI. (oeKaY3amu6.)

2) [ocY)l,apCTBOM yseJIll1lHBaIOTCJI pasnepsr rrOMOIllH MHorO)],eTHbIM ceMbHM. (na4 CUBH.)

3ACTErI1BAThCH:

1) CYMKa 3aCTemBaeTCJI na MOJIHHIO. (naccueuo-xaxecme.y

2) CKOPO KOJIH BbIH.ueT? - .l1.a, OH yxe 3aCTemBaeTCJI. (co6Cm6eH1lO-eo36p.)

,lJ,PAThC.H:

1) Mansnu, H)l,H noarpaa C Caurea, - A OH He ,lJ,epeTCJI? (aKmu6Ho-6e306oeKmH.;

2) ,lI,Boe ,lJ,epyrCJI, rpersesry rrO)J(HBa. (63auJrtHO-6036p.)

60,lJ,AThCH:

1) He ITOLlXO)l,H K 3TOH xopose 6JIH3KO, B)l.pyr OHa 6o)l,aeTcJI! (aKmu6Ho-6e306oeKmH,

2) «lio)l,aJICJI reJIeHOK C )],y60M» (CO/lJICeHUl{blH). (63aUMHo-603Bp.)

52

)l(ApI1ThC.H:

1) MOJIO)l,bIM X03J1HKaM CJIe)],yeT 3HaTb, qTO xpyrraas rrrana OPHTCJI B nyxosxe, a

MeJIKruI - Ha ITJIHTe. (naceuen.i

2) MOJIo)]'aJI KYPHua 1KaPHTCJI 6blcrpee, qeM crapaa, (naccueuo-xauecme.t

3) B )],YXOBKe y MeHH 1KaPHTCJI yrxa, ttceasunaccuen.v

4) JIeToM MbI uensre )l,HH rrposonana na IIJIH)J(e, 1KapHJIHCb na COJIHue. (coticmeenHO-6036p.)

ITEPEBOPAQI1BAThCH:

1) Pe6eHoK rrOCrOJlHHO nepeBOpa'lHBaeTCJI BOCHe. (co6cm6eHHo-6036p.)

2) Kypaua caasana )J(apHTCH na crnnnce, sarev nepeBopa'lHBaeTCJI na 6oK. tnacCUBH.)

PEllIAThC.H:

1) JIeHa He peiaaercs aarosopars C BHKTOPOM rrepsoa. (co6cm6eHHo-6038p.)

2) Borrpoc 0 aamea KOMaH,lJ,HpOBKe pemaerca B )l,HpeKUHH. (naccuen.y

CTPI1QhCSI:

1) JIeHa He JII06HT XO)l,HTb B napmoraxepcxyio H scerna CTPH1KfTCJI cava. (co6cm- 6eHHO-6036p. )

2) JIeHa scerna CTPH1KeTCJI y onaoro H roro xe napmoaaxepa, (6038pamHo-KaY3amU6.)

3) Illepcrs C oneu CTPH1KfTCJI BpyqH)'IO. (naCCU6H.)

lJ,APAITAThCH:

1) Ilosepxaocrs rrOJIHpOBaHHoH Me6eJIH JIerKO napanaerca. tnaccueno-xasecme.y

2) KOTeHoK napanaercs. (aKmu6Ho-6e306beKmH.)

HAEI1PAThC.H:

1) KaK sam CbIH? - YllHTCJI, Ha6HpaeTCJI YMa-pa3YMa. (Koc6eHHo-6036p.)

2) Texcr Ha6HpaeTCJI aa KOMrrblOTepe. tnaccuen.i

,lJ,EP)l(AThCH:

1) Y re6J1 nyrosaua na pytiaurxe ene )l,ep1KHTcJI. (no60ItHO-6038p.)

2) MO}]O)]'OH qeJIOBeK )l,eplK8JlcJI nomepxayro He3aBHCHMO. (co6cm6eHHo-6036p.)

nPlhC.H:

1) 00 rrpa3)],HHKaM y Hac B )],OMe DeMHCh ITHPOfH. (xeasunaccuen.i

2) Baoyurxa BCIO )J(H3Hb DeKJIaCh 0 BH)'Ke. (3MOl{.)

53

III. KnaCCHcpHKal.4,JUI B03BpaTHbiX rnaronoa

1. Co6cTBeHHo-Bo3BpaTHble rnaronsi

N--

N--



Tatinuua 1

rJIarOJI HMeer aaasenae 'caa ceria'.

B npeaaoxeimHX C co6CTBeHHOB03BpaTHhIMH rnarOJIaMH cyfit.exr npOH3Bo.uHT .ueikTBID! Han co6CTBeHHOW BHeWHOCThlO, TeJIOM, BHYTpeHHHM COCTOHHHeM H T . .u. Cy6beKT BKJIIOxaer B cefis 3HaqeHue 06beKTa.

Ilonnexauiee - o.uYWeBJIeHHOe HMH, 06hlqHO JIHlW.

Cxaayevoe - B03BpaTHhIH marOJI, HMelOlllHM: 3HaqeHHe: 1) 'nponaaoznrrs TYaJIeT' (MbITbCH, YMblBaTbcH, «ynsric«, npnuecusersc«, CTpH'fbCJl, 6PHTbCH, Kp8CHTbCJl, ny,apI1TbcJl);

2) '.uBH)((eHHe onpeneneuaoa QaCThlO JIHua HJIH TeJIa' ()J(MYPHTbCH, tuypnrsce, YCT8BHTbCJl, XMypHTbCH, nOTynHTbCJl, top- 6HTbCJl, CyrYJIHTbCH, H8CTOP8)J(HB8TbCH, CMopKaTbCH, MOpmHTbCJl, eJKHTbCH, H8rH68TbcH, BblnpJlMJIJlTbCJl);

3) '.ueM:CTBID! Han CBOeM: o.!le)((.!loil HJIH 06YBhlO' ionesenc», p83J(eB8TbCJl, 06YB8TbCJl, P83)'B8TbCJl, K}'T8TbCJl, YKyrblB8TbCJl, 3aK}'TblBaTbCJl, ssttsxnsersce, pecnesnserscs, nOJ(nOJlCblB8TbCJl, no,aBJl3bIBaTbcH);

4) 'uaneceaae ce6e spena' (npocryiurncs, IIOpaHHTbCJl, ttepetperscs, oTpaBHTbCJl, 06JKe'lbCJl, 06JIHTbcJl, nopesetics, nouepstumcn, ymH6HTbcH);

5) 'nepeaeurenae B npOCTpaHCTBe' (J(BHraTbCJl, no,aHHMaTbCJl, cnycxsrscs, K8THTbCJl, CBaJIHBaTbCJl, Ca,aHTbCJl, JIOJKHTbCJl);

6) 'C03HaTeJIhHOe sosneacrsae cy6beKTa aa CBOe BHYTPeHnee COCTOHHHe' (peuumc«, cnepscnsersc«, cocpeaoromuum> CJl, KOHaeHTpHpOBaTbCH, nenpsrersc«, paCCJIa6JIJlTbCH, ueaeJlTbCH, roTOBHTbCJl, co6HpaTbcH).

Cama scerue YMblBaeTCH XOJIO,aHoli sonott.

He CyrYJIbCJl!

JJeHa ouesserCJl C 60JIbmHM BK}'COM.

Hsttuue ttpoctyJ(I1JTaCb.

Ctunrtecs, no)J(aJIyHcTa.

fl J(aBHO C06Hpstocs ttorosopnr» C BaMH.

2. B3aMMHo-B03BpaTHble rnaronbl

Ta6AUl{a 2

npMMep

Inaron I1MeeT 3JJeMeHT CMhlCJJa ',u:pyr npyra'.

Ilpennoxenaa C B3aI1MHO-B03BpaTHhIMI1 rnaronaua nepeaaior cnaoeaHylO cHTya~HIO, B KOTOPOH KIDK,llhlH ee Y'IaCTHKK HBJISleTCSI H Cy6DeKTOM, H 06'beKTOM no OTHOweHHIO ,u:pyr K npyry. 06a ysacrmoca cHTya~HH onanaKOBO aKTHBHhI.

Ilonnexatnee 06b1'1HO HMSI onyureanennoe, KaK npaBJUIO, JII1UO. Bcerna HMeeT 3Ha'leHI1e MHox<eCTBeHHOCTI1, nepenasaeMoe:

I) <pOPMOH MH. 'I. HMeHH;

2) CO'leTaHHeM ,u:Byx cymecTBHTeJJhI1b1X B H. n. C COlO30M H;

3) CO'leTaHl1eM ,u:BYX I1MeH B H. n. C HMeHeM B T. n. C npeaJIOrOM c;

4) cymeCTBHTeJIbHblM C KOJJH'IeCTBeHHhIM onpeaeneaaea (.4Ba npyt», .4BOC ,aPY3cD, HCCKOJlbKO 'lCJIOBCK);

5) cyniecrasrrensmea C c06HpaTeJIbHbIM 3Ha'leHHeM (lIy6JIH/(a, MOJlO,aCJKb, HaCCJICHHc).

,apy3bJl BCTPCTHJIHCb lIOCJIC KaHHK}'JI.

Almpcii H Buxrop BCTPCTHJIHCb lIoenc KaHHK}'JI.

AHJ(pcD BCTpCTHJICJl C BHKTOPOM nocne KaHHK}'JI.

,aBa upyt» BCTpCTHJ1HCb ttocne K8HHK}'JI.

Heuie rpynne BCTjpCTHJI8Cb lIOCJIC KaHHK}'JI.

Cxaayesroe 06hl'lHO asrpaxeno rnarOJIOM, HMelOml1M <pop-
MaJIbHO rpaMMaTHLJeCKHe nOKa3aTeJIH KaTerOpHH B3aHMHOCTH.
no <PoPMaJIbHbIM .cJI()Boo6p330BaTeJIbHblM npH3HaKaM BbIJleJUl-
IOTCSI rpyrmsr rnaronos:
I) rnaronsr C -es, nPHCOe,u:HHeHHblM K nepexoanoay.maro- Msu: CaUJcii,aaB-
Jrj(BH,4CTb(CH), BCTpC'laTb(CJl), cOBCTOBaTb(ca), 06HHM8Tb(CJl), HO He BH,4CJIHCb.
aCJIOBaTb(CJl), pyreruc»), MHpHTb(CJl);
2) rnaronsr C -ca •. HeCOIlOCTaBHMble c nepexo,u:HblMH H 6e3 Beps lIPHBCTJIH-
-CJI He ynOTpe61IS11OlUHeCH (3.a0POBaTbCJl, CPaJKaTbCJl, f)oPOTbCJl, BOlI03.aopoBaJIaCb C
paCCTaBaTbCJl, COBCmaTbCJl, COrJIaUJ8TbCH);. HaHH.
3) rnaronsr C -ca B CO'leTaHHI1 C npHCTIlBKaMH C-, pal.." nepe- FOCTH pa30mJ1HCb
(CXO.4HTbCH - paCXOJ(HTbCJl, C'bC3JKaTbCJl - pa:J'bC3JKaTbCJl, enc- 1I0J.4HO BC'lCPOM.
T8TbCH - P83J1CT8TbCJl, C6.nJDK8TbCJl, C,4p}?KHTbCJl,. tteperosspn-
BaTbCH, lICPCUJeaTbIBaTbCJl, nepemsuusencs, lICPCCMCHBaTbCH,
lICPCKJIHK8TbCJl, lIcpc6paCblBaTbCH). '" I

;;:

3. B03BpaTHbie rnaronsr 3MOL\MM

Tatinuua 3

3Ha'leHMle

npMlMep

1. rJ1arOJ1bI

'YBlle'leHJUI'

2. rJ1 arOJ1 bl

'Y.1l11BJleHlHI'

3. rJ1arOJ1bI

'npeKJ10HeHI1H 11 caMOYHI1'lI1)1(eHI1H'

4. Inaronsr '3aBbIllJeHHOH caMoOu.eHKI1'

5. rJIarOJIbI 'HaCMeWKI1 11 113- nesarenscrsa'

6. Inaron sr 'He.1l0BOJIbCTBa'

Iloanexautee - oayureenennoe I1MH, 06bI'IHO co 3Ha'leHI1- eM JII1u.a.

Cxaayeuoe - B03BpaTHblH rnaron C .1l0nOJIHeHI1eM B <l>0pMe:

• T. n. 6e3 npennora (YBJICKaTbCJl, HHrepCCOBaTbCJl, BOCXHiusrscs, socroprtmcn, HaCJIaJK.D.aTbCJl, J11060BaTbCJl, ousPOBblBaTbCJl, YlTHBaTbCJl, lTJleHJlTbCJl, YMHJlJlTbCJl, BOO/O'llIeBJIJlTbCJl, /JPOXHOBJlJlTbCJl, ropnursce, y,aOBJleTBOpJlTbCJl, B03MYllIaTbCJl);

• n, n. 6e3 npeanora (y,aHBJIJlTbCJl, ,aHBHTbCJl, nopssamcs, H3YMJlJlTbCJl, PMOBaTbCJl, YMHJlJlTbCJl, YJlbI6aTbCJl, y;KaCaTbCJl);

• nepea + T. n. I1MeHI1 (llPCK.IlOHJlTbCJl, repnrscn, ryuiessrsCJl, YHIDKaTbCJl, npecuuxenc», lTpH6e,aHJlTbCJl);

• nepen + T. n, I1MeHI1 (XBaCTaTbCJl, XBaJIHTbCJl, 3a3H8BaTbCJl, KH'IHTbCJl, '1BaHHTbCJl, Xpa6pHTbCJl, PHCOB8TbCJl, xpecoB8TbCJl, KPHBJIJlTbCJl, J10MaTbCJl, XOPOXOPHTbCJl, llbIJKHTbCJl, BbllleH,l(JJHBaTbCJl);

• HIl.1l + T. n, I1MeHI1 (CMeJlTbCJl, HaCMeXaTbCJl, H3.l(eBaTbCJl, noreuiencs, H3MbIBaTbCJl, rJlYMHTbCJl, KY]J8JKHTbCJl);

• ua + B. o. I1MeHM ()J(aJIOBaTbCJl, 06Jf)J(aTbCJl, uyrsc», 3llHTbCJl, cepanrsc», pyamcs, rHCBaTbCJl);

HHKOJIaH HHTCpecyercu CTapHHHOH MY3bIKOH.

Y,aHBJlJlIOCb TBOeMY repttennto.

HCY)J(CJlH Tbl

6YJ!CllIb nepea HlfM YHH)J(8TbCJl ?

Ilersxs J1106lfT XBaCTaTbCJl ttepeu TOBapHmaMH CBOHMH lTo,aBlfraMlf.

Tu 'ITO, H3,l(eBaetuscs HMO MHOH?

MHC He HpaBHTCJl, 'ITO OHa H8 scex )J(aJIYCTCJl.

I

rlla ro,n bl

Jl 60lOCb coeax.

7.

'6mI3HM'

8. Fnaronsr

'6ecnOKOHCTBa'

9. Fnaro nsr

'satiorsr, BOJ1HeHI1H It nexana'

10. Inaronu 'COMHeHI1H 11 co)l(aJJeHI1H'

• p. D. 6e3 npennora (60HTbCH, OlTaCaTbCH, octeperertscst, CTpallIHTbCJl, yscecerscs, CTbI,aHTbCJl, CTCCHJlTbCJl, CMYuumcs, CTOPOHHTbCJl, ,aH'IHTbCJl, sypersce, '1YJK.U.aTbCJl);

• sa + B. D. HMeHM (6eclloKOHTbCJl, BOJIHOBaTbCJl, rpCBO)J(HTbCJl, 60JlTbCJl, ottscencs, ctpsumtzcs, lTyraTbCJl);

• 0 + n, n, I1MeHI1 (3860TlfTbCJl, nessc», BOJIHOBaTbCJl, tieclTOKOHTbCJl, TpeBOJKHTbCJl);

• 0 +0. D. I1J1M DO +.1l. D. (c rJIaroJIaMI1 «rpYCTHOH» ceMaHTMKM: lTC'IaJIHTbCJl, KfJY'lHHHTbCJl, COCKy'llfTbCJl);

• DO + D. o. C MecToMMeHMHMI11-ro M 2-romtu.a MH. 'I. (c rnaroJIaMM «rpYCTHOH» CeMaHTMKI1: ttessnnttc«, KPY'lHHHTbCJl, COCKy'lHTbCJl);

• B + n, o. (COMHCB8TbCJl, pa30'lapOBbIB8TbCJl, pssysepsttc«, H3BepHTbCJl, 06MaHblBaTbCJl, paCKaHB8TbCJl).

J/ 6CCllOKOlOCb 38 PC3YJlbTaT 3K38- MeHOB.

OH 3a60THTCJl o HeH KaK 0 MaJIOM pe6CHKe.

OH COCKyrJHJlCJl o aoue.

OH COCKyYHJ1CJl llO,aOMY.

OH COCKyrJHJ1CJl lTO H8C.

He COMHeBalOCb B BallICH npssore.

4. B03SpaTHbie rnaronbl KOnMileCTSeHHblX M Ka'leCTBeHHblX M3MeHeHMM (AeKaY3aTMsHbie rnaronw)

Tatinuua 4

3Ha'feHMe

CTpYKTYpa npeAl10lKeHMli

npMMep

rJIarOJI xapaxrepnayer o6'beKT co CTOPOHbI KOJIK'IeCTBeHHblX MK xasecrBeHHblX H3MeHeHHH. "MeeT sna-reHKe 'CTaHOBHTbC$!/ CTaTb KaKKM'.

Ilonnexauiee -

• a6CTpaKTHOe KM$! co 3Ha'leHHeM HBJIeHK$!, ,lI.eHCTBK$! HJlK npouecca;

• KOHKpeTHoe HeO,ll.YlUeBJIeHHoe KM$I.

Cxasyeuoe - B03BpaTHbIH rnaron, 06pa30BaHHbIH no MO,lI.eJIK CTIlHOBID1oCJI!cra ..... + cpaaH. CT. OPIlJW'.c nOMOU(blO rrpaCTaBOK:

• y- (CTaHOBHTbClI nyiuue - YJIyrlIlJ8TbCJ1, CT8HOBHTbClI rJIy6- )J(e - YrJIy6JIRTbClI, CT8HOBHTbCJ1 xpen'le - j'!(pel1JlRTbClI, CT8HOBHTbCJ1fio.nbllJe - YBeJIHIfHBaTbCJ1);

• 00- (CT8HOBHTbCJ1 BblIlIe - nOBblIlI8TbClI, CTaHOBHTbClI HH)f(e - nOHH)f(8TbClI);

• 0- (CT8HOBHTbC1I60ra'le - o6or8m8TbClI, CT8HOBHTbClI :y(0- pOBee - O:Y(OPOBllllTbClI);

CfHClleHHOCTb H8- ce.neHHlI ropoas yseJIH'lHJ1aCb.

Ilopom suec» pacIlJHplleTi:R.

Meptupyr TPOJIJIeii6YC8 M 2 YI(JIHHHJ1CJ1.

Y C1}'I(CHTOB noeuoenso» CTHI1CHI(HlI.

CHTyaltHlI B 3TOM p8iioHe OCJlO)J(HHJI8Cb.

• 3ll- (CT8HOBHTbClI MeJllleHHee - 38MeJlllRTbClI, CT8HOBHTb- Y cBenxjJopa CKO-

ClI7pYI(Hee - 387pYI(HJ1TbClI); POCTb MaIlIHHbI ssMCJIllHJIaCb.

• c- (CT8HOBHTbCH HH)J(e - CHH)J(8TbCJ1, CT8HOBHTbCJ1 fx<c - C)')J(8TbCJ1) ;

• pac- (CTaHOBHTbCJ1IlJHpe - paCIlJHPRTbClI).

5. KocseHHo-so3spaTHble rnaronbl

PCK8 B 3TOM uecre CyxGJeTCJ1.

COTPYI(HH'lCCTBO MC)f(Jzy H8IlJHMH C7p8-

«aMII PaflIllIPJI.GJSll,: '''"' . _ . ~

3Ha'feHMe

CTPYKTYpa np8Al10lKeHMli

Ta6l1u~a 5

npMMep

rJIarOJI HMeeT 3JIeMeHT CM srcna 'ce6e', ',lI.JlR ce6R'.

0603Ha'laer ,lI.eHCTBHe, npoH3BO,ll.HMOe JIHU.OM B CBOIO nOJIb3Y, B c06CTBeHHbIX KHTepecax.

Ilonnexauiee 06b1'1HO - O,ll.YlUeBJIeHHOe HMR co 3Ha'leHHeM JIHLl.a B q,opMe H. n,

CKa3yeMoe - B03BpaTHhIH rnaron C ,lI.OnOJIHeHHeM HJlH 003 ,lI.OnOJIHeHH$!.

1. .llonOJIHeHHe ..,-HMR B q,opMe:

a) T. D. 003 npeanora (ssnscersce lI]JOIl}'KT8MH, 0638BoI(HTbClI cCMbifii, 38J1paBllJ1TbClI .. 6eH3I1HOM, YI(OBlleTBOPllTbClI OTBCTOM);

6) p.D.

• 6e3 npennora (Ha6Hp8TbCH onure, HanHTbCH '1aR, H8- CM07peTbCH I(CreKTHBoB);

• C npennorosr ,lI.0 (l(06HP8TbCH 1(0 pa60TbI, 1(03BOHHTbClI 1(0 no,.apYrH);

• C npennorou OT (yC7p8HlITbClI OT Y'l8CTHlI, OTK83b1B8TbCH OT npeJlllo)J(cHHlI);

Jl38naCllacb npoI(YKT8MH H8 Ite.nyJO HCJI.e.nIO.

KOrl(8 TbI, H8- KOHClt, Ha6cpelIlbcH YM8-p83YMa?

Jl 1(06HP8lOCb 1(0 pa60TbI 38 'lac.

K CO)J(aJICHHJO, 11 BblJIY)KI(CH OTK838TbCH OT ssuiero ttpeuJIO)J(CHHlI.

CI'I -

OKOHilaHUe matin. 5

B) B npyrux KOCBeHHhIX naaexax C npeanorou H 6e3 ripen- Jl ttpuexen CO-
JIOra (ospsuumce, tuuutmpoeerscs, npHBR3bIBaTbCR K +~. D., BepUIeHCTBOBaTbCR B
COrJ1aUIaTbCRHa + B. D., OpHeHTHpOBaTbCR, COBepUIeHCTBOBaTb- pssrosopnoti perm.
CH B + D. n.),
2. 6e3 .Ll.OnOnHeHH~ (nerosopursce, neticrerscs, nsnr- 3a uen» R Ha6e-
petscs, HarYJ1HTbcH). renee H Cpa3Y YCHYJ1. 6. B03BpaTHO-KaY3antBHble rnaronbl

Tatinuua 6

npMMep

Inaron o603Haxaer neacrane, KO'ropoe OllHO nHIW (qaCTO nporpeccaoHan) asmonaser .ll)1~ npyrorc nuua (I1HI1Ul1aTOpa neaCTBI1~).

CTPYKTYPhI C B03BpaTHO- xayaaTI1BHbIM rnaronoxr HMeIOT CHHOHI1- MH'IHblM BapHaHT C . nepexoaaux rnaroJIOM.

Iloanexauree - HM~ O.Ll.ymeBJIeHHOe co 3HaqeHI1eM mrua, B nOJIb3Y xoroporo BhmOlIIDIeTC~ .lI.eMCTBHe. Yrtcrpefinserca B H. n.

BTOpoHI1MeHHOM KOMnOHeHT CTpYKTYPhl - I1M~ onyureaneuHoe co 3HaqeHHeM HCTHHHoro HCnOJIHI1TelI~ ~eMCTBH~ (areaca), YnoTpe6JI~eTC~ B q,opMe y + p. n •

Cxasyesroe - B03BpaTHhIM rJIarOJI, BxoMmHM B YCTOMllHBYIO JleKCHKO-CeMaHl'HQeCKYIO rpynny co 3HalJeHI1eM nporpeccaonansnoro .lI.eMCTBH~ (¢OTOrpa¢HpOBaTbCR, ouessru», ysnnc«, KOHCYJ1bTHP0BaTbCR, eocmcrussttcs, J1e'lHTbCR, Ha6J1Jo.aaTbCH, tpennpoeerscs, CHHMaTbCR).

3Ta aK1]JHC8 oneBaeTCR y H3BeCTHoro Mo.aeJ1bepa.

3Ta etcrp nce

CHHMaeTCR y H3BeCTuoro pescncceps. = 3TY aKTpHCY CHHuser H3BeCTHblH peJKHCcep.

7. naccMBHO-Ka'"leCTBeHHbIe rnaronst

Ta6J1u~a 7

3Ha'leHMe

npMMep

Inaron o603HaqaeT CBOMCTBO npenMeTOB Y! seuiea.

CTPYKTYPbI C naCCHBHO-KaqeCTBeHHhIM r narcJlOM npe06pa3YIOTC~ B CHHOHHMH'lHhIe npennoxenaa co CJlOBaMH MOlKHO/ HUMB.

Iloanexamee - HeO.Ll.ymeBJIeHHOe Y!M~ cyutecrnarensaoe co 3HaQeHHeM rrpezesera, aeutecraa.

Cxaayeuoe - B03BpaTHbIH rnaron B q,opMe aecoaepureanoro BH.lI.a nacrosurero neaxryansnoro BpeMeHH co 3HaQeHHeM:

1) 'cnocotiaocrs nonneprarscs paspyuremno' (J10MaTbCR, 6HTbCR, KPOUIHTbCR, PBaTbCR, nOpTHTbcR);

2) 'crrocoouocrs noneeprarscs H3MeHeHH~M' (rHYTbcR, MHTbCR, nsmamcn, Ca.o,HTbCH, pecreopsrscs, pecrsrnssrscsv;

3) 'cnocofinocrs nonseprarsca TeXHOJlOfHlJeCKOM oopatiorxe H B03.Ll.eMCTBHIO' (crnpersc», MblTbCR, '1HCTHTbCR, rJIa.o,HTbCR, rOTOBHTbCR, JKapHTbCR, BapHTbCR, ZYlIIHTbCH, c06HpaTbcR, pa36HpaTbCH, pa3PBHraTbCR).

3Ta nocyne He 6beTCR.

Ilnectuscce J10- MaeTCR.

lllepcrsnue sctu« CHJIbHO Ca.D.HTCH.

3TOT .aHBaH pes.aBHraeTCH.

3Ta CYMKa MOeTCR. = 3zy CYMKY MO)f(JfO MbiTb.

8. AlcrMBHo-6e306"beKTHbie rnaronbl

Tatinuua 8

3Ha'feHMe CTPYKTYPa npeAIIO)l(eHM" npMMep
Draron nepenaer Ilonaexauiee - HMH co 3Ha'IeHHeM )l(JfBOrO cyutecrsa:
3HatJeHHe ,lleHCTBHH
KaK xapaxrepnyio, • )I{HBOTHOro; KOPOBb/ oo.a8JOTCR.
nOCTOHHHYIO 'IepTy
cy60eKTa. • paCTeHHH; P'03bl KOJIIOTCR.
• tJenOBeKa. COCC.aCKHH M8J1b-
'1HllIK8,aCpifrcR.
Inaron HMeeT Cxasyeuoe - B03BpaTHhlH rnaron co 3Ha'IeHHeM arpeccas- C06aKH XYC8IOTCR,
3Ha'IeHHe arpeccaa- HOH HJIH 3amHTHOH peaKUHH ua tJbe-JlH60 soaneacrane (xy- KOPOBb/ 60.a8/OTCR.
HOH HJIH 3amHTHOH C8ThCR, U8P8Il8TbCR, 6PblK8TbCR, JIRr8ThCR, KJICB8TbCR, .aP8Tb-
peaxun». CR, I1J1CB8ThCR).
Inaron scerna ynorpetinserca B cl>opMe uecosepureaaoro
axna aacroauiero BpeMeHH. Ta6J1U4a 9

9. n060'lHO-B03BpaTHble rnaronbl

3Ha'feHMe

Draron 0603Hasaer KOHTaKT cy6'bexra C HenO,llBHX<HhlM 06'beKTOM.

Bhl60p npennora B COCTaBe nononHeHHH 3aBHCHT OT xapaxrepa KOHTaKTa cyfu,eKTa H 06'bexra:

• npeanor aa ynoTpe6J1HeTCH, xorna pe-n, H.neT 0 MeXaHH'IeCKOM coe,llHHeHHH, cuenJleHHH nnOCKOCTeH, nosepxnocrea cy6'beKTa H 06'beKTa;

npMMep

8) Pc6eHOK YTKHYJICR rOJlOBOH B IlO,aYllIKY H KPCIlKO CIl8J1.

6) KOllIK8 repnsc» o HorH X03RHH8.

B) B03.aYllIHblH 1lI8p 38L(CIlHJICR 38 BCTKy.

Iloanexaruee - HMH onymeaneaaoe, oeoaaasaiouiee 06bI'IHO nHUO (a) HJIH )l(JfBOTHoe (6); pexe - neonytueaneauoe HMH co 3Ha'IeHHeM rrpensrera (B).

Cxasyeaoe ,... B03BpaTHbIH rnaron C nononnenaex B cl>opMe B. D. C npennoraxa:

• 33 (.aCP)J(8ThCR ss IlCpHJIa, ss pYXH; B3RTbCR 38 PY'IKY .aBC- YTOIlalOllIHH XB8-

pn, UCI1J1RTbCR se IlyroBHL(Y); mCTCR 38 COJIOMHHKy.

OKOH"taHue matin. 9

• npennor 0 ynoTpe6JIHeTC51, xorna cytrsexr TOJIbKO conpaxacaerca C o6beKToM;

• npe,nJIor B ynoTpc6JI$lCTC51, xorna cy6bcKT HanpaBJI51CT YCHJIlHI BHYTPb o6bCKTa.

• 0 (y.aaplfTbCH 0 KaMCHb, ymH6HTbcH 06 yrOJI, cnorxnyrscu o nopor; 6lfTbCH.. KaK PbJ6a 06 JIe.a);

• B (yrKHYTbCH rOJIOBOH B ttouytuxy; BOTKHYTbCH B KO)(()', BOH- 3HTbCH B .aCPCBO, yttnpersce B CTCHY).

fl60JIbHO ynspnnCH 06 yrOJI CTOJIa.

Ctpens BOH3HJIaCb B.aepcBo.

10. B03BpaTHbie rnaronsr naccaaaoro 3Ha"leH&otSi

Tatinuua 10

3Ha'teHMe CTPYKTYpa npeAl10>KeHMJiI npMMep
Inaron 0603Ha- Ilonnexamee - HM5l B H. n. co 3Ha'-lCHHCM 06bCKTa nea- Hama mKOJIa
'-IaeT )l.ei1cTBl1e, KO- CTBH5l. CTPOHTCH MOJIO,abI-
TOPOMY nonsepra- MH pa60'llfMlf.
eTCH o6beKT.
Cxasyeaoe - B03BpaTHbJH rnaron HCBco 3Ha'IeHHeM:
• npouecca )l.eHCTBH51; 3TO 3,l(aHHe CTPO-
lfTCH TpH rona.
• noaropsnouieroca neacrsaa; Tsxue 3.aaHHH
06bJ'IHO CTPOlfJIHCb
IJ.l1Jl/llKan. I

fiaCCHBHbJe CTpyKTYPbJ C B03- BpaTHblMH rnaroJIaMH HMelOT COOTHOCHTeJIbHblH sapHaHT - aKTHBHble CrpYKTYPbl C nepeXO)l.HbJMH rnaronaMIL

• OTHeceHHOCTH Jlet1cTBH51 K npoiunouy

,llonOJIHeHHC - HMH B T. n. co 3HalJeHHeM npOH3BO)l.HTeJIH .nei1cTBI1H (arenca).

,llonOJIHeHHe MO)J(eT 6bITb onyuieno.

3rOT jJ.OM CTpmfJI- \ CH ewe MOHM npene.aOM.

DIV1CTbJn~.aaRJTCH BO.aHTCJICM TOJIbKO ne OCTaHoBKax.

DHJICTbl npoasRJTCH TOJIbKO Ha OCTaHOBKax.

3TOT ,aOM CTpOJfJlCH MOJIO.ablMlf pstio'1lfMlf. - 3TOT ,aOM CTpOlfJIH MOJIo.abJe pe- 60'llfC.

.

.. ....





nMTepaTYpa

MHCOBa T.B. «CTp3,llaTeJIbHCUI» KOHCTpYKUIDI rrpennoxeaas B PYCCKOM, !l>paHUY3CKOM H HTaJIMIHCKOM H3blKaX / / PYCCKHH H3b1K aa py6e)l(OM. 1973. N2 4.

AHTOHIOK Jl.A; MHXHCBHlf A.E. 3aJIOrOBOe 3Ha1JeHHe B3aHMHOCTH H npofirreMa «CKPblTOH» rpaMMaTHKH (aa MarepHaJIe 6eJlOPyccKoro H3bIKa) / / IlporineMbI reopaa rpaxaarasecxoro 3aJIOra. 11., 1978.

AnpeCJIH 10.1(. lIeKcH1JecKaH ceMaHTHKa. CeMaHrn1JeCKHe cpencrsa H3b1Ka. M,1974.

Apyttonoss H.I! Ilpeanoxeaae H ero CMblCJI. M., 1976. 5HTcxTHHa F.A. H np, llO-PYCCKH - 6e3 OIlIH6oK. M., 1995.

Bomenoss fI.H. 3MOUHOHaJIbHble xonuenrsr H HX POJIb npa OllHcaHHH rnaroJIOB C l103HUHH «aKTHBHOH rpaMMaTHKH» / / 513bIK, C03HaHHe, KOMMYHHKaUHH. Bsm, 3. M., 1998.

50IWapKoA.B., EYJIaHHH 11.11. PyCCKHH rnaron, JI., 1967.

BCJIHlfKOA.B., Tj'MaHoBaIO.A., l[arHHa o.B. Ilpocroe npennoxeaae, Onsrr ceMaHTH1JeCKOrO OllHcaHIDI. M., 1986.

BHHOrp8J10B B.B. PyCCKHH H3b1K. M., 1947 .

BCCBOJI0,40Ba M.B. TeopIDI !l>yHKUHOHaJIbHO-KOMMYHHKaTHBHoro CHHTaKCHCI • <I>parMeHT llPHKJI3,llHOH (rtenaroraxecxoa) MO,lleJIH H3b1Ka. M., 2000 .

raBpHJIOBa B.H. B03BpaTHble rnaronsr cosepmeanoro BH,lla C KBa3HllaC'" CHBHblM 3Ha1JeHHeM H HX MeCTO B 3aJIOrOBOH: CHCTeMe PYCCKoro H3bl1(1 / / Tpynsr aCneKTOJIOfH1JeCKoro cesoraapa <I>HJlOJIOfH1JeCKOfO <paKYJlbTe'f1l Mry HM. M.B. Jlovoaocosa. T. 4. M., 2004.

FeHIOIlICHC 3. ill. K reopaa OllHcaHHH pe<pJIeKCHBHblX mafOJIOB / / 3aJIoroBble KOHCTpYKUHH B Pa3HOCTpYKTYPHbIX $l3bIKax. JI., 198.1.

.,

.--

I

3a.nH3HfIK A.A. fpaMMarnqeCKHH CJIOBapb PYCCKOrO H3bIKa. M., 1977. 30ll0TOBa r.A. CHHTaKCHqeCKHH CJIOBapb. Penepryap 3JIeMeHrapHbIX e.u:HHHj pyccxoro CHHTaKCHca. M., 1988.1

I

K03HHucBa H.A. Peq,JIeKCHBHble rnaronsr B apMHHCKOM H3bIKe II 3aJIOrOB KOHCrpYKUHH B P<l:3HOCrpYKTYPHblX H3bIKaX. JI., 1981.

Kopones 3.H. MCrrOJIb30BaHHe naccasa rrpa aBTOMarHqeCKOM CHHre3e py cxoro npennoxeaas II MamHHHblH nepeson H rrpHKJIaJJ:HaH JIHHrBHCTHKa Tpyztsr Mocx. roc. nen, aa-ra HHOCrp. 513. HM. M. Topesa. Bsm. 2. M., 196

Kottpos B.IO. Acnexrsi conocrasareasnoa rHrrOJIOrHH npocroro rrpe.u:no)K' HHH (na MarepHaJIe PYCCKOro, aarnaacxoro H senrepcxoro H3bIKOB). Bop He)K, 1999.

KplOlJ:KOBa M.fI. Oco6eHHocTH rnaronsaoro HeMorHBHpoBaHHoro ynpaanea B COBpeMeHHOM PYCCKOM H3bIKe I Ilon pen, O.A. Jlarrresoa. M., 1979.

fIo6aHoBa HA. CHHraKCHqeCKaH coseraexocrs B03BparHblX rJIarOJIOB B C BpeMeHHOM PYCCKOM H3bIKe. ,UHCC. xana. <pHJIOJI. HaYK. M., 1966.

HeJ(fIJlKOB B.Il. 3aMeTKH rrOTHnOJIOrHH pe<pJIeKCHBHbIX .u:eareHTHBHbIX KO CrpYKUHH (onsrr HCqHCJIeHlIH) II I1p06JIeMbI reopnn rpaMMaTHqeCKOrO 3 nora. JI., 1978.

He.aJIJIKOB B.Il. KaY3aTHBHbIe KOHCTpyKUHH B HeMeUKOM H3bIKe. Ananar qeCKHH KaY3amB. JI., 1971.

Hensnxos B.Il., CHllbHHUKHH r.n. THnOJIOrl1H KaY3arHBHbIX KOHCTPY UHH II THrrOJIOrHH KaY3aTl1BHbIX KOHCrpYKUl1H. MOP<PoJIOrHqeCKl1H xa rHB. JI., 1969.

HHKHTHHa E.H CeMaHTHKa «cy6beKTHOro» TBOpHTeJIbHOrO npa B03BpaTH rnarone II PYCCKHH H3bIK: MCTOpHQeCKHe cy.u:b6bI H COBpeMeHHOCTb. II Me nynaponaua xoarpecc HCCJIellOBaTeJIeH PYCCKoro H3bIKa. Mocxsa, MfY H M.B. Jloxoaocosa, <pHJIOJIOrHQeCKHH <paKYJIbTeT. 18-21 Mapra 2004 rona. Tp llhI H xarepaanu.

06paTHhiH CJIOBapb PYCCKoro H3bIKa. M., 1974.

IIeTe H. Draronsnue CJIOBOCOqeraHl1H C Ha3BaHHHMH sacrea TeJIa B PYCCKO~ S13bIKe II Studia Slavica Academia Sientarum Hungariene. 1968. V. XIV I NQ 41

70

npaKTHQeCKOe nocofine no PYCCKOMY H3bIKY .ll:JlH naocrpauuea I Ilon pen, JI.n. IO.u:HHoH. M., 1969.

PYCCKaSI rpasoaarmca. T. 1. M., 1980.

Tpsope EOllH. Onacanne B03BparHbIX (pe<pJIeKcHBHbIX) rnaronos B yqe6Hblx ueJIHX. ,l1;HCC. xaan, nen, HaYK; M., 1992.

YJI)'XaHoB H. C. B03BpaTHble rnaronu II PYCCKHH H3bIK. 3HUHKJIOrrellHH. I l1o.u: pen. <1>.11. <l>HJIHHa. M., 1979.

X01l0.aOBH'l A. A. Teopermecxae rrp06JIeMbI peUHIIpOKas COBpeMeHHOM HrrOHCKOM H3bIKe I I1p06JIeMbI reopan rpaMMamQeCKOrO 3aJIOra. JI., 1978.

XpaKoBcKHH B.C. ,UHare3a H perpepenraocrs (K sonpocy 0 COOTHomeHHH axmBHbIX, rraCCHBHbIX, pe<pJIeKCHBHbIX H peUHrrpOKHhIX KOHCrpYKUHH) II 3anorcsue KOHCrpYKUHI1. B pa3HocrpYKTYPHbIX H3hlKax. JI., 1981.

UeHTllHH C.H. B03BpaTHhIe rnaronu H nercxaa peas II np06JIeMbI .reopaa rpaMMarnQeCKOrO 3aJIOra. JI., 1978.

fJamHa G.B. HOMI1.HaTI1.BHO-aKKY3aTHBHbIe CrpYKTYPhI C rnaronasm KOJIHqeCrBeHHblX H KaqeCTBeHHbIX H3MeHeHHH H HX KOHBepCI1.BbI I I PYCC~H H3b1K .ll:JlH CTYlleHTOB-HHocrpaHueB. M., 1978.

Hernne G.B. 0 ceMaHrHqeCKOH Heo.u:H03HaQHOCrH aexoropsrx HOMHHaTHBHOaKKY3aTHBHbIX npennoxemra II PYCCKHH H3bIK aa py6e)KOM. 1979. NQ 2.

fJarHHa O.B. YCJIOBHH peaJIH3aUHH 06CTOHTeJIhCTBeHHblx 3HaQeHHH B KOHBepcHbIX npeoopasoaanaax HOMHHaTHBHO-aKKY3aTI1.BHbIX crpYKTYP II PYCCKHH H3bIK B He<pHJIOJIOmqeCKOM BY3e. I Ilon pen, O.A. Jlarrresoa. M., 1985.

'Ierun« O.B. KOMMYHHKaTHBHbIe B03MO)KHOCTH rraCCHBHhIX KOHCrpYKUHH (Acnexr npenonasaaas B anocrpaaaoa aymrropna) II PYCCKHH H3b1K sa PY- 6e)KOM. 1989. NQ 6.'

l[arHHa O.B. KaK cxasars uaase? M., 1990.

'Isrnu« O.B. 0 «MorHBHpOBaHHOCTH» HeMorHBHpOBaHHoro rJIarOJIbHOrO ynpaBJIeHHH (na npmrepe rr060qHO-B03BpaTHblx rJIarOJIOB) 1/ MAIIP5IJI 2002. VIII Me)l()J,YHapO.lI.HbIH CHMrr03HYM. TeOpeTHQeCKHe H MeTO.lI.HQeCKHe npofineMbI PYCCKOro H3hIKa KaK mrocrpaaaoro B nasane XXI nexa. }.l,OKJIallbI H coo6- llIeHHH. nOJIrapH5I, BeJIHKO- TblPHOBO, 4-7 anpena 2002 r.

71

l{arHHa D.B. CTPYKTypbl «Kparmsa )lQl{eTCH» H «Ilocyna 6beTCH» rnasax HHOCTPaHua II PyCCKHH: H3b1K aa Py6exoM. 2003. N!!2.

lfarHHa o.B. B03BpaTHble rnaronsr H HX CPYHKUHoHHpoBaHHe II KHHra 0 rpax MaTHKe. M., 2004.

lfarHHa D.B. «JlIo,ZtH BCTPeqaIOTCH, JIIO,n;H BJII06J1HIOTCH~ )KeHHTCH ... » YnOTPe~ JIeHHe B3aHMHO-B03BpaTHblX marOJIOB /1 PyCCKHH: H3blK sa Py6exoM. 20~ N!!5.

~ lfarHHa D.B. Oco6eHHocTH npeMOXelJHA C ~3BpaTHQ-KaY3aTHBHbIMH rm

rOJIaMH II PyCCKHH: H3b1K: HCTOpHqeCKHe cYJlb6b1 H COBpeMeHHOCTb. III Me~ .llYHapo,n;HblH: xoarpecc HCCJIe,n;oBaTeJIeH: PYCCKoro H3bIKa. Mocxsa, MfY IQj M.B. JIOMOHOCOBa, ·cpHJIOJIOrHqeCKHH: cpaKYJlbreT. 20-23 MapTa 2007 r. TpYnl

H MaTepHaJIbI.

j l{arHHa D.B. Oco6eHHOCTH H3b1KOBOro nOBe,neHHH B03BpaTHo:-KaY3aTHBH~ rnaronos II R3bIK. KYJIbTYPa. qeJIOBeK:. C60PHMK HayqHbIX crarea K I06HJI~. sacnyxeaaoro nporpeccopa MrY HM. M.B. Jlovosocosa M.B. BCeBOJIo,n;~ BoltM.,2008. .. .j

:':,=:i1T!'::;:':~=:==~~=:::::C:'~

JIOrOBOCTb. Cn6, 1991. j

lliMCJICBa TB. npO.n;yKTHBHOCTb H ceMaHTHKa' crpyxrypaoa cxeMbl (aava paane npocroro npennoxeaaa) II np06JIeMblyqe6HHKa PYCCKorOH3blKa ' HHOCTPaHHoro. CHHTaKcHc. M., 1980.

J/HKO- TPHHHUKaJI H.A. B03BpaTHble rnaronsr B cOBpeMeHHoMPYCCKOM H3 xe. M., 1962.

J/XOHTOB c.E. Bupaxenae pecpJIeKCHBHoCTU: B KHTaitcKoM H3blKe /1 3aJIO asre KOHCTPYKUHH B pa3HOCTPYKTYPHblX H3b1Kax. JI., 1981.

'"IACTb aTOPASI

npaKTMKYM

I. CeMaHTM'feCKMe pa3pRAbi B03BpaTHblxrnaronoB

1. Co6cTBeHHo-Bo3BpaTHble maronsi

(rnaronsr, 0603Ha"lalOUJ,lIIe Aet1cTBllle cy6beKTa H8A caMIIIM coooa)

1. npO"lHTaiiYe AHanorH. 06paTHTe BHHMaHHe, "ITO BblAeneHHble rnarOnbl HMelOT 3Ha'leHHe 'CaM ce6R'. rnaronbl C 3THM 3Ha'leHHeM ynoTpe6nRIOTCR C nocT«I>HKCOM -CR.

1) - Iloxeuy Bbl He na mnpre? BCe-TaKH IIleCTOH 3Ta)K ...

- R acerna nO,lUlHMaIOCb no JIeCTHHue nemxou. BMeCTO rHMHaCTHKH.

2) - JIeHa acerna TaK 3JIeraHTHa.

- .l1.a, OHa oaesaerca C 60JIblllHM BKYCOM.

3) - MOJKHO KBaM?

- nO)K anyacra, npoxomrre, pu,n;eBaATecb.

4) - flo-MoeMy, reee nopa nocrpll'lbCH.

- R H cav 3HaIO, na BCe KaK-TO nexorna.

5) - MHe HHKTO He 3BOHHJI?

- 3BOHHJIa KaKaH-TO nesynrxa, OHa He HUBaJlaCb.

6) - 3,n;ecb oseas TecHo, Bbl He MomH 6bI HeMHoro nOJJ;BHHyn.CH? - KOHeqHO, KOHeqHO, Ca,rulTeCb, nO)l(aJIyHCTa.

2. AononHHTe npeAnO)l(eHHR rnaronaMM H3 npaBoH KonOHKH B npaBHnbHoH «I>0pMe.

I 06 p a r iii T e B H iii M a H iii e: rnaronu, IiIMelO~liIe norronaeaae B B. n., ynorpefinsnorcs 6e3 -CR.

73

3. 51 JIl06JIlo ... B Mope B JIl06yIO norony

KpaCHTb - KpaCHTbC»

1. He 3a6y,nb ... nocyzry,

2. I10cJIe TpeHHpoBKH » C y,nOBOJIbCTBHeM BblMblTb - BbIMbITbC»

... rro,n ,nYIIIeM.

KYrraTb - KYrraTbc»

4. Ilpoxozmre, rrO)l(aJIYHCTa, ....

pa3,neBaTb - pa3,neBaTbc»

5. KTO XOqeT noexars na 3KCKYPCHIO, ...

PYKY· nonanxan, - nozraaaarsca

6. IiH6JIHOTeKa y Hac na BTOPOM srazce, ...

3Ta)l(OM BblIIIe.

7. Tu ,nYMaeIIIb, OHa naryparrsnas 6JIOH,nHHKa? OHa ... BOJIOCb!.

8. OHa a6COJIIOTHO He nOJIb3yeTC» KOCMeTHKOH H naxorna He ....

9. BHKTOP ... B pYKe cyMKY C KHHraMH.

10. Ha rrporxaceana scero pasronopa OH ... ,nep)I(aTh - ,nep)I(aThc»

C 60JIbIIIHM ,nOCTOHHCTBOM.

3. a) npo"unalhe TeKCThl. OnpeAemne, KaKHe 1013 BblAeneHHblX rnaronoa HMe~T 3Ha'teHHe: 1) YXOA aa cBoeM BHewHOCTblOj 2) AeMcTBHSI H8A caoea OAelKAOHj 3) ABH)I{eHHe onpeAeneHHoM 'faCTblO nHl.4a HnH Tena; 4) nepeMe~eHHe B npocrpaacrae; 5) B03,QeMCTBHe cy6beKTa Ha caoe BHYTpeHHee COCTOSlHHe.

JIIO)l,11 COEI1PAIOTC5I HA PAEOTY 1) B KOMHaTY Bouma MaMa.

_ npOCHYJIC»? BCTaBaH cxopee, - CKa3aJIa OHa. 51 O,lJ,eBaJ1CH, CTeJIMJI nocTeJIb, YMbIBaJ1CH. Mana CTaBHJIa na CTOJI XJIe6, MaCJIO. OHa, KaK scerna, TOpOnUJIaCb (E. Banmepy.

2) YTpOM OHa BCTaBaJIa, TU(aTeJIbHO KpaCUJIaCb, O,lJ,eBaJIaCb, 3aCOBbIBaJIa ~OCMeTHKY B CYM04KY, 4T06bl eIIIe pas OCBe)KHTbCH ua pafiore, H MY)I( OTB03HJI ee na MalUHHe B Y4pe)K)J,eHMe (JI. KOJlb).

74

3) YTpOM OH BCTaJI C rOJIOBHOH 60JIbIO. «(OT nepevenu norozna», - nOMOpmUJICH OH. HOTOM nOlUeJI ira KYXHIO, qTo6bl BbIIIHTb m6JIeTKY. Hepes xerneprs xaca nOlUeJI B BaHHYIO H npHH5IJI nyur. HOTOM pacrepca )l(eCTKHM MaxpOBblM noJIOTeHueM, n06pUJICH, o.ueJICH H, ourynrs rrpHJIHB CHJI, cen sa rrHCbMeHHbIH CTOJI (no JI. KO.flb).

4) YTpO 6bmo fienoe, He)l(HOe, .ubIMHoe. ,LleJIOBHTbIM rYJIOM .uPO)l(aJIH CTeKJIa. OH peunrrensasn« MaXOM no.uCKO'lHJI B IIOCTeJIM M npHH5IJIC5I 6pUTbCH. Ceronns OH aaxonan B 3TOM oco6oe y.uOBOJIhCTBHe. KTO 6peeTCH, TOT Ka)K)J,Oe YTPO MOJIo.ueeT na nens. faHHHY CerOlI,H5I Ka3aJIOCb, '1TO OH rrOMOJIOlI,eJI pOBHO na .ueB5ITh JIeT.

IUen1Ha na BbIT5IHyrOH xozce, pa3M»rqeHHa» XJIOnb5lMH IIeHbI, paBHOMepHO noxpycrsrsana H cxozmna non CTaJIhHbIM IIJI~KOM 6PMTBbi. Bpeacs, faHHH IIOBO,llI1JI 6POB5IMH, a nOTOM, xorna 06mIBaJICH 113 KYBlUl1Ha XOJIO,llHOM BO.uOH, PaD,OCTHO YJIbI6aJIc». OH npHrJIaD,I1JI na TeMeHH BJIa)KHble TeMHhle BOJIOCbI, 6bICTpO O,lJ,eJICH 11 asnuen Ha YJII1UY tHatiotcoe).

5) OHa npl1,llBI1HYJIa CTYJI K 3epKaJIY H CTaJIa BHI1MaTeJIbHO HCCJIe,llOBaTb CBOe orpaxeane. TIO)KaJIyM, OHa He TaK ~ nJIOXO BbIfJ151,llI1T ,llJI5I CBOI1X JIeT. KO)Ka na JIHue ynpyras, KaK Y MOJIO,llOM. Ee scerna cnpaunrsaror, KaKOH OHa 3HaeT cexper; A cexpera HeT - renu rrpOCTO TaKHe. A eCJIH y Te6» renu npyrue, TO, CKOJIbKO HH HaMa3bIBaHCH cppaHUY3CKHM KpeMOM, BCe paBHO BI1,llHO, '1TO KO)Ka crapas ... (no JJ. KOJlb).

6) Tenerpoa 3a3BOHHJI KaK pas B ry MI1Hyry, xorna OHa BbIKJIlOqHJIa nynr. OHa no.uOUIJIa, CH5IJIa Tpy6KY. POBHbIM, cnOKOMHhIM, KaK ncerna, rOJIOCOM CKa3aJIa, 'ITO CKOPO 6Y,lleT. HY)l(HO 6bIJIO c06upaTbCH H exars. OHa orxpsina nrxarp. TIIIaTeJIhHO BbI6paJIa KOCTIOM, onenacs. KpaCHBO npasecanacs. CJIerKa nO,lJ,KpaCHJIaCb. IIoCMOTpeJIaCb B 3epKaJIO. HO,llYMaJIa: «Bee B nopsnxe». HOTOM cnycranacs TBep,nhIM urarov no JIeCTHHue 11 BbIllIJIa ryna, rne BeCeJIO rrJI5ICaJIO COJIHue ... OHa BbIllIJIa H3 TeMHOrO napazrnoro aa YJII1UY M B nepBblM MOMeHT 3IDKMypHJIaCb OT COJIHua, KOropoe ynapnno eM B rnasa (no JI. KOJlb).

7) - I1pKa! He~eJII1 3TO ThI? CTOJIbKO JIeT npOllIJIO, a TbI BCe TaKa51 )Ke!

- Hy .ua ~! 3TO, rrpstao CKa)KeM, TaKOM KOMIIJII1MeHT! - OHa 3aCMe»JIaCb 11 COllIypMJ1a rnaaa. OHa nasno CTaJIa myparsca, xorna YJ1hI6aJIaCb, peurus onnax.ubI, '1TO 3TO O'1eHh eM 11]leT (no JI. KOJlb).

6) Ha30BHTe B03BpaTHbie rnaronsr, o603Ha ... alO~HeAeMcTBHSI, cne~HcI>H'tHbleAnSI M~CKoro HnH )l{eHCKOro TYaneTa.

B) PaCCKa)l{HTe, KaK Bbl cotiapaerecs Ha pa60TY HnH Ha 3aHSITHSI.

75

4. a) npO'-lMTaMTe TeKCT, Bbl6MpaA H)')KHbIM rnaron M ynoTpe6nHH ero B npaBMnbHOM <l>opMe.

BbI BbIIIIJ111 113.nOMA

BbIW)],5J 113 xsaprupsr, He ... (mpOlllfTe - topottntecu KJII1<pTY. YTpOM nOJIe3- HO ... (cnYCTHTb - CllYCTHTbCfl) no JIeCTHl1ue.

ECJfl1 K MeCTY Ylle6hI BaM H}')KHO ... (JI06HP8Tb - J!06HP8TbCfl) rpancnoprou, XOT5J 6bI HeCKOJIbKO OCTaHOBOK nponnnre nemxoa. ITo nopore MO)[(HO nenars paaHbIe ynpa)KHeHI1H, Hanpl1Mep, ... (HaKJIOHJlTb - HaKJIOHflTbCfl) fOJIOBY snepea a Ha3aJJ" ... (IlOBopa<JHB8Tb - llOBopa<JHBaTbCfl) ee BJIeBO 11 snpaac. 3TO xopOlllHe ynpa)KHeHIUI JlJIH npO<pJ1J[aKTI1KI1 OCTeOXOHJlP03a - O'-IeHh pacnpocrpanennoro B nanrn .llHJ1 3a60JIeBaHJ1H JIlO,LIeH YMCTBeHHOfO TPY,LIa . .Il,JIH TpeHJ1pOBKH MhIlllU PYK nOJIe3HO nepIfO)],J1'-IeCKIf ... (C)f(JfM8Tb - C)[(HMaTbCfl) pyxxy CyrvrKIf J1JIIf noprrpena.

B asrofiyce yrtpaxaeuas MO)f(HO npononsorrs. Hanpmrep, ... (c)f(JfMaiiTeC)[(HMatiTeCb) nopyxeas, 3a KOTOPhIH BhI Jlep)f(J1TeCh, ... (llpHIIOJ!HHMaiiTe - IlPHIlOJ!HHMaiiTeCb) na HOCKIf If pe3KO ... (OIlYCKaiiTe - OllYCKaiiTeCb) aa nHTKJ1. B MeTpo na 3CKaJIaTOpe He 065J3aTeJIbHO CTOHTh, no HeMY ny-nue ... (CIlYCKaTb - CIIYCK8TbCfl) H ... (IlOJ!HHM8Tb - nomnoamcs; nelllKOM.

... Haaeesrcs, BhI He on03.n:aJIH K Ha'-IaJIY 3aHHTHM:. IT03TOMY, BOM:.n:Jl B xoprryc, He ... (6pocaiiTe - 6pocaiiTecb) 6eroM K JIIf<PTY- Jly-nne ... (IlOJ!HflTb -llO,aHflTbCfl) no JIeCTHIfue rrelllKOM .... (Ilounnue» - Il0,4HHM8flCb) no JfeCTHIfue, He ... (CyrYJIbTt: - cytymaecsv, HaCTpaJ1BaHTeCb Ha XOPOlllIfM: JIaJJ" ... (rotossre - romBbTeCb) YJfbI6KY JlJIH rosapmuea J1 3Hepm'-IHO npncrynaare K pafiore.

6) CKa>KMTe, KaKMe peKOMeHAa,-,MM OKa3anMCb AIlS! aac none3HblMM M MHTepecHbIMM.

B) PaCCKa>KMTe, KaK Bbl Ao6MpaeTeCb AO MeCTa Y'fe6bl MnM pa60Tbl.

5. a) AononHMTe TeKCT rnaronaMM Hy>KHorO BMAa B npaBMnbHOM <l>opMe.

OHA B03BPATI1J1ACb C PAEOTbI

OHa OTKpbIJIa nneps CBOIfM KJIlOlJOM, nosecana )f(aKeT B CTeHHOM: urxadi H ... (HanpaBJfHTbCH - HanpaBHTbC5J) B BaHHYlQ: Y nee 6bIJfa npJ1BbIlJKa nocne YJIHUbI nepasrsr JleJIOM BbIMbITb PYKH If ... (YMblBaTbCfl - j'MbITbCfl). Bens noxa nneun, OT rponnejifiyca, BCH rtpomrraeursca nstm-io.

OHa ... (ssnupsru:» - ssncperscs) B BaHHOM, ... (pa3J!eB8TbCJJ -- pa3jJeTbCJJ), BKJIlOlJl1JIa fOPHlfl1M JlYW, YT06hI OXJlaJJ,HTb TeJfO. Y¢<p! Cpasy ner-re CTaJ10 .... (Bu-

76

THP8TbCfl - BbITepeTbCfl) 60JfblllHM MRfKl1M nOJIOTeHueM - OHa KOf.n:a-TO KYIlHJIa ero l1MeHHO sa TO, '-ITO OHO 6hlJf0 YJlJ1Bl1TeJfbHO M5JfKl1M J1 JlaBaJIO xoxe npaarnoe oruyutenae, ... (38Bopa<JlfBaTbCfl - 3aBepHyrbCfl) B XaJIaT 11 OTKpbIJIa nseps,

- Te6e, nOKa ThI ... tuutsc« - nuuuttce), KTO-TO 3BOHl1Jf. OH He ... (BalbIssrscs >: Ha3BaTbCfl), - CKa3aJI M}')K. - 51 nonpocnn, '-IT06bI nepe3BOHJ1JII1.

_. Xopouro, nOHJlY noxa nOCMOTpIO TeJIeBIf30p. A ThI cnenan MHe, nO)KaJIyM:cTa, fiyrepfipon. - OHa nOYJl06Hee ... (YCTpaHBaTbCfl - YCTpOHTbCfl) B KpeCJIe 11 CTaJIa rrepeiono-rars nporpasorst, lJT06hI HaHTIf lJTO-HIf6YJlb mrrepecaoe.

(JIo 1I. KOAb)

6) PaCCKa>KMTe, 'iTO Bbl AenaeTe, B03Bpan'BWMCb AOMOV. C 3aHATMv. MnM c pa60Tbl.

6. npO'-lMTav.Te AManom no ponAM. 06paTMTe BHMMaHMe Ha CMHOHMMMIO <l>OPM TMna l10CrpJlllb B0J10CbI M l10crPHrJbCH. npMBeAMTe APyrMe npMMepbl TaKOv. CMHOHMMMM.

1) - BOJIOJlH, 51 XO'-lY nepexpacars CBOl1 BOJlOCbI. - 3alJeM?

- QT06hI HpaBl1TbCH reoe.

- KaKaH xe TbI mynas! He HaJJ,O KpaCHTbCSI. TbI Y MeHH CaMa5J KpaCl1BaH .

2) - OnHTb KOCMeTl1Ka! ThI 6bI nysure nouina nOfYJI5ITh, CMOTPH, xaxoe COJIHue!

- ITOJlO)KJlIf, MaMa, BOT TOJIbKO rnasa .u;OKparny.

- Hy 3a'IeM TbI KpaCHWbCSI? 3.u;eCh Y Hac B nepesae nootiuie Hl1KTO He xpa-

CHTC5I, see narypansnue XOllHT.

3) - QTO Y Te6H 3a npusecxa! KaKoM-To KPbICl1HbIH XBOCTHK. 3alJeM TbI nocrparnacs, Y Te65J 6hIJIH raxae npexpacaste BOJIOCh!!

- Maua, Y Hac see )J,eBO'-lKl1 B IIlKOJIe nOCTpHrJIH BOJlOCbI, CeMlJaC MO)],HO KOpOTKO.

4) B aarofiyce 51 HeBOJIbHO CTaJI CBl111eTeJIeM TaKoH cueasr:

- OJI5J, 51 He nOHI1MalO, KaK MO)f(HO TaK 6eCCMbICJIeHHO rparnrs JleHbfl1, - ynpexan )I(eHY HeMOJIOJlOM: TOJICTbIH MY)f(lJl1Ha.

- ITPl1JIl1QHbIe JIIOJll1 soofiute JleHhfM He CYl1TaIOT, - 0611)f(eHHO Ha,uyJla ry6KH MOJIOJleHhKaH xoponreusxasr 6JIOHJJ;l1HKa. - Y JIanTeBhIX Hl1KOfJla CJIOBO «neasru» naxe He np0113HOC5IT. A OHI1, Me)l(lJ:y npOlJHM, na-ry TpeX3Ta)[(HYIO noCTpOMJm 11 B npournosr rony e3Jll1JIl1 OT)],bIXaTb na Kanapst.

- QTO TbI Ha,uyJIa ry6bl? Hesero ]lyTbCSI. Y Te6H roxe ,LIOM nOJIHaH xama.

Y.ero retie He XBaTaeT!

77

7. CKa>KHTe xopose, ynoTpe6HB BMeCTO BblAeneHHblX cnoBoco'teTaHMH rnaronsr C -CR.

o 6 p a 3 e u : OH 3aCTemYJI naJIbTO. - OH 3acTerHYJlCH.

1) Crano )KapKO, M Caura paccrernyn nH)UKaK. 2) «3TO TbI CJIOMaJI nepeBO?,) - nenyurxa YKOpM3HeHHO noxanan rOJIOBOH M HeD,OBOJIbHO HaXMypHJI 6pOBH. 3) CeMeHHble HenpHHTHOCTH T5I)KeJIO nOlleHCTBOBaJIH na Kario: OHa rr06JIeJJ:HeJIa, ccyryJluJIa nJle'lU, nonypana B3mHJJ; l1 3aMKHYJIaCb B ce6e. 4) JIeHa BbIKJIlOql1JIa xovnstorep, BCTaJIa, BbmpHMUJIa cnuny l1 C HaCJIa)!()],eHHeM rrOT5IHYJIaCh. 5) «TbI 11 cerO,UH5I aepneun.cs noanno? Onars MbI He nOI1J1,eM.Ha Jl,HCKOTeKY!» - Haraura 06M)!(eHHO HaD,yJla ry6bl. 6) «An'Ixl1!» - AHTOH '1I1XHYJI, ,UOCTaJI 113 xapvana CBepHYThIH B'IeTBepO rrJIaTOK, MeJl,JIeHHO pa3BepHYJI ero 11 rpouxo BblCMOpKaJl HOC. 7) «Bu TaK KpaCl1BhI!» - C )KapOM rrp0l13HCC tonoura. B OTBeT nesyurxa CKPOMHO norynana raasa. 8) lUeJIKHYJI BhIKJIlOqaTeJIb, BcrrhIXHYJI CBeT, 11 OT HeO)l(l1,UaHHOCTH D,eBOqKa 3ruKMypHJIa rnaaa, 9) 51 saaesaro, 'ITO B rrOCJIeJJ:Hee BpeM5I CTaJI rrOCT05lHHO IIIYPHTL maaa. HMO nOHTH K upaxy H nposepars speane. 10) JIe)Ka na COJIHue, KOT )KMypUJI rnaaa OT Y,UOBOJIbCTBM5I. 11) 3aMeTHB c06aKY, KOT OmeTUHUJI mepcrs, BbIrHYJI cnany 11 yrpoxcaroute sannmen, a cotiaxa OCKaJIHJla 3y6bl 11 sapsrrana.

8. 3aKoH'tMTe BbICKa3bIBaHMSI. CKalKMTe, 'tero AenaTb He HaAO. YnoTpe6MTe BMeCTO BblAeneHHblX cnOBOCO'teTaHMH rnaronsi C -CR.

I B C nOM H u r e : nocne CJlOBa He HaAO rnaron ynorpetinaerca B ¢opMe HeCOBepweHHoro BIo1Aa.

o 6 p a 3 e U: Hy 'ITO TbI HaXMypHJI 6pOBH! Hasero CePhe3HOrO He rrp0I130llIJIO.

He HaD:o ... -

Hy 'ITO TbI HaXMypHJI 6pOBn! HM'IerO cepsesuoro He rrpOM30llIJIO. He HaD,O XMypnTbCH.

1) Ilosevy ThI paCCTerHYJI UaJIbTo? Ha YJIHue XOJIOD,HO, He HaD:O .... 2) Onsrs, TbI CCYTYJlHJI CUUHy. 3TO BpeLlHO. He aano .... 3) Bepa, He IIIYPb rnaaa na COJIH-': ue. 3TO Bpe,UHO. He naao .... 4) Hy 'ITO TbI HaXMypHJI 6pOBH? YJIbI6Hl:lCb, He HMO ... . 5) OIl5ITh ThI HaMOpIll,HJ1a JIo6! 3TO HeKpaCMBO, 6yD,YT MOPllIl1HbI, He HaLlO ... r 6) Hy, 'ITO Thl HaD:YJla ry6bI? On5ITb 'IeM-TO He)],OBOJIhHa? Xsartrr, He HaLlO 6 onsme ... , IloHAeM IlI1Tb qatt.

9. CKa>KHTe Kopo'te.

06 p a 3 e u : Te6e 3BOHl1JIa KaKaH-TO )J(eHrul1Ha. OHa He Ha3BaJIa cefia, -Te6e 3BOHl1JIa KaKaH-TO )l(eHrul1Ha. OHa He Ha3BaJIaCb.

78

I) Ha npOTIDKeHI1I1 scero paarosopa I1pl1Ha JJ;eplKaJla ce6H c 60JIbllII1M noCTOI1HCTBOM. 2) 3a'leM TbI MyqaeUlb ce6H, ycnoxojica. 3) 51 He crparycs B napaxuaxepcxoti, crpary cefia caaa. 4) M051 fiafiyurxa XOPOlllO 3HaeT caoncrsa pacrenan, OHa He JI10611T XO,UHTh B rrOJII1KJIHHMKY 11 nesar ce6H TpaBaMM. 5) 51 ysepea, 'ITO Hl1KOJIatt CMO)KeT 3amHTnTb cefia. 6) 51 He xoxy JlHUlaTb ce6H OTD:bIXa 113-3a TBOI1X Kanp1130B.

10. npO'tMTaHTe AManorM M pa3blrpaHTe HX B nauax, Hcnonb3yme BblAeneHHble rnaronbl.

1) - Ott, f)l(e AeBHTb! KaK)I(e 51 npocnan!

- Haxero. Bsrcrpee YMbIBaHcH, O,lJ,eBaHCH, qero-HI16Y,lJ,b nepexycn 11 BrrOJIHe ycneeun, KO BTOPOH JIeKUl1l1.

2) - 3ApaBcTBYHTe, oxeas BaM pansr. Ilpoxonnre, pasnesaarees, CaL{HTeCb. - CnacH60, 51 na MI1HYTKY.

3) - ,L1,aBHo xosy norosopars C BaMI1 06 OD:HOM D:eJIe, HO HI1KaK He Mory peIIIHTbCH.

- [OBOpl1Te, 51 sac CJIymalO.

4) - CKa)J(l1Te, me y sac 6M6JIMOTeKa?

- DM6JIHOreKa na urecrov araxe, BbI MO)KeTe UO,lJ,HHTbCH na JIMq,Te.

5) - TIOqeMY ThI TaK ,UOJIro He rrOllXOD:I1JI K reJIeq,OHY?

- 113BI1Hl1, MblJlCH B nannoa, 113-3a BO,IJ,bI He cnsnnan 3BOHKa.

6) - TbI noeneurs na 3KCKYPCI1IO na KOH)],l1TepcKYlO q,a6pI1KY? - D:a, cofinpaioc».

7) - llTO Tbr C)KHIUbCH? Te6e XOJIO,IJ,HO? TIpI1HeCrl1 rerrnsra mapdi? - Crrac1160, He nano. Jlysnre Aatt MHe 'Ia1O.

8) - llTO TbI IIIYPHIUbCH? Meuraer COJIHue? - D:a. 3an:ePHl1, noxanyacra, 3aHaBeCKY·

9) - CerO,IJ,H5I XOJIOLlHO, CMOTPl1 He UPOCTYLlHCb. - He UpOCT)1KYCb, 51 TenJIO OD:eJlCH .'

10) - Y)I(e rr03AHO, JlO)KHCb cnars, TbI ceronna MHoro 3aHl1ManC5I . - nOCI1)J(Y erne nevuoro 11 JI5Iry.

I I) - Hy, )],0 CBl1J1,aHl1H, Ha,lJ,eIOCb, CKOPO YBl1,IJ,l1MC5I. - 51 TO)J(e Ha,lJ,eIOCb .

11. 3aKoH'tHTe BbICKa3bIBaHHSI. Hcnonb3YHTe cnoaa AnSI cnpaeox.

1) qTO TbI C,IJ,eJIana c rOJIOBoH?! Y Te651 6bIJIH TaKI1e rtpexpacnste Jl,JIl1HHbIe BOJlOCbI, a censac TbI rrOXO)Ka na MaJIb'lI1Ka. 3a'leM TbI ... ?

79

2) TbI 3Haelllh, SI He npOHIB KOCMenfKM, HO ace XOPOlllO B Mepy. 3alleM OHa TaK .. , ? OHa noxoxa na pa3pMCOBaHHYIO KYKJIY·

3) nOJIh30BaThcSl uyxaMM naao YMeJIo. He CTOMT 3JIoynoTpe6JISlTh HMM. Ha nnaxe MJIl1 B 6acceMHe .nysure Bo06IUe He ... , nOTOMY srro l13-3a Hl1X MO)KHO no JIYlll1Th 0)1(01:

4) MHe Ha)],oeJIO 6hITh 6JIOH)l,l1HKOM. KaK ThI )],YMaelllh, MO)l(eT, MHe ... ?

5) )J(eHa nonapnna MHe HOBYIO 6pMTBY .... eIO - O)],HO y,n:OBOJIbCTBMe.

6) ThI nee eute B nOCTeJIl1? BCTaBaM! BOT refie caexas pytiamxa, raJICTYK:,

cxopee ....

7) 3)],paBcTBYMTe, oxeas BaM PMhI. Ilpoxomrre, ....

8) Korna fiynenn, peaars OBOIUM, CMOrpM He ... , - HO)l( oxeus OCrphIM.

9) Ha YJIl1Il,e MOP03, He .

10) l.JaHHl1K ropasna, He .

C JI 0 B a )], JI SI en p aBO K: 1) nocrpassca; 2) KpaCl1ThCSl; 3) nyunrrsca; 4) noKpaCHTbCSl; 5) 6PllTbCSl; 6) onenarscs; 7) paszteBaThCSl; 8) nopesarsca, nopamrrsca; 9) npocry)],I1ThCSl; 10) 06)l(e%CSl.

12. npO'tIllTam-e TeKCT. BblnonHIIITe 33AaHlIIe nocne TeKCTa.

.IJ.OBPOE YTPO!

DOJIhlllMHCTBO JIIO)],eM xaxnoe yrpo npnnaraer HeMaJIO YCHmIM, lIT06hI npoCHyrbCH, OTKphITb rnaaa l1 nO)l,HHTbCH C KpOBaTl1. 11 naxe caMbIM rpOMKl1M l1 npoTl1BHhIM 3ByK 6Y)],l1JIbHl1Ka He scerna 3TOMY CTIOC06cTByeT: MhI llaeM eMY OT60M If cnOKOMHO np01l0JI)J(aeM cnars. Kap)],l1HaJIhHO nO-HOBOMY noztomna K pemeaax» 3TOi1 npofinesru HeMeUKaH unconsnaua I1pl1C Knoc, Ee l1306peTeHl1e HOCl1T YCTpallIaIOIUee Ha3BaHl1e «6e3)J(aJIOCTHaH KpOBaTM, KOTOPaH nozraauer )'TPOM JIIO fioro JIeHTHH. TIoCJIe 3BOHKa 6Ylll1JIhHllKa MaTpac 3TOM xposarn nasnaaer npanO.LJ,HHMaTbCH co CKOPOCTbIO O.LJ,I1H CaHTI1MeTp B MI1H)'TY. TaKI1M 06pa30M, xepe HeCKOJIhKO MI1H)'T COHH CBa.JIHBaeTCH aa TIOJI. KTO 3HaeT, MO)l(eT 6hITb, 11306peTe':

Hl1e llIeCTHMuaTI1JIeTHeM lllKOJIbHI1UbI 6Y.lJ,eT BHe.lJ,peHO B )J(113Hb.

(IIo uamepuanau nep~OaU'teCKou nesamu)

OToeTbTe Ha eonpocsr, IIICnOnb3YSI BblAeneHHble B TeKCTe maronsr,

• nOLJeMY V1PV1C Knoc peuiuna V1306peCTV1 «6e3)t(anOCTHYIO KpOBaTb»?

• KaK AeiiicTByeT sra KpOBaTb?

• Jlerxo nV1 Bbl npocunaerecs? Cpa3Y nV1 Bbl nOAHV1MaeTeCb C nocrenn?

80

13. npO'tIIITaMTe TeKCT. BblnOnHIIITe nocnerexcroesie 33AaHIIISi.

KPACI1BOI1 - 3A QAC

BhI )l(.D:eTe rocren, roroaarecs K I1X upaevy Ho 'laCTO B cneunce aatismaere 0 ce6e. A eCJII1 nonpotionars Hayql1ThCH CTaTb KpaCI1BOM, llMeH B pacnopsxeaaa JIl11I1h O.lJ,l1H 'lac CB060.lJ,HOrO apeveaa?

Ilepssnr .lJ,eJIOM - KOHTpaCTHhIM nynr, I10TOM pa30TpHTeCb MaxpOBbIM nOJIOreHueM no outynreaaa TeTIJIOTbI. Hanecnre na JIl1UO n nrero nl1TaTeJIbHbIH: KpeM, a na HOrl1 - TOHI13l1PYIOm;l1H: xpe«, sem, BaM ceronaa npanerca MHoro .lJ,BHraTbCH. Bsmeiire MaJIeHbKl1MI1 rJIOTKaMl1 sauncy xpenxoro 'laH C JIliMOHOM M JlO1KHTeCb OTJ],OXH)'Th na 15-20 Ml1H)'T B nOJI)'TeMHOM KOMHaTe. I10,n: Hom nOJIO)J(llTe nonyurxy BKJIIO'lI1Te nerpovxyto npllHTHYIO MY3bIKY.

Ilpexne 'leM nO.lJ,HSlTbCH, MbICJIeHHO COC'll1TaMTe no .lJ,eCHTI1. Ha cser «necsrs.

BCTaBaMTe. Ho nO)l,HHMaiiTeCb He oxem, pe3KO, llT06hI roJIOBa He saxpyxanacs.

YMoiiTecb npOXJla.lJ,HOM BO.lJ,OM 11 naaecure JIerKl1H: YBJIa)J(HHIOIUI1M KpeM. Ilocaorparecs B 3epKaJIO. BbI OTJ],OXHYJII1 l1 nOCBe)J(eJIli. 11 eIUe OCTaJIOeb HeCKOJIbKO MI1H)'T .lJ,0 npnxona rocrea. CnOKOH:HO, He ToponHCb, C.lJ,eJIaMTe MaKlffi)l(, OJ],eHbTeCb, npHllemHTeCb. BbI aeorpaaasrstl

([[0 MamepU(JJlGM nepuoouuecxoii neuamu)

a) 143BeCTHbl nlll BaM 3TlII peKOMeHAa~lIIl11? CJGVKIIITe, K3KlIIe peKOMeHAa~1II111 MornlII 6bl AaTb Bbl B nOAo6HOM CIIITYa~lIIl11. 14CnOnb3YMTe BblAeneHHble B TeKCTe rnaronsr,

6) P3ccKIDKIIITe, K3K Bbl rOTOBlIITeCb K npllleMY rOCTeM.

14. npO'tIllT3MTe TeKCT. BblnonHIIITe nocnerexcroeere 3aAaHIIISi.

MY)I(CKMI CTPAHI1UA (.IJ.HEBHI1K )J,OMOX03}lI1HA)

nOHE)J,EJ1bHI1K

O,n:l1H .lJ,OMa. )J(eHa yexana na He)leJIIO. Oxem, rrpnarnaa nepevena. 1l0JIaraIO, Mbl C c06aKOM nposeneu He3a6bIBaeMYIO He.lJ,eJIIO.

}l COCTaBliJI rparpnx. TO'lHO 3HaIO, xorna 6y.lJ,y npocsmarsca l1 BCTaBaTb no yrpaM, paccxtrran, CKOJIhKO BpeMeHl1 6y.lJ,y YMbIBaTbCH, 6PHTbCH 11 KaK JlOJIro rOTOBHTb 3aBTpaK, MbITb TIOCY.lJ,y, y6l1paTb xsaprapy, BblrYJII1Barb c06aKY, XOJlI1Tb aa OOKyrrKaMI1 H roTOBl1Tb TII1IUY. I1Pl1HTHO YJlI1BJICH TeM, 'lTO y MeHH, OKa3blBaeTCSI, CUle OCTaeTCSI Macea CB060JlHOrO apevean. Henonarno, rtoxexry )l(eHllll1HbI )l(a-

81

JIYJOTCH na )lOMaWHee X035Ill:CTBO, xcrna BCC, '-ITO )lJTH Hero Tpe6yeTC5I, - 3TO HeMHOfO oprannaarran.

Ha Y")KHH Y Hac C C06aKOll: no 6H<pWTeKCY. 5I nOCTeJIHJI na CTOJI npa3)lHM'-IHYlO cjeareptu, rrOCTaBI1JI cse-ncy 11 P03bI B Ba3Y )lJIH C03)laHHH rrpH5ITHOll: 06CTaHOBKH.l Y c06aKM ua 3aKYcKy H aa sropoe 6hIJI YTHHhlll: naurrer C He)ICHhlM OBOIUHhlM rap- . HI1POM, a na )lecepT nevease, 5I mIJI BHHO H KyPI1JI cnrapy

llaBHeHhKo 51 ceria TaK XOPOllO He '-IYSCTBOBaJi.

BTOPHI1K

Hano 6hl MHe euie pa30K npOCMOTpeTh MOll: rpadnr«. Iloxoxe, B Hero npnnerC51 BHeCTH He60JIbllHe H3MeHeHI1H.

5I 06bHCHHJI ncy, '-ITO He Ka)J()],bIl'1 )leHh - rrpaaaanx, n03TOMY aesero )K)laThk '-ITO OH Ka)K)lbIW nens 6Y)leT rrOJIYLfaTh TpM MMCKH ensr, xoropsre MHe )ICe rrOTOM1' npnnerca MbITb. L OTKPbITMC: 51 06HapY)ICHJI, '-ITO COCI1CKH MO)KHO paaorpesars, rrOJIO)ICMB I1X B; cyn, 11, T3KHM 06pa30M, MbITb na onny KaCTplOJIIO MeHblle.

5I, KOHe'-lHO, He HaMepeH rrhlJIeCOCMTb K3)K)lblW zieas, KaK roro XOTeJIa )lCeHa,o; Pa3 B nna nHH - 60Jlee '-IeM )lOCTaTOYHO. fJIaBHOe, nano nepeoeysarsca B ranosxa H asrrapari. cofiaxe nanu - 11 BCC. B OCTaJJbHOM '-IYBCTBYIO cefis BeJIl1KOJIenHO.

CPEnA

Y MCHH raxoe ouiyurenae, ~lTO )lOMaWHee X03Hll:CTBO OTHMMaeT 60JIhIIIe speMeHI1, '-IeM 51 rtpennonaran. fTpHACTCH MHe nepccvorpers crparermo.

War nepnuit: 51 Kynl1JI nOJly<pa6PMKaTbI. He npH)lCTCH TpaTHTb CTOJIhKO spe-, MeHM ua BCIO 3Ty rOTOBKy. 5I )lYMalO, yrinpan, nOCTeJIb Ka)K)lbIH )leHh BOBce H 06H3aTeJlbHo. Bens H B TOT )ICe aexep CHOBa 6Y)lY B nee JIOJKHTbCH. 3TO 6eccMblc" JICHHOC 3aH5ITl1e.

4ETBEPf 5I nCpCCTaJI 6PHTbCSI Ka)K)lblti )lCHb. BOT~, neacrsarensao, nycras rpara apeMeHH. K TOMY )ICC 51 06peJl re .aparouennue MHHYTbl, KOTOphJe M051 »ceua HHKOf)l~ H He TCp51eT, nOTOMY 'cITO He 6peeTCH'1 OTKpbITHe: HeT Cl'vIbICJla K3)K)lbIH pas ecrt, H3 '-lHCTOW TapCJlKH. C06aKa TO)IC~,~ MO)J(CT ecrs In O.LlHOi1 11 TOll: )J(C MI1CKI1. B KOHue KOHlJ,OB, 3TO scero JII1Wb )lCU- I BOTHoe.

82

mlTHI1UA

5I 06HapY)KJ1J1, '-ITO cyn MO)J(HO ecrs np51MO H3 KaCTpIOJlhKH. BKYC TOT )J(e caMblll:. Ilec nonysaer CYXOll: KOpM. OH CTOJIh)ICe mrrarenen H He nanxaer MHCKy.

CYfifiOTA

Kaxoii CMbICJI aesepov pa311eBaTbC}I, eCJlH YTPOM CHOBa nano oneaarscs? JIyqWC 51 '-IYTb nonsure nOJle)KJ B KpOBaTM. K TOMY)lCe rorna Bo06IlJ,e HC HY)l(HO CHHMaTb H CTeJll1Tb nOKpbIBaJIO, rrocrens 11 TaK OCTaeTCH npexpacao y6paHHoi1.

Ceronns )leHb 6PMTb5l, a 6PHTbC}I COBceM He XO'-leTCH. Hepssr Y MeHSI aa npe-

,rrCJle.. ..

llHCM n03S0HH1Ia )l(eHa H CrrpOCH1Ia, BbIMbIJI 1IH 51 OKHa H nOCTHpaJI JlH 6eJlbe.

51 pa3pa3HJlC51 I1CTepH'-IeCKHM CMeXOM. CKa3aJI, '-ITO y MeH51 na raxoe He 6bIJlO apeMeHH.

ITp06JIeMa C BaHHoM. OHa 3a6HTa MaKapOHaMH. 3TO MeHH He CJIHllKOM 6ec-

nOKOHT, nOTOMY '-ITO 51 H TaK nepecran MbITbCSI.

Ilpuvesaaae: MbT C c06aKoti e)lHM BMeCTe, np51MO H3 XOJIO)lHJIbHMKa. ITPHXOLlHTC51 nenars 3TO 6bICTPO, '-IT06bl He nepxars ero CJIl1WKOM )lOJIfO OTKPblTbIM.

BOCKPECEHbE

MbI cnnenn na rrOCTeJIH 11 cMoTpeml TeJleBM30p. Ha axpane uapon nOrJIOllaJI BceB03MO)KHhle 6JIIO)la 11 nemtxarecsr. Y Hac 060MX TeKJII1 CJIIOHK11. MbI 06a CJIa- 6bl H paanpasorrem.asr.

CerOllH51 yrpov CbeJI '-ITO-TO 113 C06a'-lhell: MHCKl1. HM MoeMY ncy, HI1 MHe 3TO He nOHpaBHJIOCb. Bo061IIe-TO nano 6bl MLlTbCSI, 6PHTbCSI, npHqeCblBaTbCB, rOTOBHTb eny .llJIH nca, esrrynuaars ero, MbITh nocyny, y6HpaTbC51, XO)lHTb aa nOKYIIKaMH 11 nenars ueJIYIO nepenmry npyrnx seurea, HO Y MeH51 rrpOCTO HeT aa 3TO CHJI. 51 'fYBCTBYJO, '-ITO nanaro OT CJIa60CT11 M '-lTO Y MeH51 YXY)lllaeTC51 spenne. C06aKa nepeCTaJIa Bl1Jl5lTb XBOCTOM.

B nOCJIe)lHeM nopsrse caMOCOXpaHeHI151 Mbl nJIeTeMCH B pecropaa. DOJIee '-Iaca Mbl nO[JIOlIIaeM M3bICKaHHYlO eny 113 pa3JII1'-1HblX TapeJIOK. 3aTeM Mbl M)leM B roc-

TI1HHUY. KOMHaTa TaM '-I11CTa51, Orrp51THa51 11 YIOTHa51. v

Y6e)l()lCH, 'ITO Sl HaWeJI HjJ,eaJIbHOe peuremre rrp06JIeMbI lloMawHero X0351I1CTBa.

VlHTcpeCHO, a Moe« )J(eHe 3TO Kor)la-HM6Yllh npMxO)l11JIO B fO.TIOBY?

(ITo If. Kpaycy)

a) nepellMcm1Te Aena, KOTopble AOnlKeH BblnOnHMTb repoH paccxaaa. I/Icnonb- 3YHTe BblAeneHHble B TeKCTe rnaronsr.

83

6) BcnoMHMTe, KaKMM 06pa30M repoa paccxaaa nnaaapoaan HaHTM peaepasr CBO· 6oAHoro BpeMeHM.

B} nepeAaHTe cOAep>KaHMe aroro paccxaaa OT nuua >KeHbl, BepHYBweHCSI 1.13 noe3AKM.

r) A KaK Bbl onacana 6bl CBOH AeHb? HanMWMTe 06 3TOM KOPOTKMH paccxaa.

15. npO'tMTaHTe TeKCT. BbmonHMTe 3aAaHMSI nocne TeKCTa.

ITPOCTOE JIEKAPCTBO

Ceronna MbI )!(l1BCM ira 6ery: Bee HaIlO ycrrers, seane norismars. 3aBTPaK M o6e~ npespauraiorcs B cxopocrnoe npornarstaauxe mnua. B PC3YJIbTaTe yxe K 30 roo llaM MbI MMeCM 60JIbHble 3y6hI, raCTpMT H KY'lY llPYTMX 60JIe3HeM. K csacrsio, 3'q CH'ryaL1l11O JICrKO ncnpamrn-, naysnautacs npaBl1JIbHO :lKCBaTb.

Ilepen npl1eMOM rrHUJ.H HaIlO cecrs npavo l1 paccnatinrsca. fOJIeHM 1l0JI:lKHi CTOHTb nepnennuxynspno 6cllpaM l1 nOJlY. Torna naura cnana aBTOMaTMqeCKM BWi npSlMHTCB. ECJIM:lKe BO BpeM5I ensr CyrYJlHTbCB, TO BHyrpeHHMe opranu CllaBJIMB8i IOTCH H uauieuapeaae YXY)J,llIaCTCH. 11

Bo BpeMH ofiena rrOJIHOCTblO CKOHueHTpHpyHTecb na ene. He oraaexaarecs Hj paarosopsr, He qMTaMTe, HC CMOTpMTe TC.rIeBM30p. ECJIlI BbI cOcpe,1J.OTO'lHTeCb H1 ene, sam opran 113M caM rtoncxaxer, xorna nopa OCTaHOBHTbCB. A eCJIH BbI OTBJlf!! xaerecs, TO ReH36C:lKH. 0 nepeenaere. Crapanrecs He aanasars nHJU~ )J(JI1lKOCTblO 1 qaeM, xodie, COKaMI1 H naxe BOllOH. TII1I.ua rorna rrOqTI1 HC npO:lKeBhIBaCTCH 11 ~ 06pa6aTbIBaeTC~ CJIIOHOH. Ihrrs JIY'-Ilue -repea sac-ncorropa rrOCJIe eznr. CTap~ TeCh :lKeBaTb KaK npasoii, TaK 11 JICBOH CTOPOHOH- rorna narpysxa aa 3y6hI 6Yll paBHoMcpHOM. He nhlTaHTecb n06I1Th pexopnst CKOPOCTH aa e,llOH. ECTb HaIlO Me JICHHO. Hepexessmanre Ka)l()l,blH KYCOqeK, noxa OR He rrpespararca B )KlI1lKOC OnTI1MaJIbRO HaIlO nenari, 01' 75 no 100 :lKeBaTCJIbHbIX llBM:lKeHHH. ECJIlI. rnnua x pouro npoxesatra H CMOqeHa CJIIOHOti, OHa 6blCTPee npo,1J.BHraeTCB no uantesap TeJIbHOMY TpaKTY. Y:lKC O,llHMM3TI1M MO:lKHO H36aBHTbCB OT racrpnra. Kpoue Tor) rwaTCJIbHOe rrCpC:lKCBbIBaHMC nHIUl1 - 3TO H caMbIi'! nemCBbIH cnocof rrOXYlle~ nOCKOJIbKY npn 3TOM qCJlOBeK ecr MCHblIIe. TaK 'ITO xesaaae OT'IaCTH MO:lKCT ~ MeHI1Tb TPCHHPOBKH B 1l0P0rMX rPMTHec- KJIy6ax. .

(ITo »uimepuanau nepuoouuecxoii nelfamd

a) 3aMeHMTe Bbl,QeneHHble cnoaa H cnoeocoaeranas maronassa c -CR. (B cn~a 3~TpYAHeHHSI 06paTHTecb K paccxasy «rlpocroe neKapCTBO».)

84

.t

Cxnsre aa CTOJI, JIpHMHTe paCCJIa6JIeHHYJO JI03Y. Bunpeunte KOPJIyC. Cans sa CTOJIOM, He cytymae CIIHHY. COCpepOTO'IbTe BCe BHHMaHHe ira ene. ilPHJIO)J(Hte see YCHJIHfl K TOMy, 'IT06bJ )J(eBaTb xennemro. ECJIH IIl1lUa XOPOlIIO npoxeaana, oHa 6bICTpee JIPOXOPHT no KHlIICqHHKY. ECJII1 BbI 6yneTc BbITIOJIHHTb 3TH npocrsre I1pJBI1Jla, BbI H36aBHTe ccti» OT MHOn-IX HenpI1HTHocTci1.

6) 3aKOH'tMTe npeAnO>KeHl-1R, l-1CnOnb3YS1 rnaronst C -CR, npoTMBOnOnO>KHble no cMblcny ynoTpe6neHHbiM B nepeoa 'taCTM npeAnO>KeHMS1.

1) He nanparatrrecs, a, Ha060poT, 2) He cyrynsrecs, a ... 3) He HaKJIOH5IH-

TCCh CJll1lIIKOM HH3KO nan TapeJIKOH, a 4) He OTBJICKaHTecb, a, Ha060poT, ...

B) KaKMe peKOMeHAal!,MM Bbl MornM 6bl ASTb CBoeMY npaaremo, KOTOPbIH, aa aaiu B3rnSlA, He 3a60TMTCS1 0 CBoeM aaopoese: eCT Ha 6ery, so BpeMSI eAbl 'tMTaeT, CMOTPHT TeneBM30p, CHAHT aa o6eAeHHbiM CTOIIOM, HaKnOHMBWMCb HaA KHMrOH, npomarsraaer nMlLty, nO'tTM He nepe>KeBbIBaS1 ee?

r) KaKMe npaaana npMeMa nMU4M cylLteCTBYIOT B BaweH CTpaHe? B 'teM OHM coanaAaIOT, a 'teM OTnM'taIOTCSI OT npMBeAeHHblX B TeKCTe «npOCTOe neKapCTBO»)?

16. npO-'MTaHTe TeKCT. BblnOnHMTe 3aAaHHSI nocne TeKCTa.

CI1)lEHl1E -- 3TO PAEOTA

OnHH nacasra CMllHT na JJeKUI1SIX, npYTI1C 1l0Ma nepen TeJICBI130POM, TPeTbM - sa 06HJIbHO HaKpbITbIM CTOJIOM. MO:lKeT noxasarsca, t:ITO Y HHX HeT Hl1'IerO ofinteroo Ho 3TO He TaK. I1x 06bcnHHSIeT 60JIb B CnI1HC.

Ilpnpona ne rOTOBHJIa Hac llJIH MHOrOqaCOBOro HenO)J,BIDKHoro CHLICHHH. 3TO np06JICMa naurero BpeMeHH. EIUC B rrpOlIIJIOM aexe ee He cymecTBOBaJIO. MHOfHC, aasepnoe, BMllCJII1 KapTI1HY H. DOr.ll.aHOBa-neJIbCKOrO «YCTHhIH cxer», na KOropOH xynO:lKHI1K M306pa3l1JI ypox B CeJIbCKOH lIIKOJle. )J,CTH cB060nHO XOll~T rro i(J[accy, nepeaemaiorca H3 O)lHOrO KOHua KOMRaTh! B npyroii, peuras B YMe aparpMeTH'ICCKYIO 3a,lla'lY, M rrO)lXO)lHT K yqHTeJIIO, qT06b! co06rUHTb pe3YJIbTaT. CeronfHI B llIKOJIaX na:lKe caMbIM MaJIeHbKHM qaCaMI1 npI1XO)lHTCH CHneTb nenoneaxao. I1 C Ka)KJlbiM rOnOM OHI1 Cl1)lHT BCC )lOJIblIIe H 1l0JIblIIe. To ecrs 'lCM CTapaTCJIbHCe pe6eHoK, TeM 31'0 xyxe )J,JI5I err- CrrI1HhI. 11 eCJII1 cpasy HC HayqMTb ero MepaM 6eJOnaCHOCTI1, TO HerrpHHTHOCHI CMY raparrrnponanst.

3TO TOJIbKO Ka:lKCTC5I, 'ITO CH,llSI MbI OT.J:hIxaCM, ua caMOM nene narpysxa xa lil1)I(H101O xacrs n03BOHO'IHI1Ka y CI1)J.HI.uero qCJIOBeKa aa 40 % BbIlIIe, 'leM y CTO~lliero. Kposre roro, B H~nO,llBH)J(HOM TCJIe 3aMt'_V15IeTCH KPOBOTOK. CaMO no ce6e To HOPMaJIbHO -- HanpHMCp, xorna 'leJIOBeK CIlHT, O)lHaKO CH)leHMC - 3TO He

85

COH H He OT)lbIX, 3TO UDKeJIeMlllaH pafiora )lJlH MbIlllU cnaau. 11 OHI1 HY)I()laIOT~ B xopouresr nHTaHI1H. Ho BHJIOTeKymaH H 3aCTOMHaH KPOBb He MO)J(eT HM 3TOJ ooecne-nrrs, B pe3YJIbTaTe MbIlllUbI rOJIO)laIOT, B03HHKalOT Mblllle'lHble 6oJII1. A HX nmlBJIeHHeM MbI H BOBce CTapaeMCH He )lBHraTbCSI, He meBeJIHTbCSI, naneac ~ITO 3TO H36aSHT Hac OT 60JIH. TaK B03HHKaeT nOpO'lHbIW KPYr. Ilepsoe, 'lTO HYJi HO caenars, - 3TO HayqHTbcH )lBHraTbcSI. QTo6bI pasoruars KPOBb, ncooxona» MeHHTh IlOJIo)J(eHHe TeJIa XOTH 6hI 2-3 paaa B reseaae saca. LI.a:lKe cavaa CH)lH'l' pafiora )la~T TaKHe B03MO)f(HOCTH. ECJIH same pafoxee MeCTO sepecvyp KOMQ>OP~ HO, C)leJIaH.Te ero MeHee Y)106HhIM.

He CTaBbTe TeJIeQ>oH na CBOM pa60'lHW CTOJI. IIo)lHHMaHTecb na Ka)J()lblw TeJIl

Q>OHHhlM 3BOHOK H paaronapaeanre CTOH. .

v ECJIH. BaM Hy)f(HO 06CYLl,H.Tb 'lTO-TO C KOJIJIerOH B COCeLl,HeH KOMHaTe, He nOJII 3YHTeCb TeJIeQ>OHOM, a nO.llHHMHTeCb co csoero MeCTa H 3aH.n,HTe K KOJIJIere CaM} C araxa na 3Ta:lK nO)lHHMaHTeCb H cnycKaiiTecb neuncov.

v ECJIH. BbI osem, aarpyxeasr H 6YKBaJIbHO He MO)KeTe OTopBaTbCB OT CTYJIa, )lBJ raarecs «He OTpbIBaBCM. MeHHHTe IlOJIO:lKeHHe TeJIa, nanparanre 11 paCCJIa6JI5[H1 MbIlllUbI Hor H SZrO)1,HU, noaopaxaaaare rOJIOBY (HO He pe3KO). OTKIf)lLIBaHTeCb ~ Cnl1HKy KpeCJIa, xorna He rtenaraere, a 'lHTaeTe HJIH rosopare.

Pa60TaH C KOMnbIOTepOM, pacrronaraare MOHHTOP aa TaKOM paCCT05lHHH, 'lT~ 6bI BaM He npHXOLl,H.JIOCb HaKJIOH5ITbCSI snepen BbITHrHBaTb utero, nanparart, 3pj HHe. CHLl,HTe np5lMO, He ropfiarecs, He cyryJlbTeCb.

CJIOBOM, CHLl,eTb HaLl,O aKTHBHO!

'j (Ilo MamepUQJlQM nepuocunecxoii nel.faml

a) nepeAaHTe COAeplKaHMe npeAIIOlKeHMH, 3aMeHSISI BblAeneHHble cnoaa M crii BOCO'teTaHMSI nOAXOASIlLtMMM no cMblcny rnarOnaMM C -CR. (B cny>tae 3aTpyJ HeHMSI 06paTMTeCb K npO'tMTaHHOMY TeKCTy.) '1

1) Crapaarecs 60JIbIlle ObITb B )lBIDKeHHH. 2) He CTaBbTe TeJIe¢OH Ha csoa p~ 60'lHH CTOJI; BCTaBaHTe na Ka)J()lbIH TeJIe¢OHHbIH 3BOHOK H pasrosapasaare cTo1 3) He nOJIb3YHTecb mr¢ToM, XO.llHTe no aecrnaue neurxou. 4) CH,ll51 nepezt KO~ IIbIOTepoM, crapanrecs He HaKJIOH5ITb xopnyc snepen, 5) CH,llHTe rrpmro, He ro, 6HTe cnUHY, He cyryJlbTe nne1JH. )

6) KaK Bbl nOHMMaeTe cnoaa. «CMAeTb Ha_QO aKTMBHO»?

B) Ka~Me ynpalKHeHMSI Bbl C'tMTaeTe none3HblMM AnSI 'tenOBeKa, BeAYU4ero c&iIAI 'tMM 06pa3 lKM3HM?

86

11. npO'tMTaMTe OTPblBOK M3 KHMrM M3BeCTHoro PyccKoro nacarena B. 6enoBa «11aA», nocBSlU4eHHoM onMcaHMIO KpecTbSlHcKoro 6blTa ua PyCCKOM Ceaepe B Ha'tane npownoro aexa. BblnonHMTe 3aAaHMSI nocne TeKCTa.

HHf,Ue, KaK B onexne, He CJIHJUlCh Boe,UHHO ,UBa 'leJIOBelJeCKI1X nanana: ,UYXOBHoe H MaTepHaJIhHoe. 06 3TOM roBOP5lT H cnosa, TaK HJIH HHa'le CBH3aHHhle C nOH5ITHeM onexnsr. Onexny B napozte Ll,0 CHX nop naorna Ha3bIBaIOT 060JIO'lKOii, a uepxosaaa onexna Ha3bIBaeTCH BhICOKHM CJIOBOM 06JIa'leHHe. 060JIaKlIBaTbcH, 06Jla'laTbCH - 3Ha'lHT OjJeBaTbCH. B CJIOBaX 3TH X 3ByqHT 'lTO-TO 3hI6Koe, JIerKOe, BpeMeHHoe, HaIIOMHHaIOIIIee npeXOLl,HlUYIO KpaCOTY neoecaoro 06JIaKa.

Haponxoe OTHOIlleHHe K onexne acerna nOLl,pa3yMeBaJIO HeKOTOpylO YCMeIllKy, J1CrKOe npeneopexeuae, ssrpaxaevoe TaKHMH. CJIOBaMH, KaK «fiapaxno», «TpHIIKI1». Ho BCe 3TO JIHlllb MaCKHpOBaJIO, CJIy)f(I1JIO saeumea 060JI04KOH cepbC3HOH 11 Be'-IHOW 3a60TbI 0 TOM, BO '-ITO onerscs, KaK 3aIIIHTI1Tb ce651 OT XOJIo,Ua 11 Ll,0:lK)],51, He BbILl,eJI5l5ICb npa 3TOM KaK rn.erOJIbCTBOM, TaK H ytiorocrsio, 'lTO O,UHHaKOBO C'IHTaJIOCb 6e306pa3HbIM.

Hapormoe OTHOIlleHHe K onexne rrp05lBJI5IJIOCh B npOCTOTe, B '-IYSCTBe MephI, B 3KOHOMH'leCKOH ,llOCTyrrHOCTH, B KpaCO'lHOCTH 11 MHoro06pa3HI1.

KaK O,ll,eBaJICSl KpeCTb5lHHH? JIeTHl1ll MY:lKCKOH pa60'IHH aapan BbI[JI5I,lleJI oneas npOCTO. KpeCTb5lHHH 06b1'lHO O)J,eBa.rICH B XOJIIllOBbIe IlOpTbJ I H py6axy. <l>113H.'-IeCKIIH TPY,ll11 rrOCT05lHHOe 06meHI1e C npHpOLl,OH He n03BOJISlJIl1 BHe,llp5lTbC5I B xpecTb5IHCKYIO onexny HH'leMY JIHWHeMY. B TaKOM aapane ,UonYCKaJIl1 JIUlllb CKPOMHYIO JlaKOHH'lHYIO BbIlllHBKY no sopory H PYKaBaM. I10PTbI 3aCTerHBaJIH Ha nse-rpa rtyrOBHUbI, cnenannsie H3 KPYrJIbIX Me)f(f[03BOHKOBbIX fiapansnx KOCTOlJeK.

B :lKapKYlO rrorony KpeCTb5lHI1H HH'lero He HaLl,eBaJI nosepx pyoaxa M nopros, He nO,llnOHCbIBaJlCSI. 06YBaJIHCb xpecrsaae B JIanT112• 1IanTI1 HOCHJIH aa fiocy nory 3TO 6bIJIa IIpeBOCXO,llHa51 pa604a51 06YSb. Canorav, noofiute KO)((aHOH 06YBH JIaIITH OTHIO,llb He MeIllaJIH, a 6bIJIH ,l106pbIM rroncnopseu. l£aCTO MO)f(HO 6bIJIO ysuners TaKylO KapTHHY: JIIOLl,H I1)lYT B rocru B JIanTHX, HeCH cancra IIepeKHHYTbIMH 'lepe3 nJleQO, H JIHlllb Y nepesun nepe06YBaIOTCH.

3HMOH nO'ITH nee HOCHJII1llly6bI H rtonyurytixn II3 OB'lHHbI3. l13 OB'lH.HbI IllI1JIH lie TOJIbKO llly6bI, HO H onesna, KOTOPbIMH YKPblBaJIHCb B XOJIO,llHble HO'-IH.

;---

, OOPTbl_ XOJTlI.lOBble MYA<CKHe WTaHbI, uraposapsi.

: ;lanT\1 - TlJTeTeHa51 06YBb].i3 COJlOMbI H.TIl1 crapsix sepenox, TOHKHX xopneri nepensen, 113 JTbIKa. , OB<H'1H3 - OBe<Ib51 urxypa.

87

A KaK o.n;eBaJIHCb )l(eHIIU1Hhl? OCHOBY xeacxoro KpeCTMIHCKoro KOCTIOMa coCTaBJHIJIH py6axa 11 caparpaa. BClO onexny )l(eHIlIMHa M3roTOBJHma ce6e caua. PyfiaXM lIIMJ1M C myxMM BOPOTOM 111IIMpOKl1Ml1 PYKaBaMI1. Ilosepx py6axH )l(eHIlIMHa iranenana caparpan, ero BepXHMH: xpaii 6hIJ1 asrure rpynn H nepxancs na npOH:MaX.

<DopMa lleTCKOH: Olle)l(,D;hl xaure scero nosropana B3POCJ1YIO. Ileren Oll.eBaJIH , KaK B3POCJ1hIX, C TOqHOCThlO 110 MeJ1hqaH:lIIMX neranea. Ka3aJ10Ch 6hl, OlleThlH no- ~ B3POCJ10MY pe6eHOK spone 6hl 1l0J1)l(eH nsrasrsars qYBCTBO KOMH'-leCKOrO YMMJ1eHM5I,'1 Ho 3TO He TaK. B KpeCThHHCKMX ceMhHX mncorna He q,aMMJ1hHpHM'faJ1M C lleThMMli 11x JII06IIJIM, otieperamr OT HerrOCMJIhHOro rpyna, HO B OTHOlIIeHMHX C .n;eThMM pon ... CTBeHHMKM 6hIJ1M cepsesasr II cnepxamrsr. OllMHaKoBaH co B3POCJIhIMM onexna, onanaxoasre npensrersr (narrpanep, MaJ1eHhKI1H: ronopax, MaJ1eHhKa5I JIOrraTKa, MaJIeHhKaH TeJIe)I(Ka) .n;eJIaJ1M pefeaxa KaK 6hl aenocpencraeaasm M pasaonpaaHhlM yqacTHMKOM KpecThHHCKOH: )I(lf3HM. qYSCTBO coocracanoro .n;OCTOHHCTBa If cepsesnoe OTHOllIeHHe K MMPY 3aKJIa,D;hIBaJ1MCh MMeHHO TaKMM 06pa30M H B paR.!. HeM .n;eTCTBe, HO aro He MelIIaJ10 .n;eTCKOH: 6e33a60THOCTl1 11 aenocpencraenaoc-, TM. )lJIH .n;eTCKOH: )l(e q,aHTa3IIII B TaKMX YCJIOBMHX OTKphIBalOTCH .n;06aBOqHhIe B03~ MO)I(HOCTM.

Oaexna or crapurero nepexomora K MJIa,D;lIIeMY. )].OHalIIHBaHMe J1lO60H: onexnsr CqHTaJ10Ch B KpeCThHHCKOH: cesn,e rrpOCTO He06xollMMbIM. To, 'ITO 6b1JIO He osea H)')KHhIM, 06H3aTeJ1hHO OTllaBaJ1M HMIlIMM. BbI6paCbIBaTb CqHTaJ10Cb rpexojr, xa H noxynars JIHillHee.

J

a) AononHMTe TeKCT rnaronasaa OJ{eBaThCH (60 umo? #CalC?), OJ{eBaTb (soeo? 60 "rno?)~

Ha,o,eBaTh {umo? ua xoeoi),

Bo Bce speveaa qeJIOBeKa 3a60TMJIa MblCJIb 0 TOM, KaK saunrnm, ce6S1 OT xo, JIo.n;a, BO 'ITO .... KaK paHbille ... PYCCKMe KpeCTbHHe? JIeToM My)I(qHHbI ... py6a ' M IIOpThI. Ha nora JIeTOM ... JIanTM. )l(eHIlIMHbl 06bI'fHO ... B py6axy M caparpa , , Caparpaa )l(eHIlIHHa ... IIOBepx pytiaxa. Korna rtpaxozmna 3HMa, see ... IIIy6bI II OB'fllHhI. )leTeH: '" KaK B3POCJIbIX. 3llMOH: ira MaJ1b'fIIKa ... TOqHO TaK)'1O )l(e, KaK B3pOCJIOro, HO rOJ1bKO MaJ1eHbKYlQ, IIIy6y H manxy, na nora ... BaJ1eHKll HJIM cano, ra. MaJ1bqllKOB 11 nesosex ... KaK B3POCJ1bIX, H 3TO C .n;eTCTBa BOCnHTbIBaJ10 B H cepsesaoe OTHOlUeHlle K )I(lf3Hll.

6) BMeCTO To eK ynoTpe6MTe cnoaa C npOTMBOnOnO)l{HblM 3Ha ... eHMeM. ~,l

BbIqYPHO - ; 6e3BK)'CHO - ... ; 3J1eraHTHO - ... ; npocro - ... ; 6e.n;Ho - "":1

aKK)'paTHO - ... ; crporo - ... ; )loporo - ... . .1

I

C JI 0 Ball JI SI C II P aBO K : asrasrsaroure, HepSllUJ1HBO, CTapOMo.n;HO, H3bIcKal-l~1

HO, co BK)'COM, fioraro, 6eJlHO, CMeJ1O.

88

B) PaCCK8)I{lIITe 0 BaweM Ha~lIIOHanbHO';; OAe>KAe (KaK oAeBalOTCSI M~MHbl M )l{eH~lIIHbl, KaK OAeBalOT AeTeH, ... TO 06bl'fHO HMeBalOT B 6YAHM, a ... TO - B npaanHMKlII).

r) HaHAMTe penpoAY~lIIlII KapTMH M3BeCTHoro pyccxoro XYAOlKHMKa A. BeHe~MaHOaa, HanMcaBwero MHO>KeCTBO nonorea aa TeMbl PYCCKOH KpeCTbSlHCKO';; )l{M3HlII. PaCCK8)I{lIITe, cnapaacs Ha penpoAYK~IiIM, KaK oneeanacs PyccKMe KpecTbSlHe. YnoTpe6MTe BblAeneHHble B TeKCTe «OAe>KAa,) rnaronst.

A) AKTpMCa AHHa KOBanb ... YK paccxaasrsaer 0 cBoeH repoaae, cnenoaarena npoKYpaTYpbl: «MHe B WBe~OBOH BCe HpaBMTcSI. Aa)l{e TO, KaK OHa OAeBaeTCSICKPOMHO, 6e3 uraxa, MHe 3TO TO>Ke 6nlll3KO, 51 KaK-TO HeYAo6HO ce6S1 ... YBCTBYIO, KorA8 Heo6xOAlilMO OAeBaTbCSI AOpOrO». PaCCK8)I{MTe, KaK BaM HpaBMTCSI oaeBaTbCSI III nO'feMY.

e) YMeHMe oneearsca onpeAenHeTcSI MHorMMlil $8KTOpaMlII: TP8AM~MSlMlII, KYnbTYPOM, MHAMBMAyanbHblM BKYCOM. PaCCKa)l{MTe, KaK B BaweM crpaae nplllHSlTO oAeBaTbcSI B pa3Hbix clIITYa~lIISlx: B o$Mce, C06l11paSiCb B pecropaa, H8 APYlKeCKYIO Be'fepMHKY, B Te8Tp, B KOHcepBaTopMIO.

18. noo ... lIIT8MTe CTMxoTBopeHlIIe BlIIcnaBbl WlIIM6opCKO';;1 «OAelkAa». BblnonHlIITe aaA8HMe nocne TeKCTa.

Caasraeun., cHHMaeM, CHllMaeTe IIJIalUM, )l(aKeTbI, lO6KH, rrll)l.)!<.aKM

113 lUepCTM, XJ10IIKa, 3JIaCTHKa,

6PlOKH, I06KI1, 6eJIbe, HOCKH; YKJIaJlhIBaH, pa3BeIIIHBa5I, nepefipacsrsaa xepea cnnaxa CTYJ1beB, CTBOPKH WI1PM;

noxa '-ITO, rosopar apa-r, HH'-IerO crpaurnoro,

npoury O)leBaThCH, OTJlOXHYTh, Ill,allHIllHH: pe)l(HM, rrpHHllMaTh B cnyxae, eCJIH, rrepen CHOM, nocne ensr, rrOKa3aTbCH B CJIe)lYlOIll,eM KBapTaJ1C, sepea roll, rrOJITOpa; BH.llHWb, a TbI )lYMaJ1a, a MhI 60HJIHCb 6e)lbI,

a see nonarann, a OH IIO)l03peBaJI;

BpeMS! 3aBSl3blBaTb, 3aCTerHBaTb eiue ApmKaIll,HMH pyKaMH KHOIIKH, MOJIHllH, raJICTYKH, peueurxn,

npSl)KKH, rtyroaauu, BOPOTHH KH,

~

I1c,lana WllM66pcKa - nOJlbCKMI noarecca, naypear Hocenencxou rrpeMIH1 B 06JlaCTI1 JlI1TeparypbI

(1996 ron).

89

B03HThCH C sanyraansrva IlIHypKaMH

H BhITaCK11BaTb 113 KapMaHOB, CYMO'leK, PYKaBOB rrOMHThlH: Wap<P11K B KJIeTKY, B UBeTOqeK, B ropox, BHe3arrHO OKa3aJIOCh - erne rrp11ro.u11BWHH:CH.

(Ilepeeoo B. BUH020poeou

Oraerere Ha eonpocsr,



• KaKV1e cnosa V1 Bblpa)l(eHV15'1 B CTV1xOTBopeHV1V1 cooTBeTcTBYIOT rnaronav pa

AeBaTbCSI H OAeBaTbcSI?

• Kaxoe uacrpoe-ete repos orpaxaior rnaronu rpynnu 'pa3,D,eBaTbC5'I'?

• Kaxoe uacrpoeane repos orpaxaior rnaronu rpynnu '0,D,eBaTbC5'I'?

• Tonsxo 111'1 06 OAe)l(,lJ,e H,D,eT pe4b B CTHxoTBopeHHH?

19. npO~HTaMTe TeKCT. BblnonHHTe nocnerexcroaeie 3aAaHHSI.

COJIH UE 11 3AfAP

HeT, nasepiroe, 'IeJIOBeKa, KOTOPbIH He Me'ITaJI 6hl 0 KpaCHBOM 30JIOTHCTO sarape. Pamr sroro MHorHe rOTOBhl qaCaMH )l{apHTbCH ua COJIHue, Ma3aTbCH Be,:

B03MO)l(HhlMH KpeMaM11 11 JIOChOHaM11. Ho 'lT06hl saropers H He HaBpe.II.I1Th n t 3TOM CBoeMY 3.u0POBhlO, rrOJIe3HO rrp11CJIywaThCH K peKOMeH.uaU11HM BpaqeH. ,

Ewe npenaae pHMJIHHe 3HaJIl1, 'lTO nee xpacnue OBOIll11 11 <PPYKTbI YCHJIHB' lOT KOpl1qHeBbIH OTTeHOK sarapa. 3TO Hey.uHBHTeJIbHo: B11TaM11H A YCKopHeT B pa60TKY nHrMeHTa MeJIaHHHa H nenaer nl1rMeHTaUHlO 60JIee CTOHKOH. 11 ceron MHOr11e JIl06I1TeJI11 COJIHe'IHhIX BaHH 11CrrOJIh3YIOT ,llJIH YC11JIeH11H sarapa MOPKO HblH H a6pHKocOBhIH COKI1. Ho cnenyer 3HaTh, 'ITO 3TOT HanHTOK ny-nue rnrn, no rrPHeMa COJIHeqHhIX BaHH, a nOCJIe H11X. Torna sarap 6Y,lleT POBHhIHI1 npone )l(HTCH nonro,

Ceronns MHOrl1e KOCMeT11qeCKI1e <pI1PMhI rrp0I13BO,llHT KpeMhI, conepxani aMI1HOK11ClIOry THpa3HH. J13 nee oopasyercs TeMHbIH nHrMeHT. PeKJIaMa 06eIll, er, 'ITO 3<p<peKT OT rrpl1MeHeHI1H TaKI1X KpeMOB aacryrnrr He3aMeMHTelIhHO 11 re ' noxpoercs POBHhIM 30J10THCThIM aarapov. Ho 3TO ewe sonpoc. K TOMY )l(e spa , noxa He y6e.uHlIHCb B rrOJ1HOH 6e30rraCHOCT11 3TI1X cpencrs. I103TOMY OT 11X rrpM, MeHeHI1H ny-nue B03.ueP1KaTbCH. \

A BOT Tl1pa3l1H, conepxamancn B rmute, a6COJIIOTHO fieaspeneu. Ero MHO ro B nponyxrax )l(I1BOTHOro rrpOHCXO)f(J],eHI1H - MHce H phI6e, oc06eHHO B TPecJ(;1'.,. 11 TYHue. TaK 'ITO nns YC11JIeH11H sarapa JIOr11'IHee He Ma3aTbCH KpeMaMI1, a ec • MHCO 11 PbI6y. "

90

He BceM H3BeCTHO, 'ITO B COCTaB MHorHX .uYXOB, KpeMOB, .ue30,llOpaHTOB 11 anTl16aKTepl1aJ1bHOrO MbIJIa BXO,llHT eemecrsa, xoropsre npu B3aHMo.ueH:CTBH11 C COJI}-!CQHbIMH JIyqaMI1 BbI3bIBalOT oxor. I103TOMY, xorna Bbl cofiapaerecs na rrJIH)I(, ae MOHTCCb C MhlJ10M, He .II.YIllHTeCb, He Ma)l{bTeCb KpeMaMH 11 JIOChOHaM11.

Cnenyer nOMHHTb H 0 TOM, 'lTO COJIHe'iHble JIyqH rrpOHHKaIOT B sony na my- 611HY.u0 O,llHOrO MeTpa. I103TOMY, Koma 'IeJIOBeK CJ1HWKOM nonro xynaerca, OH MO)J(eT nony-nrn, oxot I10CJle roro KaK HCKYnaCTCCb, 06H3aTeJIbHO BbITpHTeCb noJl0TeHueM - KarlJIH BO.ubI ,lleHCTBYIOT KaK JIHH3bI, xoropste <P0KYC11PYIOT COJIHeqnue Jly'iH, rr03TOMY MO)J(HO nOJIyqHTb oxcor H B 3TOM cnysae.

He CTOI1T rtpeneoperan, 3TI1MH npOCTblMI1 rrpaBHJIaMI1. 3aropaHTe rrpaannsHO. Bepernre ceria.

([[0 uamepuanau nepuoouuectcoii nesamu)

a) nepeAaMTe COAeplKaHHe npeAnOlKeHHM, Hcnonb3YSl BMeCTO BbJAeneHHblX cnoaocoseraaaa nOAXoASI~HM no cMblcny rnaron C -CR. (B cn~ae 3aTpYAHeHHSI 06paTHTeCb K TeKCTY.)

1) Macrae JII0611TeJII1 COJIHCqHbIX BaHH qaCaMH JIe)l{3T non naJIHlllHMH JIY'laMH COJIRo_a. 2) 'lIT06bI nony-nrrs KpaCI1BhIH3arap, MHOrl1e nOJIb3yIOTCH CrreUHaJ1bHhIMH KpCMaMI1. 3) MC.uI1KH noxa He ysepeasr B TOM, 'ITO HOBOC cpencrso rrOJIHOCTbIO fie- 30naCHO. 4) COBeTYIO BaM nOBpCMeHHTb C rrpHMeHCH11eM aroro CpC,llCTBa. 5) CneUl1aJIHCTbI C'lMTaIOT, 'lTO nepen npHeMoM COlIHe'lHbIX BaHH He cnenyer npHHHMaTb ilYIll HJIH BaRRy. 6) IIoJIb30BaTbcH .uyxaMH H KpeMaMH na T1JIH)I(e roxe He peKOMeH.Il,YCTCH. 7) nOCJIC KYnaHHH BbITpl1TeCh rrOJIOTeHUCM.

6) OTBeTbTe aa eonpocsr, ynoTpe6HB nOAXOASlUJ,HM no cMblcny rnaron C -CR •

• KaKV1e OWV16KV1 -iauie scero coaepuiaor nI06V1TenV1 sarapa?

• MO)l(HO 11101 4aeaMV1 nexars ua COnHLI,e?

• YBepeHbl nV1 CerO,D,H5'I Bpa4V1 B a6e011IOTHOc;, 6e30naCHOCTV1 KpeMOB AJl51 aarapa?

• CTOV1T nV1 nonaocruo AOBep5'lTb pexnaue V1nV1 ny-uue nOBpeMeHV1Tb C npV1MeHeHl'leM HOBblX KOCMeTV1yeCKV1X cpeACTB?

• CTOI'IT nV1 nepen BblXOAOM Ha nn5l)l( npV1HV1MaTb AYW, nonb30BaTbC5I ,D,yxaMI'I, KpeMaMV1?

B) AaMTe CBOH peKOMeHAa(4HH no nOBOAY roro, ~TO CTt)HT H 'fero He HaAO AenaTb ua nnSilKe HnH B conspaa. [Flocrapasrrece Hcnonb30BaTb H3BeCTHbie BaM rnaronei C -CR.)

91

120. PaCCKmKMTe:

~. nonb3yeTecb nl1 Bbl KOCMeTI1KoC1? -lacro nn, B KaKI1X curyauasx? ECTb nlll y sac nl06111Ma~ KOCMeTI14eCKafi qmpMa? LjTO OHa BbInYCKaeT? Kaxae KpeMbl VI waMnYHIi1, Mblno, cpencrsa Afl~ 6PI1Tb~ BaM ocoee-n-o HpaBSlTCfI 11 n04eMY?

• Cyuiecrsyer nLo1 B aauiea crpaue B cpencrsax MaCCOBOC1 Lo1H<popMalJ,Lo1Lo1 (lV, paAIIIO, nesars) pexnaeta KOCMen14eCKLo1X cpeACTB? Bnl1S1eT nl1 OHa Ha Bbl60p nOKy-i nareneu? nonpo6YHTe COCTaBI1Tb TeKCT peKnaMbl KaKOrO-nIi160 KOCMeTlIIyeCKoro: cpencrsa.

21. Y PYCCKMX ecre npMMeTa: KOWKa YMblBaeTcSI - rOCTeM ccHaMbIBaeT». CKmKMTe,j ecre nM nOAo6HaSi npMMeTa Y BaC.1

22. npO~MTaMTe TeKCT. OTBeTbTe Ha aonpocsr nocne TeKCTa.

513bIK nvxon ,

l

PacnpOCTpaH5HI apouar, om;ynfMblw aa paCCTO~HI1I1, BbI ofiparuaere na ce6

BHI1MaHl1e, XOTI1Te BbI roro I1lll1 HeT.

Cl1JlbHbIM apoxiar, I1CXOJUllUl1i1 OT I1HTeHCI1BHO Ha,JIYIIIeHHoi1 )l(eHlUI1HbI, xa npasnno, rOBOpl1T 0 ee caaoysepenaocrn, a 3TO He scerna IIPI1~THO.

Jlerxne nyxa y pa3HbIX )l(eHlUI1H naXHYT no-paanouy, oc06eHHO ecnn ,IJ,yIIlHTbC, I1MU CKpOMHO. MHTeHCI1BHble )l(e .lIYXI1 nO'-lTU y scex I1MelOT O.lII1HaKOBbIH sanax OmI, KaK npasnno, rosopar 0 TOM, '-lTO Bbl cnenyere Mo.n;e 11 nperennyere na He; KYIO COUHaJIbHYIO POJ1b. A .n;eJ1I1KaTHbIe nyxa BbIBO.n;~T na nepBbli1 TIJIaH Jm'-lHOC I1H.n;I1BI1.IJ;YaJIbHOCTb. Ecnn BbI uanynnrrecs CIIJIbHO, cxopee scero BaM CKa:IKYT KO~ rtnnxrear no nosony BaUII1X nyxoa. Ecmt BbI nO,IJ,yIIlIITeCb qyTb-qyrb, TO BOCXHmaTb C~ 6y.n;YT HMeHHO BaMH, BaIIII1M 06aHHI1eM H xpacoroa.

KaK »ce rrp",BI~.'::,~:~ nOllb30BaThCH .llj'Xa~,1Z?

YTpOM cnenyer ;ZYWIITbC~ MeHbIIIe, '-leM nesepo»: B aasane .n;H~ see JIIO.n;H'l CTBI1TellbHee K pa3.n;pa)l(I1TeJ1HM.

ECllH BaM npe.n;CTOHT nposomrn, BpeM~ aa 06HJIbHO HaKpbITbIM CTOJIOM, BOO me He CTOHT ;ZYWIITbCH. Pa3Be npHHTHO, xorna .n;yxl1 3a6HBalOT apoxrar BKYCHbI anneT11THbIX 6JIIO.u? Y.uOBOJIbCTBHH OT ensr B 3TOM cnyxae He nOJ1yqHTe HH Bbl, \ aaum cocenn.

He CTOHT )JyWHTbCJI 11 nepe,ll3aH~TH~MH cnoprosi: aanax paaropasenaoa KO H apoxtanc .ll,YXOB COBMemalOTCH nnoxo,

11 nOCJ1eLIHee. Harne 060HHHHe - seurs KOBapHM. CBOH nyxa Mbl 06WIHO TIe pecraev 3aMe'-laTb cpasy nocne roro, KaK HMH Ha.lIYWIIJIIICb. MO)l(CT nOKa3aTbC~, '-l

92

OHM BbIBeTpHJIHCb, XO'-leTC5I CHOBa n0;ZYWHTbCH, '-lTo6bl nOD,HOBI1Tb sanax. Ho Hey)Ke.TIH Bbl XOTJ.ne asirnaaen, B rJIa3aX OKpY)l(aIOlUl1X H3JIHillHe caxoysepeuaoa?

(JTo uamepuanau nepuoouuecxou neuamu) OTBeTbTe aa aonpocer, Mcnonb3ySI rnaronsr M cnoeoccseraaas JzyHlHTbCH, Ha;zyumtsc» (CHJ1bHO, CJ1HHlKOM CHJ1bHO), nO/lYlllHTbCJI (HeMHoro, 'lJ'Tb-lfJ7b, CJIerKa).

• Cornacau nLo1 Bbl C peKOMeHAalJ,III~M~ aaropa? KaKLo1e coocrseaasre peKOMeHAalJ,11~ Bbl MornLo1 6bl nare no 3TOMY nOBOAY?

• KaK Bbl OTHOCIIITeCb K AyxaM? ECTb nlll y eac mo6Lo1Ma~ MapKa AYXOB? '{aero nLo1 Bbl noneayerecs AyxaMLo1?

23. npo~MTaMTe OTPblBOK M3 paccxaaa n. AwKeHa3M «3x, ra6op, ra6op». BblnOnHMTe 3aAaHMSI nocne TeKCTa.

nEPBblfl PA3 B nEPBbIfi KJ1ACC

Mononaa ysnrensanna CJIaBKa Map)l(l1HKOBa peIIIHJIa OTKPbITb B OCTpaBe lllKOJIY M>I usrran. TIo 3TOMY nOBO.lIY y Hee COCT05IJIC5I paarosop C O.ll,Hl1M yqeHblM neaarorosr, '-lbe HM5I MbI coxpaxua B cexpere. Ilenarory rtopyxeuo 6bmo ofiecrrel:JHTb llIKOJ1Y yqHTeJl5IMM, HO BMeCTO sroro OH nponanec nepea CJIaBKOH MapxmrKOBOi1 COJlW.ll,HYIO 11 yqeHYIO pess:

- Caxroe uenuoe, '-leM 06JIa,JIaeT 'IeJIOBeK, 3TO ero sneprua, - rosopan yqeHblw nenaror, oKyrblBaJlCb 06JIaKaMH Ta6a'-lHOrO D,bIMa. - Mst crpesnorcs K TOM)', '-lT06bl He pacxoaoears 3P5I np0.l1,YKTbI nWTaHH5I, 3JIeKTPH'-leCKHW CBeT, BO.ll,Y 11 yrons, HO He HayqllJIHcb cure 6epe'-lb xencse-recxyio sneprmo. Bsr, TaKOH npexpacnsra xencaex, '-leJ10BeK, nOJIHbIW 3HTY311a3Ma 11 .ll,HHaMH'-lHOCTH, cofiapaerecs JIerKOMbICJIeHHO rpartrn, cavoe uennoe, '-lTO ecrt, B aac: aaury 3Heprl1IO. 11 Ha '-lTO? .. Ha 6eCTIJ10.n;HYIO, HeH~YIO nonsrrxy, cxaxev np5IMO. KaK nenaror MOry BaM cooonnrrs: UbIraue - nepenernue nTI1Ubl. BbI He npuxyere ax K napre HHKaKHMH uen5IMI1 ...

- QeII5IMH 11 He Ha,JIO, - BCTaBHlla CJIaBKa.

- l.JeM )l(e rorna? - CnpOCHJ1 ne.n;aror. - )],06pbIM CJIOBOM, llJII1 KaK TaM 3TO

Ha3blBaIOT? B3f.TI>IHllTe MHe B rnasa, KaKYIO uens BbI npecncnyere? TOJ1bKO OTKPOBeHHO?

- 51 X04y y-nrn, uuraa.

- 51 6y.uy HCKpeHeH C BaMH, - npOMOJIBHJI nenaror; - He sepio, 'ITO 8bl »cena-

ere YlJHTb uurau. 3TO 6bIJIO 6bl CJ1HIIIKOM npocro H CJIHllIKOM npexpacno. 11 Bl1.l1, Y nac COBceM He yqI1TeJIbCKI1i1.

-_ KaK0I1 )l(e y MeH5I BH.l1,?

93

- BaM 6bI MaHeKeHIllHueM 6bITb, - H3peK nenaror; < ... > CJIaBKa roroanaacs K OTKPbITHIO nonro.

H BOT B O)],HH npexpacnsnt )],eHb OHa nasana ocraaaanasars aa CTpOMKe JIIO· )],eM CO cMymoM KO)l(eH. CJIaBKa 3anHCbIBaJIa B 6JIOKHOT HX <paMHJIHH H M51TKO roo BOpHJIa:

- B socxpecense, nepsoro MapTa, B )],eBHTb yrpa MbI OTKpbIBaeM IIIKOJIy. Tsoi MeCTO 6y)]'eT na BTOPOM napre y OKHa. C KeM TbI xoseun- CH)]'eTb?

Bee CKa3aJIH, 'ITO XOTHT CH)],eTb C ApaHKOM MOJIbHap, HO Apanxa B IIIKOJIY BO· ofiute He cofiupanacs: B KOHue <peBpaJIH OHa cofiapanacs B PO)],l1JIbHbIH )],OM.

B IIIKOJIY sanacanocs COPOK ysenaxos pa3JIH'lHOrO B03paCTa. MJTanlIIeMY, <De· peHUY, 6bIJIO TOJIbKO aocests rter, crapure scex 6bIJl <DpaHU 110CH<P. OH nOJTy'lm 3TO rtposamue aa paanrensnoe CXO)],CTBO C nOKOMHbIM rocynapcsr HMnepaTopOM Ilurairy <DpaHUY HOCH<PY 6bIJIO weCTb)],eCHT TPH; XO)lHJII1 CJIYXH, 'ITO OH y611JI )I(eH] eBpeMCKI1M CeMI1CBe'lHHKOM H 60JIblIIe He )KeHHJICH. i

OTKpbITl1e IIIKOJIbI 6bIJlO TOp)l(eCTBeHHbIM. B rtpeanznryae CI1)],eJIH yqeHbI~ nenaror 11. znrpexrop Ionyti, KOTOPbIH C YMHJIeHHeM B311paJl aa CJIaBKY Mapxn , KOBy.

DOTOM na B03BbIlIIeHI1e nO)l,HHJ1aCb CJIaBKa Map)l(l1HKOBa C Q'>HaJIKOM B BOJl cax H CO BCTynHTeJIhHOM pe-n-to B PYKe. OHa rOBOpHJTa 0 6YKOBKax, 0 TOM, CKOJl, KO CJlOB MO)l(HO CJlO)l(HTb 113 HHX, 11 3a'leM nano 'leJlOBeKY 3HaTh, OTKY,L,[a B3HJll1 pexn H 3Be3)],bI, H noseuy nepeass aeneuu, H nonesry nocne HO'IH scerna Hac naer )],eHh.

Bee xnonann, a yqeHbIM nenaror H nnpexrop fOJIy6 60JIblIIe ncex. 110TOM np 311)],HYM Y)],a.rtHJ1Cs( 113 3aJIa, a CJIaBKa Map)l(HHKOBa uanncana na )],OCKe 6YKBY A Ha nepnoii napre Cl1)],eJII1 PH)lbIIliKOM Iafiop-oreu 11 Iafiop-csm. Kpacnnue cepseam.re.

Pano YTPOM Iafiop 60JIhWOM BbIMbIJI Iafiopa M~1eHhKoro, 11 06a nena BO B M5I :nOH npouenypu. Eute OHI1 06J1HJ1HCb )lyxaMl1 «ura-nyap», a reneps sees KJ1 nax )],yxaMH «ura-ayap» 11 aCTpaMH, xoropue npHCJIaJI 113 csoero cannxa caM ,U pexrop Ionyti,

Ha nepevene nOCJIe nepsoro ypoxa Iafiop 60!1h1IIOH noyxan Iafiopa MaJIeH xoro:

- ThI, xorna )lYMaelIIb, npnutypt, rnasa. I1YCTb y-nrrern.nmta BH)ll1T, 'lTO 1"

nysraeurs. ~.

- Dana, )],a H He )]'YMalO, - CKa3aJI Iafiop MaJIeHbKl1H. <:

- 3HalO, 3TO He scerna Y)laeTC5I, - OTBeTHJT Iafiop 60JIbIIIOH, - HO IlPHIIQ'P '.,

sarsca nano scerna.

94

- Jlazmo, nana, - CKa3aJI Iafiop MaJIeHbKHH.

Bee 3TO 3Ha'll1JTO, 'ITO XO)lHTb B IIIKOJIY C PO)lHbIM OTUOM ,UaJIeKO He Me)l.

C nepnsrx )I(e )]'HeH BbIHCHHJlOCb, 'ITO Iafiop MaJIeHbKI1H npeBOCXO)],l1T acex ycep,LIl1eM 11. ysenocri.io. OH anpyr 3aCHHJI KaK 3Be3,LIa nepson BeJlI1'lHHbI, H B ero cl15IHl1l1 CKPOMHO 11 'leCTHO rpencs Iafiop 60JTbIlIOH. OH He npeTeH,LIOBaJI na JlH'lHble ~TIaBPbI, H60 nOCTl1r TIlleTY 3eMHoM cnasu. 3aTo 6bITb pO,LIHTeJIeM YMHoro CbIHa - ueHHOCTb HenpeXO,LI5IIuaSI, ocotiemro cpenn usrraa.

a) nepeAaHTe COAep>KaHlile npeAJ10>KeHIiIH, IiICnOnb3YR BblAeneHHble B TeKCTe rnaronbl ua -CR.

6) Ilepecxasorre TeKcT, IiIcnonb3YR BblAeneHHble B HeM maronsr.

1) MbI npnnaraexr YCI1JIHH K TOMY, 'lT06bI He paCXO,LIOBaTb nanpacno 3JTeKTpl1'leCTBO, BO,LIy M yrons. 2) MbI He YMeeM erne tiepe-n, 'leJlOBe'leCKYIO aaeprmo. 3) BbI XOTHTe JIerKOMbICJleHHO TpaTHTb CBOIO sneprmo. 4) 110)lrOTOBKa K OTKPbITl1IO IlIKOJIbI IlIJIa y CJIaBKH ,LIOJIro. 5) Apanxa MOJIbHap B IIIKOJIY H,LITH naxe H He nYMaJIa. 6) Apanxa MOJTbHap ,LIOJI)I(Ha 6bIJIa l1,LITl1 B PO,LIHJlbHbIH )lOM. 7) B Cnl1CKe 3anl1CaBlIIl1XCH B IlIKOJIY 6hlJTO COPOK 'leJTOBeK. 8) CJIaBKa B30IlIJla na B03BbIlIIeaae C BCTynHTeJIbHOM pe-ruo B PYKax. 9) 110cJTe OTKpblTI1H npe311J_Il1YM nOKl1HYJT 3M. 10) YTpOM Iafiop 60JIblIIOM H Iafiop MaJIeHbKHH 06l1JlbHO 06JIl1JIl1 cefia )],yxaMI1. II) Iafiop 60JIblIIOil nOCOBeTOBaJI CbIHY: «Korna )lYMaelIIb, naao 06H3aTeJIbHO IIPI1IllypHBaTb rnasa. ITYCTb yqIlTeJlbHHua BHJ_IHT, 'ITO TbI )]'YMaelIIb». 12) Iafiop 60J1billOH HaXO)lHJICH B nyxax CJlaBbI Iafiopa MaJIeHbKoro.

24. npO"llilTaHTe TeKCT. BblnonHIiITe nocnerescroesie 3a,QaHIiIR.

C JIEfKI1M DAPOM!

BbI He rrosepare, HO sa CBOIl 23 rOJ_Ia H HIl pasy He 6bIJIa B fiane. TIOBO)], noRBHJ]C5I HeO)l(I1)],aHHO. fJTaBHhIH penaxrop nauren raseru ,LIaJI MHe 3aJ_IaHl1e nannCaTL 0 PYCCKOH 6aHe. I1 H uasana rOTOBHTbCSI.

lITO B351Tb C C060H B 6aHIO? Ilocne onpoca )lPY3eM Y MeH5I onpe)],eJTI1JICH cnuCOl<. HY)[(HbIX netuen. I1TaK, 'ITO Y 'leJIOBeKa rnasaoe? DpaBHJIbHo. fOJTOBa. Ilosro~ly na rOJTOBY MbI Ha)leHeM CneUl1aJIbHYIO uranoxsy 113 HaTypaJIbHOrO MaTepl1aJIa ~~.YYllJe ncero H3 XJIOnKa HJH1 BOHJIOKa). )l(eHlUI1HaM MO)l(HO 06epHYTbCH soxpyr Cellep 60JIblIIl1M 6aHHblM nOJlOTeHueM. 04eHb HY)I(Ha51 B fiaae seun, - BeHI1K.

erOlJ,H5I OH aKTYaJIeH TaK )I(e, KaK 11 nHTbCOT JTCT naaan. BeHIlK MO)l(HO cnenars ~a~10MY JT1160 npocro KYnHTb. I1pO)laIOTC5I BeHHKl1 HenO,LIaJIeKY OT 6aHb. TYLl.a 51 OlnpaBHJ1aCb. «3L1.paBcTByHTe! - rosopro 51 onpHTHOJ1 crapyurxe B03JTe ,UOHCKI1X

95

6aHb. - Ilo'leM BeHI1KI1?» «A xaxae refie, noxxa? - orsesaer 6a6YIllKa. - BO' fiepesoaue no 70 pytinea, a ecrs erne 11 .uy60Bble no 100». HOBoe OTKpbITl1e: Be HHKl1-TO 6bIBalOT pasasre. Bepy 06a H HanpaBJ1J1IOCb BHYTph.

B paanesanxe 51 nepeonesaiccs B CBOti 6aHHhiti KOCTIOM H saxoxy B MbIJIhHYI<l Beceno neperoaapanaacs, <phlPKa5I H CMeJlCb, anecs )')Ke MOIOTCH, HaTHpalOTCH MQ 'laJIKaMH oxono necsrxa nOTeHl.I,HaJIbHbIX HaTYPIllHl.I,)lJ1J1 Pyoeuca H KYCTo.uHeBa )J(eHIl.(HHbI 3aXO)]11Tb B napnnxy He cneunora. OHH Ha':laJIH 06n11BaTb cKaMetilQ KHnJlTKOM H norpyxars CBOH BeHHKH B Ta3HKH.

«Cyxon BeHHK Ha)]O oumapars KHnJlTKOM», - BH)]JI MOIO HeOnbITHOCTb, no J1CHHmi cocenxn no cxaxtemce Haraura H Onsra, - IloTOM )')Ke MO)KHO Ha':lHHaTJ napnrscs, HO nepen 3T11M 06J13aTenbHO OnOJlOCHHCb non TennhlM .uyrneM».,

OnOJlOCHYBWHCb non TennblM .uyweM, OTKpblBaIO nseps B napHYIO. )J(apKO! Hd ssre npMJITeJIbHHu,bI 06'bJlCHHJIH MHe, 'ITO cpaay 3a6HpaTbCH aa BepXHI1e nOJIKH '" CTOHT. Cuaxana opraaaav .uOJI)I(eH npHBbIKHyTb K BbICOKOti 'resrrteparype, np rpersca. Ilaparscs nystue nexa, ,llJrH ua-rana n06y.ubTe B napanxe MHHyr nsrs. sropon 3aXO)] MO)KHO nonaparsca H nononsure, HO He fionsure 10 MHHyr. Bo06 ' B caMoti 6aHe peKOMeH.II:yeTC5l npoaomrrs 2-3 xaca, a B napunxe - B CYMMe fionee 30 MHHyr. TaK 6y.ueT He TOJIhKO npHJlTHO, HO 11 nonesno.

lJecTHo np113HaTbCJI, 51 osens 60}UaCh npouenypu X1IeCTaHHJI BeHI1KOM. To KO nonyuattre, )]06pOBOJIbHO ornars ce6J1 na HCTJl3aHl1e! Ho BCe )l(e 51 peuncta na 3TOT war. KCTaTH, X1IeCTaTh MeHJI BeHHKOM Haraura 11 Onsra Ha'laJIH TOlIh' nOCJIe roro, KaK 5l.uOBeJIa CBOe upetiuaaane B napnoa no 10 M11HyT. Cnaxana Me CTaJIH ncrnaxneart, BeHHKOM OT cron no rOJIOBbll1 06paTHO. IloTOM MeHJI nas nOCTerHBaTb 11 nOXJleCThIBaTb 11, HaKOHeu, CHJIbHO pacrupars BCe TeJIO. BCH ~ npouenypa 3aHJlJIa He 60JIee LJ;BYX-TpeX MHHyr (HoBl1qKaM .uOJIhWe HeJIb3J1).

lJepe3 LJ;Ba xaca KpaCHaJI, HO .uOBOJIhHaJl 51 CHLJ;eJIa B He60JIhWOM 6ape H n KJIlOKBeHHblti MOpC B KOMnaHliH HOBbIX 3HaKOMhlX. OIllYIUeHHJI - CIIJIOWHOe y, . BOJIhCTBlie. TeJIo .n:bIWHT, xoxa rnanxaa, 11 BCJI 51 raxaa qHCTaJl - ay npocro JIeCTh! C ;lerKI1M uapou!

a) nepe.qaHTe Mblcnb .1Ha~e, ynoTpe6nHH BMeCTO BblAeneHHblX enos nOAXOASI no cMblcny rnaron c -cs (l1cnonb3YHTe cnoaa 113 TeKcTa).

1) llO.n:rOTOBKY K 6aHe 51 Ha4aJ1a sapaaee. 2) )KeHIUHHbI MOryT o6epHyTb 6<5 pa Illl1POKHM nOJIOTeHueM. 3) 51 nOWJIa rra PblHOK aa BeHHKOM. 4) B pa3.ueB xe 51 CHJlJla c ce6J1 rOpO)]CKyIO o.ue)I(LJ:y H HMeJla 6aHHbli1 KOCTIOM. 5) B MbIJIbH" OT,neJIeH11H uryrunn, CMeJlJll1Cb H HaTHpaJJH ce6J1 MO'IaJIKaMH )l(eHIllHHbI pa3HO

96

B03paCTa. 6) Cpasy H.IJ:TH B napHYIO He CTOI1T. CHa'IaJIa HaAO nOCTOHTb non TeIIJIbIM JlYllleM. 7) B rrapnnxe He CTOHT cpasy 3a11e3aTb na BepXHI1C nOJIKI1. 8) B napanxe cna-rana Ha)]O n06bITb He 60JIbIlle nJlTH MI1Hyr. IloTOM MO)l(HO nofisrn, B napHOH HeMHoro nononsme. 9) 51 o-reirs 60JlJIaCb XJIeCTaTb ce6J1 BeHHKOM, HO BCe-TaKI1 nOWJIa na 3TOT war.

6) PaCCKa>Kl1Te, KaK AOnlKeH BeCTI1 ce6S1 B 6aHe HOBI1~OK.

25. A BOT KaK naurer 0 PYCCKOH 6aHe 113BeCTHbUil PYCCKI1H npoaaax B. KpynHH. npo.. HTaHTe OTPblBOK 113 ero nOBeCTI1 <c}I(I1BaSi BOAa». BbmOnHI1Te 3aAaHI1C! nocne TeKCTa.

BEAHE

< ... > K o6eAY naxars KOH'lHJIH.

- AHAa, nan, B 6aHIO, - n03BaJI HHKOJIa:tt - Cynpyrn Hac 6POCHJIl1, B Mara3HH nOIllJIH. A sasrpa yeAeM, He ycneesr.

- Jlomaas nOCTaBJI10, H HneM. BeHHK nOnOJIHee AOCTaHb.

Ha sepnaxe na npe)KHeM MeCTe BHCeJIli BeHHKH. HHKOJIai1 OCTOPO)I(HO OTBJI- 3aJI O.llHH, CJIe3 BHH3.

CTOHJI eute nens, B fiane 6bIJIO CBo60AHO. BbI6paJIH CKaMhlO B03JIe OKHa. Oren oumapnn BeHHK. Bona B rasy noresntena, 3anaX1I0, KaK B .necy nocne nOIK,[(JI. HHKOJIai1 PbIBKOM orozrpan pasfiyxnryro naeps B napHJIK)'. OXHYJI H, )l(MYpscs, aKKYPaTHO nonraran nsepx no cryneasxaa na nOJIOK'. TaM, TPYAHO Pa3JIHqHMhIH B rrapy, nexan 'IeJIOBeK.

- C ycnexox rpYAHTbCJI! - rrOWyTHJI HHKOJIail H KPHKHYJI, 'IYHCTBy5I, KaK 3516- ner OT )l(apbI, KaK HCTOMHO B)I(l1BaeTCJI TeJIO B BblCOKYIO TeMnepaTYPY·

- )].Bepb-To xero aapacnaurxy? Ha rpoaxe saeaxaeun.? A-a, - yanan Jle)l(alilHn Kl1prrI1KOBa. 3TO 6bIJI A<p0HJI. - 3AOPOBO, CaWKa. He BblcT)')Kati, He BbICT)')I<.ati na nonnan napy.

3aW11neJIO - KHpnHKOB OTKPbIBaJI naporrpoaon, C XpHnJlbIM CBI1CTOM nomen B uienn cepsni nap. HHKOJIai1 3anJI5ICarr H CBI1penO cran X1IeCTaTh ce6J1 BeHHKOM. Ha xoxe npocrymenr xpacnue nOJlOChI.

- Ha-KO MOHM, - CKa3arr HHKonaIO AcpOH5I.

- D.aBan-Ka, nasaa, 6aTIOIlIKO, - BeCeJIO CKa3aI1 oren npaceaas H npH)I(l1MaJl

I( rO.'10Be ropaxae yunr. - Hy na-ap, caMbIti xaposoa nap.

HI1KOJIati nOCMOTpeJI na BeHHK ACPOHH 11 3aCMe5lJlCJI: - CHJIeH, fiponara'

;------_

floJlOK - rrOMOCT co CTYrreHHMI1 B napnnxe.

97

r

- A TBOHM ronsxo KOMapOB OTrOH5ITb.

061.lqHO naparcs 6epe30B1.IM BeHHKOM. Koxa OT Hero CTaHOBHTC5I ynpyroa H CKpHnHT nOLI: nam.nasra. Ho KaKOH )I(e 61.In y A<pOHH, ecnn OH TaK npeapnrensuo OT03BanC5I 0 6epe30BOM?

)ly60B1.IH? ECT1. morinrena H ira LI:y60B1.IH. XnecTaT1.C5I LI:y60BbIM qYBCTBHTen1.HO, HO 3aTO ~ H )I(HTb nOCJIe Hero XOyeTC5I. Ho H He LI:y60B1.IH 61.In y A¢OHH.

MO)l(eT 61.IT1., nHXTOB1.IH? 3TOT COPTOM nOB1.IIlle, BCTpeqaeTC5I B 6aH5IX peLI:KO., ITHXTOB1.IH naxner CMonOH, OH T5I)I(en, C6tIBaeT C HOr. OT Hero rnoxueurs H XO'ieTC5I y6e)l(aTb HeBbIM1.ITbIM. HeT, H He nHXTOBblH 6bIn y AcPOHH.

KaKOH )I(e rorna? 3HaTH1.IH 6bIn napHn1.IUHK A¢OH5I, 5IBHJ1C5I K nepBOMY napy, nexan-nonpeusraan B 3TOM paCKaneHHOM B03LI:yxe, B KOTOPOM KonbIXHYTbCH 6e3 oxcora TPYLI:HO, I1 BeHHK y Hero 6bIn COOTBeTCTBeHHbIM. Moxoseaenoasra 6bIn BeHI1K. 3TO 3eneHbIH nysox KOmO'leH npOBOnOKI1, 3TO KyCT a3HaTCKHX p03 6e3 caMHX P03, C OLI:HI1MH IIIHnaMI1. Ho BC5IKOe cpaaaenne BhIneTHT I13 ronOB1.I, KOrLI:a Te6sr creraior TaKHM BeHI1KOM. CaMOMY napHT1.C5I MO)l()l(eBen1.HI1KOM HeB03MO)l(HO - )I(anKO MOnOLI:OH: uneryuteri )J(J13HH. HOB06paHua-napHn1.IUI1Ka LI:BOe nepxar, OLI:HH~ napnr, I1nH, aepnee, noper, oeLI:H5Ire Ka)!(eTCH, 'iTO KO)!(a na HeM pBeTC5I B nOXMOTbHj' pefipa ncuapanaasr, 'ITO KOHeu CBeTa LI:n5I Hero nacrynnn nasmoro pausure, qeM Ha3HaqeHO cY)lb60H:, a Bcero-To-HaBcero HCrrOnH5IeTC5I B1.mYMaHH1.IH: 3aKOH - LI:06- ' po HaCHnbCTBeHHO. B1.IH)leT rrapHn1.IUHK C rroMepKIIIHM CBeTOM B oxax, LI:06pe)lCf,' LI:O xpana, cYHeTC5I nOLI: XOnOLI:HYIo CTPYIO, C5I)leT na non, nnaner B He61.ITHe, norose rtornxom.xy OKneMaeTCH1, H rroraxom.xy 3a6pe3)!(Hr eMY HOBbIH: cser, CBeT Ton)" COJIH ua, xorna 6blJI OH MOJIOLI:bIM, xorna 6Y)lYIUee 6blJI0 6e36pe)l(HO, fiesrpennto] I1 cTpeMHTeJIbHO JIeTeJIO K HeMY, a He ynerano. 11 BOT OH OKOHqareJIbHO O'iHYJIC5I/:

I1 BOT OH BH)lHT ...

He 3P5I, nasepnoe, MO)l()l(eBenbHHKOM na cesepe B1.IIlapHBanH BCIO aapasy, a H:3"

IO)!(HOrO 6paTa ero, KHrrapHca, peaann KpeCTbI -- H aarensnsre H MOrHJIbH1.Ie. ,;

- )laM-KocH, - CKa3an KHprrHKoB. B35IJI, xnecTHyn. - HeT, A¢OH5I, BbIIlleJI 51 H3 B03paCTa. Hy, Hnxonaa! Bocxpecnn!

- HeT, He OCHJIIO, - OTBeTHJI CbIH.

)lorrapI1JIHCb BHH3y. A<pOH5I ace rrO)l6aBJI5IJI rrapy H see xneC'faJIC5I BeHHKOM, paccyxztaa, 'iTO HapOLI: HblHye nome)! He TOT, BOT pausure 6blJII1 napHJIbIUHKH, reneps 'ITO! Teneps v- TbcPY! )la H caxr OH, A<pOHH, no npexcnux He )lOT5IHeT.

EIUe Hom nonapnn KHprrHKOB, sees B3MOK, ocnafien. HHKonaH noxnecran " ero no crmne.

I OKJle:VHlTbCH (npocm.i -- nepnyn.ca K )f(IDHl1.

98

CbIH cnenan eure 3aXOLI: B napunxy, oren OCTanC5I B MhIn1.HOH. Hanan rops-rea BOLI:l.I B CTap1.IM Ta3, rpen HOrH. BHLI:HMO, Hom nepssnor OTKa)l(~'T eMy. XOT1. cepnue H nano BeCHOH: H neTOM 3HaT1., HO C TOH nopu He rpeaoxcuno. Horaa 60JIhIlle Bcera LI:OCTanOCb B )I(H3HH. CKonbKO MaTYIIIKI1-3eMJIlIU1.I nepesrepeno HMI1. Ho H cnacH60 HM - He LI:aBanH CTapeT1. opraHH3MY. Horn roP0LI:CKHX )I(HTeJleH: )I(aJIelOT aBT06YCbI H TpaMBaH, 3aTO nepBhIMH OTKa3l.IBalOT y ropoxan naureaapeane H HepB1.l.

C1.IH BepHYJIC5I H3 rtapnon. I1ocMeHBa5IC1., CKa3aJI, 'ITO A<pOH5I B1.IX0LI:HT1. H He LI:YMaeT, 'ITO MO)l()l(eBenbHHKOM nonapnrsca OH, HHKonaH, TaK H He nafipanCH LI:YXy1.

113 napanxn LI:OHOCHnC5I nepecryx BeHHKOB, 6YLI:TO TaM MOJIOTHJIH.

B yrny, KaK CH5IThle C BOOp~eHH5I, KorrHnHC1. B1.II1apeHHbIe seHHKH. - C nerKHM naposr, - rOBOpHJIH HM B paanesanxe.

- A Bac C 6YLI:YIUHM, - OTBe'fan KHpnHKoB.

Ilocne 6aHH LI:bIllianOCb nerxo, LI:a H aoaayxnocne LI:O)l()l5I nonsr-ren. Y3KHe Maroaue nHCTb5I aKaUHH nepeseumaanacs sepes rranacaznnnc, )lepeB5IHH1.le rporyapst xaxannct, rrOLI: HoraMI1. CYMepKH 6hlnl1 npoapaxnsnm.

a) HaHAMTe B npO'fMTaHHOM OTpblBKe cneuaaneusre «6aHHble» cnoaa M Bblpa>KeHMSI.

6) Pa3blrpaHTe cu.eHY «8 6aHe». ~CnOnb3YHTe MH$opMau.MIO TeKeTa (cC nerKMM naposal» M OTpblBKa M3 nOBeCTM cc)l(MBaSi BOAa».

26. A a BaH Ten 0 rOB 0 p M M !

B KYnbTYpe xaxnoro aapona CYl1leCTBYIOT CBOIl1 TpaA1I11...\1I1111 KynaHIo151, 04111111eH 1115'1 , rurll1eHbl rena, rnytioxo CB513aHHble C 06111111MIo1 KynbTypHblMIo1 TPaAlo1l...\lo151MIo1. WIi1POKO 1013- BeCTHbl, Hanplo1Mep, cpIo1HCKa51, TypeI...\Ka51, 5lnOHCKa51 6aH51. Paccxaxwre 0 nonYJ1S'!PHbIX BOAHblX npouenypax B saurea crpaue, B 4eM OHIo1 3aKnI04aIOTC51?

27. Cyw.ecTBYIOT pyccKMe nocnoeausi:

I) KaK HH YMl.IBaHCH, 6eJIee cnera He 6YLI:eIIlb;

2) K qeMY 6bInO YMbIBaThC5I, KOJIH He C KeM ueJIOBaTbC5I;

3) He 3Ha5I 6pOLI:Y, He CYHCH B sony

B KaKMX CMTyau.MSlX MX MO>KHO ynoTpe6MTb? Cyw.eCTBYIOT nM aHanorW4Hble nocnoBMU.bl B BaweM POAHOM Sl3b1Ke? nepeBeAMTe MX aa PYCCKMM Sl3bIK.

I

Ha6paTbClI ilYXY - peWI1TbcH. l1P05lBI1Tb c:vteJIOCTb.

99

CTPAHlt1YKA ,lJ,J1H ,lJ,ETEIll

28. a) npO'll>1TaMTe CKa3KY.

nOLfEMY KOT MOETC5I nOCJIE E)J,bI

O,lIHa)K,lJ;I>I 3aJIeTeJI uopofien na KpeCTb5lHCKliH ,lIBOp li CTaJI xnesars 3ePHa~ Ilpsrraer Bopo6et1: no rpase, sepasnuxo aa 3epHbIlliKOM nonfinpaer; a X03HHCKM~ KOT aa Hero as-sa yrna nocvarpaaaer; CMOTpeJI KOT, cxcrpen, na KaK npuraer He!'

Bopo6b5l! CXBaTliJI ero aa KPblJIO M rosopar: '1

- Hennoxo 51 ceasac n03aBTpaKaIO! j

- lITO BbI, qTO ssr, YB3)KaeMblt'1 KOT! - 3a'-IHpHKaJI Bop06eH.- Hey)KeJIH BbJj

cooapaerecs MeHH csecrs?

- A '-ITO MHe, JIl060BaTbC5I To6oH, 4TO JIH? - cpbIPKHYJI KOT H npHrOTOBliJIC}J!

cBepHyrb aopofisto fOJIOBY.' .

- ,lla rrOCThI.u;HTeCh )ICe, focno.u;HH KOT! - OII51Th 3a'-IlipHKaJI eopooea, - Be.u;hi BbI 3a6bIJIH YMbITbCH! A passe BbI He snaere, '-ITO H X03HHH Balli, H X0351HKa, H BC~ JIIO.u;H na CBeTe CHa'-IaJIa MOIOTCH, a nOTOM 3aBTpaKaIOT? q - 11 TO npasna! - CKa3aJI KOT H. no.u;H5IJI nany, qTo6bI YMbITbC5I.

A sopofen He.u;OJIfO ,iJ,YMaH npsrr B CTOPOHY! B3MaxHYJI KpbVIbHMH H. YJIeTeJI. Oxens paccepnanca KOT.

- Hy HeT, reneps Y)K MeHH He 06MaHellIb! - CKa3aJI OH. - ITYCTb JIIO.u;H nena-l lOT, KaK 3HaIOT, a 51 cnauana 6y,lIY aasrpaxars, nOTOM YMbIBaTbCH.

C rex nop see KOTbI na CBeTe MOIOTC5I nOCJIe enu. .: ~

6) npO'lMTaMTe e11-'e OAMH aapaarrr 3TOM CKa3KM. BCTaSbTe nponY11-'eHHbI~ cnosa.

Onnaxnsr Ha KpeCTb5lHCKOM ,lIBOpe aopofiea KJIeBaJI sepaa, YBM,ll,eJI ero KOT If

3aXOTeJI csecrs. Ilpuruyn OH na aopofisa H lOBOPHT: .

- KaK xopomo 51 censac n03aBTpaKaIO! I'

- lITO BbI, '-ITO Bbl, YBa)KaeMblit KOT! - 3aqH.pHKaJI nopofieti. - He~eJIH BbI .. :

MeH5I csecrs?

- A TbI qTO .u;YMaJI? KOHeqHO! - <PbIPKHYJI KOT H ... CBepHYTb sopofisro roJIOBY.

- KaK BaM He CTbIJI,HO, rOCnOJI,HH KOT! - OIISITb 3aqHpHKaJI sopoeea, - Be.u;b Bbl 3a6bIJIH .... A paase Bbl He srraere, 'ITO see JllOJI,H na CBeTe CHa'-IaJIa ... , a noTOM 3aBTpaKa1OT?

100

_ BepHO! - CKa3aJ1 KOT H no.u;H5IJI nany, 4T06bl .... A sopofieti npsrr B CTOpOI-IY H YJIeTeJI!

OqeHb paCCep11HJICH KOT.

- Hy HeT, reneps MeHs[ He 06MaHelllb. I1YCTb JII011H ,lIeJIaIOT, KaK XOT5IT, a 51

cHa4aJ1a 6y,lIY aasrpaxars, a nOTOM ....

C rex nop see KOTbI aa CBeTe ... nocne enu,

29. A a BaM T e C n 0 eM!

n03HaKOMbTeCb co CnOSaMl111 MenOAl1eM nonynSipHoM PYCCKOM HapOAHOM neCHM «Bo none 6epe3a CTOSlna ••.

BO nOJIE EEPE3ACTOIDIA ...

Bo nOJIe 6epe3a CTOHJIa, Bo none KY.u;pHBaS[ croana, JIIOllH, JIIOJIH, croxna! JIIOJIH, JIIOllH, CT05lJla!

HeKOMY fiepeay 3aJ10MaTH, HeKoMY KY,lIpHBY 3aJ10MaTH. JIIOJIH, JIIOJIH, 3aJIOMaTH! nIOJIH, JIIOJIH, 3aJIOMaTli!

KaK nOH:)lY 51 B nee, norynsio, Benyio fiepesy 3anOMaIO. JIIOmf, JIIOJiH, aanoxaio! JIIOJIH, JIIOJIH, 3aJIOMaIO!

Cpe)KY 51 C 6epe3bl TpH npyrosxa, Cnenaio ce6e 51 TpM rynoxxa. JIIOJIH, JIIOJIH, rpa fy.u;OqKa! JIIOJIH, JIIOJIH, TPM rynoxxa!

lIeTBepryro 6aJIaJIaHKY, lJeTBepTyIO 6aJIaJIaHKY:

JIIOJII1, JIIOJIH, 6arranaitKY! JIIOJII1, llIOJlI1, 6aJ1aJIaHKY!

101

CTaHY B 6arrarraeqKY I1rpaTI1, CTaHY 51 craporo 6Y)lI1TI1. JIIOJII1, 11101111, 6YD:I1TM! JI101I11, 11101111, 6YD:I1TI1!

BOT refie urytienxa, OJleHbC5I, BOT refie ll1y6eHKa, O.llCHbC5I! Jl101I11, 1I1OJTI1, OlleHbC51!

)] IOJTH, 11101111, O)WHbC5I!

BCTaHb, Moti craputi, np06YllI1C5I! On, 60po.lla cenaa, npo6YD:l1c5I! JIIOJII1, 11101111, np06yn:I1C5I!

JI101I11, 11101111, npotiyzmca!

Bo none 6epC3a CT05l1la, Bo none KY.llp51Ba51 CTOmIa. JIIOJIM, 1I1OJTI1, CT05l1la! Jl101I11, JlIOJlI1, CT05l1la!

BOT refie nOM0I11, YMOMC5I, BOT refie nOMOI1, YMOtiC5I! Jl101I11, 11101111, YMotiC5I! 11101111,11101111, YMOWC5I!

HeKOMY 6epC3Y 3aJIOMaTH, HeKoMY KY)lP5lBY 3aJIOMaTI1. JlIOJTI1, 1I1OJlI1, 3aJJoMaTI1! JlIOJlH, JlIOJIH, 3aJIOMaTI1!

BOT refie pOrO)KKa2, YTPI1CH, BOT refie poroxxa, YTPI1C5I! 11101111, 11101111, YTPI1C5I! JIIOJlI1, 11101111, YTPI1C5I!

KaK notillY 51 B nee, norynsro, Benyto 6epc3Y 3aJIOMalO. JI101I11, 1IIOJUf, 3aJJoMalO! JlIOJlH, Jl101I11, 3aJJoMalO!

BOT refie 60poHa3, paC'Iell1I1C5I, BOT refie 60pOHa, pac-reuracs! JI101I11, 11101111, paCQell111CH! JI101I11, 1I1OJlI1, paCQeIIII1CH!

Cpe)KY 51 C 6epC3bI Tpl1 npYTOQKa, Cnenato ce6e 51 rpn ryno-rxa. JI101I11, 1I1OJlI1, rpa rYJl04Ka! J1IOJlI1, JII01IH, TpH ryno-uca!

BOT refie 1IarrOTKH, 06ytiCH, BOT refie 1IarrOTKI1, 06YMC5I! J1101IH, 1I101IH, 06ytic5I! J1101I11, 11101111, 06ytic5I!

qeTBepTyIO 6aJJaJIawKY, 1.J.eTBepTyIO 6aJIaJJaHKy. JI101I11, JIIOJlH, 6aJJaJJaHKY! )]101111, JIIOJ1H, 6aJIaJJaHKY!

I nOMOI1 - rpasnas BOAa. B KOTOPOH MbIJH1 nOCYAY, CTI1PaJll1 6eJlbe 11 T. IT.

~ Porosca - rpy6bll1 nJleTeHblH KOBPI1K 113 cTe6J1eH 60JIOTHOrO paCTeHIUI 11.1111 113 MO'!aJla. l1cnOJlb30BaJlC5I1lJISi nOACTI1JIKI1, AJl5I BbITl1paHI151 HOr nepen BXOAOM B AOM.

1 EOPOH3 - CeJlhCKOX0351}tCTBeHHOe opyznte C KpynHblMI1 )l(eJle3Hb1MI1 3y6b5lMl1lVl51 o6pa6oTKI1 3eMJII1.

CTaHY B 6aJIaJJaeQKY nrparn, CTaHY 51 MI1JIOrO 6YJlHTI1. Jl101I11, J1IOJlH, 6YJlHTH! JlIOJlH, 1IIOJlH, 6YJlI1TH!

102

103

BCTaHh MOti MHJIhIti, rrp06Yl111CH! BCTaHh, nyura MOH, rrp06YllHCH! JIIOJIH, JIIOJIH, rrp06YllHCH! JIIOJIl-f, JIIOJIH, rrp06YllHCH!

80 nOJ\E 6EPE3A CTOJ'IM

He Oqe .. CKOpo

011'1 07

,r I, , ~ , Ir

BOT re6e nonaua, )'MoticH, BOT refie somma, YMotiCSI! JIIOJIH, JIIOJIH, )'MOtiCH! JIIOJIH, JIIOJIH, YMOtiCH!

Om D7 Om

=t I! 13 J

:;

Gm

i

Om
J
- M,
EJ,
j
AI,
am
J U a) CKa>KMTe, 0 "IeM 3Ta neCHSI.

6) HaMAMTe a TeKCTe neCHM CMHOHMMbl K ablAeneHHblM cnoaaM. 06paTMTe aHMMaHMe Ha npOCTope"lHYIO oKpacKY 3TMX cnoa a necae.

1) BCTaHh, npocnacs. 2) BOT rr0J10TeHue, BbITpHCb. 3) BOT pacxecxa, npaxelIIuCb.

a) A KaK Mbl CKa>KeM 06 3TOM ceroAHSI? 3aKOHLfMTe npeAnO>KeHMSI. "cnonb3YMTe nOAXOASll1lMM no cMblcny rnaron C -CH.

I) ThI BCe erne crmurs? 2) BaH HaS! cBo6011Ha? 51 Mory H,IlTH ? 3) KaKHM

n0J10TeHueM MHe MO)l(HO ? 4) Ine MOS! pac-recxa? MHe nano 5) Ha YJIHUe

cupo, y MeHH rrpOMOKJIH 60THHKH, MHe Ha,110 6hlcTpee .... 6) Ceronns XOJIOllHO, TeOJIee ....

r) CpaaHMTe cnosa M nOCTYnKM, KOTOPblMM AeBYWKa Bblpa>KaeT CBOe OTHoweHMe K CTapOMY, Hemo6MMOMY M K MMnOMY, nI06MMOMY.

A) CYl1leCTByeT MHO>KeCTaO nepenO>KeHIo1M MenoAIo1M 3TOM necsa, HanpMMep, AnA rarapsr, AnA CKpMnKM, AnSilPneHTbl, neceHHble M xopoaste apaH>KMpOBKM. AKaK 6bl cnenM 3TY neCHIO Bbl? AaBaliiTe nonpo6yeM!

so

BOT refie rr0J10TeHue, yrPHC5I, BOT refie rrOJIOTeHue, yrPHCR! JIIOJ1H, JIIOJ1H, yrPHCR!

JIIOJ1H, J1IOJ1H, yrPHCH!

J\JO

BOT refie rpefietrs, paClJellIHC5I, BOT reoe rpeoeas, pacseuraca! JIIOJIH, J1IOJIH, paC'leIIIHCH! JIIOJIH, J1IOJIH, pacxeunrcal

BOT reoe 6aIlIMalJKH', 06ytiCR, Bor re6e 6a1lIMalJKH, o6ytic5I! JIIOJIH, JIIOJ1H, 06yrtCR!

JIIOJIH, JIIOJIH, 06yrtCH!

Bor re6e Ka<pTaH'II1K2, onensca, Bor re6e KaqnaH'lHK, onensca! JIIOJIH, JIIOJIH, OlIeHbCR!

JIIOJIH, JIIOJIH, ozterrsca!

I oaWMaKI1: (6aWM3'IKI1) - KO)l(allaJl 06YBb.

2 KaqJT:1H - BepXHHH M},)!(CKaJl On;e)l()la 113 CYKHa.

104

- sa. C'l'O - 11 • Aa.

no - 1<Ie KYA - ptl... • ..

Om 7 t I,

CTO • II

01

i Ii

AH.

105

JIeTO. 4) Ilpoutascs, 51 11' Map11'Ha 06MeH5IJI11'Cb anpecasra. 5) nOCJIe cneKTaKJI5I f H Haraura nOL(eJIMJIHCb CB011'M11' BnelJaTJIeHI151M11' 0 nsece. 6) 51 n03HaKOMI1JIC5I ( BI1KTopoM B ,llOMe OTL(bIxa. 7) 51 nasao He BH,lleJIC5I C Aanpeev. 8) 51 CKOPO ,llOJDI(, aa BCTpentTbCR C 6paToM. 9) TbI n,OlDKHa TOlJHO JlOrOBOp11'TbC5I C Hropeu, me 011 6YJleT Te651 )KJlaTb.

6. OTBeTbTe aa eonpocsr B yrBepAIilTenbHoM, a 3aTeM B oTplIILlaTenbHoM $opMe. 06 p a 3 e u : - TI.I neperracsrsaeuucs C KeM-HI16Y,llb 11'3 aanrea rpynnu?

- LI.a, 51 nepenHCLIBalOCb C ... ,

- A 51 HH C KeM He nepenHCLIBalOCb'l

1) TI.I C KeM-H11'6y,llI. rrOCOBeTOBaJIC5I, npexne qeM np11'H5ITI. peutemre? 2) TJ:II C KeM-H1l6YJlb noronopancs 0 noeanxe? 3) BI.I C KeM-HH6YL(I. rr03HaKOMI1Jll1CI. Ha 3TOM sesepe? 4) TI.I BllJleJIC5I C KeM-HI16YJlb 11'3 aaurea rpynnu? 5) C KeM TbI BCTpQl TI1JIC5I ssepa aesepoxr? 6) TbI nOJleJII1JICH C KeM-HI16Y,llb CBOI1Mll cOMHeH11'5IMI1? d

.~

7. Bblpa3111~e Mblcnb MHal.te, IIICnOnb3YH BMecTO BblAeneHHblx cyu..,ecTBKTenbHblx BO~

BpaTHblM rnaron C TeM lKe KopHeM. .~

1) Haute 3HaKOMCTBO rrp01l30llIJIO npa oxem, mrrepecnux 06CT05lTeJIbCTBaJQ 2) HaIIIa BCTpe1Ja np01l30llIJIa CJIyqaHHo. 3) ,llaBaHTe Ha3Ha'lllM osepenayro BCT~ qy na xeraepr, 4) Ecna BCTpe1Ja COCTOI1TC5I, 51 OTJIO)KY see nena. 5) JIIOn,MHlla pe~ BbIXO,llllT 113 ,llOMa, xpyr 06IIJ,eHHH y Hee HeBeJIllK. 6) KaK TbI OTHOCllIIIbC5I K 3H .. KOMCTBaM rro 06b5lBJIeHluo? 7) MI.I cofiapaesrca na cnenyiourea aenene BCTpeTllT C5I, HO KOHKpeTHOli.ll.orOBOpeHHoCTH y Hac noxa HeT. 8) Paasure MI.I qaCTO nacan npyr npyry, HO nepenacxa snpyr 060pBaJIacb. 9) 3TO 6I.lJIa rnynas ccopa. 10) 0 IIJ,eHHe co crapunra 6paToM .lI.aJIO MHe oseas MHoro. 11) ,llaBaHTe He OTKJIa.LJ.bIBa naury acrpexy.

9. npOl.tlllTaiilTe TeKCT. BblnonHMTe 33AaHIIIH nocne TeKCTa.

8. OTBeTbTe Ha eonpocsr, IIIcnonb3YH B3aMMHo-B03BpaTHble rnaronbl.

1) TI.I naBHO anaenrs Haraury? 2) BbllJaCTO snmrre npyr npyra? 3) Ihe BbI no HbI scrperars npyr npyra? 4) 113-3a xero y aac rrp0l130111JIa ccopa? 5) Bsr mnn npyr APYry?

5l3hIK .lKECTOB. KTO KAK OEIUAETC5I?

5I3b1K )KeCTOB B nocnennee BpeM5I npnanexaer ocofioe BHMMaHl1e yqeHbIX; arnorparpoa, nllHrBllCTOB, nCI1XOJIOfOB, rre.uaroroB.'

108

)l(ecT HaUHOHaJIeH. flO-Pa3HOMY 3.l1.0pOBaIOTCJI, npOIIJ,aIOTCJI JIIO.lI.H pannax naU110HaJI~HOcTeH. Korna BCTpe1JaIOTCJI M)'lK'IHHbI-JIaTHHOaMepHKaHUbI, OHH o6HHMaWTCJI. B rtpexmte apevena KI1TaHll.bI, xorna OKH BCTpe1JaJlHCb npyr C npyrou, rrO)KI1- Mfu1H pyKM CaMI1M ce6e. 3THM )f(eCTOM reneps cOBpeMeHHbIH oparop rtpaaercrsyer CBOHX cnYIIIaTeJIeH. IIoJlHHe3HHUbi o6HHMalOTc9 11 nOTl1paIOT ztpyr ,n:pyry cmnty Korna BCTpe'laIOTC9 .lI.pyr C .lI.pyrOM 3CKHMOCbl, OHI1 CJIerKa ynapator npyr npyra KYJ[aKaMI1. rro rOJIOBe 11 ITJIe'laM. Korna BCTpeQaIOTC5I ,lJ,BOe KYP,lJ,OB, OHI1 XBaTaIOT npyr ilPyra aa npaayro PYKY, rrOnHI1MalOT pyK11', He pa3)KllMaH I1X, H nonepexeaao ueJIYIOT npyr npyra. JIanJIaH,lJ,Ubl npa acrpexe TpyrC9 KocaMH. )l(I1TeJII1 OCTpOBa CaMoa 06HIOX11'BaIOT npyr npyra. HeMeHUbI, eranrane 3JlOpOBaIOTC9, npaxnansrsaa JIaIl,OHb KO JI6y. Hexoropsre acpPI1KaHCKl1e naponsr, anoposaacs, nepeziaror npyr npyry KaKoH-HI16y,n:b npenxer, 'lame scero TbIKBY. Hexoropsre atjlpHKaHULI npn scrpe-re 06HHMaIOTCJI, xacaacs npyr npyra meKaMll.

(flo uamepuanau nepUOaULteCKOU nesamu)

a) OnpeAenMTe cnocof BblpalKeHMS1 ~~KOnneKTMBHOCTIII» cy61:.eKTa B BblAeneHHblX KOHCTpyK .... MHX. Bblpa3MTe, rAe B03MO>KHO, 3TO 3Hal.teHMe APyrMMM cnoc06aMM.

6) CKmKMTe, KaKlile lKeCTbl npMBeTcTBMH M npou..,aHMH xapaKTepHbl AIIH aauiero HapOAa. KaK nplilBeTcTBylOT APyr APyra MonOAble nIOAM? A nOlKMnble? KaK OHIII BeAYT ce6H, npourascs APyr C APyrOM?

10. a) npO'fMTaiilTe TeKCT. OnpeAenMTe BMA BblAeneHHblx rnaronoa. 061:.HCHIIITe, nol.teMY rnaronei ynoTp(!6neHbl B AaHHOM $opMe.

TAK OHM n03HAKOMMJIMCh

OHI1 n03HaKOMHJIHCb na sexepe B uixone - TaKoM llIKonbHbIH 6aJI 6bIJI. To JII1 CnelUlaJIhHO 6MhI YCTpaHBaJIl1, 'lT06hl 3HaKoMWlHcb? OHa aapanee nonro rOTOBlUIaCb: CKa3aJIl1, 'ITO BbmYCKHOH KJIaCC Mor npnrnaurars rOCTeH. Bee .ueBOl.JKI1 :>!<1J.a.rrI1, 'ITO npnnyr HOBbIe xrononue JIIO,U11 11 'ITO MO)f(HO 6yneT C KeM-HH6y,n:~ n03HaKOMHTbCJI. Ha CBOI1X MaJIb'll1KOB naaao HI1KTO BHI1MaHI1H He otipantan: Bce li3BecTHo 0 HI1X 11 rrOTOMY CKYlJHO. A TYT - HOBoe, 3Ha'lHT - HeI13BeCTHoe, 3Haljl1T - MHTepeCHoe.

Ha Bet! 6bIJII1 xepusre llO.uOl.JKI1 na He60JIbillOM Ka6JlyqKe H nnarse 113 penca, !(OTopoe curana et! CBeTKI1Ha MaMa, rers TaHH. OHO y,UI1BHTeJIbHO et! LUJIO. Tenl

109

TaH5I 1l0JIrO JII060BaJIaCb eIO B 3TOM nrrarse H HaKOHeu 3aKJIIO':lHJIa: «Hy, 51 Te6e CKa)KY', TaM C T060M HHKTO He cpaBHHTC5I! Tu 6y)]'ellib uapaua 6aJIa!»

(JIo 1I. KOAb)

6) PaCCKalKMTe MCTOPMIO caoero 3HaKOMCTBa C KaKMM-HM6YAb MHTepeCHblM AIlSi Bac "IenOBeKOM. .

11. BblnOnHMTe 38AaHMSI, CBR3aHHbie C ynoTpe6neHMeM rnaronoa ApJ?KHTb M nOAPYlKHTbCR.

a) Onpeaenare BMA BblAeneHHblX rnaronoa, KaKYIO <l>0PMY (c -CNMnM 6e3 -ca);

MMeeT rnaron aeccaepuseaaoro M coeepuieaaoro BMAa? .

51 n03HaKOMHJTC5I C Cepreesr euie B IllKOJTe, MbI cpasy )Ke no)]'pyJKHJlHCb H )J.py-~ lKHM)],O CHX nop,

~

I 06 p a r 11 T e B H 11 M a H 11 e: B BI1AOBO~ nape AP}')KI1Tb (HCB)...,

nOAPY)l(l1TbCfI (CB) rnaron HCB vnorpeonaercs 6e3 -CSI.

6) AOnOnHMTe TeKCT HY>KHbIMM rnaronasaa B npaBMnbHoM <l>opMe.

113 l1HTEPBblO C AKTEPOM EBfEHl1EM CTEEJIOBbIM

·'1

- HacKoJIbKO 51 3HaIO, BbI )],aBHO ... (JlPYJKlfTb - IlO,aPYJKl1ThCR) C pe)KHCcepo~

HHKHTOM MHXaJIKOBbIM.

- Y Hac )],eMCTBHTeJIbHO rporarensnsre OTHOIlleHH5I. MbI)Ke erne )],0 HHCTHTY-4 ra n03HaKOMHJIHCb. A ... (lIPYJKHTh - IlOlIPYJKIfThCR) na cbeMKax. XOT5I MbI ccd~ PHJIHCb, MHPHJIHCh, CHOBa CCOPHJIHCh. Ho OH MHe, KOHe':lHO, qeJIOBeK He ':l~0~ 11 51 eMY TO)Ke. 11 MhI 06a 06 3TOM 3HaeM. :~

- A nO':leMY )Ke Bb1 He CHHMaJIHCh B ero nOCJIe)],HHX <PI1JIbMaX?j

- He 3HaIO. He 6hIJIO, nanepnoe, llJl51 MeHH POJIH. 51 Bellh )]'PY)K6y TaK He BOC-;,

npI1HI1MaIO: eCJIH ... (lIPY)/(IfTh - IlOlIPYJKHThCfI) - TaK llaBaM MHe rJIaBHYIO POJTbJ~

B) OTBeTbTe Ha eonpocsr, ' .. ~

• ECTb 1111 Y sac 6Il113KI1~ APyr? Korna Bbl C HI1M n03HaKOMI1Ill1Cb 11 nOAPy)l(M.~ ?'

lll1Cb. ~

• KaK Bbl C'lI1TaeTe, C KeM ny-uue AP}')KI1Tb - CO CBOI1M pOBeCHI1KOM 111111 C'leIl071

BeKOM MllaAwe 111111 crapure sac no B03paCTY? .

• ~~:~~;~T~P~~::~ ~T~e~~;:~~~~~o~~~~~~~:~~~ I1H:T:~~;:M~O;~~:~11 IlY4-j

• MorYT 1111 APY)l(l1Tb MY)l(4111Ha 111 )l(eHw,I1Ha, 1111111 3TO OC06bl~ run OTHOWeHI1~?

110

12. a) AononHMTe TeKCT rnaronaMM HY>KHOrO BMAa B npaBHnbHOM <l>opMe.

PE)I(I1CCEP PACCKA3bIBAET

<PI1JIbM «OceHHI1M Mapa¢>OH» BbIIlleJI na 3KpaHbI 60JIee 30 JIeT nasan H cran KfIaCCI1KOM POCcHMcKoro KI1HO. <Ppa3bI H3 qmJIbMa CTaJIH B napone KpbIJIaTbIMH. B cPHJIbMe CHHMaJIHCb 6JIeCT5ImHe axrepu. BOT ':lTO paccxassraaer pexaccep IeopruH .IlaHeJUul 0 pafiore C MapHHOH: HeeJIOBOM, csrrpasmen O)],HY H3 rJIaBHblX poJIeH: «C MapHHOM HeeJIOBOM 51 ... (3HaKoMIfThCR - Ilo3HaKoMIfTbCR) zraano, HO HHKor)],a He llYMaJI, ':lTO pafiora C HeM npnnecer CTOJIhKO XJIOnOT. MbI C HeM TaK 'laCTo ... (CCOpHTbCR - IlOCCOpIfThCfI), ':lTO Ha cbeMKax B nepBoe BpeM5I ... (o6~aTbeR - Iloo61IJaThCR) TOJIbKO ':lepe3 nOCpellHI1KOB, - CMeeTC5I .IlaHeJIH5I. - 3a6aBHO 3TO Bb1rJI5l11eJIo. 51: «Ilepenaiire aKTpHCe HeeJIoBoM, ':lTO 3lleCb naao nenars TaKTO H TaK-TO». A OHa: «Ilepenarrre roaapaury pexnccepy, ':lTO OH aecnorf 3TO yxe IIOTOM MbI ... (MlfpIfThCR - IlOMHpIfTbCR) H )],a)Ke ... (lIPYJKl1Tb - IlO,aPYJKHTbCR) H . .. (lIPYJKHTb - IlOlIPYJKllThCR) 110 CHX nop».

6) OTBeTbTe ua aonpocsr, Mcnonb3YR maronsi B3aMMHoro AeMcTBMSI.

• AaBHo 1111 3HaKOMbi pexnccep AaHelll.-151 11 axrpaca Mapuaa Heenosa?

• 5blll11 111.-1 Y pexaccepa 11 axrpacst TPYAHOCTI1 B 06w,eHI1I1?

• KaK np0I1CXOAI.-1110 I1X 06w,eHl1e B aa-iane cbeMoK?

• 5blBall11 11111 y HI1X CCOPbl? '"IeM OHII1 3aKaH'lI1Balll11cb?

• Kaxoau reneps OTHOWeHI.-1H acrpucu 1.-1 pexaccepa?

13. a) AononHMTe TeKCT HY>KHbIMM rnaronasaa B npaBHnbHOM cl>opMe.

HEPA3JIYIIHbiE Ll,PY3b51

l1JIbH H AH)]'peH ... (lIPYJKIfTb - IlOlIPY)[(IfThCR) eure B nercrse. OHH scerna 6bIJIH Hepa3JIY':lHbI. Bvecre XOllHJIH B )],eTcKHH call, B IllKOJTe CH)],eJIH aa OllHOM napTOH, 06a YBJIeKaJIHCb I1CKYCCTBOM. l1JIbSl CTaJI XYllO)KHHKOM, a AHnpeM nHCaJI CTHXH. 11 snpyr 6Y)],TO -repna» xourxa Me)!(,Ll,Y HHMI1 npooexana - llPY3b51 '.' (IlOCCOPHTb - IlOCCOpIfThCR) .... (flOCCOpHTh - IlOCCOpIfThCR) OHH 113-3a nycrsxa, HO o6a 6bIJII1 ynpajast, 11 HMKTO He XOTeJI ... (MlfplfTh - MHpHThCR) nepBbIM. H BOT HX npl1S1TeJIb HHKOJIaM peIllI1JI ... (ttounpntt. - IlOMHpIfTbCR) )],PY3eM H npHllYMaJI, KaJ( 3TO cnenars, OllHa)!(,Ll,b1 HHKOJIaH ... (BCTpeTIfTh - BCTpeTIfTbCR) l1JIblO B rocT5IX y neTpOBbIX H C006mHJI eMY: «3HaeIllb, l1JIb5l, 51 ... (BCTpeTIfTh - BCTpeTIfTbcJ{) Bl.Jepa Annpea, 3aIlleJI paaronop 0 refie, H OH MHe CKa3aJI: «51 6bJJI He)],aBHO na BbJCTaBKe, BH)],eJI nOCJJellHIOIO KapTHHy l1JIhH. Boofiute-ro XY)]'O)KHHK OH uesax%[11, HO 3Ta KapTI1Ha - CMJIbHaSl seun.. Oseus CHJJbHaH». «.Ila HY? - He)],OBep':lHBO

111

nepecnpocan I1nb5I. - Heyxenn TaK 11 CKa3an?» «TaK OHO 11 6hIJIO», - rrozrrnep.lll1n HI1KOnaM. fuMI 6hIJI csacrnaa. Y.CpC3 HCCKOnhKO .llHCM HI1KOnaM ... (nctpeTIlTb - BCTpeTlfTbCH) Y ilCTPOBhIX C AHLl,PCCM 11 cxasan CMY KaK 6hI MC)l(Ll,Y npoql1M: « ... (Bnaett. - BH.aeTbCH) 51 HCLl,aBHO I1nhIO. Paarosop sauren 0 refie, I1I1JIbSl MHC rOBOpI1T: «Y.I1Tan 51 nocnenane CTI1XI1 Aanpea. Bootiure-ro rr03T OH TaK ce6e, HO 3TI1 ero CTUXI1 - CI1nhHa5! BCWh. OqCHh cnnsaas». «)la HY? - HC.llOBCpqUBcJ nepecrtpocan AHLl,PCM. - Heyxenn TaK 11 CKa3an?» «TaK OHO 11 6hIJIO, - nonrseps Ll,un Haxonaa. AHLl,PCll 6hIn na CCLl,hMOM Hc6c OT CqaCTh5!. CKOPO I1nh5! U AHnpeil ... (ectpeturs - BCTpeTlfTbCH) B roCT5!X Y ilCTpOBhIX. OHI1 cpasy 6pOCUJIUCb HaJ BCTPCqy npyr zrpyry 11 xpenxo ... (06HJlTb - 06HHTbCH). OHU panOCTHO xnonans zrpyr ztpyra ITO rtnesy M HUKaK HC Mornu HaroBOpUThC5!. CCOPhI KaK HC 6hIBanOi TaK HMKOJIall ... (IlOMHPHTb - IlOMIlPlfTbCJl) Ll,PY3CM. ,I

'j'

6) nepeAaHTe COAep>KaHHe npeAIIO>KeHMH, 06pa3YSI OT BbIAeJ1eHHOrO cYl1I.8C!1 BMTeJ1bHOrO rnaron 'roro >Ke KOpHSI. io13MeHHTe, rAe He06xOAMMO, CYPYI<TYPl npeAIIO>KeHHSI.

1) Mexny Ll,PY3b5!MI1 rrp0l13011Ina ccopa. 2) HI1KTO He XOTen cnenars rrepsorc urara K npHMHpeHHIO. 3) HI1KOnaM PCllIHJI nsrcryrnrn, MHPOTBOpu;el\l. 4) Bcrpesa .LJ.PY· 3Cll rrpOM3011Ina HCO)l(l1naHHO. 5) YBI1JlCB npyr npyra, OHI1 6POCH.JIMCb npyr .LJ.PYI1 B 06'bJlTHJI. 7) Me)l(JlY .LJ.PY3h5!MI1 CHOBa 6hIJI MHp.

B) BcnOMHHTe H paCCKa>KHTe, CCOPHJ1HCb J1H Bbl KorA3-HH6YAb C npHSlTeJ1S1MH. K811 Bbl MHPHJ1HCb?

14. BbInOJ1HHTe 33AaHHSI, CBSl3aHHbie C ynoTpe6J1eHHeM rnar0J10B JKeHHTbCH - n01Ke, HHTbCH.

a) npO'iHTaHTe npeAIIO>KeHMSI. YKa>KHTe pa3J1M'iMSI B <l>opMe Bbl:qeJ1eHHbIX rJ1ar~

I

J10B. ~

MOM OTCU :lKeHHJlCJl, xorna eMY 6bInO 23 rona, a MOCH MaMC - 19 nCT. OHM n~ ,~

:lKeHUJlHCb CWC B YHMBCpCMTCTe. o 6 p a r V1 T e B H V1 M a H V1 e: rnaron >KeHHTbCSI ynoTpe6J1S1e~ CfI npn nonnexauiev - V1MeHV1 co 3Ha'-leHli1eM naua B cpopMe eAI-tr/. CTBeHHoro '-Ili1CJ1a: NBaH sceunnc» Ha MapHH. Ho npa nOAJ1e>Kit LlIeM, 8blpa)f(eHHblM C04eTaHI-1eM A8YX li1MeH C COlO30M H (UBaH J MapHJl) li1Jlli1 li1MeHeM BO MHO)f(eCTBeHHOM '-Ili1CJle (OHH, PO,aHTCJlII. cyttpytni, ynorperinaercs rnaron C npli1CTaBKOVI no- (nO>KeHHTIJ,' CSI): MOH pO/l,HTeJIH fIO)f(eHH.HHCb ewe B HHcTHTyre. Korns OHH no,

sceunnuc», OHH peWHJIH K)!JlHTb «ssprnpy.

112

6) AOnOJ1HHTe npeAIIO>KeHHSI rJ1arOJ1aMH JKeHHTbCH HJ1H IIOJKeHHTbCH B npaBMJ1bHOH <l>opMe.

1) MOI1 pOLl,I1TCnM ... eure BO BPCM5! yqe6hI B I1HCTI1ryTC. 2) KaK TOnhKO OHM ... , OHM: cpasy yexamr B cBaLl,e6HOC nyretuecrsne. 3) MOM npyr ApTeM ... na nesyunce 113 fpeUMM. 4) OH nomotian ee C nepsoro narnana 11 cpasy peuran ... aa HeH. 5) Anexcaunp ... na CBoeH O,UHOKYpCHuue. 6) C rex rrop KaK OHI1 ... , rtpoiuno 10 ner,

B) PaCCKa>KHTe 06 3THX napax. o 6 p a 3 e U: AH.apeit, Hpnns .

AH.LJ.PCH )l(eHHnCH na I1pMHe. I1pMHa BbIllIJIa 3aM~ sa AHnpCH. AHnPCH 11 I1pl1Ha noxenanacs.

1) Anna, Banenrmr; 2) Paaca, Ilerp; 3) TaTh5!Ha, Hrops; 4) IOJII15!, AnCKcaanp; 5) BaCl1nl1M, I1pl1Ha; 6) I1BaH, Cnernana; 7) IOpl1i1:, JII1,UIDI; 8) I1nbH, Exarepaaa.

A Tenepb paCCKa>KHTe 06 3THX napax: 06 p a 3 C U: HBaH, CBeTJIaHa.

I1BaH 11 CBeTJIaHa paaserracs. I1BaH 11 CBCTnaHa pa30llIJII1Ch. I1BaH passenca CO CBCTJIaHoM. CBCTnaHa paasenacs C I1BaHOM. I1BaH pa3011IenCH CO CBemaHOt'I. Csernaaa pasonrnacs C I1BaHoM.

1) Bepa, HI1KOnai1:; 2) Iamma, AH,Upei1:; 3) Tlerp, HI1Ha; 4) Hrops, 3051.

15. BoccTaHoBHTe eonpoc no OTBeyY.

1) - ... ?

- MbI C AH.LJ.peCM n03HaKOMI1nl1Ch B My3CC.

2) - ... ?

- HCT, MbI C Harauteti BCTpeqaeMCH oueas pe,UKO.

3) -- ... '1

- 51 nepenacstsarocs C Hropev,

4) - ... ?

- OHI1 nO)l(eHI1J1l1Cb B npOllIJ10M rony

5) - ... ?

- Oocnc,UHI1H pas MbI C HeH Bl1Jlenl1Ch 3I1MOH.

113

6) - ... '1

- MhI nnorna BCTpe'IaeMC5J C Tauapon.

7) - ... ?

- 51 COBeTOBaJIC5J 06 310M C pozrarenavn.

16. npO"lHT3v.Te AHallo_r no pOIlSIM. YKa>KHTe B33HMHO-B03Bp3THble rnaroms, Cocraaere aHaIlOrH"IHblv. AHallor.

- 3llpaBCTByti, Bepa!

- Ilpuser, AHllpeH. LlaBHo MhI C T060H He Bl1llelIl1Ch. KaK lleIla?

- Y MCH5J BCe XOpOUlO. Pa6OTaIO B YHYIBCPOlTCTC. TbI BCTpCQaClllbC5J C KCMl

Hl16Yllh 113 uauren rpynnu?

- nOLjTH HI1 C KeM, anorna BCTpC'-IaIOCb C BUKTOpOM. A ria?

- A MbI BpeM5J OT BpeMeHH ncpC3BaHHBaeMCH C Tavapon, a erne 51 nepemr-

ChIBalOCb C Cauren. OH rerreps B Hpxyrcxe. nOMHI1111b TaHIo I1BaHoBY 113 napa.J!~ nensuoii rpynnu? TaK BOT, OHH C Caureti rrO)l(eHI1I1I1Cb 11 YCXaJIH B I1PKyrCK K ~ POLIJ1TCII5JM.

- KaK I1HTepCCHO! Xopouto 6hI HaM c06paTbC5J BceM BMCCTe 11 norosopars.

- llaBai1 C03BOHIH\!CH 11 lIoroBOp11MC5I 0 BCTPCqC. Y Te651 ecn, MOi1 TCJIC<l>OH?'.

'I'

-HIT .'

- 11 v MCH5I rsoero roxe HCT.

- Ta~ llaBai1 06MCH5ICMCH TeJle¢OHaMH 11 C03BOH11MC5I. 3arrHcbIBaM. ~

- KaK XOPOUlO, '-ITO i\tbI BCTpeTI1JIl'tCb. Hy, .ao CBI1llaHIDI. Hanerocs, CKOPO YBH,

llI1MC5J.

17. npO'll-1TaHTe OTPblBOK Vl3 paccxaaa B. Kaaepnaa <cCaMoe Heo6xoAHMoe'>. Bbl1 nOIlHHTe 33AaHVle nocne TeKcTa..,

Jh13a YUlJIa, H enna lIBCPb saxnonuynacs, Ocoprnu CTaIl paccnpatuaaarsq

ncri.

- Kpacunas. 3aM)')KeM?

- HeT.

-)],0 CHX nop He 3aM~eM? CKOJlbKO )I(e cJ1 I1eT?

- nO)l(aIIyJ1, JIeT rpanuars. He 3aMY)l(eM, f10TOMY LjTO HeKOKCTIII1Ba5l.

- )KI1BeT C KeM-HH6Vilb'?

- He 3HalO. ElIBa III;. Te6e I10HpaBHIIacb? - YJIbI6HYBUlHCb, cnpOCI1I1 Kapra-

WOB.

- O'fCHb.

114

- BOT H )I(eHHCb ira HeM. Tc6e LIaBHo nopa )I(eHI1TbC5I. A TO Y Te651 Ka)I(LIbIM MeC5IU llPyra5l.

- Hy; nOJlO)f(J1M, He Ka)I(LIbIM.

- Hecruoe CJlOBO, )I(eHI1Cb, - nOBTOpHJI Kaprauros, KOTOPOMY noapasunaci,

31a MbICJlh. - OHa, nO-MOCMY, naBHO sroro )l(L!eT. Iloncxenae Y HCe npexpacaoe, sa pafiore ee ysaxaior. TbI BCLIh JII06Hrnb LIeTcM?

- OqCHh.

- IlmKCHI1TCCh, nOMLIYT LICTI1. Tefie yxe COpOK IISITb. Ilopa, qeCTHOC ClIOBO!

MhI C )I(eHOM He MO)!(CM ce6e npCLICTaBI1Tb )f(J13HI1 6e3 neren. Ei1-60ry, )!(eHHCh! .uOBOJIbHO reoe pa3BJlCKaTbC5I. Y Tc651 BHCKH CCLIbIC.

- ,l1,a! - cKop6HO OT03BaJIC5I JIcoHHLI POMaHOBHq.

- Hy H XBaTHT. 51 reoc COBeTYIO - )!(CHHCb na JIH3e.

PaCCKa>KHTe, "ITO Bbl Y3H311H 0 Ka>KAOM H3 repoea, CoCTaBbTe aH3IlOrH"IHbIM AHa- 1I0r, H3MeHHB CHTYal.4VllO: YXOAHT He repOHHSI, a repca, H repOMHSI paccnpauraaaeTO HeM.

18. a) npO"lMTaMTe AMallorM. 06bSlCHMTe P33HM4Y B 3Ha'teHMM rnaronoa nepesssn«« BaThCR M C03BaHHBaThCR.

1) - Bepa, TbI )')Ke rpn rona )f(J1Bernb B MOCKBC. A C POLIHbIMH TbI 'faCTO BCTpC'faCWbC5I?

- BCTpCQaeMC5I PCLIKO - paCCT05lHH5I-TO KaKHe! Ho nepe3BaHHBaeMCSI perynapao. TaK 'ITO 51 B KYPCC BCCX C06bITHM.

2) - JIcHa, KO[LIa Bbl C Harauren enere B Ilerepfiypr? - 3aBTpa BCqCPOM.

- BbI BCTpC'-IaCTCCb npaao aa BOK3aJIC?

- HCT, nasepaoe, B MeTpo. MbI C Hei1 euie TO'-IHO HC LIorOBOpHIII1Ch, 6Y)l.eM

C03BaHHBaTbC5I.

3) - XOQY npnrnacars aac B cy660TY aa 3KCKypCMIO no KHTai1-ropoLIY. CorJIaCHhI?

- KOHe'-IHo! A [Lie MbI BCTPCTHMCH? 11 xorna?

- Ilpennaraio BCTpeTHTbCH y xpava BaCHJlH5I DJla)l(CHHOfO B 11 '-IaCOB. Ho

nasaare na BC5IKHti cJlyqai1 YTPOM C03BOHHMCSI 11 YTOlJHHM. Bnpyr 6YLICT LIO)l(Llb! Torna rrpHLIeTC5I ncpeHCCTH 3KCKYPCHIO ua npyroH lleHb.

4) - JIeHa, ThI ccrOLIH5I cB060LIHa? llaBai1 CXOLII1M ua BbICTaBKY UBeTOB. - HeT, CCro,llH5I $I 3aH$ITa. Y MCH5I saxasaau KHHfll B 6116J1HOTeKe.

- )KaIIb. Hy JlaLIHO, CXOLIHM B npyrort paa.

- KOHC'-IHO. TOJlbKO LIaBai1 3apaHCC C03BOHHMCSI H 060 BCeM J],oroBOPI1MC5I.

115

5) - AH,n,peH, TbI C KeM-HJ16Y,lJ,h otiiuaeuncs 113 uaureii rpynrru?

- Ilo-na HJ1 C KeM. BpeMH or BpeMeHJ1 nepe3BaHHBaeMCH C HJ1HOH. OHa re neps )KJ1BeT B 5ipOCJlaBJre. KCTaTH, OHa cotiapaercs B CJle,lJ,YIOIlJ,eM MeCH.Q rtpnexars B MOCKBY aa CTa)KJ1POBKY.

- BOT 3)lOPOBO! Jl.aBai1:Te 'rorna cooepeuc» see BMeCTe. Bezn, CTOJlhKO ne

He Bl1.1leJlJ1Cb! .. ;

- Jl.a, BCTpeTJ1TbCH Ha,lJ,O 065I3aTeJlbHO . .LXaBai1:, KaK TOJlbKO OHa rrpaenei C03BOHHMCH J1 BCe peurav.

- KaK xopomo, ~ITO MhI BCrpeTJ1JlJ1Ch. Haaeiocs, CKOPO YBl1.1ll1MCH.

6) CocTaBbTe nOA06Hbie AManorM. &.1cnonb3yMTe cnOBOCO'leTaHMH:

• nepe3B8HHBRTbCR 'f8CTO, pe/l,KO, HHor)J8, peryJIRpHO, BpeMR OT BpeMeHH M T. n,

• C03B8HHB81'bCR - C03BOHHTbCH, '1TOObl pemm», yrOlfHHTb, /JOroBOPHTbCR; .:

• C03BOHHTbCR H noroeopenc«; C03BOHHTbCR H petum»; C03BOHHTbCH H yro,

HHTb.

19. 06'bSlCHMTe, KaK Bbl nOHHMaeTe PyccKMe nOcnoBMu.bl:

1) Mansre 6paH5ITC5I, TOJlbKO reurarca;

2) K lIeMY 6hIJlO yMbIBarbC5I, KOJIJ1 He C KeM ueJIOBarbC5I;

3) lJeM paccraaarsca, TaK nysnre 6hI J1 He anarsca;

4) ITepBa5I safiora - KaK 6hI )!(eHHThCH, npyras 3a60Ta - KaK 6bI paasec

Tl1Cb;

5) Ilsoe nepyrcs - rperseuy rrO)KJ1Ba;

6) K06hIJla C BOJIKOM MHpJ1JIaCb, na ,lJ,OMOH He BOpOTJ1JIaCh.

ECTb nM aHanOrW-IHble nocnoeauei B aaweM POAHOM Sl3b1Ke? nepeBeAHTe HX ~ PYCCKMM Sl3bIK. B KaKMX CMTYau.MSlX HX MO>KHO ynoTpe6HTb? .

20. npO'lMTaMTe TeKCT. BblnonHMTe 3aAaHMSI nocne TeKCTa.

KAK nPABI1J1bHO 3HAKOMI1TbOI no OEb5lBJIEHI11O

!

HH )lJl5I xoro He cexper, xro B nocnennee BpeMS! MHOrJ1e JIIO,lJ,H 3HaKOMHTCSli HaXO)l5IT CBOlO rrOJIOBHHKY rro 06b5IBJTeHHlO. lJT06bI ttoasrcrrrs 3cpcpeKTHBHoC1 06bHBJIeHHH H BepOHTHOCTh ycrrexa, BOT HeCKOJlhKO COBeTOB.

1. 06IlJ,HH COBeT: eCJIH IlhI peuntnucs 3HaKOMHTbCH rro 06bHBJIeHHIO, TO ,lleJ1 CTByl1:Te, He OTKJla,Ll,hIBaHTe 3TO na rrOTOM.

2. Bvecro roro 'ITo6bI rrpocwarpnaart, 'Iy:>I<He 06b5IBJleHHH J1 rnrcars rroHpa BHBlllHMCH BaM JlIO,lJ,HM, Aaihe CBOe 06b51.BJIeHHe. ITYCTh mnnyr BaM.

116

1 1

3. Ilpocnre 06H3aTeJIbHO npHCJIaTb BaM !.jJOTorpa<pl1lO, lIT06hI BbI 3HaJIH, C KeM BaM rrpe,Ll,CTOHT o6w;aTbcH.

4. 06H3areJlbHO 06paTJ1Te BHHMaHHe na ro, KaK 6Y,Ll,CT narmcano nHCbMO, KOTapoe npnner K BaM. lJeM OHO rpavoraee, TeM rrpnmrnree lIeJIOBeK.

5. ECJTH BhI naxana nepenacuaarsca, TO He crapanrecs cpasy !Il1CaTb rrpocrpan}-Ible mrcsva, H3JlaraTb <pHJIOCOcPCKHe B3fJHI,Ll,bI ua )((113Hb, H3J1HBaTb )lYIIIY rrepen qeJlOBCKOM,. xoroporo erne He 3HaCTe. MO)KeT CJI~I1TbCH, -rro B )((l13HH OH BaM He nOHpaBHTC5I, H Bbl TOJIbKO 3P5I rrOTpaTI1Te BpeMH 11 nyinennue CHJIhI.

6. VI BOT BbI .llOroBOPHJ1HCb 0 scrpexe. Mecro )lJlH CBH,lJ,aHl15l. nysure BbI6HpaTh n06JIH)((e K csoeuy ,lJ,OMY J1JIH pafiore, lIT06hI He TaIlJ,MTbCH na scrpesy xepea sees ropon. K M,Y)!(lIHHaM 3TO He OTHOCJ1TCH, OHJ1,UOJI)((HhI 6hITb ,lJ,)!(eHTJIbMeHaMJ1 H ycrynars )((eHlUJ1He. BCTpeqaTbCH JIyqllle B JIIO,lJ,HOM MeCTe.

7. He aano CTeCH5IThCH I1.1lTH na CBJ1,lJ,aHJ1e. ECJIH 06a peIllJ1JIJ1 3HaKOMHTbCH lfMeHHO TaKHM cnocoeov, 3HallHT, BbI aa paBHhIX, J1 HJ1 0 KaKJ1X KOMIIJIeKcax ,UyMaTb He CTOHT.

r

(JIo uamepuanau nepuoousecxoii nenamu)

a) nepeAaMTe COAep>KaHMe TeKCTa, 3aMeHMB BblAeneHHble cy~ecTBMTenbHble rnaronaMM Toro >Ke KOPHSI C -CR. (B cn}"lae 3aTpYAHeHMSI 06paTMTecb K TeKcTY ccKaK npaeansao 3HaKOMMTbCSI no 06'bSiBneHMIO».)

, .,

HCTOPI151 OLJ,HOrO 3HAKOMCTBA

Ceroznra 3HaKOMCTBO no 06bHBJIeHJ1IO - He pe,UKOCTb. Y MHOfHX JIlO,Uei1: H3-3a IIOCTOHHHOH 3aHHTOCTJ1 xpyr 06w;eHHH orpannsen. Bepa peunora ,UaTh 0 ce6e 06bHBJIeHHe B rasery B Ha,Ue)((,lJ,e na 3HaKOMCTBO, xoropoe CMO)((eT J13MeHHTb ee )!(l13Hb. B OTBeT npmnno cpasy HeCKOJIbKO nacev. Bepa BhI6paJIa O,UHO, OT HHKOJIaH, ytIHTeJI5{ CeJIhCKOH lllKOJIhI. 3aB5I3aJIaCh O)((HBJleHHa5I nepenacxa. Ilepenncsa nponon)J(aJIaCb BClO 3J1MY. Bepa J1 HHKoJIaH nOllYSCTBOBaJIJ1 J1HTepeC J1 CHMnaTHlO ,lJ,pyr K llpyry. Y HHX OKa3aJIOCb MHoro ofintero BO B3fJI5l,1laX na )((H3Hh. I103TOMY OHH peiUHIm: He OTKJla,Ll,bIBaTb scrpesy. 11 BOT scrpesa COCT051.JIaCb ...

6) AonHwMTe KOHeu. 3TOM MCTOpMM.

a) BbICKa>KMTe CBOe MHeHMe no nOBOAY 3HaKOMCTB no 06'bSiBneHMIO.

r) Cy~eCTBYIOT nM B BaweM crpaue «cnY>K6bl 3HaKoMCTB»? KTO 06pa~aeTCSI TYA8 aa nOMo~blO?

117

21. npOLlIllTaMTe TeKCT. YKIDKIllTe rnaronei B3alllMHoro AeMCTBIllH. BblnOnHIllTe 3aMHIIIH nocne TeKCTa.

Coo6111eHHe 6blJlO HeO)Kl1)laHHbIM: «BbI MHe oxeas npasarecs. BbI OqeHb xpaCHBb!». 51 OTBeTl1Jla: «OTKy)],a BbI aaaere, BbI MeHH HH pasy He BH)],eJIH?» - «ITo ronocy». - «Ho BbI He CJIbIllIaJIH Moero ronoca-, - «OH 3ByqHT B MoeM cepnne», Ilepnas MbICJIb 6blJla: «KaKOll-TO HeHOpMaJIbHbIll». Ho MbICJIb 6bIJIa npaarnaa, Bee JIl06HT KOMITJIHMeHTbI. Ha axpane rrOHBl1JIaCb HOBaH <ppa3a: «2l.aBallTe YBH)],HMCH». ITaJIbUbI yxe C06PaJIHCb nesarars: «LI,aBallTe». Ho HBHJICH BHYTpeHHH~ rOJIOc: «MO)l(eT, He CTOHT? Hano nonoxnars. MbI elUe TaK MaJIO rrepenacsrsaeaCH. Haao 6bI Y3HaTb 0 HeM noeonsurc». TaK KaK)I(e 6bITb? Cornaurarscs HJIH HeT1 Ha)),O Bce-TaKH nonoxnars. A PYKH caua HarrHCaJIH: «2l.aBall YBH)],HMCH». 3x, He TO XOTeJIa narnrcars. Ha)),O 6blJlO aanncars: «LI,aBallTe YBH)],HMCH». Hy na JIa)),HQ; OH cnpocnn: «Ilepexoznor aa TbI? ,[laBHo XOTeJI IIpe)1,JIO)Kl1Tb. ,[laBaMTe BcrpeTHMC~ aasrpa B 19.00 B03JIe ... » ,[lanee CJIe)],OBaJIO Ha3BaHHe xarpe, onacaane BHelliHOCTH: «Ha MHe fiyner CBeTJIaH KO)l(aHaH KYPTKa». - «XOPOlliO. 51 BbICOKaH, Y MeHH CBeTJIbIe BOJIOCbI», - OTBeTHJIa H. 3aBrpa - He ceroznra, 3aBTpa - MO)KHO. BOT BpeMH Il npoH)],eT. Bce-TaKH scrpe-rarsca l1JIH HeT? C KeM IIocoBeTOBaTbcH? MO)KeT, neHKC n03BOHHTb? MbI CHell erne aa rrepaosr xypce nonpyxanacs. liTO OHa CKa)KeT?

(Ilo uamepuanau nepuoouuecxou nesamu)

a) PaccKIDKIIITe, KaKIllM Mor 6blTb pa3roaoPABYX nOAPyr. 'iTO paccsaaana repOIIIH~ 3TOM IIICTOplIIlII? 'iTO MO>KeT nOCOBeTOllaTb lleHa? Mcnonb3YMTe cnoaa: nepenJi1 CblB8TbCH no HHTepHeTy, )'BHj{eTbCH, BCTpeTHTbCH, nOCOBeTOB8TbCH. \~

6) nplllAYMaMTe B03MO>KHble BaplllaHTbl npOAOn>KeHIIIH 3TOM IIICTOplIIlII. B) 'iTO Bbl AYMaeTe 0 3HaKOMCTBax no MHTepHe-ry?

r) KaK 06blLlHO 3HaKOMHTCH MonOAble nlOAIil B BaweM crpaae?

22. npOLlIllTaMTe pa3roBoPABYX >KeH~H no Tene$oHY. OTBeTbTe Ha aonpocer nocn~ TeKCTa, IIICnOnb3YH, rne B03MO>KH0, KOHCTPYK u IIIIII C rnaronaesa B3alllMHoro Aeit· CTBIllH.

PA3rOBOP no TEJIE<I>OHY MpHHa. AnJIO! CJIYUIalO. 3TO TbI, CBeTa? 3JlpaBCTByl1.

CBeTJIaHa. Y3HaJIa Bce-TaKH! CKOJIbKO JIeT npOllIJIO, KaK rrOCJIe)]'HHH pas pasrOBapHBaJIH no TeJIe<p0HY. Ilecars?

118

. ,

:~

H. He MeHbllIe.

C. Hpo-nca, uy KaK ThI? PaCCKa)l(H. H. Hmero. )!(HBY. Paoorato.

C. A MJ)I(?

H. Pa6OTaeT.

C. r)],e?

H. B O)],HOll opraHH3aUHH. C.KeM?

M. He rro cneuaansnocra, C. A TbI me paooraeurs?

H. B pasmrx opranuaaujrax. C. lIeM aamnraeunca?

H. Bcev, qeM rtpunerca.

C. A OJIeqKa?

M. Paooraer,

C. r)],e?

M. B rasere. C. B KaKoM?

M. TaK, B O)]'HOll uenrpansaoa.

C. A y Hac CbIH saxatrraaaer aCIIHpaHryPY, xepea ron sauurra. Mu Ha)),eeMCH, HaH,ll,eT KaKoti:-HM6YJlb KOHTpaKT. A TaHH HCH B xovnuorepax, na qeTBepTOM xypce yxe. Toxe uaneeucs. 'ITO XOPOlliO YCTPOl1TCH - 3TO rertept, sesne socrpeoouaao.

Hpa, BCTperHTbCH 6bI nano' M hI rOJIbKO n-repa rrpnexana, erne He pacnaxosaJ1l1Cb. Ho BCTpeTHTbCH nano 06maTeJIbHO, a? )laBHo sens He BH)1.e.rmCb! flOCTapeJIH yxe. 51 BCH B MoplllHHax reneps. C yrpa TOJIbKO BCTalO -- H cpaay K 3epKaJIY, Kpe~ MbI uaxnansrsars, -rrofisr MO)l(HO 6bIJIO B3rJIHHyrb na ce651. <l>l1rypa, npasna, erne HH'-Iero. C3a)),H H He pasfiepeun., TO JIH neucuouepxa, TO J1I1 rr110HepKa. J1 fierato, KaK paHbllIe, - XOJll1Tb He YMelO ...

M. 51 K re6e B 6mI)Kal111Iee BpeM5I rtpnexart. He every flpa3ll,HHKH -repea nsa

JlH5J, Y MeHH rOCTH, 51 nnporn 3aTe5lJIa H BC5I B nenax noxa.

C. )l(aJIb, 'ITO He YBH)1,HMCH Mbl BCll,b, casta aaaeurs, npl1eXaJIM-yeXaJTH, )I(H3Hb,

MO)KHO cxaaars, na KOJIeCax Mu C To6ol1ll,BOIOPOll,HbIC, a neru naunr rpoiopon-

Hhle. Ho roxe sens pOllCTBeHHI1KH! A HI1KOma npyr npyra He BHneJTH! B OD,HOM ropOD,e )I(HByr 11 HHlfero npyr 0 npyre He 3HaIOT! Ilapanokc npOCTO!

(TIo JI. KOJlb)

119

OTBeTbTe Ha eonpocsr.

• Paaa m1 V1pll1Ha 3BOHKY? V1HTepeCYIOT JUt V1pIl1HY ceMelitHble Ae11a cecrpu? KaK :3T( nnosanserca B pasroaope?

• YTO Bbl y3Ham1 0 Ka)l(,lJ,olit 1113 C06eceAHI1u.? YaCTO lll1 06~aIOTCSl cecrpu? nO'leM~ OHI1 BCTpe'laIOTCSl peAKO? KTO 1113 cecrep npennaraer YBI1AeTbCSl? nOAAep)l(II1Bae' lll1 npyras cecrpa npennoxeuae BCTpeTII1TbCSl? nO'leMY It1pl1Ha He MO)l(eT BCTpe TI1TbCSl C cecrpoji? BII1Aelll1Cb 11111 KOrAa-HII16YAb AeTI1 V1pbl 11 Csersr? Coxaneer nl CBeTa 0 TOM, "ITO cecrpu nepecranu BI1AeTbcSl? A It1pLo1Ha?

23. A a BaH Ten 0 rOB 0 P H M !

• YaCTO lll1 Bbl acrpe-raerecs co CBOIl1MLo1 pOACTBeHHLo1KaMII1? Korna, no KaKII1M noed AaM Bbl 06bl'lHO acrpe-raerecs?

• ECTb llLo1 Y aac B crpaue TPaAII1ULo1Sl cooaparsca BCelit ceMbelit? rAe B TaKLo1X CIlY"l~ SlX BCTpe"lalOTCSl pOAcTBeHHLo1KII1 - AOMa y CTapWI1X YlleHOB CeMbll1. B pecropa-a I1T.n.?

24. npO'iHTaHTe TeKCT. BbmonHHTe nocnerexcroesre 38AaHHSI.

I OHa lIJJIa no Apfiary H He cpasy noaana, '-ITO npOH301IJJIO: npocro aa nee H'-I

neremr, '-Iyrb He c6HB c HOr, 06XBanUIH, KY.lla-To nOBepHYlIH HlIH 3aKp)')KHlIH, ~ 1

aa mexe OHa nO'-lYSCTBOBaJIa nouenyn. ~

-l1pKa! ;..,,1

OHa Y3HaJIa TOJIhKO rOJIOc. ~

Ionoc OHa Y3HaJIa 6bl acerna.; 'r.t.·~

Eif pa~OCTHO aarnansrsana B rnaaa M CMe5l1IHch:f

. ~

- CMOTpIO H He sepio: He)')KelIH 3TO Tbi H)J.elIJb MHe HaBCTpe'-lY? Hpxa, Ii;

)')KeJIH 3TO TbI?!

OHa HaKOHeu npHlIJJIa B ce651 OT HeO)J(I1)J.aHHOCTl1: - Iocnonn! C roro CBeTa, '-ITO JIl1?! ,I1.aif XOTh pa3fJI5I)J.eTb Te651 cnasana! OHa)')Ke BbICB060)J.l1JIaCb H3 ero PYK H CMOTpeJIa na BhICOKoro, xpynaoro M ,

'-IHHY B XOpOlIJeM KOCTIOMe H B xopouren Py6alIJKe C rancryxov, MY)J('-ItlHY, KOTOP .:

TaK HeO)J(H~aHHO B03HHK H3 He6bITHSI, YJIbI6aJIC}] eif lIJMPOKO H cpasy 3aropO.lll11

c060if BCe, '-ITO KHWeJIO BOKPyr. ;~

- 51 6hI Te651 He Y3HaJIa! - OHa HaKOHeu YJIbI6HYJIaCb eMY HaBCTpe'-lY· 11

11 'ryr OH OTOPBaJI ee OT 3eMJIH H KYlla-TO aa C060H nOTSlHYJI, nOBJIeK, noTa IUl111 ... HeT, nOHeC ira pyxax, Ha KOBpe-CaMOJIeTe ... xyna-ro COBceM He B ry'CT()<

pOHy ...

120

- Kvna TbI MeHSI rauunus? - CMe5lJIaCb OHa, HH'-IerO He cootipaxaa.

- KY)J.a-HH6Yllb! MbI xe ~omKHbl file-TO nocaners?

< ... > - 3aKa3bIBalO 51, a TbI TOJIbKO fiyzteun. ecrs! - CKa3aJI OH, KaK TOJIbKO OHH yceJIHCb aa CTOJIHK H O<pHUHaHTKa nOJIO)J(HJIa nepen HHMH MeHIO.

- Ho }] COBceM He XO'-lY ecrs!

- 51 ssrpaxarocs <pHryPaJIbHO: TbI 6YlleIllb CH~eTb, '-ITO-TO rnrrs, '-ITO-TO )J(e-

BaTb H paaroaapnsars CO MHoif. I1 MhI He 6y~eM BhISlCHSlTb, ecrs JIH Y Hac BpeM51 HJIH Y Hac ero HeT: MhI 6y~eM npOCTO BMeCTe caners, na? BpeMSI MO)J(eT xaan, ... I1HOf)1.a MO)J(eT, - nooaean OH H OTKPbIJI MeHIO.

- Hy, KaK TbI? - CnpOCI1JI OH. - PaCCKa3bIBaif.

- Her )')K! CHal.Ia.JIa TbI. I1 soofiute )l(eHmMHa, KaK 113BeCTHO, sccrna sa-

rMKa.

OH 3aCMeHJIC5I:

- Jlanno. Ho y MeHSI, C06CTBeHHO, BCe 06bI'-IHO. Cexperos HeT: cnasana MfHMO - ThI nens, aasepnoe, nOMHl1lIJb, '-ITO 51 nocrynan rorna, - nOTOM )J(em1Th6a, sarpaaaua, nera, Bee! Teneps nera BbIpOCJIH, CBOH )J(113Hb Y ncex ... HeT! 060 MHe He CTOHT, BCe 6aHaJIbHO, BCe - KaK y scex, TbI .nysure paCCKa)J(H 0 ceoe!' KaK Y Te6}]?

- qTO, c06cTBeHHo, 060 MHe? .. - OHa onYCTHlIa ma3a B He)J.onHToe IIIaMnaacxoe. - Bee, naseprroe, TO )J(e casroe: MY)J(, pe6eHOK, pafiora ... Y MeHH .llO'-lb ... B3pOCJIa5l, roxe )')Ke nenr. Y MeHSl BCe paao nonysnnocs, H Y nee TO)J(e ... KaxerCH, BCe nyresr! ..

OHa nOllHHJIa rnasa, YCMeXHYJIaCh:

- Y scex ncerna BCe 6bIBaeT OllHHaKOBhIM, TbI He naxomuns? < ... > Hano )f(e, BCTpenfJIHCh BCe-TaKI1, XOTH MaJIOBepOHTHO 6hlJIO. KaK TbI MeH5I Y3HaJI, He nOHl1- MaIO! CKOJIbKO )J(e JIeT MhI He BMeJIHCb? DOJIhlIJe TpVl.LI:uaTH nensl

- Tpannars narsl - BCe TaK )J(e Y.J1hI6aSlCb eif, yrO'-lHHJI OH.

- MbI ryr npa3.I1,HOBaJIl1 KaK-TO BCTpe'-lY B KOHue S1HBapSl B 6 bIB III e if IIIKO-

JIe - pell!HJIH c06paTbCH, '-ITO-TO spone 106l1JIe5I yCrpOHJIl1. - OHa )')Ke, Ka)J(eTCH, BeMHOro npHlIJJIa B ce651 H Moma roaopars. - Ilpencraanaeurs, HHKTO mncoro Be Y3HaBaJI! Ilonxonann npyr K ztpyry 11 npOCHJIH: Ha30Bl1 CBOIO cpaMl1JIHIO. Y)J(ac! DOCelleJIH, 06JIhICeJIH, paCTOJICTeJIH ...

OH 3aCMeSlJIC5I:

- A BOT ThI BCe TaKaH )J(e!

- Hy zta Y)J(! 3TO Y)J(e, npHMO cxascev, Hen03BOJII1TeJIbHhIH KOMnJIHMeHT!

< ... >

itts n. KOflb) 121

a) OTBeTbTe aa eonpocsr,

• rAe BCTpen1JH1Cb repoa 11 repOI1H5I nocne nonroa pa3nYKI1?

• CKonbKO ner OHI1 He BI1Aem"Cb?

• C0611panl1Cb nl1 KorAa-nV160 6blBWI1e OAHOKnaCCHI1KV1 nocne OKOH'mH~ uixonu?

6) CKa>KHTe, BCTpe'fanHCb nH Bbl KorAa-nH60 C 6blBWHMM OAHOKnaCCHHKaMH HI OAHOK}'pCHHKaMH? KaK 3TO npoHcxoAHno?

CTPAHV1LJKA n n s ,D,ETEII1

25. npO'fHTaMTe CKa3K}'. BblnonHHTe 38AaHHe nocne CKa3KM.

.uBA K03JIl1KA

.uBa yrrpHMblx K03JUfKa BCTPeTHJlHCb onaaxnsr aa Y3KOM 6peBHe, nepefipomet HOM xepea pyqei:L 060liM Pa30M rrepeara pyqeH 6bIJIO HeB03MQ)I<H0; npaxonanoi KOMY-HM6Y)]'b BepHYTbCH naaan nars nopory ztpyrosry M nonoxnars. «YCTyrrli M~ nopory», - CKa3aJI O)],IiH. «BOT erne, KaKoH Ba)!(HbIH 6apliH! - OTBetIaJI )],pyrOH:j TIHTbCH nasan H nepesni B30llIeJ1 na MOCT». «HeT, fipar! 51 ropaano crapure T~ ronaxa, M MHe ycrynrrrs M0J10KOCOCY! Hn aa tITO!» OHM HMKaK He MOfJIM ,n0~ BOPHTbCH H, )],OJ1ro He )],YMaH, CTOJlKHYJlHCb KperrKIiMM J16aMM, CuerrHJIMCb pora~ M, yrnrpascs TOHeHbKMMM HO)!(KaMM B 6peBHO, CTaJIM nparsca. Ho 6peBHO 6b~ MOKpoe; 06a yrrpaxrna rrOCKOJIb3HYJ1MCb M rrOJ1eTeJ1M rrp5IMO B BO)],y. ~

(no K YWUHCKOMj KaKHe CnOBa npony~eHbl B 3TOM TeKCTe? AonHWHTe HX. , •.• L(Ba K03J1MKa O)],Ha)K,llbl ... Ha Y3KOM MOCTMKe. HMKTO He XOTeJ1 ycrynnrs J

pory )],pyrOMY. OHM HMKaK He MOfJIH MMpHO. Torna OHM CTaJIli ., .. 06a K03J1~~

... KperrKI1MH J16aMM, ... pOraMI1. OHM )],OJ1ro. Ho MOCTMK 6bIJI MOKPbIH M CKOJl~

3KHH, M 06a ynana B BO)],y. ~

1

3. B03BpaTHbie rnarorua 3M0L4H., ~

~

1. npO'fHTaHTe TeKCT. OnpeAenHTe o6U4ee 3Ha'feHHe BblAeneHHblX maronoa.

o MOEM llPYfE

BOT BbI roaopnre: eCJII1 ~ 6paTbcH aa D,eJIO, TO TOJ1bKO C YBepeHHOCTblO B y)],aq; Ho BeD,b aapanee HMKTO TaKOH rapaHTI1H He naer, KOHeqHO, MbI BCC npeKJIOHJleMC

122

.. ?

oepeil 60J1bllIHMH TaJIaHTaMH, HO scerna JIH MbI 3HaeM, KaK nner 110HCK HCTMHbI.

Xat.JY BaM paccxasars 0 CBoeM npyre,

lOpHH erne B nercrse HatIaJI YBJIeKaTbCH 6a601JKaMH. A B re roast MaJIbtIHllIKM BCe 60JIbllIe HHTepeCOBaJIHCb KOCMOCOM, 3aHMMaJIHCb CI10PTOM, XBaCTaJIHCb nepen nplUITeJIJlMH CI10PTMBHbIMH YCl1exaMM. TI03TOMY lOpy He rrOHHMaJIH. O)],HIi eMY yllHBJlHJlHCb: «1Ja60tIKH? qTO 311eCb MO)!(eT 6bITb mrrepecnoro?», a zrpyrue H3,lJ, HHM np5lMO nOCMeHBaJIHCb: «3TO 3aHHTHe ,lJ,JUI lleBqOHoK». Ho IOpKa, XOTb Ii CTeCHJIJICJI lIacMemeK, ce6e OCTaBaJICH uepen.

TIocJ1e llIKOJ1bI OH He COMHeBaJlCJI B TOM, tIeM 6y)]'eT 3aHHMaTbCH nam.nre. KoHClJHO, 6H0J10fli5l, KOHetIHO, 6a60qKM. C06paJICH B MOCKBY rtocryrrart, B MfY. ilpaB)],a, 6eCnOKOHJlCH OH 0 pomrrensx, xoropsre OCTalOTCH )],OMa, - HeM0J10D,ble yxe, na M 3D,OpOBbe y HMX cnanars CTaJIO. BOT noscvv, xorna IOPIiH Y3HaJI, tITO B era PO)],HOM repone orxpuaaercs ynasepcarer, OH oseas 3TOMY 06P3,lJ,OBaJICJI. ~a ronsr yqe6bI lOpHH H3YlJHJ1 rro csoca rene see, tITO B03MO)!(HO, c06paJI fioraretiIIlyJO KOJ1J1eKUMIO 6a60tIeK. HeD,eJIHMIi nponanan B 3Kcne)],IiUHHX. POD,MTeJ1M BOJlHOBaJIHCb aa csma, a HeBeCTa na Hero 06IDKaJIaCb: «CKOJ1bKO MO)!(HO llYMaTb 0 CBOnx 6a60lJKax!» L(3)!(e na xaoenpe ero He rrOHHMaJIH - CtIHTaJIM, tITO YBJ1etIeHHe crynenra CJ1HllIKOM )],aJIeKO OT npaxrnxa. Ho nee 3TO 6bIJ10 TaK, noxa He rrpmuno ero BpCM5I. A npmuno OHO XOTb HeO)!(H)],aHHO, HO aaxoaoxepno.

lI,CJ10 B TOM, tITO na cM6MpCKI1e neca nepnomrsecxa ofipynursaerca crpauntoe 6eD,CTBHe, xoropoe MO)!(eT YHMtITO)!(aTb UCJIble .necmae MaCCHBbl. Bb13bIBalOT 3TO 6C)l,CTBHe zma Bpe)],IiTeJ151, 6a60tIKH-llIeJ1KOrrpH)],bl. nOpOTbC5I C HIiMM MO)!(HO, HO HaD,O XOPOllIO 3HaTb 3TliX HaceKOMbIX, 6bITb rOTOBbIM K ncrpese C HI1MH. Ha MHOme BOI1POCbI 11 rrovor OTBeTMTb lOpHH napaHHHKOB. MOJIOllOrO ylJeHOrO cpaay xe nOCJIC YHMBepCMTCTa rrpHmaCMJ1M pariorars B AKaD,CMMIO HaYK, B MHCTMTYT .neca. BOT H xoxy noaropurs eute pas: sapaaee rpYD,HO 06bHBJ1HTb xaxne-ro TeMbi 6ecnOJIC3HbIMH. L(JIH yxetroro rnasnoe HC CMIOMMHYTHaH 110J1b3a, a rrOMCK HCTHHbI, KaKoH 6bl OHa HM Ka3aJIaCb - 60J1bllIOH MJII1 MaJIOH.

(no P Cyxomuuy)

a) OnpeAenHTe ynpaBneHHe rnaronoa B BblAeneHHblx cnOBOCO'feTaHHSlX.

6) OTBeTbTe Ha eonpocsr, Hcnol1b3YSl BblAeneHHble B TeKCTe CI10BOCO'feTaHHSI C B03BpaTHblMH rnaronasaa.

1) KaKHe qYBCTBa 06bltIHO nsrausaer y JIIOD,eH 60JIbllIOH TaJIaHT? 2) Kaxoe Y IOpH}! 6bIJIO )],CTCKoe YBJICqCHHC? 3) K '-IeMY B re rOD,bI THHYJIHCb MaJIb'-lMllIKH? 4) KaK pOBeCHHKH lOPM5I OTHOCHJlHCb K ero YBJIClJCHHIO? 5) KaK lOpa OTHOCI1J1- C51 K HaCMellIKaM oxpyxatouurx? 6) DbIJII1 JIH y lOPMH COMHeHI1H IIO 110BO.llY roro,

123

K)'lla OH nonner y<IMTbCH nam.ure? 7) KaKHe qYBCTBa OH HcrrbITbIBaJI, LlYMaH 0 CBOI1 HeMOJIOLlbIX pOLlMTeJI5Ix? 8) KaK)'IO peaKUMIO BbI3BaJIO y Hero H3BeCTHe 0 TOM, q1 B ero POLlHOM repone OTKpbIBaeTCH YHHBepcMTeT? 9) 'Iro qYBCTBOBa;lH pOLlMTeJI:

H HeBeCTa IOpMH, xorna OH nononry nponanan B 3KcrreLlMUH5Ix?

2. KaK Bbl 3aMenUnt, B TeKCTe ceO MoeM APyre» MHoro B03BpaTHbix rnar0J10B, 060l Ha"lalOw,MX pa3nM"IHble 3MO~MM. B PYCCKOM S13blKe TaKMX rnaronoe 60nee 100. MO>KHO crpynnapoears no 3Ha"leHMIO. 'iacTo rnaronass roro MnM MHoro 3Ha"leH cooraercrayer onpeAeneHHaSi MOAenb ynpaBneHMSI.

a) npOlJMTav.Te rnaronsr, Onpenenare 3Ha"leHMe He3HaKOMbiX cnoa no cnoa pio, 06paTMTe BHMMaHMe aa ynpaBneHMe rnaronoa B Ka>KAOv. ceMaHTM"IeCK rpynne.

1. Ixaroasr 'YBJIe'leHHSI': YBJIeKaTbCH, MHTepecOBaTbC5I, BOCXHm;aTbCH, BOCTO raTbC5I, JlI060BaTbC5I, HaCJICl)K)laTbC5I, OqapOBbIBaTbC5I, yrrHBaTbC5I, IIJIeH5ITbC5I, JI5ITbCH, BOoLlYllIeBJl5ITbCH, BLlOXHOBJI5ITbC5I,rOPLlMTbC5I, B03MymaTbcH, OrOpqaT (T. n.). J/ nutepecytocs Tea TpOM.

2. TharOJlbI 'YLlHBJleHHSI': YLlMBJI5ITbC5I, .n:HBMTbC5I, nopaxarsca, H3YMJI5ITb yxacarscx, paaOBaTbC5I, YMI1JI5ITbC5I (,LI.. n.). J/ YllHBJIJlIOCb TBoeH HaHBHOCTH. 3. Inarunsr 'npeKJIOHeHHSI H caMoyuuqIDKeHHSI': rrpeKJIOH5ITbC5I, TepHTbC5I, )KaTbC5I, rrpeCMbIKaTbC5I, rrpH6e,LI.H5ITbCH, TYllieBaTbC5I (nepen + T. n.). HeyxeJIH 6Yllemb nepen HHM YHH)[(aTbcJI?

4. Draronsr '3aBbIweHHoH caMoou.eHIrn': XBaCTaTbC5I, XBaJIMTbC5I, 3a3HaBaTb KMqMTbCH, qBaHMTbC5I, xpa6pMTbC5I, pMCOBaTbC5I, KpaCOBaTbC5I, JIOMaTbCH, xo XOPHTbC5I, rrbI)I(l1TbCH, BbmeH.1lpHBaTbCH (nepen + T. n.). JIeHa nOXBaCTaJIaCb ne

nOllPyraMH Ylla'IHOii nozynKoii. .

5. Draroma 'HacMewKH H H3,L1.eBaTeJlbCTBa': CMeHTbCH, HaCMexaTbCR, naaeaa C5I, rrorenrarsca, M3MblBaTbC5I, mYMMTbCH, KYpa)KMTbCH (Ha,LJ. + T. n.). He cMeii .uesersc« HaJ[ co6aKoii. 6. Inaromr 'He,LI.OBOJlbCTBa': 06 H)KaTbC5I, cepnnrsca, 3JIHTbC5I, )Kart 0 sars

LlYTbCH, rrJIaKaTbCH, PyraTbC5I, rHeBaTbCH, 3JI06HTbCH (aa + B. n.). He cepnncs ueu«. 7. Draronu '60Sl3HH': 60HTbCH, orracarsca, ocreperarsca, nyrarscs, crpaunrri CH, CTeCHHTbCH, CTbI.UMTbCH, CMym;aTbCH, CTOPOHHTbC5I, .1lHQHTbCH, COBeCTMTbC <J.ypaTbcH, 4Y)l()1,aTbCH (p. n.). Pe6eHoK CTeCHflJICJl 'IYXHX JII011eii. 8. fJlarOJlbl'6ecnoKoHcTBa':6ecnoKoHTbCH, BOJIHOBaTbcH,6oHTbC5I,OnaCaTb

TpeBO)l(l1TbC5I, CTpallIHTbCH, nyrarscs (sa + B. n.). 51 6010Cb se era 3110pOBbe.

124

9. TharOJlbI '3a60Tbl, BOJlHeHHSI H nenana':

a) ~a60THTbC5I, nesscn, BOJIHOBaTbC5I, 6ecrrOKOHTbC5I, rpeBO)l(l1TbC5I (0 + n. n.).

TeT}} BCIO )[(H3Hb 3a6oTHJIaCb u CBOHX nJIeMJlHHHKax;

6) rnaronst «rpycruoa. ceMaHTHKM: rre'laJIHTbC5I, KpYQHHMTbC5I, COCKY'lHTbC5I (0 + n. n. MJIM no + ,LI.. n.): J/ O'IeHb COCzygHJICfl no llOMY, (no + n. n. C MeCTOMMej-l11JIMH l-ro M 2-ro JIMua MH. Q.): J/ COCzygHJICJl tto sse.

10. Inaronsr 'coMHeHHSI H COIKaJIeHHSI': COMHeBaTbC5I, pa304apoBbIBaTbC5I, pasyBep5ITbC5I, M3BepHTbcH, pacxaaaarsca, o6MaHbIBaTbC5I (B + n. n.). HHKTO He COM-

HeBaeTCJl B Bameii 'IeCTHOCTH.

6) CKa>KMTe, CKonbKO ceMaHTM"IeCKMX KJ1aCCOB maronoa BblAenSleTCSI B 3TOV.

KJ1aCcM<I>MKa~MM. nepe"lMCnMTe ace ceMaHTMlJeCKMe xnaccsr,

a) CKa>KMTe, CKonbKO MOAenev. ynpaaneHMSI MMelOT rnaronst 3MOLl,MOHanbHoro COCTOSlHMSI.

r) OnpeAenMTe, cyw,ecTByeT nM CBSl3b Me>KAY ceMaHTM"IeCKMM KJ1aCCOM rnarona 101 MOAenblO ynpaaneHMSI. KaKYIO MOAenb ynpaBneHMSI MMelOT rnaronbl 'yane"leHMSI', 'YAManeHMSI', 'npeKJ10HeHMSI 101 caMoYHM"IM>KeHMSI', '3aBbIWeHHOv. cassoo~eHKM' 'HaCMeWKM 101 M3AesaTenbcTBa', 'HeAoBonbcTsa·. '60Sl3HM', '6ecno-

, .?

KOv.cTBa', '3a60Tbl, BonHeHMSI 101 ne"lanM', 'COMHeH .... S1 CO>KaneHMSI •

A) np .... BeAMTe np .... Mepbl npeAnO>KeH .... v. C rnaronasa Ka>KAOrO xnacca.

3. npO"l .... Ta.v.Te npeAJ10>KeH .... S1. onpenen Te. K KaKOMY CeMaHT .... "IeCKoMy KJ1accy OT-

HOCSlTCSI BblAeneHHble rnarorua, Ha30B Te MOAen ........ x ynpaaneHMSI.

1) OHa MHoro rOBOpMJIa H CMeHJIaCb, rrOKa3bIBa5I CBOH QYLleCHble 3y6bl, 3HaH, 'J.TO ace eIO JII06yIOTCSI tByuun), 2) EMY 6bIJIO OQeHb OLlMHOKO B rrOCJIeLlHHe ronu, OH Pa;rOBaJICSI JII060MY rOCTIO, CJIYllIaTeJIIO (10. Koeans). 3) OH 60SlJlcSI CKB03HHKOB M npocryma (flacmepllaK). 4) TeTH Bepa OQeHb 3a60THJlaCb 0 LlOQepH M CbIHe, 0 ce6e )Ke 6eCnOKOHJlaCb MaJIO (B. lllerjJlIep). 5) BbI 3pH 06H,L1.eJlHCb na Ceprea CepreeBHQa C~mpHoBa aa ero nHCbMO. 06HIKaTbcH aa Hero He H~HO (Cuuonoe). 6) BbI snpaBe CepllHThCSI aa MeHH (CuMOItOe). 7) TOBapMlIl uaur CMeSlJlCSI Ha,LI. HaMH (Ilanaee). 8) Kpe-reros fiortee scex rJIYMUJICH nan KOJIMaKOBbIM (Ilanaeev. 9) He cTecHSlHTecb CBoeti: 3aCTeH4MBOCTH: 3aCTeHQMBOCTb OQeHb MHJla H COBceM He csreuma. OHa CTaI-JOBHTC5I CMellIHOH:, TOJIbKO eCJIH Bbl CJlHlliKOM crapaerccs ee npCOLlOJICTb H CTeCHSIeTeCb ee (l1,. Jluxauee). 10) OH )KH3HM He pall 6blJI, ecnn 3HaJI, 4TO KTO-TO 3J1UJICSI na Bero H flJIOXO 0 HeM D:YMaJI (F. Ceuenoe). 11) Mars He na llIYTKY nyranacs H naxe cepLUIJIaCb na )],MHY )],eMbHHOBHY, ~acaSlCb ee HerrpaKTHQHOCTH VI ncrxovucnaro (r. CCMcHoe). 12) B nercrne OH YBJ1eKaJICH 60TaHHKOH: (F. Ceueuoev. 13) Bee 6bIJIO

125

npenycaorpeno, H MO)J(HO 6bmo HaCJlalK,lJ,aTbCR YlOTOM H rrpHRTHOlO 6eCe1l01O (TuHRH06). 14) OHa 060 Bc(iM nexnacs, 3a60THJlaCb 0 fiapnne, 0 )lOMe, a xorna HBJUlJIHCh rOCTH, CKpbIBaJIaCb B nansnea KOMHaTe (TbIHJlH06). 15) AJIeKCaH)lPY rrOKa3aJIOCh, qTO nan HHMH CMelOTCR (TbIHJlH06). 16) Tor-rae Cepreji JIbBOBHq nOJKaJIOBaJlCR aa TPY.ll;HOCTH BocrrHTaHH5I (Tb/HJlH06). 17) qeM 51 KII'IHJlCR nepen HHM? CBOHM TyMaH-; HblM T5IroTeHHeM K HCKYCCTBY? (IJaycmo6cKuu). 18) Maxa HHKO[lla He crstaanac .. HHKaKOll patiorsr H npnynora K 3TOMY H Hac tIlaycmoectcuiiy. 19) KaK OH OTHOCllJI":

CH K ceoen CJIaBe? KOHeqHO, OH sayrpenne roP.llHJICR eio, HO HHKorAa HH nepen Ke~ He 3a3HaBaJICH (U3 easemui. 20) Korna npmnen noean, 51 BOllIeJI B JIlOllHblll BarOH 9 TaKHM qYSCTBOM, TOqHO OTrrpaBJI5IJIC5I B rryrs, KOTOPOMY H KOHua He npenannenocs. 51 Aa)J(e ,lJ,HBHJlCR TO My paBHOAYllIHlO, C KOTOPblM OAHH H3 rraCCa)J(J1pOB rrHJ1H qa~ H 3aKYCblBaJIH, npyrue cnann (SYHUH). 21) OH 6bm 6JIH30K K CJIaBe H ynHBaJICH elQ (TbIHRH06). 22) Orua Mbl CTeCHHJIHCb H HeCKOJIbKO llH'IHJIHCb; OH 3TO qYBCTBOBaJI~ M eMY 6bmo 60JIbHO. Zlpyroe lleJIO - MaTb. Ee Mbl He ,l1,H'IHJIHCb H He CTeCIDIJIHC. (Bepecaeey. 23) 51 nasan COMHeBaTbCH lla)J(e B caMOM ce6e (CQ/lmbIK06-meapUH}~ 24) 3a BpeM5I OTCyrCTBM5I Mbl ycneaana 3AOPOBO COCIQ'lIHTbCR npyr rro APYry (F. BUlU1 He6CKQJl). 25) 51 < ... > see erne B COBeCTH JIIOACKOll He H3BepHJIaCb (A.H. ocmpo6j •.• CKUU). 26) MMxaMJI ropsxo paCKaHBaJICH B CBoeM rrocrynxe (U3 easemuy. ;

'.

4. 3aKOH'fHTe BbICKa3bIBaHHH: nOcOBeTYMTe cBoeMY co6eCeAHHKY He ,AenaTb TOI" o 'feM rOBopHTCH B nepaoa 'faCTH BblCKa3blBaHHH (ynoTpe6HTe rnaron B <l>op HecoBepweHHoro BHAa).

1) Hanpacno rsr na Hero 06H,l1,eJICH. He nano ua Hero .... 2) ITOqeMY Tbl na Me

TaK paccepnanacs? He nano .... 3) Hy qTO Tbl TaK B03MyTHJlCH? He sano .... 4) 3}1' Thl nOJKaJIOBaJICB ua 6paTa. ITo-MoeMY, He CTOllT .... 5) 113-3a -rero Tbl paCCTpOHJlC He naao ... rro rrYCTHKaM. 6) Hy sero Tbl ncnyranca? ... ryr ne-rero. 7) Harrpac Tbl 3aCOMHeBaJICH BO MHe .... He rrano, 8) KOJI5I, rto-xroesty, Thl HeMHoro 3a3H nepen llPY3bHMH. Hexopouro .... 9) Tsr roaopnurs, qTO <PeAop paCKaHJlCH B 06M He. Teneps ~e rr03AHO ....

5. AaMTe OTpHl.!,aTenbHblM OTBeT Ha sonpoc. 06bHcHHTe, nO'feMYAeMCTBHe He n H30wno. (06palL\aMTe BHHMaHHe Ha npaBHnbHYIO na,Ae>KHYIO <l>0PMY MeCTOH HHM HHKTO, HH'ITO).

o 6 p a 3 e u : - Ha 'ITO Thl 06H)leJICH?

- 51 HH na 'ITO He 06llAeJICH. MHe He na 'ITO 06H)J(aThCH. "jV'

1) Ha qTO BbI )J(aJIyeTech? 2) 'Iero Bbl fiorrrecs? 3) Ha xoro Bbl paCCepAHJIHC . 4) 0 '!eM Bbl 6ecrroKoHTecb? 5) 4eMY Tbl panyeurscs? 6) Ha xoro Tbl 06H)leJIcR; . 1

126

7) Han xea Bbl CMeHJIMcb? 8) 'Iero OH CThIAHTCH? 9) Ha 'ITO Thl 3JIHllIbCH? 10) qero Tbl CTeCH5IellIhcH? 11) Koro OH ncnyranca? 12) B qeM Thl coaaeeaeurscs?

6. Ilepecnpocerre co6eceAHHKa, Bblpa3HB YAHaneHHe. MO>KeTe MOTHBHpoBaTb CBOIO peaKI.!,HIO.

o 6 p a 3 e U: - B AeTCTBe 51 YBJIeKaJIC5I 60TaHHKoll.

- Tsr? DOTaHHKoil:? BOT ~ He AyMaJIa, qTO Thl YBJIeKaJIC5I 60raHHKOll. (3TO na re6H He noxoxe.)

1) 51HHrepecyIOch crapnaaoti MY3bIKOH. 2) Caura YAHBHJIC5I Moe My npenno)l(eHHlO. 3) Korna 51 HeO)J(l1,llaHHO BcrpeTHJI JIeHY, 51 paCTepHJIC5I nepez Hell. 4) ThI npocro H3AeBaellIhCH nano MHOll! 5) ITo-MoeMY, Bhl cueerecs nano MHOil:. 6) BbI He 06l1)leJIHCb ua Moe 3aMeqaHHe? 7) Tsr 60HllIbCH 3K3aMeHa? 8) 51 fiecnoxoiocs aa pesynsrar KOHTPOJIbHOll pa60TbI. 9) Hrops BOJIHyeTcH aa CBOll aaropnrer, 10) Bepa CeMeHoBHa oxens rpeBO)J(l1TC5I 0 6YllYIUeM noxepa. 11) OHa 3a60THTCSI TOJIbKO 0 c06CTBeHHhIX YA06cTBax. 12) MHe Ka)J(eTCH, fipar COCKyqHlICSI no 1l0My. 13) Hey)l(eJIH Tbl BO MHe covaeeaeunca? 14) DOlOCb, K.aK 6hl Anexcaanp He aasan 3a3HaBaTbCH nepen llPY3hHMH.

7. H3MeHHTe npeAnO>KeHHH, ynoTpe6HB nocne BblAeneHHOro rnarona MeCTOHMeHHe TO B HY>KHOM na,Ae>Ke. 06paTHTe BHHMaHHe, 'fTO MeCTOHMeHHe TO B npeAnO)l(eHHHX TaKOM CTPYKTYpbl nPHAaeT HM ~~KHH>KHbIM)) OTTeHOK.

06 p a 3 e u : Bpar 06pa1l0BaJICH, qTO K HaM enyr rOCTH. - Bpar 06paAOBaJIC5I TOM)', qTO K HaM enyr roCTH.

1) 3pHTeJIH JIl060BaJIHCb, C xaxoa JIerKOCThIO fl1MHaCTKa BhIIIOJIH5IJIa CJIO)J(Hoe vnpaxneaae. 2) TYPI1CThl 3aI1HTepeCOBaJIHCh, K KaKOMY BpeMeHH OTHOCHTCH 3TOT apxHTeKrypHhlH rraM5ITHI1K. 3) DOJIhHOll nO)J(aJIOBaJIC5I spa-ry, qTO OH CTaJI MOXO CJIhlllaTb. 4) Cecrpa 60HJIaCh, 'ITO He ycneer cnars pafiory BOBpeM5I. 5) 51 nopa)KalOCb, HaCKOJIbKO OH JIerKOMbICJIeH. 6) He cepmrrecs, qTO 51 He cpasy OTBeTHlI na Balle nHCbMO. 7) He 6ecnoKollTech, qTO 51 He HaHaY nopory 8) OHa He 3a60THlIaCh, I<.aKoe nnesarnenae npOH3BOJl5lT na MeHH ee CJIOBa. 9) Tsr nanpacao 06HJleJIC5I, qTO ~ refie He n03BOHHJI. 10) JIeHa orracanacs, 'ITO ee HenpaBI1JIbHO rroHMyr. 11) Bpar 06pa)lOBaJICH, qTO III1CbMO, xoropoe OH TaK AOJIrO )J()laJI, HaKOHeU-TO npmnno. 12) >I He COMHeBaIOCb, qTO OH roBOPHT npanay

8. 06bstCHHTe 3Ha'feHllle cnoa c nOMO~blO rnaronoa 3MOI.!,MM. 06 p a 3 e u: 0611)lYHBbIH - ::lTO TOT, KTO JIerKO 0611)1(aeTCH .

127

a) 3a6oTJIMBhIH, BCrrhIJIh<fMBhIM, HaCMeWJIMBbIM, 6eCITOKOMHhIH, cepnofionsHhIM, fIIYMJIMBbIM, )l(aJIOCTJII1BbIM, 3aCTeH<fI1BhIH, rrYfIII1BbIM, P06KMM, CTbI,[(JIMBbIM.

6) Illyranx, HaCMeWHI1K, TPYC, 513Ba, nonmrsa, rrOllXaJIMM, 516ella, 3y6oCKaJI, MI13aHTpOn, onTMMMCT, neCCI1MMCT, XOJIepl1.K.

9. nepeAaMTe cOAep>KaHHe npeAJIO>KeHHM, Hcnonb3ySI BMeCTO BblAeneHHblX cnoa OAHoKopeHHbie maronsi (noMHHTe 06 ynpaBneHHH rnaronoa), liI3MeHHTe, rAe He- 06xOAHMO, CTPYKTYPY npeAJIO>KeHHSI.

1) Bee 6YlleT xoponio, Y MeH5I B 3TOM HeT cOMHeHHH. 2) <l>MJIaTeJIM5I - 3TO MOe ,lJ,eTCKOe ywIe'leHHe. 3) ECJIl1. OT 6paTa ,lJ,OJIro He 6hIJIO nI1CeM, Bepa <fYBcTBOBaJIa fiecrtoxoacrao. 4) CbIH naano ~e BhlPOC, HO mrrepec K TeXHI1Ke Y Hero He rrponan. 5) CTPaHHhIM nocrynox I1rop51 BhI3BaJI Y ncex Y,lI,HBJleHHe. 6) IlOMHIO, KaK B ,lJ,eTCTBe CTapWI1M 6paT He B351JI MeH5I C C060M B TYPl1.CTM<feCKMM noxon M 51 llOJIroe BpeM5I <fYBCTBOBaJI na Hero 061f)zy. 7) B ,lJ,eTCTBe 51 6blJl osens CTeCHHTeJIbHbIM. 8) fIOCT05lHHble BOJlHeHHJI aa 3,1J,OpOBhe pe6eHKa paao COCTapMJII13TY MOJIOllYIO erne )l(eHlUl1.HY. 9) HMKTO He CTaBI1T nOll COMHeHHe nanty 06beKTI1BHOCTb. 10) HMKOJIaM )l(eHI1JIC5I, HO CKOPO nO<fyncTBOBaJI pa30QapOBaHHe B ceMeMHOM )l(I13HI1.

10. Bblpa3HTe Mblcnb HHa~e, Hcnonb3YSI BMeCTO nepexoAHblX rnaronoa rnaronst C -CR. Cn9AHTe aa ynpaBneHHeM rnaronoa.

o 6 p a 3 e U: Y<fI1TeJI5I pa,lJ,YIOT ycnexn yqeHI1KOB. - Y<fMTeJIh panyerca ycnexax yqeHI1KOB.

1) Pe6eHKa ncnyran WYM sa CTeHoM. 2) Bcex B03MyrI1JIa ero fiecraxrnocrs: 3) 3pHTeJIeM ofipanonano yxacrae B KapTI1He JII0611.MOrO apTHCTa. 4) MeH5I MHrepecyior nonue OTKphITM5I B nCMXOJIOn1M. 5) CTpaHHhlM nocryrtox Onera scex YllI1BHJI. 6) MeH5I nopaxaer ero aneprna. 7) HOBhIM pOMaH rrl1.CaTeJI5I N MHOrMX pa30lJapOBaJI.

11. Bblpa3HTe conepscauae npeAJIO>KeHHM HHa~e, ynoTpe6HB rnaron nnrepecoBaTbCR.

1) MeH5I mrrepecyer rearp. 2) Moero npyra mrrepecyer COBpeMeHHa51 3KOHOMI1Ka. 3) Bcex Hac mrrepecyer pafiora HOBOM MOlleJII1 KOMnbIOTepa. 4) MeH5I He HHTepecyeT 6aJIeT, MeH5I mrrepecyior COBpeMeHHhIe TaHUbI. 5) Moero cocena HHTepecylOT KHI1fH 0 ITyremeCTBH5IX. 6) Moio nonpyry nrrrepecyer TBOp<feCTBO Jl.H. TOJICToro. 7) B ,lJ,eTCTBe MeH5I I1HTepeCOBaJIa )l(I13Hh rracexosurx. 8) KHpI1JIJla uurepecyer i1CTOPH5J ll.peBHei1: pYCI1. 9) AIIeKCe5J mrxorna He I1HTepeCOBaJIa nOJII1- THKa. 10) MeH5J scerna HHTepeCOBaJII1 HOBbIe HanpaBJIeHIUI B HaYKe.

128

12. OTBeTbTe aa aonpoc, aK4eHTHPYSI BHHMaHHe Ha Ha~ane npouecca, YnoTpe6HTe rnaron 3aHHTepecoBaTbcR.

06 p a 3 e u : - IhI nanao mrrepecyeutscs n033HeM?

- Iloasaea 51 3aI1HTepeCOBaJIC5I He,lJ,aBHO.

1) IhI .uaBHO mrrepecyeursca PYCCKOH nnreparvpon? 2) BbI .uaBHO mrrepe-

A-. V?

cyerecs Hapo.uHbIM HCKYCCTBOM? 3) BI1KTOP ,lJ,aBHO mrrepecyercs '-l:'MJIaTeJIMeH.

V? 4) AIlHa ,lJ,aBHO mrrepecyerca TaHuaMH? 5) IbI nasno mrrepecyeursca MY3blKOH.

6) Tsr nasao MHTepecyeIlIbc5I nCHXOJIOmeH?

13. npOAOn>KHTe BblCKa3blBaHHe I OTBeTbTe Ha aonpoc, 06bSlCHHB npH~HHY AeMcTBHSI.

YnoTpe6HTe rnaron HHTepeCOBaTb HnH HHTepeCOBaTbCR.

1) 3aBTPa 51 noriny B IpeTb5lKOBCKYIO ranepero, nOTOMY <fTO .... 2) 51 6bIBalO na scex HOBbIX nsrcrasxax B xrysce napozuroro HCKYccTBa, rrOTOMY <fTO .... 3) 51 C YllOBOJIbCTBHeM cnyurato pyccxne naponaue necmr, nOTOMY <fTO .... 4) Ceronas 51

noany B MY3eH naponee Bocroxa, nOTOMY <fTO 5) BOT yxe snroro JIeT 51 BbIITH-

CbIBaIO «JIMTepaTYPHYIO raaery», nOToMY <fTO 6) - IbI xoxeun, noexars C HaMH

B MY3eH KocMoHaBTHKH? - .... 7) - 3aBTpa 3KCKypCH5I B ll.oM-MY3eH A.ll. qexosa. BbI He XOTHTe noexars C HaMH? - .... 8) Henanno 51 Y3HaJI, <fTO B Mocxse ecrs MY3eH MY3bIKaJIbHOH KYJIhTypbI. Hano TY,IJ,a o6513aTeJIbHO rrOHTH: ....

14. a} CpaBHHTe ABa npeAnO>KeHHSI. 06bSlCHHTe pa3nH~HSI B HX COAep>KaHHH H 4>opMe.

1. Bee 6blJlH 3aMHTepeCOBaHbI pe- 3YJIbTaTaMH sxcnepusreara.

2. Bee 6bIJIH aaamepecoaaau B pe- 3YJIbTaTaX sxcnepajaenra.

KaK Bbl Mormo1 3aMen1Tb, npe,l]JlO>KeHII15I runa Kmo 3aHHTepeCOBaH iteM Io1MelOT 3HayeHIo1e «KorO-TO 3alo1HTepeCOBano YTOTO; KTO-TO npossan Io1HTepec K KaKOMY-TO C06bITIo1IO». IlpennoxeHIo1S1 runa Kmo 3aHHTepeCOBaH 6 "eM Ii1MelOT 3Ha'leHlo1e «KOMy-TO Ba>KHO KaKoe-TO coeurae: OHO V1MeeT ,l]JISI Hero npaxrn-recxoe 3Ha'leHV1e».

06paTV1Te BHV1MaHlo1e, 'lTO B KOHCTPYKLI,V11i1 Kmo aaaarepecoBaH 6 "eM n03V1L1,V1S1 6 "eM -rauie scero 3aHS1Ta CYli.\eCTBV1TenbHbIM CO 3Ha'leHV1eM C06bITV1S1, AeV1cTBV1~. npouecca: JJ ssnnrepecossn B 3TOif TlOe3PKe. MbI 331IHTepeCOBaHbi B 3TOM pelle.

129

6) CKWIG1Te xopose.

o 6 p a 3 e U: 51 3aI1HTepeCOBaH B TOM, qr06bI caars 3K3aMeHbI .n;OCPOqHO. - 51 3aHHTepeCOBaH B )lOCPOqHOH cnaxe 3K3aMeHOB.

1) BbI 3aHHTepeCOBaHhI B TOM, l.J:To6hI noexars aa KOHcpepeHUHlO? 2) <PaKYJIbTeT 3aHHTepeCOBaH B TOM, ,{To6bI rrpH06peCTH ary armaparypy 3) BbI samrrepeCOBaHbI B TOM, l.J:To6bI BcrpeTHTbCH C KOJIJIeraMH H3 npyroro BY3a? 4) ACIlHpaHr 3aI1HTepeCOBaH B TOM, l.J:T06bI 06Cy)lHTh nnccepraumo na 6JIH)I(aHllleM 3aCe)laHHH Kacpe.n;pbI.

B) OTBeTbTe aa aonpccsr, ynoTpe6nSlSl cnOBOCO"leTaHHe 3J1HHTepeCOBJIH 6 '1eM (B TOM, QTo6bl).

1) BbI 3aHHTepeCOBaHhI B 3TOH noeanxe? 2) Banta crpana saaarepecoaana B pa3BHTHH COTpy.n;HHl.J:eCTBa C )lpyfHMH crpanaxm? 3) Bam rpaxynsrer samrrepeCOBaH B YBeJIHl.J:eHHH asmycxa CrreUHaJIHCTOB? 4) Barn YHHBepCHTer aamrrepecoBaH B pacunrpeana KOHraKTOB C UpyrHMH BY3aMH? 5) BhI 3aHHTepeCOBaHbI B coBepllleHCTBOBaHHH csoero 3HaHHH pyccxoro H3bIKa? 6) BbI XOTHTe ymy6HTh CBOH 3HaHHH rro PYCCKOMY 513hIKY? 7) L(Ir51 aac HMeeT npaxrasecxoe aaaxeaae nocsnxa B POCTOB? 8) L(IrH nac Ba)I(HO saenpan, pe3YJIhTaTbI sannrx HCCJIe.n;oBaHHH B npaxTHKY? 9) llJIH naurero YHHBepCHTeTa Ba)I(HO pacuutpemre KOHTaKTOB C upyrHMH 3apy6e~HbIMH BY3aMH? 10) BaM H~Ha KOHcYJIbTaUH5I CrreUHaJIHCra no reve Baurea paooru?

15. a) CpaBHHTe npeAJ1o)KeHHSI. ~eM pa3nH"Ia1OTCSI cnOBOCO"leTaHHSI C rnaronOM 60HTbCH?

I) 51 6010Cb )lO)K)l5l. 51 6010Cb aa CBOH HOBbIe ryCPJIH. 2) )J(Ji[TeJIH nepesan 60HTC5I HaBO))'HeHH5I. OHH 605ITC5I aa CBOH )),oMa. 3) 51 6010Cb UO)K)lH. 5.1. 6010Cb aa 6eJIbC Ha 6aJIKOHe.

o 6 p a r VI T e B H VI M a H V1 e: Me)l(,D,Y KOHCTPYKL\V151MV1 60SlTbCSI KOlO, "no VI 60SlTbCSI sa KOlO, sa «mo cyw,eCTBYIOT pa3nVlllVl5l. Cp.: fl6olOCb jJO)f(4Jl. - fI 60lOCb ss CBOH HOBble TYtPJlH.

B KOHCTPYKL\VlVI 60SlTbCSI + p. n. 06beKT VlMeeT 3HalleHV1e V1CTOllHV1Ka onaCHOCTIII, roro, -rro MO)l(eT nplIIHeCTIII spen.

B KOHCTPYKLI,VIVI 60SlTbCSI aa + B. n. 06beKT IIIMeeT 3HalleHVle 'nperuaer fiecnoxoacraa', C KOTOPblM MO)l(eT cnYllVlTbC5I liTO-TO Henpusrraoe.

130

6) AononHHTe npeAJ10)l{eHHSI, Hcnonb3YSl cnoaa, AaHHbie cnpaaa.

I) B nautesr zmope :1I<HSeT 60JIbIlla51 3JIa}[ cofiaxa. a) )J;eTH 605ITc}[ .... 6) PO)),HTeJIH 6mlTc}[ ....

2) Bcto 3HMY CTO}[JIH CHJII.HI.le MOP03I.!.

a) 51 crapanacs He BI.IXOUHTb na yJIHUY, nOTOMY 'ITO 605IJIaCb ....

6) 51 nesaua H n03TOMY oc06eHHO 60}[JIaCb ....

3) Bees HlOJII. IllJIH rp030BI.Ie )lO)l()),II. a) MaJII.,{HK O'ieHI. 60HTC}[ ....

6) MaJII.'lHK OqeHI. Sne'laTJIHTeJII.HI.lil:, H pO)lHTeJIH 60}[JIHCI. ....

4) a) MaTI. Haranra O'leHI. 60JII.Ha, H )),O'lb 60HTC}[ ....

6) Bpas asmacan MaTepH CIIJIhHO)leil:cTBYIOIUee JIeKapCTBo, HO )l(eHlUHHa He TopOnHTC}[ npHHHMaTI. em, nOTOMY 'lTO 60HTC}[ ....

5) KaTH BnepBI.le nOKHHYJIa pO))'HTeJIhCKHH )lOM H yexana B )laJIeKYIO MOCKBY.

a) Caaxana OHa 60HJIaCI. ....

6) PO)),HTeJIH OqeHI. 60HJIHCh ... .

ueTH c06aKa

ropJIO npocryna

nCHXHKa petieaxa rposa

CHJIbHO)leil:cTBYIOIUHe Cpe)lCTBa

ee 3)lOpOBhe

)lO'lb, yexasuraa B 60JII.IIIOH ropon )KH3Hb B 60JIhIIIOM repone

06 P a 3 e u : 51 oxem, o6pa-

51 oxem, oopanosaa TBOHM IIHCbMOM.

nHcbMy.

)),OBaJICH TBoeMY ~ ThI otipanoaan MeHSI CBOHM IIHCbMOM.

Tsoe rrHCbMO MeH5I 06pa)lOBaJIo.

I) 5.1. IIOpa3HJICH JII06HHoH HaHBHOCTH. 2) Bee 3pHreJIH B03MyrHJIHCb necnpaBe)l,JlHBOCTblO peIIIeHHSI )I(lOpH. 3) Bepa 06H)),eJIaCb na 6eCTaKTHOe 3aMeqaHHe nonPYfH. 4) 1leBoLIKa ncnyranact. JIa51 c06aKH. 5) Macrae qHTaTeJIH pa30'lapOBaJII1Cb B nOCJIe)lHeM povane MOUHoro IIp03a11Ka. 6) Terymxa O'IeHb OrOpl.J:HJIaCb nocJIe)),HHM rrHCbMOM nJIeM5IHHHUbI. 7) Mars 6eCIIOK0l1TCH sa anoposse pefienxa. 8) Aanpeti HCKpeHHe Y)),HBHJICH MoeMY npeUJIO)l(eHHlO. 9) TbI He 06HueJIC5I na MOe 3aMeqaHHe? 10) )J(I1TeJIH cesepaoro roponxa o6pa)lOBaJIHCI. npaxoay BeCHbI. 11) Ilpneaxae nOpa3HJIHCb Heo6bIqaHHOH THIIIHHe. 12) 51 BOBce He YUHBIIJICH Baurevy npnxony.

131

17. 8) npO'lIllT8MTe OTpblBKIII1II3 nlllCeM. 06p8TIIITe BHIIIM8Hllle H8 TP8AIII141110HHYIO ~OpMY H8'18na m'CeM - 06bl'lHO 3TO C006~eHllle 0 Bne'lameHIIIIII, KOTOpOe npoaaaeno H8 aapecara KaKoe-nlll60 Co6blTllle. Onpenemrre, KaKIIIMIII cpeACTBaMIII OHO BblpruKeHO. CKa)l{IIITe, K8Kllle 1113 nplIIseAeHHblX OTPblBKOB IIIMelOT 60nee O~III- 4l11anbHblM, a KaKMe - MeHee O$III14l11anbHbIM xapaxrep, OT xero 3aBIIICIIIT 3TO pa3nlll'lllle?

1) MI1JIbIH Caural CCHqaC TIOJIyql1JI TBOe 11I1CbMO, KOTOPOC MCH51 OqCHb B3BOJIHOBaJIO (A. Benuii - A. hIlOKY). 2) MI1JIbIH 11 .LJ:OPOroH AncKCaH.LJ:p AncKcaH.LJ:pOBl1q! 51 6eCKOHCqHO oropxanca llOCJIeUHI1M BalIlJ1M TIJ1CbMOM (B. funnuyc - A. EIlOKY). 3) .uoporoH AncKCaH.LJ:p AlIeKCaHUPOBl1q! O'ICHb Bu MCHH oropqJ1JII1 eBOI1M OTKa- 30M (B. Bptocoe - A. E/IOKY). 4) nOpOrOH AncKCaH.LJ:p AncKeaH.LJ:pOBJ1q! Cepnesno finaronapio Bac aa npacnauasre ssepa )lBC KHHrM BalIlHX eTHXOB. OHJ1 OqCHb MCH5I 06Pa.LJ:OBaJIH (A. Kouopameee - t hIlOKY). 5) nOporaJI OJICqKa! Crpaurao fiecnoKOIOCb aa MaMO'lKY (B. MWlK06CKUU - cecmpe). 6) MOH H3YMHTCJIbHbIH, noporoa H JI106J1Mblti JIl1JlHK. KaK TOJIbKO 51 BBaJIHJICH B «I1CTPHIO)}, CCHqaC xe rrpJ1HeCJIM TBOe rrJ1CbMO - )]'IDKe He ycnen CHHTb tnnsrry 51 )],I1KO 06pa.LJ:oBaJIeH (B. MassoeCKUU - ll. EpUK). 7) Iloporaa J1 MJ1JIa5f MaMOqKa. BI1)J,I1Te, KaKoH y Bac XOPOlIlJ1ti CbIH: BCCM aoofinte HC 11l1lIleT, HCKOTOPbIM mnner, HO na MaJIeHbKJ1),. JlHCTOqKaX, a BaM na 60JIblIlOM H BO sees paasopor, MeHH oseus 6CCrrOK0J1T, "ITO Bsr JIeTOM 6e3 JJ:aql1 J1 6C3 ornsrxa (B. MaflKo(JcKUU - uamepu). 8) B pe)],aKIII1fO ~HaJIa «Kpacnas HOBb». He OTKa)KJ1Te B JII06c3HOCTI1 orrytimrxosars CJIe.LJ:YlOmee: 113YM1IeH pa3BH3- HblM TOHOM MaJIOrpaMOTHhlX JIIO.LJ:eH, runuyumx B «Kpacnoa HOBI1» 110)], llCCB.LJ:OHHMOM «TaJIbHHKOB». Ilam.neamee MOe COTpY.LJ:Hl1qeCTBO CqJ1TaJO JIJ1111HJ1M. BJIa)],HMHP MaHKOBCKI1H. 9) .uoporoH KOHCTaHTI1H Anexcanapoaan! Kpaiiae narryran J1 oropsen Baunrv C006mCHl1CM 0 60JIC3HH (M. rOpbKUU - K. (/JeaUHY). 10) 3arr03.LJ:aJI OTBeTHTb BaM, noporon KOHcTaHTHH AneKCaH.LJ:pOBJ1q, BCC eme He MOr) orrOMHHTbC5I OT MOCKBbI, OTJIC)KaTbCH, pasoopars nOqTY H T. )]. OqCHb 06pa.LJ:oBaH M~ecTBeHHbIM TOHOM Baurero 11I1CbMa. Xopouree aacrpoeaae - 3TO KaK pas TO, 'lTO Ollpe.LJ:eJICHHO J1 CePbe3HO noxroraer B 60Pb6e e Ha)lOe,UJIHBoH :noH 60JIe3HbKl (M. FOPbKUiI - K. (/)eaUHY).

6) BblnlllWIIITe CTPYKTYpbl - KnIllWe, xoropsre IIIcnonb3YIOTCSI AIlSi nepeA8'1111 3MO' 141110HanbHoro COCTOSlHIIISI anpecara, Bbl3B8HHoro KaKIIIM-nIll60 coo6~eHllleM.

B) COCT8BbTe 06p83e~ K8KorO-HliI6YAb mtCbM8. Hcnonb3YMTe BblnlllCaHHbie CTPYK' TYPbl.

132

18. AononHIIITe TeKCT cnOB8MIII 1113 CKo60K B Hy>KHOM $opMe.

HEEO 30BfT

BI1KTOP C UCTCTBa JII06J1JI ... (He60, BbICOTa), YBJICKa.JlCH ... (aBNaMOaeJIH3M), HHTCpeCOBaJIC5I ." ()[(N3Hb) 113BeeTHbIX JICT"lJ1KOB J1 KOCMOHaBTOB. OH rrpCKJIOHIDIcs ... (llO/!BNT) IOPJ1H Iarapana, HI1KTO 113 UPY3eH He Y)1HBJI5IJIC5i ... (TO), qTO B 6yllyuICM OH CBSDKCT CBOIO)K1l3Hh C asnaunen. CaM OH HI1CKOJIbKO He COMHCBaJICSI .. , (CBOit eutiop). qacaMll llPOCH)KllBaJI Ha.LJ: qepTC)KaMll MO)],CJICH CaMOJIeTOB, pe- 3aJI, KJICllJI, coe)]'I1H5IJl pa3HbIC )],CTaJIll. PO.LJ:I1TCJlH, KOTOPhlC scerna 6CCllOKOllJIllCb ." (OH), .LJ:a)KC HaqaJIll 6ccnOKOllTbC5I ... (CbIH) - OHll 60SL'II1Cb .. , (TO), "ITO cro YBneseane 3ai1:)J,cT CJIllllIKOM )],aJICKO. Ilpnarenn rronmysaaana '" (BNTJl): «Korna )KC Tb! 1l0JIeTI1111b na CBOeM CaMOJICTC?», HO BllKTOP ... (IIIJ'TKH) He 06mKaJIC51. Ha KOHKYPCC aBl1aMO.LJ:CJII1CTOB, KOTOPbIH rrpOXOUHJl B nauresr repone, BllKTOP 3aH5lJl llCPBOC MCCTO. CKOPO ero rrOCJIaJIll B MOCKBY aa qCMrrllOHaT CTpaHbI. nBC He.LJ:CJIll OH npOBCJI B CTOJlllU.C, 3BOHI1JI HaM, paCCKa3blBaJI, KaK B MOCKBC mrrepecno, HO rOBOpWJI, "ITO COCKYqJ1JlCH ... (aOM, npysss). Ha qCMllllOHaTe BllKTOP 3aBOCBaJI 30JIOrylO Me)],aJIb. Ypa, naur BllKTOP - qCMllllOH! Ho cnasa HC acnoprnna 1l06c)]I1TCJISI, OH HHCKOJIhKO HC 3a3HaJICH ... (npyss»). 3aTO Mbl roP)]'I1MC51 ... (CBOit TOespntu).

19. AononHIIITe Alllanorlll, IIIcnonb3YSI AaHHbie cnpaaa rnaronst B HY>KHOM $opMe.

1) -- 3a "ITO TbI ... Ha I1PllHY? ofiazters - 06w)],eTbCH - OHa ... MCH5I CBOCll

6eCTaKTHOCTbIO.

2) - 51 ... TOMY, CKOJIbKO nepenea

rrp0I13011IJIO B repone.

- He nOHllMalO, 1l0qeMY Te651 31'0 .... nO-MOCMY, MaJIO "ITO ll3MeHllJIOCb. 3) - nOCJleJJ:HI1H pOMaH Ilerposa

MemI .

- 51 TO)l(e B Ilerpose KaK B

rrWCaTCJIe.

4) - 51 ... 3a Bepy. OHa OqCHb O)l:llHOKa,

y nee HeT Hll ztpyaeii, HW 6JIll3KllX. - MeHH OHa TO)l(e ....

Y)l:HBIDITb - y)],WBJI5ITbC5I

pa30'IapOBbIBaTb - pa.30qapOBaTbC5I

6ecrrOKOllTb - 6eCllOKOllTbCSI

133

5) - 51 TaK ... MaUIlIHOMY 3BOHKY! - 11 MeWI OHa ....

6) - BbI .,. TeaTpOM?

- )l,a, jJ: ... TeaTpOM, H He TOJIbKO TeaTpOM, HO H JIHTepaTYPOH., H MY3bIKOH., H )KHBOrrHCbIO.

- A MeHjJ: )KHBOrrHCb MaJIO ... , MeHjJ: 60JIbIlle ... crropT.

7) - IIoqeMY Thl snpyr ... na Banepnx? - OH .,. MeHjJ: CBOHMH rrrYIIbIMH rnyTKaMH.

8) - MeHjJ: OqeHb ... peIlleHHe Caum IIocTYIIaTb B soeunoe yxanante. - He IIOHHMaIO, qeMY TbI .... OH C )l.eTCTBa MeqTaJI CTaTb uoeansm.

9) - 51 qYBCTBYIO, 'ITO TbI na MeHjJ: BCe

eIIIe 3aqTO?

- TbI MeHjJ: CBOeH.

HeBHHMaTeJIbHOCTbIO.

- IIpocTH, B IIOCJIe)l.Hee speva jJ: 6blJl OqeHb 3aHjJ:T. He nano na MeHjJ: ....

10) - He CTOHT ... ero IIOCTYIIKOM, OH C)l.eJIaJI 3TO 6e3 3JIorO YMbICJIa.

- MeHjJ: ... He 3TO, a TO, 'ITO OH COBceM He )l.YMaJI 0 IIOCJIe)l.CTBHjJ:X csoero IIOCTYIIKa.

ofipanosars - 06pa)l.OBaTbCH

HHTepeCOBaTb - HHTepeCOBaTbCjJ:

pa303JIHTb - pa303JIHTbCjJ:

OropqHTb - OrOpqHTbCjJ:

06H)KaTb - 06H)KaTbCH

B03MymaTb - B03MymaTbcH

20. Ir1cnonb3YSl B03BpaTHbie rnaronei 3MOlU"M, CKa>K ... Te, KaK ... e '4YBcTBa Bbl3blBalOT

sac cneAylOw, ... e '4enOBe'4eCKMe Ka'4eCTBa:

6ecTaKTHocTb, rpyfiocrs, AOBepqHBOCTb, HeBHHMaHMe, HaCTOH:qMBOCTh, yrro~ CTBO, yrtpasrcrno, HerrocpeAcTBeHHocTb, xaMCTBO, orxponenaocn-, M)')KecTB , HenocpeAcTBeHHocTb, TIlleCJIaBMe, '-IecToJllo6Me, TepneHMe, paBHoAYIIIMe, ycepAMe, TPY)lOJII06Me, 6eCne'lHOCTh, JIerKOMhICJIHe, CnpaBe)lJlMBOCTb, JIeHb, )J(a)lHOCTb:

134

rpYCOCTh, Ha30MJIHBOCTh, JII0603HaTeJIbHOCTb, JIl060nhITCTBO, fiecuepeaoanocrs, XHTPOCTb, HCKpeHHocTb, HeHcKpeHHocTh,CKPOMHOCTb, UHHH3M, HH3KOrrOKJIOHCTBO, narnocrs, <paMMJIhjJ:pHOCTh.

21. CKa>K ... Te, KaK nOAeMcTBoBan ... aa aauie HacTpoeH ... e TaK ... e 4»aKTbl ... C06bIT ... SI:

1) K BaM HeO)J(H)l.aHHO IIpHeXaJlH rOCTH;

2) BhI neynasno C)l.aJIH 3K3aMeHhI;

3) BbI nOJIY'-IMJIH H3BeCTHe 0 60JIe3HH npyra;

4) santa panora nOJIY'lMJIa BhICOKYIO onenxy y nayaaoro PYKOBO)l.HTeAA;

5) BhI nOCCOpllJIHCh C roaapmnea;

6) sonpexa O)J(H)l.aHMIO BaM yztanocs n:OCTaTh 6HJIeT na HaIIIYMeBIIIHH: CneKTaKJIh;

7) BepHYBIlIHCh )l.OMOH: nOCJIe ztonroro OTCyrCTBlljJ:, BhI YBllAeJIH nepen co60H: noB3pOCJIeBllIyro CeCrpeHKY, xoropaa pansnre 6bIJIa COBceM )l.eBOqKOH:;

8) BbI He MOfJIH OCTaBaThCH paBHO)l.YIIIHhIM nOCJIe 6eCTaKTHOH: BbIXO)l.KM O)l.HOKYPCHHKa.

22. BblnonHMTe 38AaH ... SI, CBR3aHHbie C ynoTpe6neHMeM rnaronoa CKY'lHTb M COCKyQHTbCH.

a) npO'4MTaMTe M KpoTeKCTbI. Onpenen ... Te B"'A BblAeneHHblX maronoa. KaKYIO

4»OPMY (c -CH n ... 6e3 -ca) ... MeeT rnaron HeCOBepweHHoro ... coaepuieaaoro

B"'Aa?

1) ITO'-leMY TbI n:YMaellIh, '-ITO 51 COCK)"IH.JICJI? 51 BOBce He COCK)"IH.JICJI. qecTHo roaops, 51 Boo6111e He nOHHMalO, 'ITO raxoe caners H CKy'laTb. Bem, na )l.BOpe XXI BeK!

2) - Ha npOIlIJIOH: neaene 51 6hIJIa B KOMaHn:MpOBKe M BCe 3TO BpeMH CKY'IaJla 6e3 sac.

- M hI TO)J(e aa 3TH n:HH no refie COCK)"IHJIHCb.

106 p a r Y1 T e B H Y1 M a H 11 e: BBII1AOBO~ nape CKY'-IaTb (HCB)COCKY'4 ... TbCR (CB) rnaron HCB ynorpetinaercs 6e3 -CR.

6) AononH ... Te npeA/10>KeH R, ynoTpe6 ... B B H ... X rnaron CKY'lHTb K11 ... COCKY'lHTbCH

B HY>KHOM 4»opMe. YKa>K re, me B03MO>KHbl BapMaHTbl.

1) )loporoH: ITeTH, npOIlIJIO TOJIhKO nse nenemr, KaK MhI paccranncs, a 51 yxe ycneJIa no refie .... - TaHH, He ... , 51 CKOPO BepHYCh. 2) ThI rosopaurs, '-ITO AH5I ". ? Flonapnre eM utenxa, OHa cpasy nepecraner .... 3) B snsapc 51 6hIJI B nocl'05JHHLIX parsesnax 11 BeCL MeCHU oxens ... no AOMY. A KaK 51 ... aa 3TO BpeMH no i(OYKe! 4) BepHYCh He o-rem. n03AHO. TbI 6e3 MeH5I He .... 5) KaHMKYJIbI Ha'-laJIMCh

135

COBceM nenaaac, HO H )')Ke ycrren ... rro ynnaepcnrery 6) K KOHUY JIeKUH:H: CJIY·

urarena HaqaJIH: 3aMeTHO 7) Tsr rosopmus, qTO ... rro HaCTOHmeMY CPYT60ny?

CKOPO qeMrrH:OHaT MH:pa, nepecraneurs. 8) I10qeMY Tbl llYMaellb, qTO B nepes ..

He Tbl 6Yllellb ... ? Y Hac TaM nee, osepo, pbl6aJIKa; ... re6e rrpocro He npnaerca. A nero nponernr 6blcrpo, TbI naxe He ycrreeurs .... 9) JI TaK ... rro reoe' JlyCTaJIa ... . JI He xouy fionsure ... ! 10) Msr He BH:lleJIH:Cb nenoe JIeTO H: sa 3TO BpeMH CH:JIb· HO ... npyr rro npyry 11) Hy KaK, Haraura, Tbl ... rro MHe? - HeT, KocTH, '-lecTHO

.'

rOBopH, He ycrreJIa ....

B) BOCCTaHOBMTe AManor. YnoTpe6MTe rnaron CKyqHTb MnM COCKY'lHTbCJI B HYlKHO~

cl>opMe. '

- JI o-rem, BOJIHYIOCb aa csoero pefieasa. DOIOCb, OH 6Yller ... B lleTCKOM cany ~

- He BOJIHyMTecb! Y Hac B lleTCKOM caay MaJIbIllH: amcorna He .... OHH: Bce BP~~

3aHHTbI KaKl1M-HH:6Y,llb H:HTepeCHbIM ,lleJIOM: H:rpaIOT, PH:CYIOT, TaHUYIOT, rrolO1 ryJI5IIOT aa CBe)!(eM soanyxe. TaK qTO ... H:M He rrpH:XO,llH:TCH. OHH: rrpOCTO He YC4 rreBalOT ....

23. OAHa 1013 MOll0A9>KHbIX raaer 06paTMnaCb K CBOMM 'fMTaTenHM C BonpOCOM: ccKaK~ C06b1TMe 3TOiil HeAenM aac nOP3AOBano? Kaxoe oropsano?» OTBeTbTe Ha 1r0nllOt, aHKeTbl, Mcnonb3ys1 B03BpaTHble rnaronbI3MOl!,MiiI.

24. 06bHcHMTe, KaK Bbl nOHMMaeTe PyccKMe nocnoaause

1) He pazryncs namezmm, He T)')KH:, norepas;

2) Dtasa 60HTC5I, a pyxn ,lleJIaIOT;

3) BOJIKOB 60HTbCH - B nee He XO,llH:Tb;

4) He CMeH:CH qY)!(OH: fiene, CBOH na rpane;

5) qero CTbl.llH:MCH, roro H TaHMCH;

6) He llHBJIIOCb ,llpaqYHaM, Ylll1BJIHIOCb 3pHTeJI5IM;

7) XBaJIl1JIaCb CI1HHua Mope c)!(e%.

I ECTb nM B BaweM POAHOM H3blKe nOXO>KMe no cMblcny nocnoaausr? nepeBeAKA

MX aa PYCCKMH H3bIK.

25. npO'fMTaHTe TeKCT. BblnOnHMTe 33AaHMH nocne TeKCTa.

MbICJII1 0 TEATPE

"I

B CBOeM OTHOlleHHI1 K TCaTpaJIbHOH: KJIaCCl1KC H unxorzta He Mor rrpeo,lloJIel1

B ce6e COBpeMeHHblX nOHHTI1H: 0 noope 11 3JIC. ,l],BOH:HOe caMoy6HH:CTBO POMeoJ n)!(YJIbeTTbI KpaCI1BO H: pOMaHTH:qHO B YCJIOBI1HX I1TaJIbHHCKOro CPCO,llaJIH:3Ma, n~, rrOJIHOM 6CCrrpaBl1l1 HCCqaCTHblX MOJIO,llbiX JIIO,llCH:. MbI BOCXHlllaeMCSI CHJlOH II'

136

Jll068H I1 6Y,lleM annonapoaars HX repOH:qeCKOH: cxeprn ua cnene. Ho eCJIH: B naWI1X YCJIOBHHX, ceronaa KTO-HH:6Yllb YMY,llPH:TCH rrocnenoaars HX npaxcpy, TO MbI TOJIbKO rrpH:MeM K CBe,lleHHIO, qTO H3 natuen )!(H:3HH: YllJIH: nsa MOJIO,llbIX H,llI10ra, KOTOPbIX, KOHeqHO, MbI TO)!(e 6Y,lleT )!(aJICTb, HO y)!(e COBCCM He TaK, KaK POMeo H )l)!(YJIberry .

B rparenua Espauana «Menear repOHHH B03Mym,aeTCH H3MeHOH M)'lKa H aa- 3JIO eMY y6HBaeT CBOH:X MaJIeHbKH:X nerea. JI He osem, rrpC,llCTaBJIHIO ce6e, KaKH:e MMeHHO couaansaue YCJIOBH5I )l;peBHeM Ipeuna rr03BOJIH:JIH EBPH:IIH,lly rpaxrosan, 3TO npecrynnenae KaK repOHqeCKH:M nopsrs 11 noxesry OH BOCXHlllaeTCH HM, HO qTO B aaum ,llHH: TOJIbKO npecrynaas aeronsnxa lla)!(e B MbICJI5IX Moma 6bI nonycrrrrs TaKYIO Mepy B03,lleMCTBHH na M)')Ka - 3TO acex HCHO.

JllleJII1KOM pa311CJIHIO JII060Bb Illexcrrnpa K ero Iasorery H: HeHaBH:CTb K PH:xapny Tperseuy, HO BOCXHlllaTbCH BMeCTe C HH:M BeJlH'lHeM;zyxa Orenno, HaCJIa)!(nartca my6H:HOH H TOHKocrbIO qYSCTB 06MaHYTOrO M)')Ka H xareropasecxa He Mory. Y6HHCTBOM HeBHHHOH )KeHbl, xoropoe M)')K cosepuraer H:3-3a c06CTBeHHOM rnyrrocrn, YMHJ1BTbCH H He MOry.

I103TOMY,lla)!(e BeJII1qaMllHe rrpOH3Be,lleHH5I KJIaCCH:qeCKOrO penepryapa 1l0JI)!(Hbl BOCrrpH:HH:MaTbCH HaMH: C OT60pOM - qTO ,llOCTOH:HO nonpaxaana, a qTO - HH:

B KoeM cnysae. K CqaCTbIO, B MH:POBOM KJIaCCH:qeCKOM penepryape na MHorne enre sexa XBaTHT TaKH:X nsec, non MOPaJIbHbIMH KOHllerrUl1HMl1 KOTOPbIX MbI H ceronHH MO)!(eM rronnacarsca 06eHMH pYKaMH. Jly-nnae YMbI I1 TaJIaHTbI qeJIOBeqeCTBa 60POJIH:Cb sa qeJIOBeqeCKOe llOCTOH:HCTBO, sa JII060Bb K JIIO,llHM, aa nporpecc B H:X OTHOlleHHHX.

(lIo H. AKUMoey)

a) nepeAaHTe cOAep>KaHMe BblAeneHHblx crpYKTYP C nOMOll.!,blO M3BeCTHblX BaM CMHOHMMM'fHbIX KOHCTPYKL!.MH.

6) CK8>IG1Te, nO'feMY pe>KMccep AKMMOB He paanenaer 'fYBCTB aBTopOB MHorMX KnaCCM'feCKMX nsec, KOTopble OHM McnblTblBalOT K CBOMM repOSlM. nQATBepAMTe.CBOM cnoaa npMMepaMM 1013 TeKCTa.

B) Pa3AenSleTe nM Bbl TO'fKY 3peHMSI H. AKMMOBa? nOATBepAMTe Bawy Mblcnb npaMepaMM.

r) PaCCKa>KMTe 0 anesarneaasx, xoropeie npoaseen aa sac KaKOH-HM6YAb cnexTaKnb.

A) PaCCKa>KMTe 0 aaureja OTHoweHMM K cOBpeMeHHoMY penepryapy rearpce 101 KMHOTeaTpOB.

10 - 98

137

26. npO'tHTaMTe TeKCT. BblnOnHHTe 3aAaHHSI nocne TeKCTa.

o PYCCKOM 513hIKE

Hnxero na CBeTe HC 6bIBacT 6C3 npWUlHhI. ECJIH 6hI HC CrOpCJIa Ta HCCqaCT.,.

HaSI MCJIbHHua, )J,c)J, HC nomen 6hI na )KCJIC3HYIO nopory, a OTCU BPSID: JIH naxan 6hI,: yqHThCSI B repone. To, 'ITO MOit OTCU B nepasre ronst peBOJIIOUHH OKa3aJICSI rpavor-] HbIM qCJIOBCKOM (n03)KC OH CIUe ,n:Ba)I()lhI yqHJICSI B MocKBC), TO, 'ITO OH O,n:HHM Hl:! nepastx KHPrH30B CTaJI patiorars na PYKOBO,n:SIIUHX nocrax, )KHBO HHTepeCOBaJlCa nOJIHTHKoit H nnreparypoa, K TOMY )KC MOSI MaTh TO)KC 6bIJla rpaaornort, BnOJIIt; HC COBpCMeHHOM )KCHIUHHOit, n03BOJIillIO MM cpasy npH06111MTb MCHSI K PYCCKO ' KYJIbTYPC, PYCCKOMY SI3bIKY M, CTaJIO 6bITb, K PYCCKOM nnreparype, - pa3YMCCTCR K ,n:CTCKOit JIHTCpaTYPC.

C npyroa CTOPOHbI, 6a6yruKa, nOCTOSIHHO YB03HBruaSI MCHSI, BHYKa CBOCro, H JICTO K cefie B ropsr, )KCHlllHHa HCKJlIOqHTCJIbHO 06aSITCJIbHruI M YMHaSI, KOTOpy ace ysaxamr B ceJIC, OKa3aJIaCb MSI MCHSI KJlaJJ;OM CTapMHHblX nCCCH, 6bIJlCM H H 6bIJlHU. 51 HaCJIIDK,llaJICH, CJIyruaSI HX. ITO)KaJIyH, cava roro He no,n:03pCBaSI, 6a6ym xa npHBHJIa MHC JlI060Bb K po,n:HOMY SI3bIKY.

,UOJI)KCH CKa3aTb, HCXOM no KpaMHCM MCpC M3 C06CTBCHHOrO onsrra, 'ITO, nCTCTBe qeJIOBCK MO)KeT OpraHl1qCCKH rnyooxo YCBOMTh )J,Ba napannensno np ruC)J,IlIHX K HCMY SI3bIKa, a MO)f(CT 6hITh, H 60JIbruc, ecnn 3TH SI3hIKH 6bIJlH pasa )J,CMCTBYJOIUMMH C nepsux JIeT. ,UnSI MCHSI PYCCKHM SI3hIK He B MeHbrucH crenea PO)J,HOM, qeM KHPrH3CKHM, PO)J,HOM C )J,eTCTBa, PO,n:HOit na BCIO )l(M3Hb.

MHe 6bIJlO nars JIeT, xorna H srrepaste OKa3aJICSI B ponn rrepenorrraxa, a KYC sapeaoro MHca 6hIJl MOHM nepnsn« «ronopapov». 3TO CJIyqHJIOCb nCTOM B rop rne SI, KaK 06hlqHO, 6hIJl C 6a6yruKoH.

B TO JIeTO aa aaruesr nacT6MIUC CJIyqMJIaCb fiena. ITJICMeHHoit xepeoeu, r<yIIi JICHHbIM KOJIX030M HC3aJJ;OJIrO no aroro, BHC3anHO rrorno. YnaJI cpezn, 6eJIa )J, CO B3)J,YTbIM )KHBOTOM. KOJIX03HHKH B3BOJlHOBaJlHCb, )Kepe6cu 6hIJl UCHHbIH, no PO,n:MCTbIM, npMBc3eHHbIM H3 naJIeKOM POCCHH. ITOCJIaJIM rouua B pation. 11 -repe )J,CHb K HaM B ropu npHCXaJI PYCCKHM '-ICnOBCK. BbICOKHM, PbI)Kc60pO)J,bIM, C ro, JIy6bIMH rnasasor, B '-IepHoit KO)KaHOM KYPTKC, C nonCBOM CyMKOM na 60KY. 51 er' O'-ICHb XOPOiliO 3anOMHHJI. OH He 3HaJ1 HH CJIOBa nO-KMprH3CKH, a uaunr - no PYCCKM. HaJJ;O 6hIJIO npOBCCTH OCMOTP, BbISICHHTb 06CTOSITCJIbCTBa rH6cnH )1(11., BOTHoro, COCTaBHTh )lOKYMeHT. KOJIX03HMKlI aenonro nYMaH peumnn, '-ITO nepe; BO,U'-IHKOM 6yny SI. A SI B 3TO BPCMSI CTOSIJI B TOJIne pe6SITHwcK, Mbl BO BCC rJla~

I

rnSI,UCJIH na rtpueaxero. %.1

138

- ITOIllJllI, - CKa3aJI MHC O)J,HH H3 My)f(qHH H B3SIJI 3a PYKY. - 3TOT '-ICnOBeK Be 3HaCT SI3bIKa, Thl nepeaenn, 'ITO OH rosopar, a TO, 'ITO MbI CKa)f(CM, cxaxeun,

eMY·

51 3aCTeCHSlJICSI, HCnyraJICSI, BhlPBaJICSI M y6C)KaJI K 6a6YIlIKc. 3a MHOM BCSI ryps-

6a npY3CM, CHCnaCMaSI JII060TTbITCTBOM. QCPC3 HeKOTOpoC BPCMSI CHOBa npMXOnHT TOT '-ICJIOBeK, lKaJIYeTCSI na MeHSI. Bafiyurxa scerna 6bIJla JIaCKOBa, a B TOT pas CTpOro aaxstypunacs.

- ThI nO'-IeMY He XOqCIlIh pasrosapuaars C npHe3)I(MM, Te6SI aens npOCSIT 60nhlime JIIOnH, pa3BC ThI He saaeun, PYCCKoro H3hIKa?

51 MOJI'-IaJI. C3a,nH 3aTaHJIHCh pc6SITa - 'ITO 6y,UeT?

- TbI '-ITO, CTbl)J,HWbCSI ronopars no-pYCCKH HJIH ThI CTbl,lJ,HWbCSI csoero SI3bIxa? Bee H3hIKH 60roM )laHhI, nesero refie, TTOIlIJlIL - OHa B3HJIa MeHSI aa PYKY H nosena. Pc6SITa CHOBa aa HaMH.

B nove, rne B '-IeCTb rOCTSI aapnnacs CBe)KaSI tiapanana, 6bIJlO TTOJIHO Hapony.

Ilnna KYMbIC. npHC3)KHM BCTcpHHap cH)J,eJI BMeCTe CO cTapHKaMH. OH nOMaHillI MeHH' YJIbI6aSIcb:

- 3axo,UH, MaJIbqHK, HllH crona. KaK Tc6SI 30Byr? 51 THXO np060pMOTaJI. OH nornanan MeHSI:

- Cnpocn Y HHX, TTO'-IeMY 3TOT )l(epe6eu nOfH6, - H nOCTaJI 6yMary MSI aaIIHCH.

Bee CTHXJlH B O)l(HllaHHH, a SI 3aMKHYJICSI H HHKaK He Mor CKa3aTb HH CJIOsa. na6YUIKa CHnCJIa CKOH<PY)KeHHa5l. Torna MeHSI B351Jl na KOJIeHH CTapHK, aanr pOnCTBeHHHK. OH npH)I(aJI MeH5I K cefie H CKa3aJI na yxo ,UOBepHTeJIbHO H O'-ICHb crporo:

- 3TOT '-IenOBeK 3HaeT rnoero orua, QTO)KC OH CKa)KeT eMY 0 Hac, CKa)I(eT, xaKMM nJIOXMM pacrer Y KHprH30B ero CbIH! - 11 nOTOM rpOMKO 06bSIBHn: - CCMqaC OH 6Y)leT rosopnrs. CKa)KH namesry roCTIO, '-ITO 3TO MeCTO Ha3bIBaeTCH Yy-Ca3 ...

- ~H)J.5I, - P06KO Ha'-IaJI SI, - 3TO MCCTO Ha3hIBaCTCSI Yy-Ca3, 5InOBHTbIM JIyr, - 11 IIOTOM ocvenen, BH)J.5I, KaK Pa,LJ,OBaJIHCb 6a6YIlIKa, H 3TOT npHe3)1(MM qCnOBeK, 11 nee, KTO 6blJI B )J,OMe. 11 na BCIO )l(M3Hb 3anOMHMJI TOT CHHXPOHHblit nepeson pa3rOBopa, CJIOBO B CJIOBO na 060HX H3bIKax. )l(epc6eu, OKa3bIBaeTC5I, OTpaBillICSI }(nOBMTOM rpasoa. Ha sonpoc, nO'-IeMY HC enSIT 3TY TpaBY npyrue JIOIlIaJJ;H, naurn )«I1TenM 06bSICHlInH, qTO MeCTHblC nourann He rporaior 3TY TpaBY, OHH 3HaIOT, 'ITO OHa HeCbC)J.06HaSI. TaK 51 see 11 nepenen.

npHe3)f(Hit nOXBaJlHn MeH5I, ",me naJIM UCJIblH KyCOK sapeuoro M5ICa, ropsrtefO, )J.YWHCToro, 51 BbICKO'-IHJI na YJIHUY C TOP)f(CCTBYIOIUHM BlI)J.OM. Pe6SITa BMHr \feWI OKPY)I(MJIH.

139

- Yx, KaK 3.IlOPOBO! - BOCXH~aJlHCb OHH. - Tst nO-pYCCKH umapnun., KaI< BO.Ila B pexe, 6e3 OCTaHOBKH! - Ha caMOM nene 51 roBOPJ1JI sarnmaacs, HO petiaTaM yrO.IlHO 6hIJIO rtpencrasars 3TO TaK, KaK HM XOTeJIOCh. Msr ryr )!(e CbeJIH MHCO H nooexana MrpaTh.

, CT6MT JIM B nareparypaon 6Horpa<imH vnoxaaars 0 TaKHX sernax? nO-MoeMY, CTOHT. HaJlO HaqHHaThC roro, 'ITO arrepasre B )!(I13HH 3anOMHI1Jl xenoeex, xorna KaK 3TO 6hIJIO . .sI y6e)!(JleH, 'ITO BCe aro MHOro 3HaqHT. '

(Do g. Aiimuamoey)

a) OTBeTbTe Ha acnpocsr, HCnOnb3ySl BblAeneHHble B paccxase rnaronsr,

• KaK OTHOCVlJlC5I oreu lJ. A~TMaToBa K nOJlVlTVlKe VI nureparyps?

• Kaxoe l.fYBCTBO Bbl3blBaJlVl Y MaJlbl.fVlKa crapaaaue neCHVI, 6blJll!1 VI He6blJlVlUbi B

VlCnOJlHeHVIVI 6a6ywKVI?

• KaK nOAe~CTBOBaJlO Ha KOJlX03HVlKOB Vl3BeCTVle 0 rVl6eJlVl xepeeua?

• KaK .. orpearaposan MaJlbl.fI!1K aa npocsoy B3POCJlbiX 6blTb nepeBOAl.fVlKOM?

• 0 "IeM Mor roaopars npVle3)1(VI~ C 6a6ywKo~ MaJlbl.fVlKa?

• KaK y6e)I(Aana MaJlbl.fJ.1Ka 6a6ywKa?

• KaKOe l.fYBCTBO auasan y B3POCJlbiX MaJlbl.fVlK, vcneun-o BbmOJlHVlBWIII~ CBOIO MVlCCVlIO nepesonxaxa?

• KaK pearaposana pe651TIIIWKJ.1 Ha ycnex csoero TOBapl-1UJ,a?

6) PaCCKa>KHTe, '4TO 'iYSCTBOBan Manb'4HK, KOToporo nonpocana BblCTynHTb B ponH nepeBOA'iHKa, KaK Bblpa>K8nH CBOH '4YBCTB8 cnYW8TenH.

B) CK8)1(HTe, npHXOAHnOCb nH BaM Y>Ke BblCTyn8Tb B ponH nepeBOA'iHKa C PYCCKOro Sl3blK8 Ha POAHOM Sl3blK HnH, Hao6opOT, C ponaoro Ha PYCCKHM. PaCCKa>KHTe, 'iTO Bbl npH 3TOM '4YBCTBOBanH.

CTPAHV1'-1KA .lln~ .llETEIII

27. a) npO'i~1T8MTe CK83Ky 0 PYCCKOM 3HMe. CK8)I(HTe, 8 KaK8S1 Y aac 3HMa?

I1POKA3bI CTAPYXI1 311MbI

Pa303JIHJIaCh crapyxa 3HMa na monea H aaepen: 3a,uYMaJIa OHa BCHKoe nsixaHHe CO CBeTa C)!(I1Th. I1pe)I(Ae scero, CTaJIa OHa .IlO nTHIl .Il0611paThCJ.I.: Ha.IloeJIM eit OHH CBOI1M KPI1KOM 11 nI1CKOM.

I10.IlYJ1a 311Ma X0J10.IlOM, nOCpbIBaJIa nl1CTbH C .IlepeBheB. Hexyna I1TMuaM neBa~~CR. C06PaJIl1Cb OHH, I10KPI1'IaJJl1 H nOneTeJ111 aa BblCOKHe ropu, aa Cl1Hl1e MOpH, B rennue CTpaHbI. OCTaJICH nopoeen, 11 TOT non KPbIIlIY 3a611J1CH.

140

BH.IlHT 311Ma, -rro nTHIl etl He nornars: HaKI1HYJIaCb aa saepea. 3anOpOIlII1JIa cnerov nOJ1e, aanarrana cyrp06aMH neca 11 nOChlJIaCT MOp03 sa MOp030M. Hnyr MOP03h1 O.IlI1H npyroro 3JIee, C eJIKH Ha eJIKY nepenpsrraaaior, asepeti rtyraior. He I1Cnyranacs 3BepH MOP030B: y O.IlHHX IlIy6bI rennsre, npyrne B my60KHe HOPbI aartpsTaJIHCb; 6eJIKa B nynne opeunor rpuaer: Me.IlBeAb B fiepnore nany cocer; 3aHHbKa, npsrraioxa, rpeerca; a JIOIlIa)lKH, KOPOBKH, OBeqKH. AaBHbIM - AaBHO B TefIJIbIX XJIeBax rOTOBoe ceno ~IOT, TenJ10e rrotinc nbIOT.

Euie CI1JlhHee 3JIHTCH na scex 3HMa - AO PhI6 OHa reneps A06H.paeTCH; nocuJ1aeT MOP03 aa MOP030M, OJU1H npyroro 3JIee. 3aMep3JII1 peKI1 H oaepa, na TOJIbKO csepxy; a pbI6a BCH BrJIy6b yiuna; nono nb.IlOM etl euie rennee.

«Hy; nocroa xe, - .IlyMaeT 311Ma, - .IlOtlMY 51 JIIO.Iletl», - H IlIJIeT MOP03 sa MOP030M, O.IlHH npyroro 3JIee. nOKphIJIl1 MOP03bI Y30paMH OKHa, CTY'IaT H B creasi, H. B nsepa, TaK 'ITO 6peBHa JIOnaIOTC51. A nJO.Ill1 MOP030B He 60RTCH: 3aTOnH.JIH. nesKH, nexyr ce6e 6nHHhI ropa-me na HaJl3YlMotl nOJICMeI1BaIOTCH. Cnysnrcx KOMY aa APOBaMYl B nee exars, HMeHeT OH rynyn, BaJIeHKI1, PYKaBH.IlhI rennsre .Ila KaK npaMeTCH ronopov MaxaTb, naxe nOT npouratier, 00 noporav, 6Y.IlTO 3HMe na csrex, 0603bl noraaynacs; OT notuaneti nap BaJIHT: H3B63lIHKH norasra norortusaior, pyKaBHuaMH nOXJIOnbIBaIOT, IlJIeqaMH nO.IleprHBaIOT, MOP03Ubl nOXBaJII1BaIOT.

Ewe 60JIhIIle 06HJIeJIaCb 3H.Ma na JIIOJIeil: naxe MaJIble pe6HTHIlIKH. - H re ee He 60SlTCH! Haoriopor, OHH 3HMe pa,uYIOTCSl. KaTalOTCH ce6e aa KOHhKax na aa canxax, B CHe)l{KH HrpaIOT, 6a6 JIenHT, ropsr CTPOHT, BOJIoil nOJIJiBalOT JIa ewe MOP03 KJIHqyr: «I1pI1JlI1-Ka nOMOqh!» IUH.nHeT 3HMa CO 3JIOCTI1 O.IlHOrO MaJIhqyraHa aa yxo, npyroro aa HOC, JIa)Ke nofieneior; a MaJJbqHK CXBaTHT ctrera, ):(aBatl repers - Yl pasroparcs Y Hero JIHIlO, KaK orons.

BH.IlHT 3H.Ma, 'ITO HI1KTO ee He 60HTCH, HMKOro OHa ncnyrars He MoxeT, H 3annaxana OT 3JIOCTM. C xpsnu 3HMHMe cneasr 3aKanaJIH ... BH.IlHO, BeCHa nenanexo!

6) npO'iHTaMTe BapHaHT CKa3KH 0 3HMe. CnoBa B cKo6Kax ynoTpe6MTe B Hy*HOM cIl0pMe.

Pa303JIYlJIaCb 3HMa (rrmusr, 3BepH, Phl6bl, moan), H 3aJlYMaJIa OHa (OHH) HCnyrars. OOChIJIaeT OHa ira 3eMJIIO MOP03bI. OTHIJ;bI C06paJIH.Cb 11 na tor YJIeTenH. A 3BepH. (MOp03bI) He 60SlTCSl: y 0.IlHHX IlIy6bI rerinue, npyrne B rnytioxne HOPbI 3anpHTaJIl1Ch. 11 phI6a (MOp03bI) He ncrryranact, - yuma OHa rnytioxo na .IlHO - nOJI JleJISlHotl KpbIIlletl eM eiue rennee. JIIOJII1 TO)!(e (Mop03) He 605ITCH. 3aTOnHJ1H. oau ne'IKI1, nexyr ce6e 61Il1HbI rOp5I'IHe na (3HMa) nO.IlCMeI1BaIOTcH.

EIUC 60JlbIlIe 06I1JleJIaCb 3HMa (monu). Ila)Ke MaJIbIe pefisra (OHa) He 60HTCH, Ha060pOT, (MOp03) TOJ1bKO pallYIOTCH! KaTalOTCH OHH aa canxax, B CHe)!(KH HrpalOT, caexasrx 6a6 .nertar, JIelUIHbIC ropu CTPOHT .u3 euie MOP03 30BYT: «npHXOlll1-Ka no-

141

MOqb!» 3JUfTc5I, 3JIlfTC5I 3lfMa (pe651Ta), MOP03 OnHOrO MaJIbqlfllIKY sa yxo ytnnrnter; npyroro aa HOC, yum H HOCbI naxe rr06eJIeIOT, a MaJIbqHllIKH (MOp03) He 605lTC5I. Cxsarar MaJIbqHK caera, naaan repers - H pa3ropHTC5I y Hero mlUo KaK orons.

Bnmrr 3HMa, 'ITO HHKTO (OHa) He 60HTC5I, H aannaxana OT 3JIOCTH, C xpsnu 3HMHHe CJIe3bI aaxanann. Blf,UHO, BeCHa HenaJIeKO!

4. B03BpaTHbie rnaronsi Kon..,.teCTBeHHbIX

M Ka'teCTBeHHbIX M3MeHeHMH (AeKaY3aTMBHble rnaronei)

1. a) npO'fHTaMTe TeKCT. 3aMeHHTe BblAeneHHble maronsi cnOBOCO'feTaHHSlMH. 06 P a 3 e u : yxynurarsca - CTaHOBHTbCH x)')!<e;

yxynIIIHTbC5I - CTaTh x),)!<e.1 I

CKOPO 3K3AMEHhI!

CKOPO 3K3aMeHbI! 3a ronsr yqe6hI CTyneHT cnaer ax 60JIee COTHlf. CKOJIhK~ BpeMeHH rrposoztm, MhI aa rrlfChMeHHhIM CTOJIOM, B ayznrropmr, B 6H6mIOTeKet Ho ncerna JIH MbI BenCM rrpaBHJIbHbIM 06pa3 )J(H3HH? .~ ~.

Bo BpeM5I 3K3aMeHOB YBeJlIf1lHBaIOTC5I HarpY3KH Ha see CHCTeMbI naurero op'_,;

raHH3Ma: nOBbIwaeTCH YTOMJI51eMOCTb, YXY,11,WaeTCJI COH, YCHJlHBaeTCH pa3nPIDKH.'ii.,.··.i reJIhHOCTb, CHIDKaeTCH mrrepec K pafiore, 3aMe)1,JIJlIOTCJI peaKUHH, OCJla6J1J1IOTCI samarmre CHJIhI opranaava, BOJIHeHHJI H HerrpHJITHOCTI1 To~e BJIH51IOT ira caM~~ qYBCTBlfe. TaK, y cryaeara rrpa BXOne B ayznrropato, rne nncr 3K3aMeH, qaCTO~. rrynsca MO)J(eT yoeJIH'IHThCH (L(O 140 ynapos B MHHYTY npn HopMe 70), a aprepre ' aJIbHOe naanenae rrepenxo nOBbIWaeTCJI (no 155/95 MM npn nopue 110/70 MMh DPH CHHXPOHHOM rrepesone y rrepeBOL(qHKOB 'JaCTOTa rrynsca MO)J(eT nOBbIcHTbcj ..... ' ... (no 160 ynapos B MHHyry). '

KaKoM ssmon MO)J(HO cnenars? qeJIOBeK nOJI)J(eH YMeTb rrpaBHJIhHO opranaso-: sars CBOM TPY.n;. ,D,JUI nonaepxanaa pa60Tocnoc06HOCTH nano aKTMBHO nBHraTbC5I.j .ll;BH)J(eHHe MO)J(eT 3aMeHHTb JII060e JIeKapCTBo, HO HH OD:HO JIeKapCTBO He MO)J(eT,i 3aMeHHTb ,11,BH)J(eHl1e. ~J

)}ll

6) OTBeTbTe aa eonpocsr, Hcnonb3YR BblAeneHHble B TeKCTe maronsr.

;J

• KaK SJ1I11~eT nOCTO~HHoe Hanp~)I(eHllle HepsHolli CIllCTeMbl Ha oprauuara? Kat(

OHO orpaxaercs Ha CHe, peaKL.J,III~X opraauaraa, Ha IIIHTepece K patiore III T. A.~ KaK 1113MeH51eTC51 yaCTOTa nvnsca, naaneune? Kaxne e[U8 1113MeHeHIII51 npoVlc·· XO,D,51T?

• MO)l(HO nlll uaasars pa60TY nepeeon-uuca-caaxpouacra cnoxoauoa?

142

2. a) n03HaKOMbTeCb C OAHHM H3 cnocotioa o6pa30BaHHSI rnaronoa, CHHOHHMH'fHbIX cnOBOCO"leTaHIIISIM. 3aTeM 3aKpOMTe npaBYIO 'IaCTb Ta6nllll4bl H caMOCTOSITenb-

HO o6pa3YMTe rnaronsr,

nplilCTaBKa CnOBOCO"leTaHIIIR rnaronbl
y- CTaHOBI1TbC5I - CTaTb
my6)J(e (6 - 6JI) yrJIy6JI5ITbC5I -yrJIy6I1ThC5I
D:eWeBJIe YD:e 1lI eBJI5ITbC5I -
D:JII1HHee y,UJII1H5ITbC5I - YD:JIHHI1TbC5I
Kperr'Je (rr - nn) YKpenJI5IThC5I - YKpenl1TbC5I
xpyruree YKpynH5ITbC5I -
ny-nue YJIyqllIaTbC5I - YJIy'!IIII1TbC5I
x~e ()J( - mu) YXYD:llIaTbC5I - YXYD:1lII1ThC5I
CI1JIbHee YCl1JII1BaTbC5I - YCMJIHTbC5I
ro-nree YTo'J HHTbC5I -
rtpoute (ut - CT) ynpoutarscs - ynPOCTl1TbC5I
cKopee YCKOPHThC5I - YCKOPI1TbCH
CJIO)l(Hee YCJIO)J(H5ITbC5I - YCJIO)J(HI1TbCH
x~e ()J( - mu) yxyD:llIaTbCH - yxynIIIl1TbCJI
MeHbllIe YMeHhllIaTbcH - YMeHbIIII1TbCH
Ho: CTaHOBI1ThC5I - CTaTh YBeJIl1ql1BaTbC5I - YBeJIl1ql1TbC5I
6 OJI sure 6) npO"lHTaMTe BbICKa3bIBaHIIISI, Bblpa3111Te cornacae IIInlil HecomaClile. Mcnonb3yM- aT8K

Te rnaronei co 3Ha"leHllleM KOnlll'leCTBeHHbIX III Ka"leCTBeHHbIX 1113MeHeHIIIIII, -

)ICe cnoaa III cnOBOCO'ieTaHIIISI: a nO-MoeMY; JJ.eiiCTBHTeJlbHO; COMHeBaIOCb, 'ITO •••

06 P a 3 e u : - 3a rrOCJIeD:Hee BpeM51 naum pacxoztsr CTMH MeHbwe na 15 %. -lla, neHCTBl1TeJIhHO, OHI1 YMeHbWHJIHCb ua 15 %. (- Her, OHl1 He

yMeHLWHJIHCb. )

1) HaCeJIeHl1e naurero ropona CTaHOBHTCJI 60JIbwe. 3a naa rona OHO CTMO 60Jlbure na ztse ThICHql1. 2) O¢OpMJleHl1e BI13bI ,UJIH noeanxn aa py6e)l( CTaJIO npome. 3) 3anaHMH na 3K3aMeHax rrOCT05lHHO CTaHOBJlTCH CJIO)KHee. 4) 3KOHOMl1QeCKl1e CBH3H Me)J(L{Y IO)I(HOH H cesepnoa 'JaCTblO crpatru CTMH xpense. 5) cDl1HaHCOBoe

110JIO)J(eHHe natueii qmpMbI CTaJIO JIY'Iwe.

143

3. a) AononHMTe Ta6nMLI,Y, o6pa3YSI rnaronsr, CMHOHMMM'IHble cnOBOCO'leTaHMSIM.

npMCT8BKa CnOBOCO'leTaHIIISI rnaronbi
no- CTaHOBHTbCH - CTaTb BbIIIIe nOBbIIIIaTbCH - nOBbICHTbC~
CTaHOBHTbC5I - CTaTb HIDKe ... - '" o 6 p a r iii T e B H iii M a H iii e: Ka"leCTBeHHble 1i13MeHeHlilfI MOryl" 0603Ha"laTbCfI iii HeKOTopblMIiI rnaronaua 6e3 -CSI:

nplIICTaBKa CnOBOCO'leTaHIIISI rnaronbl
no- CTaHOBHTbC5I - CTaTb 6JIeII,HbIM 6JIeII,HeTb - n06JIeII,HeTb
CTaHOBHTbC5I - CTaTb KpaCHbIM -
... . ..
(qepHbIM, CHHHM, )KeJITbIM H T. n.)
CTaHoBHTbCH - CTaTb cTapee '" - ...
... - . .. MOJIO)J(e ... -
. ..
... - ... TOJIme '" -
...
... - . .. xYII,ee '" -
...
... - ... csexee '" -
...
.. , - '" crpoanee ... -
...
... - .. , .ueIIIeBJIe ... -
. ..
... - ... nopoxe II,opo)J(aTb - nOII,Opo)J(aTb 06paTIiITe BHII1.MaHlile:

CTaHOBVlTbCfI - CTaTb KpacliIBee (OT XOPOIllJfJf): xopoureri, - noxopourers,'

CTaTb HeKpacliIBee (OT ,aYPHoii) - nonypaers.

6) npO'lMTa~he BblcKa3b1BaHMSI, Bblpa3111Te corn acae MnM HecornaCMe. Mcnonb- 3YMTe BMeCTO BblAeneHHblX rnaronoa cnoBOCO'leT8HMe CT:lHOBHTbCH - CT:lTb (ICUICUM?), a TalOKe $p83bl: BDOJlHe B03MO)KHO; He ;zyM:lJO. 'ITO ... ; nO-MoeMY; BiJ COBepmeHHO npaBIJ; H COBepmeHHO COm:lCeH; 6e3YCJlOBHO; B C:lMOM ,aene. .

1) BnOJIHe B03MO)J(HO, qTO ueasr Ha 6bITOBYlO TexHHKY K KOHUY rOII,a nOBbI:SITC5I. 2) MHe Ka)J(eTC5I, qTO Y COBpeMeHHbIX IIIKOJIbHHKOB unrepec K -rrenmo IIOHIDKaeTC5I. 3) Ilocne 60JIC3HH OHa nJIOXO BblrJIHII,HT: noxynena, n06JIe)),HeJIa. ~) Tu 06paTHJI BHI1MaHl1e, KaK Bepa nOCBelKeJIa, nOCTpOHHeJIa, II,a)J(e nOMOJIo)),eJla 3 nOCJIeJIHee BpeMH? 5) nO-MoeMY, D,O)J(Jlb KOHyaeTCH, BI1JII111Ib, He60 nOCBeTJIeJlO.

144

6) MOll MJIaD,IIIHll fipar cosepuraer OII,HY rnynocrs sa npyroa. Korna )J(e OH, Hd-:

KOHeU, nOYMHeeT?

B) npO'lMTaHTe BbICKa3bIBaHMSI. Bblpa3MTe cornacae IIInM aecomacae, MCnOnb3YSI BMeCTO BblAeneHHblX cnOBOCO'leTaHMH COOTBeTCTBYlOl.I..\Me rnaroner.

1) B nOCJIeII,HHe II,eC5lTHJleTH5I narepec K rearpy CTaHOBHTC5I HHlKe. 2) YqeHbIe KOHcTaTHpYIOT, qTO resmeparypa B03II,yxa na nnanere CTaHOBHTCH BLIme. 3) 3TOT uBeTOK HaD,O qame nOJIHBaTb, a TO ero JIHCTb51 CTaHYT }KeJITbIMH. 4) Te6e uexopoIIIO? TbI CTaJIa TaKaH 6JIe,roIaH. 5) TbI saaeurs, Bqepa acrperan TaHIO 11 He Y3HaJI. OHa CTaJIa TaKa51 xopomensxaa, npOCTO xpacasnna.

4. 8) AononHMTe T86nMLI,Y, 06p83YSI rnaronst, CMHOHMMM'IHble cnOBOCO'leTaHMSIM.

npMCT8BKa CnOBOCO'feT8HMSI rnaronbl
0- CTaHOBHTbC5I - CTaTb CJIO)J(Hee OC.:rrO)J(H5ITbC5I - OCJIO)J(HHTbC5I
'" - '" fioraxe (q - Ill) ... - ...
... - ... qHIlle (Ill - CT) ... - .. .
i
Ho: CTaHOBI1TbC~ - CTaTb crrafiee 1) oCJIa6JI5ITbC5I - OCJIa6HTbcJ{
2) OCJIa6eBaTb - OCJIa6eTb
c- CTaHOBHTbC5I - CTaTb HH)J(e CHH)J(aTbC5I - CHI13HTbC5I
... - '" Y)J(e .. , - ...
Ho: CTaHOBHTbCH - CTaTb KOpOqe COKpaIllaTbC5I - COKpaTHTbC5I
3a- CTaHOBHTbC5I - CTaTb MeMeHHee 3aMeM5ITbC5I - 3aMeMHTbC5I
.. , - ... rpssaee ... - .. .
pac- CTaHOBHTbC5I - CTaTb llIHpe paCIIIHp5lTbC5I - paCIIIHpHTbCH 6) npO'lMT8MTe BbICKa3bIBaHMSI. Bblpa3MTe corn acne MnM aecornacae, Mcnonb- 3YSI BMeCTO BblAeneHHblX rnaronoa cnOBOCO'leTaHMe CT:lHOBHTbCH - CT:lTb (ICUICUM ?).

1. nOCJIe peKOHCTpYKIJ,HH nJIOIllaII,b pacumparca. a) ,lJ,a, KOHeqHO, .... 6) BPM JIM 3TO TaK, OHa .... 2. no panno 061>51BHJIH, qTO K KOHUY nenemr )J(apa oCJIa6eeT.

a) Hasepuoe, TaK H 6y.rreT ..... 6) He .rrYMaIO, 'ITO 3. Ilenu ua KHHfH, MO)J(eT

6blTb, CHH351TCH. a) Cxopee scero nei1:cTBHTeJIbHO 6) HCT, 4. 311MOH: UBeTbI

He Tpe6yIOT nOJlHBa, HX POCT 3aMe.rrlmeTcH. a) ,lJ,a, 6) HeT, .

145

B) npO~HTal1Te BbICKa3bIBaHHSI. Bblpa3HTe cornacae HnH HeCOmaCHe, Hcnonb3ySl BMeCTO BblAeneHHblX CnOBOCO~eTaHH~ nOAXOASI~He no cMblcny rnaronsr,

1. K KOHUY D:WI serep CTaHeT cnafiee. a) lla, naaepuoe, .... 6) Bp5lD: 1m '" . 2. B03MO)KHOCTH Typl1CTWleCKHX rrOe3D:OK B nOCJJe)lHHe rozt hI CTaJIO urape. a) Ko-' He'IHO, .... 6) HeJIb351 cxaaart., 'ITO .... 3. Tpe60BaHI151 K nocrynaiounor B BY3hli CTaHOBHTCH HIDKe. a) 51 cornacen C Ba1\111, .... 6) HY'ITO Bhl! .... 4. IIo-MoeMY, 06:-,; CTaHOBKa B 3TOM peruone sa rrpOWeD:WI1H roa crana fionee CJIOlKHOH. a) K coxaJIeHl1lO, 3TO TaK ..... 6) BbI OUH16aeTeCb, ....

BCTPPIA YEPE3 ronu

-- CKOJIhKO )Ke JIeT npOWJIO, KaK Mhl He Bl1D:eJII1Cb? DOJIbWe rpnnnara Be.IJ:b. 1f

- TpH.IJ:uaTb nars! - YJlbI6a5lCb eH, vro-man OH.l!

- Msr TYT rrpa3.IJ:HOBaJIH KaK-TO BCTpe'IY B KOHue 51HBapH B 6brBWeH llIKOJIe i

penmna c06paTbCH, 'ITO-TO BpOD:e 106HJIeH YCTPOI1JIH. IIpe.IJ:CTaBJIHellIb, HHKTO HHil xoro He Y3HaBaJI! ITOD:XO.IJ:I1JIH zipyr K npyry H npOCHJIH: Ha30BH CBOIO <paMl1JII1IOil Y)Kac! IToce)]'eJII1, 06JJbICemr, paCTOJJCTeJII1... t~

OH 3aCMe5lJICH:li

- A BOT Tb! BCe TaKaH )Ke! II

- Hy ,Il,aY)K! 3TO yxe, npsrao CKa)KeM, Hen03BOJIHTeJIbHbIH KOMnJIHMeHT! Ii

a) Paccxaserre, KaK H3Me"WHe. OA"OKnaeeHHKH, npauiemuae Ha ~:e~: KWlbj

6) npHXoAMnocb nH BaM BCTpe~aTbCSI co 3HaKOMbIMM, KOTOPblX Bbl AaBHO He BMt

AenH? H3MeHHm1Cb nH OHH? B ~eM aTO Bblpa)l{anOCb? {'

6. nepeAa~T_e conepxaaae npeMO)l{eHH~, Hcnonb3YSl BMeCTO BblAeneHHblX cnoB~l:l

co~eTaHHM cooTBeTcTBylO~Me rnaronbl. ,

,,' .. ~~,

I) Mapuipyr rponneiitiyca N:! 25 cran ceiorac ~lJ."HHee. 2) B pe3YJIbTaTe BBe-;;

)],eHI151 HOBbIX npaBHJI YJIHqHOrO ,lJ,BH)I(eHHH KOJIWleCTBO nopoxno-rpaacnopraux IlpOI1CmeCTBHH B repone CTaHOBHTCH MeHbwe. 3) IIocJIe PCKOHCTPYKUl1113TOT ysacTOK wocce CTaHeT urape. 4) KOJIH'leCTBo UblJlYCKaCMbIX 3aBO,Il,OM KOMllbIOTCPO», CTaHOBHTCH BCe fiOJIbwe. 5) B nOCJICnHHe .LI,HI1 cCI-rfH6pH revrteparypa soaayxa CTa~ HOBHTCH C Ka)K,Il,bIM )lHeM BCe Hl-I)f(e " HH)f(e. 6) B 3TOM cesoae ypOBCHb nrpsr nameit <PYT60JlbHOM: KOMaHJlbl cra.t uaanoro asnne. 7) WYM Ha YJIHue cTaHoBHTCJi BCe cansaee. 8) C B03paCTOM y orua CTaJIO xYJKe speuue. 9) Enaronaps 3aH5ITHSlM.

146

crropTOM conpOTHBJIHCMOCTb opraanaua CTanOBHTCH fioJlee BbICOKOH. 10) DJIarO,Il,aps npHMeHeHHIO KOCMl1qCCKOH TeXHHKI1 ccpepa B3aI1MO.IleM.CTBI151 xenoaexa 11 npnpOllbI CTaHOBHTCH fioJlee WOpOKOH. 11) ITo nporH03~M <pyryPOJlOfO~, B XXI.~eKe MHrpaUHH CeJlbCKOrO HaCeJleHH5I B fOPOD, CTaHeT eme fioJlee CHJIbHOH. 12) YqeHbIe C'IHTaIOT, 'ITO B TeKYIlJ,eM nexe norpefineaue HOBbIX BH,Il,OB snepraa - COJIHeqHOM., reOTepMaJIbHOM. - crauer 3HaqHTeJlbHO 60JlbUJe H sa c-rer 3TOfO CTaHeT MeHbwe pacxon YfJI5l.

7. AononHHTe npeMolKeHHSI. Hcnonb3Y~Te rnaronsr, nporaaononccsaese no CMbIC~ ny BbiAeneHHbiM.

1) ITo paaao 06b5lBHJIM, 'lTO JIHeM resmeparypa soaayxa nOBbICHTCJI, a K BCqCpy .... 2) Hurepec K 3TOM. npofineve He YMeHbWOJlCH, a, Ha060pOT, .... 3) B XO,Il,e 11I1CKYCCI1I1 paaaornacna Me)K,Il,Y nsrcrynarounoan He TOJIbKO He CMHf1IHJIHCb, HO, Ha060pOT, .... 4) Bonpexa rrpOfH03Y rrorona B KOHue He)],eJII1 He YXY.IJ:UJHJIaCb, a naxe .... 5) COCT05lHMe 60JlhHOrO TO YJlyqwanocb, TO CHOBa .... 6) B 3TOM MeCTC pexa HeO)KHllaHHO C~aeTCJI, a rrOTOM CHOBa .... 7) 3a rrOCJleD,HHe ronsr qI1CJIeH-

HOCTb HaCeJIeHH5I B 3TOM paaone He yseJlIf1lHJIaCb, a, Ha060pOT, 8) CKOPOCTb

MallIHH TO YMenbwanaCb, TO .... 9) )];O)K,Il,b TO YCHJIHBanCH, TO 10) )];opora TO

pacmHpHeTCJI, TO ....

8. OTBeTbTe Ha aonpocsr no 06pa314Y. HcnOnb3Y~Te rnaroner, npoTHBOnOnO)l{Hbie no cMblcny BbIAeneHHbiM.

06 p a 3 e n : - BbI csnracrc, uenu na KOMrrbIOTepbI nOBblcHTCH? - AYMaIO, He rrOBbICHTCH, a, Ha060pOT, rrOHI1351TC5I.

1) MO)KeT 6bITb, resmeparypa K sexepy nOBbIcHTCH? 2) KaK Tbl .IJ:YMaeWb, uerrst ua aY,Il,HOTeXHHKY K KOHUY rona CHH3HTCJI? 3) KaK BbI ,Il,YMaeTe, mrrepec K 3TOMY pe)J(Hccepy yuan? 4) TbI He snaeurs, rrOCJIe nosopora ztopora pacurapaerca? 5) KaK nO-TBoeMY, rrOCJIe nocnezmero pasrosopa OTHOllIeHHH Me)K,Il,y AH.IJ:pCeM H JIeHOM. yXY,Il,UJHJIHCb? 6) KaK Tbl llYMaellIb, cHTyaUH.II B 3TOM peruoae YJIyqUJHTCH? 7) Bsr C'IHTacTc, mrrepec K rearpy ceaxac naaaer? 8) MO)KeT 6blTb, rrocne BCTpe'lH .u;BYX PYKoBO,Il,HTeJIeM. HaWHX <pI1PM pa3HOfJIaCH.II Me)K,Il,y HHMH CMHf1IaTCJI? 9) KaK Bhl C'lHTaeTe 'IHCJlO qHTaTCJIeM. KJIaCCHqeCKOR .mrreparypsr censac YMeHbwaeTcH? 10) Te6e ue Ka)l(CTC.II, 'ITO peRTI1Hr nepenax ua 3TOM xanane CH,lJ.bHO ynan? 11) KaK TbI llYMaeWb, THpa)K «HoBOCTeM.» B 3TOM rOD:Y yseJlH'IHTcH? 12) J],YMaCllIb, nOCJIe o6ena serep ocnafeer?

147

9. a) CpaBHMT9 MMKpOTeKCTbl. YKIDKMT9 B KIDKAOH 'faCTM rnaronsr 101 COOTB9TCTBYIOW,M9 101M CJ10BOCO'f9TaHMSI.

B TBOeH: pafiore CJIMIIIKOM .ll)IHHHOe BCTYIUIeHHe. Cnenaa ero xopoxe. Korna BCTYrrJIeHMe CTaHeT xopoxe, pafiora TOJIbKO nsmrpaer OT sroro,

B TBoeH pafiore CJIMIIIKOM ,n:JIMHHO~ BCTYIlJleHMe. CoKpaTH ero. Korna BCTYll; JIeHMe COKpaTHTCH, pafiora TOJIbKO BW nrpaer OT sroro.

6) AOn0J1HMT9 np9AllO>K9HMSI. 3aMeHMTe rnaronaesa cnOBOCO'feTaHMSI, BblAeneH· Hbl9 B npaaoa KonOHKe.

1) KOHCTPYK~MH annapara CJIMIIIKOM CJIO)l(HaH. MO)l(HO ... ee. Korna KOHCTPYKUMH ... , rrOJIb30BaTbCH alinapaTOM 6y,n:eT y,n:06Hee.

2) Y renerpona CJIMIUKOM KOPOTKMH IIIHyp .... ero. Korna IIIHYP ... , MO)KHO fiyner rosoprrn, no renerpoay M3 JIJo60ro MeCTa KBapTMpbI.

3) Y TeJIeBM30pa CJIHIIIKOM rpoMKMM 3BYK. Hesnroro ... 3BYK.

4) Ilpoean snecs BpeMeHHO aaxpur: ... ,n:opory. Korna )]opora ... , rrp06KM MC'le3HYT.

5) TIo npocsoe )KlITCJIeM nantero panona MapIIIpYT TpOJIJIeM6yca NQ 41 .... TIOCJIC Toro KaK MapIIIpYT ... , )]06Hparses )]0 nenrpa crano Y)]06HCC.

KOHCTPYKUHH arrrrapara CJIMIIIKOM CJIO)l(HaH. MO)KHO C.1IeJIaTL ee 60JIeti npocroa, Korna KOHCTPYKUMH cTaH~ 60Jlee npocron, nOJIb30BaTbCH arrrrap ) TOM 6Y)]CT Y.1I06Hee.

Y renerpoua CJIMIUKOM KOPOTKH nmyp. C.1IeJIan ero nO,lJ,JlHHHee. Ko~ na llIHYP CTaHeT j].J1HHHee, MO)KHO 6~ ACT rosopnrr, rro TeJIec):>OHY M3 JIl060t MCCTa KBapTMpbI.

Y TeJIeBH30pa CJIMIIIKOM rpoMKMti 3B Cnenan 3BYK HeMHoro noaeasme.

Ilpoean snecs BpeMCHHO 3aKpbIT: ,n:o~ pory .1IeJIaIOT 60JIee mHpOKon. Korf nopora 6Y.1IeT umpe, rrp06KH ncse HYT.

TIo npocsfie )l(HTCJIeti natnero pail na MapIIIpYT TpoJIJIcH6yca NQ 41 c,n:

JIH ,lJ,JIHHHee. Ilocne roro KaK MapiliP CTaJI ,lJ,JIHHHee, )]06HpaTbcH .110 ueH ropona CTMO Y.lI06HCC.

10. a) npO'fMTaHTe HaM60nee pacnpocrpaaeaasre cnOBOCO'feTaHMSI. ~.~

Harepec yaC}IWlHBaCTcH, I10BbIIllacTCH, pacrer, sospacraer; YMeHbLIIaCTCH, CK~

)l(aeTCH, I1a,n:aCT. l~

148

06CTaHOBKa (cnryanna, noxosceaae) YJIyqIIIacTcH, YXY.lIIIIaCTCH, OCJIO)KHHCTCH, 060CTpHCTCH.

I1poTHBOpe'lHH (KOH<i>JlIfKTbl, paaaornacaa, nporaeocroanae, npoTHBo6opCTBO) yrJly6llilIOTCH, 060CTPHIOTCH, YCMJIMBaIOTCH, OCJIa6JlHIOTCH, CMHf'-IaIOTCH.

B03MO}KHOCTH pacIIIHpHIOTCH, nOBblIIIalOTcH, YBCJIM'lI1BaIOTCH, c~aIOTcH,

yMeHblIlalOTcH.

KOHTaKTbl (CBH3H) pacumpmorca, cY)I(aIOTCH, OCJIa6JIHIOTcH.

PHCK (onaCHOCTb) yaeJIM'lI1BaeTCH, pacrer, B03paCTaeT, YMeHblIlaCTCH, nanaer, YpOBeHb ('te2D?) rrOBblIIIaCTCH, pacrer, CHM)KaCTCH, naaaer,

Ilena rrOBblIIIaeTCH, YBCJIH'lHBaCTCH, B03paCTaeT, YMCHbIIIaeTCH, CHI1)1(aCTCH,

nanaer,

TOBapbI (npO.ayKTLI) neureseior; .1IOpO)KaIOT.

Ilpouecc YCKOPHCTCH, YCMJIMBaeTCSI, 3aMCJIllileTCH, OCJIa6JIHCTCH. CKOPOCTb YBeJIM'lMBaeTCH, B03paCTaeT, YMeHbIIIaeTCH, nanaer,

TeMnLI (pOCTa 'Iero-JlH6o) nOBbIlIlaIOTCH, YCKOPHIOTCH, 3aMC)lJIHIOTCH, CHl1)Ka-

IOTCH, nanaror,

3,n:opOBbe ynysuraercs, YKpeIUIHeTCH, YXY.lIIIIaeTCH, OCJIa6JIHeTCH. Hacrpoenne ynynnaerca, nossnuaercsr, YXY)]lIlaeTCH, CHl1)KaeTCH, nanaer,

6) CocTaBbTe npeAJ10>KeHMSI C HeKOTopblMM 1013 3TMX cnOBOCO'feTaHMH.

11. Bblpa3MTe Mblcnb MHa'fe, MCnOnb3YSl BMeCTO BblAeneHHOro cyw,eCTBMTenbHoro rnaron roro >Ke KOpHSI.

1) Ilpennpaarae CTpeMMTCH K CHH}KeHHIO ce6ecToHMoCTM rrp0.1IYKUMlL 2) B CJIy~ 'lae YXY.1ImeHHH noronsr nsiner CaMOJIeTa 6y)]eT sanepxan. 3) B rrOCJIe)]HMe rO)]bJ npOMCXO)lHT YCHJleHHe Ml1rpaUMM CeJIbCKOrO HaCeJICHHH B ropozt, 4) Y'leHble C rpeBorOH OTMe'laIOT noasnuenae 'rexrrreparypst Ha I1JIaHeTe, CBH3aHHoe C YCHJIeHHeM X03HHcTBeHHOH: )]CHTeJIbHOCTI1 'IeJIOBeKa. 5) POCT rroTpe6JIeHUSI HC<pTM M rasa npaBO.lIHT K nOBbImeHHIO MMPOBbIX uen na rrpO.lIOBOJIbCTBMe. 6) Kypeuue npMBO.1IMT K yXylJ,llIeHHIO rraMHTM. 7) He)]OCTaTO'IHaH <p113M'IeCKaH aKTMBHOCTb rrpMBO.lIHT K CUll" lKeHHIO pafiorocrtocofinocrn.

12. a) npO'fMTaMTe TeKCT, ynoTpe6nSlSl BblAeneHHble rnaronsr,

AY, EJIOH)J,I1HKI1!

YqeHblc rrpl1WJIU K BbIBO.1IY, 'ITO CKOPO na 3eMJIe HC OCTaHCTCH rrpapozmux ~~OHlIHHOK. Y)Ke censac 'lHCJIO CBeTJIOBOJIOCbIX JIlO.lIcI1 COKpaTHJIOCb C 49.110 14 %.

PWH1H 3ACCb HCCKOJIbKO. Ilpexne acero, KOJIM'IeCTBO 6JIOH)lHHOK YMeHbmaeTcq

149

rro 3aKOHaM reHeTHKH: rea TeMHbIX BOJIOC )lOMMHMpyeT M nonaanaer ren CBeTJIbIX. Kpove roro, )lei1:cTBYlOT M COU,MaJIbHble 3aKOHbI: B HaUIe BpeMH YBeJlJl1lHBaeTCH KOJIH'-IeCTBO Me)l(paCOBbIX 6paKOB, senynnrx K YHl,p-ITO)l(eHMlO CBeTJIbIX BOJIOC. Ba)I(Ho H TO, '-ITO OCHOBHble HOCI1TeJIH 6eJIOKYPOCTM - esponeaua - '-IaCTO orpaHI1'-IMBalOTCH O)lHMM pe6eHKOM B cexse, H rr03TOMY eCTeCTBeHHO, '-ITO '-II1CJIO CBeTJIOBOJIOCbIX JIlO)leti YMeHbwaeTCH. He rrOCJIe)lHlOlO pOJIb B TOM, '-ITO KOJII1'-IeCTBO rrpaponHbIX 6JIOH)lMHOK CHIDKaeTCH, nrpaer M M3MeHeHl1e mnneaoro paunoaa: B crpaaax DaJIHIHCKoro pernorra sa nocnemnre 50 JIeT COKpaTHJlOCb rrorperinenne PbI6bI, KOTOpaH TpanHU110HHO BXO)ll1JIa B MeHlO )l(.HTeJIeti 3Tl1X crpan, TIo HeKOTopbIM nporH03aM, rrOCJIe)lH5IH narypansnaa 6JIOH)lI1HKa PO)lI1TCH B <Pl1HJIHH)lMl1 rrpMMepHQ B 2200 rony TaK '-ITO ysce ceroznrs K 6JIOH)ll1HKaM nano OTHOCMTbCH KaK K Hayq-i HOH peaxocrn.

(flo uamepuanau nepuoouuecxoii nesamu)

6) COCTaBbTe nnaa TeKCTa III nepecxasorre ero no 3TOMY nnaHy. ~cnonb3YMTe rna-. ronsi aa -CR.

13. npO'4~1TaMTe TeKCT. BblnOnHIIITe 33AaHMe nocne TeKCTa.

)],bIIIII1TE JII1MOHOM

Bcex 113BeCTHO, '-ITO pafiora na KOMrrblOTepe rpeoyer 60JIhUIOrO BHl1MaH~i TICI1XOJIOrH npennoxana PH)l TeCTOB orreparopau KOMrrblOTepOB, 'IT06bI onpene-, JIHTb, KaK BJIl151eT TOT l1JIl1 l1HOH sarrax na pa60TY oneparopa, 3KCnepl1MeHT rro .. :

Ka3aJI, 'ITO rrpn aacsnuenaa soanyxa aanaxoxr JIaBaH)lbI KOJIl1'-IeCTBO OUIl160K np~ pafiore na KJIaBl1aTYpe YMeHbwaeTCH Ha 20 %. TIPl1 B)lbIXamfH sanaxa )l(aCMHH~ KOJII1'IeCTBO OUI1160K COKpaIUaeTCH na 30 %. Ho '-IeMrrHOHOM CTaJI 06bIKHOBeHHbi~ JIMMOH, npn B)lbIXaHHl1 aanaxa xoroporo KOJIM'-IeCTBO ournfiox YMeHbWHJlOCb HanQ~ .. I JIOBHHy. TIOJIe3HO M5ITb KOpKH JIHMOHa H nsnuars 3Tl1M 3anaXOM. Koaueirrpatta .... '.!.;".' BHI1MaHH5I npn 3TOM nOBbIwaeTCH. .,.',

(flo uamepuanau nepuoousecxou nelfam~~;

KaK BnMSUOT pa3Hbie sanaxa Ha pa60-ry oneparopa?

14. npO'4MTaMTe TeKCT. BblnOnHIIITe nocnerescroasre 38AaHMSI.

BCE BbIIIIE, 11 BbIIIIE, 11 BbIIIIE ...

Ham BeK - BeK axcenepaunu. KaK 6bICTPO paCTYT coapeueanste neru! npH, 3TOM nepenxo OT pO)lHTeJIei1 MO)I(HO YCJIbIUIaTb, '-ITO HX )leTl1 pacryr 6bICTpee B rreP7 BOH rrOJIOBI1He rozra, 11 CCJIe)lOBaHHH , npoaenennue rterntarpasrn, nO)lTBep)lHJnt;

150

LJTO B nepnon Me)!()lY HHBapeM 11 HlOJIeM pOCT .ueTeH YCKopSIeTCH, a B rtepnon Me)l()lY l1lOJIeM 11 HHBapeM 3aMe)lJlSIeTCH. TIpwleM 3TO HBJIeHMe xapaxrepno TOJIbKO)lJl51 Cesepnoro rronytuapua. B IO)I(HOM nonyurapmr IlPOI1CXO)lI1T see Ha060pOT: POCT pe6eHKa y6bICTp5leTCSI C H05l6pH rro MapT. 3)leCb 3TO MeC5IUbI C caMhlMM ))JIMHHbIMM ))H5IMl1, xorna COJIHe'-IHble .11Y'-lH aKTHBHO B03))ei1CTByIOT na rarrodms, tinaronapa lleMY nOBbIWaeTC5I POCT '-IeJIOBeKa, YCHJlJIBaeTC5I pa3BMTHe OpraH113Ma.

Y'1eHble ))0 CMX rrop crtopnr; '1eM Bhl3BaHa aKCeJIepaUHH. A cpeD,HHH POCT JIlO)leH B MHpe reM npevene« rrpO))OJI)I(aeT YBeJlHqHBaTbCSI. KaK noxaasmaer CTaTl1CTHKa, POCT )l(HTeJIeti Esponsr xaxasre rptuntars JIeT nOBbIWaeTC5I npuwepno na O))HH caHTHMeTp. 3TO C03)laeT PH)) COU,HaJIhHbIX 11 rrCHXOJIOrl1'-IeCKI1X np06JIeM. B nocnemree BpeM5I B HeKOTophIX 3H))OKpI1HOJIOrH'1eCKl1X KJIHHHKaX YBeJlJl1lHJIOCb '1HCJIO naUl1eHTOB, xoropste He »cenaror 60JIhme paCTH. OHH YMOJI5IlOT Bpa'1ei1 OCTaHOB11Tb MX pOCT. O))HaKO na JIe'IeHHe rrpI1Hl1MaIOTC51 TOJIbKO D,eBymKH POCTOM OKOJIO 185 caHTMMerpOB 11 lOHOUIH ssnne 195 caHTHMeTpOB. K TOMY )l(e BMemareJIhCTBO npa-ren cnocofino nOBJIl1HTb na 06m;HH pOCT, HO pasxiepst crynaen 11 KHcTeti: PYK npu 3TOM He YMeHbwalOrcSI.

(no uamepuanau nepUOOUlfeCiCOU nesamu)

OTBeTbTe Ha eonpocsr, ynoTpe6nSlSl rnaronst co 3Ha'leHMeM KOnlll'leCTBeHHbIX III Ka'leCTBeHHblx M3MeHeHLIIM.

• KaKOBbl oco6eHHOCTVI Vl3MeHeHVI~ pOCTa ,ll,eTe~ B uauie BpeM~?

• KaK Vl3MeH~eTC51 POCT )Kv1Tene~ Esponu?

• C KaKOLI1 npocsooa 06paLl.!aIOTC51 K apa-iara nlO,ll,VI «ceepxesicoxoro» pOCTa?

• l1TO MoryT VI -rero He Mory-r cnenars Bpa4V1?

15. npO'lIiiTaMTe TeKCT. BbmonHLIITe nocnerexcroasre 3aAaHMSI.

BJ1TAMI1HHblI1 AJI<DABI1T

I1cTopHH MOPCKHX rrvremecraan rrOJIHa 3nH30aaMH TparH'1eCKOH rH6eJIl1 MOP5lKOB He B Cpa)!(eHH5IX, He B BOJIHaX oxeaira, a OT HeaOCTaTKa KaKHX-TO TaHHCTBeHHbIX BemeCTB B nuute. fH6JIH uerrue KOMaHllbI xoparinea. Bacxo na faMa B 1498 rony ene cxror 3aKOHlJ 11Th csoe I1CTOpHlJeCKOe nnasamre B J1HllHlO, norepsa CTO MaTpOCOB H3 CTa meCTHlleC5ITH lJeJlOBeK KOMaHllbI.

MOperrJIaBaTeJI11 rH6JIH OT CTpaHHoi1 H crpaunroii 60JIe3HH: Y HHX pacnvxann ~ KPOBOTO'-lHJIH necnu, BhmaD,aJIH 3y6bI, onyxann H 60JIeJIH CYCTaBhI. 3Ta 60J]e3Hh 6LIJIa Ha3BaHa UI1Hroi1. CTaJIH 3aMClJaTb, 'ITO 60Jle3Hb HClJe3aJIa, KaK TOJIbKO KOPa6J1b npHCTaBaJI K OCTpOBaM, rnc 6blJIO rvmoro oaouien H <PPYKTOB.

151

3HaMeHl1TbiM MOpenJIaBaTeJlb Jl)l(eMMC KYK yqeJI :HO 11 scerna 6paJI C C060M B nYTeWeCTBl151 sanacu MOpKOBHOrO 11 JIl1MOHHOrO COKOB. fiOKa3aTeJIbHO, 'ITO KYI<; 6bIJI 1136paH 'IJIeHOM J10Hll,OHCKOro KOpOJIeBcKoro 06meCTBa OTHIOll,b He aa CBOR BeJIl1Kl1e reorpadnorecxae OTKpbITl151, a aa CTaTbIO 0 Mepax no COXpaHeHl1IO 3,U0., POBb51 MOP5lKOB. MMl1paJI Jil.<D. KpY3eHIIITepH, nepasni PYCCKl1M, cosepnnmuraa xpyrocsernoe rryreurecrane, scerna Tpe60BaJI, 'IT06bI na Kopa6JI5IX 6bIJll1 sanacsr CBe)l(eM 3eJIeHl1.

B 1795 rony aHfJIl1MCKl1M: napnauenr 113,UaJI naxe 3aKOH 0 BbI,Ua'Ie 3Kl1na)l(a~

e)l(e,UHeBHO nOpUl1H JIHMOHHOro COKa. 'i',

no Ha'IaJIa XX sexa see )I(e Hl1KTO He 3HaJI, tITO aa uenarensasre BemeCTB~) HaXO,U5ITC5I B csexea paCTl1TeJIbHOM: mmte. B 1880 rony H3BeCTHbIM: PYCCKHM: 6HO:\ XHMHK H spax H.ll. JIYHHH 3Kcnep"MeHTaJIbHO ,UOKa3aJI, 'ITO ,UM HOPMaJIbHOt )l(H3He,Ue5lTeJIbHOCTl1 B mnue, KpOMe 6eJIKOB, )l(HPOB, ymeBO,UOB, MHHepaJIbHhI, COJIeM: H BO,UbI, ,UOJI)KHbI 06513aTeJIhHO conepxarsca 11 ztpyrne seurecraa, KpaHH~ He06xo,UMMhle opraanavy II03,UHee OHH 6hIJlM nsrncncasr M Ha3BaHbI BHTaMMHa~ Ml1. Bl1TaM]{HOB OKa3aJIOCh MHOro: A, B, C, Jl, E H npyrne. CBe,UeHM5I 06 3TOP;fj «BMTaMl1HHOM ampamrre: TIOJIe3HO 3HaTh.

BHTaMMH A 06pa3yeTc5I B OpraH113Me 113 opanxeao-xpacaoro seuiecrsa - Ka"i pOTMHa. IIpl1 He,UOCTaTKe Bl1TaMl1Ha A nOHIDKaeTCH COnpOTl1BJIHeMOCTb opraHM3M~ npOCTY,UHbIM M MHcjleKUMoHHhlM 3a60JIeBaHM5IM, CHIDKaeTCH aKTl1BHOCTb cjlarouJi.1. TOB, yxynuraercs speune, napyuraercs HOpMaJIbHOe COCT05lHMe KO)((H, B pe3YJIbTij' re xero yoeJIHQHBaeTCH npOHl1KHOBeHl1e B OpraH113M 60JIe3HeTBopHbIX 6aKTePM4,,' YXYJlWaeTCH 6eJIKOBbIM: 11 )l(HPOBOM: 06MeH. Henocrarox BHTaMHHa A 3aMe]lJlJl "

POCT Y neren, OT'IerO 3TOT Bl1TaMl1H Ha3hIBalOT «Bl1TaMl1HOM pOCTa». . "l

BMTaMMH A concpxarcs B nexeaa )((l1BOTHbIX, HM:uaX, lIlMTIOBHMKe, P5l611H ofinennxe, MaHll,apl1Hax, afipnxocax, novnnopax, MOPKOBl1, KpaCHOM nepne, Ka nYCTe, 3eJIeHOM JIyKe, CaJIaTe, TbIKBe, JlbIHe H np.

BMTaMHH BI YCHJIHBaeT 06MeH BemeCTB B OpraH113Me. Ilpn Hell,OCTaTKe sror Bl1TaMHHa YXYJllIIaeTCH COCTOHHl1e HepBHOM Cl1CTeMhI, OCJIa6JIHeTCH naM5ITb, C JKaeTCH anrtertrr, OCJIa6JIHeTCH pafiora cepnua.

Bl1TaMHHOM BI 60raT XJle6 113 MYKH rpytioro TIOMOJIa, rpe-mesaa 11 OBC5IH

xpyna, ropox, rpacons, COH, ne-reas H ocofienno )],PO)(()l(H. '~

Ilpn Hell,OCTaTKe Bl1TaMHHa B2 napynraercs 06pa30BaHHc 6eJIKa, )((HPOBOH 06 .. ) MCH, 3aMe]lJIHeTCH POCT, YMeHbliiaeTCH sec, B03Hl1KaeT MaJIOKpOBl1e, CHHJKaeTCH TKai; neaoe nuxaaae, nacrynaer 6bICTpa51 YTOMJl5leMOCTh rnas, 3aMe]lJIHeTCH 3a)1(l1BJIeH~ pan, YCHJIHBaeTCH nsmaneune BOJlOC, YXYJlWaeTCH COCTOHHl1e HepBHOM: Cl1CTeMbI;,f'

BHTaMl1Ha B2 MHoro B CJIl1BaX, nepcuxax, canare, KanYCTe, MOPKOBl1, coe. "

152

Bl1TaMl1H B9 'IaCTl1'IHO ofipasyerca 6aKTepl151MH Kl1Il1e'IHHKa. Ilpn He)],OCTaTKe Bl1TaMl1Ha B9 YXYlllIIaeTCH kpoaersopeaae, B03HI1KaeT MaJIOKpOBl1e, npOl1CXO)]'HT npexneapeneaaoe noceneaue.

Bl1TaMl1HOM B9 60raTbI 3eMMHHKa, MaJIl1Ha, 'IepHa51 CMopO)],l1Ha, Bl1WH5I, 516- JIOKl1, ap6Y3, ropox, KanYCTa, xaprodiens, MOPKOBb, CaJIaT, 3eJIeHbIH JIYK, TICTpYIllxa, censnepen, a raxxe TIe'IeHh, no-nor, M03rH )I(HBOTHbIX.

DPM He)],OCTaTKC BHTaMHHa C B03HHKaeT 06IIIaH CJIa60CTb, B5IJIOCTh, COHJIHBOCTb (oc06eHHO BeCHOH), CHIDKaeTCH COrrpOTl1BJIHeMOCTb opraaasua, 3aMe]lJlHeTCH 3a)1(HBJIeHHe pan, YMeHbliiaeTCH aHTHTOKCH'IeCKOC nencreae nesenn, YXYJlillaeTCH annerar, OCJla6J1HeTCH norpetinenae xncnopona TKaH5IMH opraaaava, B03HHKaeT JIOMKOCTb KanHJIlliIpOB, YCHJIHBalOTCH CKJIepOTl1'IeCKHe H3MCHeHHH COCy.uOB, yseJlH'lHBaeTCH conepxaane XOJIeCTepHHa B KpOBl1, B03Hl1KaeT 60JIb H KpOBOTe'IeHHe na necea, xapnec,

HOBbIe MCCJIe,UOBaHM5I yqeHblx OTKPbIJIM HaM Y)],HBHTeJIbHble cjlaKTbI. OKa3bIBaeTC5I, BHTaMHH C He aKKYMYJIHpyeTc5I B HaIllCM opranasue, ero uano «norpetiJUITb» e)((e,UHeBHO, H OH - eCJIl1 ero ,UOCTaTO'IHO - nossnnaer COnpOTl1BJI5IeMOCTb opraaassta B 60Pb6e C rrpOCTYJlOM, C orrYXOJIeBbIMH 3a60JICBaHH5IMH, C cepnexnuMH rrpacrynava. B npmnnme 'IeJIOBeKY He06xoll,HMO ero 20-30 MMJIJIHrpaMMOB B ll,eHb, HO rroTpe6JIHeMOCTb B BHTaMMHe C B03paCTaeT, eCJIM 'IeJIOBeK KYpHT, ynoTpe6MeT crtapraue Hanl1TKH, eCJIM - caxtoe YJlHBl1TeJIbHoe! - eCT MHoro MHca. A Y tIeJIOBeKa, rronaepxennoro CMJIbHbIM 3MOUH5IM H crpeccav, rrorpefiaocrs B BHTaMHHe C B03paCTaeT ,UO 3000 Ml1JIJIHrpaMMOB B nens - B CTO paa 60JIbille HOPMbI.

BMTaMMH C COJlep)l(MT IllMnOBHHK, 'IepHaH CMOpOJlHHa, 06JIerrHXa, JIMMOHbI, aneJIbCMHbI, MaHJlapHHbI, CaJIaT, 3eJIeHbiM JIYK, xanycra, rrCTpYIIIKa, censnepea, nOMHJlOpbI, xaprodiens, pennc, pena.

BMTaMHH D cnocoticrnyer OTJIO)((eHHIO xansuas B KOCT5IX H B 3y6HOM TKaHH, Iloa B03)],eMCTBHeM aroro BMTaMl1Ha YCHJlHBaeTCH pOCT. IIpH He)],OCTaTKe BHTaMHHa 0 y JIIO)]'CM: pa3BHBaeTCH paXHT, xorna pa3MHl"lalOTCH KOCTH.

BOJIbIIIOe KOJIl1'ICCTBO BHTaMl1Ha D l1MeeTCH B nC'IeHH H nxpe MOPCKHX PbI6, B CJIl1BOtIHOM MaCJIe, HH'IHOM )I(eJlTKe, MOJIOKe.

Ilpa He)],OCTaTKe BI1TaMHHa E OCJla6J1HIOTCH MbIWUbI, 060CTPHIOTCH cepneunoCOCY)],l1CThle 3a60JleBaHl15I, aapyuraercs l1CTIOJlh30BaHHe )I(HPOB opraanaaoa, 06- Pa30BaHl1e MOJlOKa Y KOPMHIIIHX )I(eHIIIHH. BlnaMHH E 3aMe]lJIHeT npouecc CTapeHI1H.

BMTaMHH E conepxar ofinertuxa, WHnOBHHK, pH611Ha, CJlall,KHM Ml1H,UaJIh, KC)]'POBble opexn, ceuena nOll,COJlHe'IHl1Ka 11 TbIKBbI, pacrtrrenstroe MaCJlO.

11- 98

153

I1PI1 HCnOCTaTKC BI1TaMI1Ha K B03MO)J{HO KPOB0I13JUUIHI1C B KO)J{C, Mhlllluax, CTeHKaX )J{eJ1Y1l04HO-KHlllCQHOro rpaxra, yxyzuuaercs pafiora cepzrua I1 nCQCHI1, CHH)KaeTCH CBepThIBaeMOCTh KpOBI1.

BI1TaMI1H K COnCp)KI1TCH B 06J1enHXe, lllHnOBHHKe, p5I6I1He, QepHoti CMOPO..a,I1He, KanYCTC, ThIKBe, KapTO<peJ1C, CaJ1aTe, 3CJIeHOM J1YKC, KpanI1BC.

I1PI1 HenOCTaTKe BI1TaMI1Ha P B03HHKaeT XpynKOCTh KanMJlJT51pOB, noesnuaer, CH MX npOHI1uaeMOCTh, QTO npI1BOllI1T K KPOB0I13J1ID1HHHM, YXYll111aeTCH nesrens-' HOCTh mMTOBI1.L(HOti )!(eJ1e3hI, OCJIa6JIHeTCH JJ;ctlcTBI1e BI1TaMI1Ha C M yseJlH'lHBaeTCJI nOTpe6HOCTh B HeM OpraHI13Ma.

BI1TaMI1H P conepxar pH6HHa, cvoponana, 5I6JlOKM, 4atl, MOPKOBh, nOMM1l0'::

PhI, KapTO<pCJIh, KanYCTa, lllIUlOBHHK, UI1TPYCOBhIe. :~

BI1TaMI1H PP (HI1KOTI1HOBa51 KI1CJIOTa) YJIY'llllaeT 06MeH BCmeCTB B OpraHI13 .... ( Me. HHKOTMHOBaH KHCJTOTa pacumpaer npOCBeThI KanI1JIJI5IpOB, B PC3YJ1hTaTC qcr& MCqe3alOT cnaasua cocynos. DOll BJTI1HHI1eM BI1TaMI1Ha PP noasnnaerca KI1CJ10TJ HOCTh )KeJIY1l0QHOrO COKa, YCHJIHBaeTCH YCBOeHI1e nI1TaTCJlhHhIX BemeCTB, YJIY'ImaIOTCJI <PYHKUI1H nCQeHM. r!

JIyqlllI1MI1 MCTOQHI1KaMI1 HHKOTI1HOBOti KI1CJlOThI HBJ151IOTCH )lPO)!()!(I1, rreQeHb;; He)KI1pHOe MHCO. Borarsr eIO 6060Bble paCTeHI151, rpexaesas xpyna, KapTo<pem,i,) .~

(Ilo H. Bep3UJlUHY, H. KonblmKo1

a) HaMAIo1Te B TeKCTe CTPYKTYPbl C rnaronaraa 1013MeHeHIo1M 101 onpenennre ..j( <!>OPMY.' ·1

6) CK<VKIo1Te Io1Ha .. e. 8(

o 6 p a 3 e U: BI1TaMI1H C YCI1JII1BaCT I1MMYHMTeT. -

DJIarO)lap51 BI1TaMI1HY C YCI1JlI1BaeTCH I1MMYHI1TeT. I~

1) BI1TaMHH A rtoasnnaer OCTPOTY 3peHI1H. 2) BHTaMHHbI rpynnsr B yseJ1l{J QHBaIOT YCTOtlQI1BOCTh OpraHI13Ma K crpeccaxi. 3) BHTaMHH C YKpenJTHCT cocyllbI. 4) BI1TaMI1H 0 YCI1JTI1BaeT pOCT. 5) BI1TaMHH E 3aMellJl5leT nponecc CTape] HI151. 6) BI1TaMI1H K ynysnuaer pa60TY cepnua H nesean. 7) BHTaMI1H P CHH)Kaef nponnuaevocn, KanI1JlJl5lpOB. 8) BHTaMHH PP pacurupaer npOCBeTbI KanI1JTJ1HpoB. 9) He)lOCTaTOK BI1TaMI1Ha C CHH)KaeT COnpOTI1BJlHeMOCTb OpraHI13Ma. 10) ,llC<PH-' UHT BHTaMHHOB rpynnsi B yxynuiaer COCTOHHHe HepBHoH CI1CTCMbI.

opexn.

B) 3aKOH .. Io1Te npeAJ1O>KeHIo1S1, Io1cnonb3YSI rnaronsr, npOTIo1BOnOnO>KHble no CMbICny BblAeneHHblM.

I) BHTaMHH AYCKopHeT pOCT, noasnnaer conpOTHBJl5leMOCTb opranuava npoCTY[(HbIM I1 I1HcpeKUHOHHbIM 3a60JleBaHH51M. I1PH HellOCTaTKe BHTa1\UIHa A .. ~,

154

2) Bnaronaps BHTaMIiHY B? nOBbIIlIaeTCH 06MCH BcmCCTB, YJlyqIllaeTcH TKaHCBoe )lblxaHHe, YCKopHeTCH 33)KHlmeHHe pan, I1PH He[(OCTaTKC aroro BI1TaMI1Ha ... 3) BI1- TaMI1H C Y.1JY'llllaeT oouiee COCT05lHHe OpraHI13Ma, nOBbIIlIaeT annerar, YCHJIHBaeT aHTHTOKCU'leCKOC llCtlCTBI1C nCQCHH. ECJIH oprauaau ncnsrrstaaer ..a,e<pHUHT BI-HaMHHa C, TO ... 4) BHTaMHH E yseJlHlJHBaeT CHJIY MhIlllU, YJlyqrnaeT COCT05lHI1C cepLle4Ho-coCYllHCToti CHCTeMhI. I1PI1 He1l0CTaTKe BHTaMI1Ha E B opraaxave ... 5) DJIaronaps BHTaMHHY K YJlyqwaeTcJI pafiora ne-rena, nOBbIwaeTCH caeprsraaevocn, KpOBH. ECJII1 B opramrnre He XBaTaeT aroro BHTaMHHa, TO H3-3a sroro ... 6) Jlon nCHCTBHeM BHTaMI1Ha P YKpenJIHIOTCH CTeHKH KPOBCHOCHhIX COCy..a,OB, nossunaerCH HX 3J1aCTH'IHOCTb. I1PH He1l0CTaTKe 3TOro BHTaMHHa ...

r) Bblpa3101Te Mblcnb Io1Ha .. e, Io1cnonb3YSI BMeCTO BblAeneHHblX cy~ecTBIo1TenbHblX OAHOKopeHHble rnaronst,

1) HC)lOCTaTOK BHTaMHHOB rpynnsr B npI1BOllI1T K CHIDKeHHIO YCTOtlQHBOCTH opraunasra K crpeccaxi, K 3aMe1lJleHHIO pOCTa. 2) ,llecpHUHT BHTaMHHa K npasomrr K yxy.n;weHHIO pa60ThI cepnua H nesena. 3) 1'13-3a nedmunra BI1TaMHHa C rrpOI1CXO[(HT CHIDKeHHe corrpOTHBJ151eMOCTI1 opraauava, noasunenae ypOBH5I XOJIeCTepl1- aa B KPOBI1. 4) I1 pu He..a,OCTaTKe BHTaMHHa D IIPOHCXOllI1T pa3MHflJeHHe KOCTeR. 5) ,llC<PI1UI1T BI1TaMHHOB npI1BO)lI1T K oCJla6JIeHHlO opranaaua. 6) 113-3a He)lOCTaTKa BluaMHHOB rrpOHCXOJJ;HT YMeHbweHHe COrrpOTI1BJIJIeMOCTI1 OpraHI13Ma.

A) OTBeTbTe Ha eonpocsr, Io1cnonb3YSI HH<!>opMa .... lo1lO, AaHHYIO B npaeoa KonOHKe, a TaK>Ke HH<!>opMa .... HIO TeKCTa «BHTaMIo1HHbIM an<!>aBIo1T'" OTBeT c<!>opMynHPYMTe B AByx aapaaarax: 1) Io1cnonb3YSI CTPYKTYPY c maronoes Ha -CHj 2) Io1cnonb3YSI CTPYKTYPY C rnaronosa 6e3 -CR.

1) Kaxoe 3HaQeHHC )lJI5I OpraHI13Ma 'ICJIOBCKa I1MeeT BHTaMHH A?

YCI1JlHBaTb( CJI) 06pa30BaHHc reMOrJlO- 6HHa

YCKOP5ITb( C5I) 3a)KHBJ1CHI1C pan oCJla6JIJITb(C51) BJ1I151HHe TOKCI1QCCKMX BCmeCTB

YJTyqwaTb(C5I) 3PCHHC

YCI1JlHBaTb( C5I) COrrpOTI1BJTJIeMOCTh opraHI13Ma rrpOCTYllHhIM 3a60J1eBaHH5IM

2) KaKYlO POJIh nrpaer BI1TaMI1H B 1? YJIyqwaTh( C5I) COCT05lHI1C nepanon CI1C-

TeMbI

3) KaKI1C CPYHKUHH BbIIIOJTH5ICT BI1- TaMHH B2?

4) Y.eM nOJIC3CH BHTaMHH C?

YCI1JII1BaTb( C5I) HO'IHOC 3pCHI1e

155

5) llJUI lJero H~eH BHTaMllH P?

6) l.[eM rronesea BHTaMHH PP?

YKpenJUlTh(C}I) KpOBeHOCHhle COCYAbI YJIYllIuaTb( C51) 06MeH BemeCTB YCHJlHBaTb( C}I) YCBoeHHe rnrrarerrstrsrx

BemeCTB

e) KaKHe ell.l.e noneaasie CBOHCTBa npOAYKTOB H pacTeHHH, 0 KOTOPblX wna p9'fb!

B TeKCTe, BaM H3BeCTHbl? " 'I

>K) PaCCKa>KHTe, KaKHe paCTeHHH BaweH crpausr o6naAalOT none3HblMH CBOH. 'j

CTBaMH. KaK 3TH paCTeHHH Hcnonb3YIOTCH B 6bl'ry, B MeAHLI,HHe? 'II

3) 06'bHCHHTe, KaK Bbl nOHHMaeTe pYCCKHe nOCnOBHLI,bl: "I

JIYK OT ceMll nenyr; JIYK na lJeCHOK - ponasre 6paTh51.

ECTb nH B BaweM POAHOM H3blKe aaanora .. Hble nOCnOBHLI,bl? KaK OHH nepe AHTCH aa PYCCKHH H3blK?

16. Flpo .. HTaHTe OTPblBOK H3 paccxaaa B. Wecj>Hepa ccKypcj>IOPCT KypnHHAHM». Bhln HHTe 38A8HHH nocne TeKCTa.

TAllHA l.fETBEPOHOfl1X KYP (HEHAYQHO-<DAHTACTI1QECKl1ll PACCKA3)

06"bHBneHHe YBa)l(aeMble rpaxnaae:

17 Mafl B 5 yaCOB 19 MIIIHyT B paC10He nocenxa HeXBoC1Hoe oxanaercs nplll3eMneHllle IIIHonnaHeTHorO xopafins C npyxecrBeHHblM BIII3I11TOM. npocb6a KO BceM rpa)l(,lJ,aHaM npOflBII1Tb BHII1- MaHlI1e K rOCTflM III npll1Be3TII1 K MeCTY IIIX nplll3eMneHlllfl KaK MO)l(HO 60nbwe CBe)l(lIIX KYPIl1HblX fllllLl,.

QTo6hI MeH}I He COlJJlH CYMaCllIeAllIHM, paccxaxy Bce no nOp51AKY.,j lleB51Th J1eT naaan no ,llOJlry CJly)!(6bl 51 nOCeTHJI OAHY KOMMYHaJIbHYIO KB~'> THPY na BaCHJlbeBCKOM OCTpOBe. OT ee )J(HJlhUOB nOCTYnHJla )!(aJIo6a aa HeKO, . Henapuoro HHKOJla51 llOPMHAOHTOBHlJa. 3TOT Herrapasni H.)l. pa3B01l,HJI B CB " KOMHaTe KYP H neTYXOB (I1X Y Hero 6bIJIO 48 llITYK). Henoaonscrao )!(11J1bUOB YC,"" JIMBaJIOCb eiue 11 TeM, lJTO Ka)J(1l,bIH se-rep H.ll. Henapasm BbIBOAI1J1 CBOI1X KYP ' nporyrrxy B 06ml1M KOp1111,0p, 11 3TO OTpaBJl51JlO COCe1l,51M )!(H3Hh.<

156

B paaronope C Henapauv 51 B Be)J(JIllBOM <popMe YKa3aJI eMY ira nenonycraMOCTb cOAep)!(aHI1}1KYP B ,llOMallIHHX YCJlOBI151X. B OTBeT Henapusni 3a51Bl1J1, lJTO KYP OH Pa3BO,llI1T pamr HaYKl111 He MO)J(eT OTKa3aTbC51 OT I1X passeneaas, HO B 6.1111- )l(ati:llIee BpeM}I nOCTapaeTC51 ssrexars 113 :noti: xsaprapsr. Ilpa 3TOM 51 3aMeTllJl, 'ITO as-rron 60JlbllIl1X OlJKOB no J1l1UY ero TeKYT CJlC3bI. 3aTeM Henapnsm CKa3aJI, '-ITO 51 Ka)I()'Ch eMY lJYTKI1M H OT3bIBlJl1BbIM lJeJlOBeKOM, H nOnpOCHJI MeH51 BhICJlYurars ero I1CTOPMIO. BOT lJTO OH paCCKa3aJI.

YlCTOPIUI H . .IJ:. HEIIAPHOrO

Henapasra H.ll. pO,[(l1JIC}I B 1902 fO,[(Y B cease MeJlKOfO nerepfiyprcxoro lJl1- HOBHHKa. CeMh51 )!(11J1a 6e,llHO, H KYP}lTI1Ha na CTOJle 6bIJIa J1l1llIb no 60JlhllIHM npa3J],Hl1KaM. Onnaxznr, KOfJ],a MaTh nana eMY H cecrpe no KYPHHOM HO)!(Ke, Y ioaoro KOJll1 MeJlbKHYJla MbICJlh: ecmr 6bI Y KYP"UbI 6hIJIO xerstpe Hom, I1X xsaTI1J10 6bI na BCIO ceMbIO. 11 ~e TOfJ],a Y ionoro Henapnoro pO,[(I1J1aCh reaaansaaa MJ],e51: J11OJ],51M H~a nopona lJeTBepOHomx KYP! Torna xe OH KYnl1Jl xersrpex KYP, onaoro neryxa H cavoyarrrem, rarnrosa. [l1nHOTI13I1PY51 KYP 11 rreryxos, OH BHYuran 11M MhICJlh 0 He06xo,llI1MOCTI1 srersepoxororc nOTOMCTBa. K CO)!(aJIeHI1IO, MeTO)], He nan pe3YJlhTaTOB.

C rex nop nponrno HeMaJIO ,lleC}lTl1JIeTI1M. Henapnua CMeHHJI MHO)!(eCTBO npo<iJeCCI1M. OH 6hIJI rpY3lJI1KOM, fl1nHOT113epOM, nOlJTaJIhOHOM 11 MHOro KeM eme. Ho scerna 1'1: Be3J],e OH pa3BO}],l1JI xyp, 11 3TO BJleKJIO aa C060M Henp"}1THOCTI.

11 BOT He}],aBHO 51 nOJlyqHJI nl1ChMO OT Henapnoro. B HeM OH coofituan, lJTO ero 6e3}],eTHa5I cecrpa He}],aBHO CKOHlJaJIaCb, 11 K HeMY no HaCJle,llCTBY nepemna ee lJ,alJa. Teneps TBOplJeCKl1e B03MO)J(HOCTI1 Y Henapnoro pacurnpanacs, OH yxe BOSCIO pa3BepHYJI HaYlJHYIO ,lle51TeJlhHOCTh. OH rrpnrnanran MeH}I K ce6e OT,llOXHYTb. >I C pa}],OCThIO COfJlaCHJlC51.

Hepes He}],eJlIO 51 npaexan B HeXBoMHoe. llalIY csoero 3HaKOMoro 51 Y3HaJI no 06H.IJI1IO KYP, paarynasatounrx no yxacrxy 3a 3TO BpeM51 I1X KOJll1lJeCTBO He YMeHhIlIHJIOCh, a, Ha060pOT, YBeJll1lJl1J10Cb tIYTh Jm He srpoe. l.[To6hI cxopee ocyutecrBHTh CBOIO MelJTY, neatens HaYKI1 He )J(aJIeJl sarpar 11 CHJI. OH KOPMl1JI CBOI1X ,llPY3eM 113IOMOM, MbIJIOM, naCTI1JIOM, llIOKOJIa)J,OM, BHTaMl1HaMI1 ua see 6YKBhl, rJIIOK030M, PbI6HbIMl1 KOHCepBaMl1l1 MHOfI1Ml1.lIPymMI1 npO}],YKTaMl1l1 BemeCTBaMI1. OH naPI1COBaJI ,llJI}I Hl1X KpaCKaMI1 J],Be KapTHHbI: xerseponororc neryxa 11 lJeTBepOHOrylO KYPHUY, '-IT06bI J],BYHOfl1e KYPbI MOrJIH saners, KaKI1MI1 OHI1 ,llOJl)!(HbI 6bITb B I1neaJIe. 'Iacro, nanes ranotun aa PYKH 11 na HOrl1, OH XOJ],I1J1 no J],BOpy Ha lJeTBepeHbKax, lJT06bI J1l1'-IHbIM nproaepov HaTOJIKHYTb CBOHX J],BYHOrl1X nl1TOMueB na 113McHeHl1e reHOB.

157

Ho PC3YJlbTaTOB BCe eute HC 6bIJIO. 51 CTaJI 3aMCl.faTb, l.fTO HHKOJIaH L(OPMHLI,OH~ TOBHl.f CTaHOBHTC>I BCe Mpal.fHCC, HaCTpOCHHC Y nero YXYllllIaCTC>I.

Ho BCe H3Mcmm CJIyqaH.

I1HOITJIAHETHHE B HEXBOHHOM

KaK-To K HaM BO LI,BOp B6craCT nama cocenxa, )],OllIKOJIbHHua Jhocsxa, M ro ..

BOPMT: :.

- A na nOJl>IHC aa HlOllIHHOH ropxoji HHOnJIaHeT>IHC npM3CMJlMJIHCb! - H:I

y6c)f(aJIa. .1

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51 rot-rae )l(C HanpaBHJICH B ,ll,OM K HcnapHOMY M C006lUMJI CMY HOBOCTb. He~!

napHbIH 06paLI,oBaJIC>I: ,1

i - Ceaxac )l(C nOHLI,eM K HHM! - 11 LI,06aBJ-m: - HaM HaLI,O apy-nrn, rOCT>I~

KaKHe-HM6Y,ll,b rtonapxn. 51 KaK npCLI,CTaBHTCJIb HaYKH nonxen nOLI,apMTb MM l.fr()iij HH6YLI,b UCHHOC H HayqHo-n03HaBaTCJIbHoC. r::

OH BOllIeJI B ,n:OM M BbIHCC oTIYLI,a cTary3TKY. BbIJICnMJI ee B npOllIJIOM ro~ OLI,HH Hal.fMHaromMH CKYJIbI1TOP, cHHMaBwHH Y nero KOMHary. Beunrua 6blJIa BbJ''''~ COTOH caHTMMeTpOB TpI1JJ:uaTb H M306pa)l(aJIa castoro Herrapnoro C ronosu LI,O H~ B BbIT>IHyrOH: PYKC Yl.feHbIH: nepxan KpOXOTHYIO l.fCTBCpoHorylO KYPHUY. Msr ~ LI,BHHYJIMCb co nsopa, KaK nnpyr Henapmrjr YBM)]'CJI KOTa HaBYXO,ll,OHOCOpa, KOTO.J) PbIH CXBaTMJl xpyrraoro UbITIJIeHKa.'.!

.J

- BOT xoro Mbl LI,OJl)l(HbI OTHCCTH MHOnJlaHeTHHaM, - CKa3aJI Henapusra. ~J

KOToB Y HHX, BCPO>ITHO, HeT, M 3TO rpaUM03HoC )l(MBOTHOC .uOJI)l(HO MX rropano-] sars. HaByxo.uOHOCOP C)l(C)]'HCBHO xpaner Y MeHH no UbITIJIeHKY. 51 rronapio e~ rtpmuensnax, panu YKpenJ1CHH>I KOHTaKTOB. Al

Mu no.uO)l(.IJ,aJIH, noxa KOT ,n:OCCT UbITIJIeHKa, M nocaaanu KOTa B C)'MKY. OH Hfj

conpOTHBJI>IJICH, TaK KaK OTH)l(CJICJ1 OT CblTOCTM. . -. ~~

Korna Mbl no,n:OWJIH K narepto npHWCJIbUCB, 51 YBM,n:CJI, -rro OHH o-rem, noxo;<~ )l(H aa J[IO.uCH. E.uHHCTBCHHoe, -rro OTJIH'-laJIO HX OT 3CMJI>IH, - 3TO 6YKBb[ aa JI~;l Y xaxnoro My)l(lfHHbl na J16y BHLI,HeJIaCb rOJIy60BaTa>I 6YKBa, a y )f(CHWHHbI _ p~! 30BaTa>I 6YKBa.{!

nO.uOH,n:>I K xpato nOJ1HHbI, Mbl rpOMKO CKa3aJ1H «3.upaBCTByHTC», H HHOnJIaHe~\:

THHC npHBCTCTBCHHO nOMaXaJIH HaM PYKaMH. 51 npeLlCTaBHJI npHIIICJIbuaM KOPH<pej HaYKH, a Hertapusni nOCTaBI1JI na CIOJI CBOH CKYJ1bnTYPHbIH noprper H CKa3aJI, q~ BpyqacT cro B nap rOCT>IM. 3aTCM 51 BbIBaJ1HJI H3 CYMKH cnsmero KOTa. Henapauf 3aRBHJ1, l.fTO KOTa OH TO)f(C BPYlfaCT B zrap npHWeJ1buaM OT JIHUa 3eMJI>IH.

B OTBCTHOM CJlOBe PYKOBO.uHTCJIb 3KcneLlHUHH CCpLI,elfHO n06JIarOllapHJI 3il' uenusre noztapxn, HO TYT )l(e ,ll,06aBI1J1, -rro npunsm, CTaTY3TKY OHH He Moryr, no"

158

CKOJIbKY HM HCJIb3H YBCJ1Hl.fHBaTb BCC Kopa6ml HH na OLI,HH rpaMM. KOTa OHH TO)l(C s351Tb HC MOfyr no TOM npHl.fHHe, -rro OHH He HMCIOT npasa fipars C npyrnx nnaHeT HH OLlHOfO )l(HBOfO cytuecrsa 6e3 HX nHCbMeHHOfO COfJIaCHSI. Tyr 51 nOLlYMaJI, tITO Y Hac na 3eMJIe K )l(HBOTHbIM OTHOC5ITC5I naase H -rro Y Hac B necax YMCHbllIHJ10Cb l.fHCJlO BHLI,OB saepet; H rrTHU, COKpaTHJ10Cb HX KOJIHl.fCCTBO, a HeKOTopbIX He OCTanOCb COBCCM.

Henapnsut CrrpOCHJ1, noseny Y M~lfHH H )l(CHIUHH 6YKBbI na Jl6y. EMY 06b- 5[CHHJ1M, -rro 6yKBbI, B lfaCTHOCTH, YLI,06HbI TeM, -rro CBeTHTC5I B TeMHOTC H, TaKHM 06pa30M, M~HHa scerna MO)l(CT YCTynHTb nopory )l(CHmHHC. 3TH 6yKBbI He nanncansr, a C03LI,aHbl reaerauecxa.

- 3Ha'lHT, BbI BJIaLleCTe TaHHOM H3MCHeHH>I rCHOB! - pa.uOCTHO BOCKJ1HKHYJl Henapnsni. - Baur nonr - rrOMOl.fb l.feJIOBel.feCTBY H JIWIHO MHC B C03LI,aHHH xerseponoron KYPHUbI!

- 3TO BnOJIHe B03MO)l(HO, - OTBeTHJ1 npHWCJICU. - Bsicrpee ornpaansjrrecs LlOMOti: H HCCHTC crena KYpMHble HMua.

Henapnun 6croM KHHYJ1C5I novon.

Korna OH 6c)I(aJI 06paTHo, nepxa B PYKax CYMKY, nOJ1HYJO KYPHHbIMH HMuaMH, CJ1YQMJIOCb Y)l(aCHoe. Henapnnn crrOTKHYJICH H ynan, YPOHHB CYMKY C ztparoueanon nomen. lJcpc3 MfHOBCHHe OH CHOBa C pbILI,ammMH nofiexan srtepen. Ha rrOJIHHC ero OKPY)I(HJIH CO'lYBCTByroml1e l1HOnJIaHCT5IHC. Tyr BbillCHl1JlOCb, 'ITO H3 rr5ITl1.ueCHTH WTyK yueJICJIO TOJIbKO rpn RHua.

B3>IB rpn YUCJICBrnHX 51Mua, cneUl1aJIl1CT-rCHCTl1K cran 06JIYl.faTb HX non xaKHM -TO CJlO)l(HbIM npl160pOM.

- 3TO npouecc ,ll,OJIrI1M, - CKa3aJ1 HaM PYKOBOLI,I1TCJIb 3KCnC,ll,I1UMH. - npMrnauraro sac n006CLI,aTb C HaMH.

,il,C)I(YPHa>I HHOnJIaHeT5IHKa npMHeCJIa MaJ1eHbKHll HWHlfeK, BbIHYJIa H3 Hero MaJIlOceHbKI1M XJIe6eu paavcpo« C LleTCKI1ti: MM3I1HeUl1 n0J10)l(I1JIa ero nocepennHe crena. OOTOM OHa ITOCTaBvlJIa nepen Ka)l()J,bIM ITO TpH TapeJIO'lKM, Ka)l(.IJ,YIO pasMepOM C HOfOTOK, H nOJIO)l(HJIa rro ManIOceHbKOl1 JIO)l(C'lKe, BMJlO'lKC H HO)l(Hl.fKY. 1-13 trrpyiue-ntoro repvoca OHa HaJIl1JIa Ka)l(.IJ,OMY cyny, nana Ka)l(.IJ,OMY no pbI6Ke paJMCpOM co CHeTKa. 3aTCM 110JIO)I(I1JIa ua CTOJI HeCKOJIbKO MHHHaTIOpHbIX H6JIOlIek 11 >IfOLlOK 11 erne BCHKMC MaJ1IOCeHbKHe OBOml1 H <PPYKTbl.

«De)]'HOBaTO )l(J-IBeTe, rpaxnane HHOITJ1aHeT5IHe! - nOLI,YMaJ1 H. - KaKOUfH16YLI,b 06bIKHOBeHHbIH 3eMHoi1 KOT - 11 TOT HMceT 60JIbWC enu»,

Ho TYT ,lle)l(ypHa51 crana Ha)l(l1MaTb aa BC5IKI1C KHOITKH. 51 B3fJI5IHYJ1 na CTOJI 11 0601l1J1eJ1. ManeHbKI1H XJ1e6cu cran paCTH na rJIa3aX I1 lfCPC3 MI·1HYTY aa CTOJIC JlC)Kana 60JlbWYW35I annCTHTHa51 6yxaHKa XJ1e6a. TapeJIOlJKH CTanH YBeJIHl.fMBaTbCH

159

BMeCTe C rrpO)lYKTaMH. PbI6KH-J1HJmrrYTKH npeaparnnacs B HapHJI.HbiX PbI6HH pasMepOM C xopornero xapna, COOTBerCTBeHHO YBeJIH'IHJIHCb H see OBOlUH H <PPYKTbl. 5IrO)lKH-ManIOTKH CTaJ1H CO'lHbIMH rrJ10)laMH BeJ1H'lHHOH C ap6Y3.

Ofien OKa3aJ1CH ovens BKYCHbIM. Bo BpeW! ofiena Henapnun CrrpOCHJ1 Y PYKOBO)lHTeJIH, KaKHM TaKHM lJY)leCHbIM 06pa30M yseJll1'lHJ1HCb npO)lYKTbI.

- C rrovounao npnfiopa, KOTOPblI1 Mbl Ha3bIBaeM MaClIlTa6HJ1H3aTopOM. Haura I1JlaHeTa 5IJIMe3 O'leHb 60JIhlIla5I, H 'lT06bl scex HaKopMHTb, Mhl asrpatuasaev MHHHaTJOpHble IIJ10)lbI, OBOW.H H <PPYKTbl, pa3BO,Ll.HM MHHH-PbI60K, a 3aTeM ysena-ra- .: saev see 3TO,Ll.0 HY')KHbIX paavepoa. M Bo061ue, Mbl npOH3BO,Ll.HM see BelUH B Ma-; JIeHbKOM BH)le, a rrOTOM YBeJIH'lHBaeM. Cyuiecrsa pa3YMHbIe, a TaIOKe )!(HBOTHbIX I

I H rrTHU YBeJIH'lHBaTb aanpetueno, H60 3TO HerYMaHHO. 3arrpelUeHO TaIOKe YBeJIH'",

'lHBaTb B paasrepax uennsre rrpOl13Be,lJ,eHH5I HCKYCCTBa. ,;

Korna see 6bIJIO cseneno, nexcypaaa, BKJ1IO'lHB arperar, YMeHblIlillla rapen-] KH, BHJIKH H HO)!(H ,lJ,0 npexrmx paaxepoe H YHeCJIa HX. BI1)l}I, 'lTO CTOJI CBo60-.l zten, 51: rr0J10)!(HJ1 ua Hero 6YMa)KHhIH pytim, H rrOrrpOCHJI YBeJIH'lHTb ero B CTO p~:~ Ho 3TOT uay-nro-rpmtaacoasra onsrr, K CO)KaneHHJO, He Y,lJ,aJ1CH. Py6JIb yseJIH'lHJb~ C5I, HO He TaK, KaK 51: oxnnan. nOJIyqHJIaCb He na-rxa B CTO Py6JIeBblX 6YMIDKeK~: a O)lHH 60J1blIlYlUHH pytim, pasncpou C rrpOCTbIHlO. YMeHblIlaTb ero 51: He cran, •. CBepHYJI B PYJIOH H B3HJI na rraM5ITb.lf;

Henapnsm TO)Ke 3aHHTepeCOBaJ1C5I: )leHCTBHeM npafiopa. OH rrOCTaBHJI CBO$;craryarxy ua CTOJI H IIOrrpOCHJ1 YBeJ1H'lHTb ee, rrOCKOJ1bKY OH 'lYBCTByeT ce65I ~, CTOHHbIM He MaJ1eHhKOro CKYJ1bITTypHoro noprpera, a MOHYMeHTaJ1hHOrO naserr .. HHKa. Y.epe3 MHHYTY MbI HMeJ1H nepen C060M BeJIH'leCTBeHHbIM MOHYMeHT Bble . TOM B zrsa C rr0J10BHHOH MeTpa.

nOCJ1e otiena HHOITJIaHeT5IHe BpyqHJ1H Henapaovy rpn 06JIyqeHHblx 5I:Mua,.1 OH OCTOPO)KHO YJ10)KHJI HX B CYMKY.

Hacrynnn 'lac B03Bpaw.eHHH npmnensuea na nnaaery 5IJIMe3. Ilootieutaa CH sa nocerars 3eMJIJO sepea urecrs J1eT, rOCTH rrOMaXaJ1H HaM na npoutanae, H pafim, B3MbIJ1 B He60.

3ITl1JIOr BbICH)KI1BaHHe rpex HI1IJ; Henapnsrn nopysnn caMOH CTapaTeJ1bHOH KYPHU :

Ha nsamta'rs rrepBLIH ,Ll.eHb Y'leHbIH pa36Y,lJ,11J1 MeHH: - CBepWHJ10Ch! - 06b5IBH;1 OH. - M.llHTe rrOCMorpeTb Hd 'leTBepOHororo UbI".t' J1eHKa.

- Ileryurox HJ111 KYPO'lKa?

- KYPOYKa! tIeTBepOHOra5I KypOYKa! - OTBeTHJI Henapnua.

160

51 OCTOPO)KHO BOrneJ1 B KOMHaTY. no nOJIY 60HKO 6eran UhII1JIeHOK na CB011X ucrsrpex narrxax. J1 ryr 51: 3aMep OT yxaca. KOT Hanyxononocop He3aMeTHO npofipancs BCJ1e)l aa MHOH B KOMHaTY 11 Y')Ke rrpHrOTOBI1J1C5I K rrpbl)KKY. Ho nnpyr, paarnanen, 'lTO Y uunnenxa He nne, a xeratpe norn, ow.eTHHI1J1C5I OT crpaxa H TPYCJIHBO 6POCHJIC5I BOH H3 KOMHaTbl.

Qepe3 'lac no KOMHaTe fierana nne xersepoaorae KYPO'lKH.

- Teneps 6Y)leM )K)laTb nerymxa, - C Hane)K)lOH H npO)KblO B r0J10ce npoasHeC yqeHbIH. Herepneane Henapnoro C Ka)K)lOM M11HYTOti: YCHJ1HBanOCb.

Ho H TpeTHH UbII1JIeHOK OKa3aJ1C5I KYPO'lKOH!

fope ysenoro He nonnaeanocs OrrI1CaHI1JO. Hanpacao 5I YTelIlaJ1 ero TeM, 'lTO xepea urecrs JIeT ciona CHOBa rrpH6Y)lYT 11HOnJ1aHeT5IHe H rorna MO)KHO 6Y,lJ,eT C03- nars XOTb TbIC5Il.IY 'leTBepOHOfl1X KYP H neryxos. YYeHblti CH)leJ1 nOHypHB rOJIOBY, I1 CJIe3bI TeKJ1H H3-nO)l ero Ol.IKOB.

Jlero lIlJIO, a Herrapnsm Bce HHKaK He Mor onpaBHTbC5I OT neyna-m. X03HMCTBO OH 3anYCTI1J1, KYPbI H rreTYXH O,Ll.I1'laJ1H H 6pOUHJIH rne norrano, KOT norepan OCTaTKH COBeCTH 11 HaTpeHHpOBanCH cseaars B nens no UBa xpynnsrx UhInJIeHKa. Ho 'leTBepOHOfHX KYP OH 60HJ1CH KaK OfHH. OT HHX mapaxanncs naxe casrsre OTB3)KHhle neryxa, a MaJ1eHbKHe nera, YBHueB 11X, Ha'lHHaJ1H nnaxars. Bcxope 3TH seraepoaorae KYpbI KYua-TO HC'le3JIH aascerna.

Ocensio na rrOJIHHe, rue paasure rrpH3eMJIHJ1HCb rrpmuensuu, HalIlJII1 6e3)lblxannoe TeJ10 Henapaoro. OH JIe)Kan y nO,Ll.HO)Kl1H CBoeM CTaTYH.

HbIHe MOHYMeHT JIe)f(HT na 3eMJIe. OH ynan, He BbI)lep)KaB coficrnennoit TH)Keern. qeTBepOHOrYIO KYPHUY, KOTOPYIO nepxan B PYKe yqeHblti, OTJIOMaJ1H H yHeCJ1H rypacrsr. BJIaneJ1bUbI nax, 'lTo6bI nOBbICHTb ueHHOCTb MeCTHOCTl1, nYCTHJII1 CJIYX cpena ,lJ,a'lHHKOB, 'lTO CTaTYH 3Ta oxens CTapHHHa51: H npuseaeaa ciona H3,ll;peBHero PI1Ma npa Exarepune Bropon.

B 3aKJ1JO'leHHe erne paa npnauaaio scex UOCTOHHO rrourOTOBI1TbC5I: K 6YUymeMY noceuremno 3eMJ111 HHOI1JIaHeTHHaMI1 11 3arOTOBHTb K HX npl16blTHJO nocraroxaoe I<OJII1'leCTBO CBe)l(HX KYPI1HbIX HI1U.

a) AOnOJ1HMTe npeAllO>KeHMR Hy>KHbIMM rJ1arOJ1aMM B npaBMJ1bHo';; cpopMe.

1) K CO)KaJIeHI1IO, MbI BhIHY)K)leHbl OTKa3aTbCH 01' samero nonapxa, TaK KaK Mbr He MO)l(eM ... (ysennmtser» - YBCJIIf'lHBaTbCJl) sec Kopa6J1H. 2) Ha 3eMJIe .. , (YMCHbllIIfTb - YMeHbllIIfTbCJl) lJl1CJIO BI1,!1,OB aaepeii I1 IlTHU, ... (coxpetutt. - cokpaTIfTbCJl) I1X KOJIH'lCCTBO. 3) Msr CTapaCMC51. nupauraaari, OBOWI1 11 cPPyKTbI HeOOJIblIll1X paavepoa, a rrOTOM I1X ... CVBCJIIf'lIfBClTb - YBCJm'lIfH8TbCJl). 4) OP0I13BCl(eHI15! HCKYCCTsa ... (YBCJIIf'lIfBaTb - YBCJlH'lIfBaTbCfJ) 3arrpcw.eHO. 5) Heryvanao .. ,

161

(YBeJIWlHBaTb - YBeJI]{'llfBaTbCH) paavepsr )KI1BOTHbIX 11 IlTI1U. 6) Ilena na 3eMJUO I 3TOM paitone nOCT05lHHO ... (rroBbIllIaTb - nonuiusrscsiv. 7) QT06b[ eure 60JIbllIe " (nosucntt. - IlOBbIClfTbCH) ueHY na 3eMeJIbHble Y'laCTKI1, I1HBeCTOpbI ... (YJIygwH1J - YJIY'lllilfTbCH) l1X I1H<ppacTPYKTYPY. 8) OCTpoTa npO)lOBOJIbCTBeHHoH np06JIe. Mbl noxa He ... (CH]{JKaTb - CHHJKaTbcH). 9) QI1CJIeHHOCTb HaCeJIeHl151 ua 3eMH01\ llIape ... (ttosuuum, - noeuuumcm. 10) AKTYaJIhHOCTh 3TOH np06JIeMbI He " (YMeHblllaTb - YMeHblllaTbcfI). 11) MbI Ha)leeMC5I, 'lTO KOHTaKTbI Me)K)lY HallIl1MI CTpaHaMl1 6Y)lYT ... (YKperrJIHTb - YKperrJIHTbcfI). 12) llaBaHTe 6Y)leM ... (pecuue pmt. - paClll]{pHTbCH) COTpY)lHl1'leCTBO Me)K)ly HallIl1Ml1 CTpaHaMl1. 13) KYJIhTYP' HbIH 06MeH Me)!()lY rOCY)lapCTBaMl1 nOCT05lHHO ... (pecuntpsm, - pacllIlfpfITbCfI).

6) 3aKOH'iHTe npeAIlO>KeHHSI, ynoTpe6nSlSl B HHX rnaronsr, aHTOHHMH'iHble BbiAe. neHHbiM.

1) HecMoTp51 na see 06eWaHI151 Herrapnoro, He)lOBOJIbCTBO )[UIJIhUOB HOBbI~ COCe)lOM He YMeHbIDaJIOCb, a, Ha060pOT, .... 2) Co BpeMeHeM KOJIl1'leCTBO KYP ~ Henapnoro He TOJIhKO He COKpaTHJIOCb, a, Ha060pOT, .... 3) llopora, KOTopaH aem K nOCeJIKY, TO paCIDHp5lJIaCb, TO .... 4) ITocJIe nepsoa cepna 3KCnep"MeHTOB Ha.; CTpOeHl1e Y yqeHoro He TOJIhKO He YJIyqIDUJIOCb, HO 3aMeTHO .... 5) B HeKoToPh~ panonax naureri 06JIaCTl1 YMeHbIDHJIOCb 'll1CJIO nonesuux paCTeHl1H, a 'll1CJIO pa~; HhIX COPHHKOB .... 6) 51 rrOIlpOCl1JI <poTorpa<pa YBeJIH'lHTb MaJIeHhKYIO cPOTOrp~· <imIO, a CBOM 60JIbllIOM rtoprper HeMHoro .... 7) K KOHUY rona nensr na 3eMJIIO'1

'\ rrpl16pe)J(HOM 30He 3aMeTHO nOBbICHJIHCb. BPH)l JIl1 OHl1 6Y)lYT ... B )laJIbHeHllIeM. 8,

ITPI1TOK HaCeJIeHl151 B ropona B nocnenaae ronsr yseJIH'IHBaeTCSI, 'll1CJleHHOCTb)J{C censcxoro HaCeJIem151 .... 9) OCTpoTa npO)lOBOJlhCTBeHHoH rrp06JIeMbI BO MHOrl1j crpanax He TOJIbKO He CHHlKaeTCSI, HO, Ha060pOT, .... 10) Bnaaensust )la'l B 3TO~ cesoue naunoro nOBblCHJlH ueusr na xsaprnpsr. He )lYMalO, 'lTO OHl1 '" l1X B 6y; nyutev.

B) PaCCKa>KHTe, KaK peunsna npOAOBonbCTBeHHYIO npo6neMY >KHTenH nnaHe1l!!

SlnMe3·'i

r) np0'iHTaihe Ha3BaHHe nnaHeTbl SlnMe3 cnpaaa aaneso. LiTO Bbl npO'iHTanH? Kal Bbl AYMaeTe, cnY'iaHHO nH 3TO COBnaAeHHe? ApryMeHTHPYHTe aatu OTBeT.

162

5. Kocaeaao-eoaeparaere rnaronei

(rnaronu, 0603Ha'-lalOUJ,1I18 A8ViCTBII18, coeepuraeuoe Cy6b8KTOM S C06CTS8HHbiX II1HTepecax)

1. a) npO'iHTaHTe AHanor. 06panne BHHMaHHe aa TO, 'iTO rnaronst B BblAeneHHblX cnOBOCO'ieTaHHSlX 0603Ha'ia1OT AeHCTBHe, xoropoe cy6beKT coaepusaer B CBOHX HHTepecax, AIlSi CBoeH nonb3bl.

TAH5I ITEPEEXAJIA B MOCKBY

- CKa)KJ1, TaH5I: BOT Thl - KOpeHHa51 C11611p5I'lKa, nsuuna 3aM)')K l1 nepeexana K MY)K}' B MOCKBY. Ii KaK reoe snecs )IG1BeTC5I?

- MOCKBY 51 nOJII0611JIa cpasy, XOT5r rtpnasncars 6bWO HerrpOCTO. llpyrOH: roPOA, npyrae JIIOJIl1, npyrou pl1TM )K113HI1. ITocJIe MaJIeHbKOro roponxa TPY)lHO 6bWO opHeHTHpOBaTbCSI B crapux MOCKOBCKI1X nepeynsax. Cnasana OpHeHTHpOBaJfaCb no xapre. To 11 JIeJIO ofipatuanacs K npoxolKHM C BonpOCaMI1: «KaK npotiru K UeHTPaJIbHOMY no-rraury?», «KaK ,lJ;OfipaTbCSI,lJ;O TpeTbHKOBCKOii ranepea?« Ilepsoe BpeM5I B TpeTbHKOBKY XO)1,I1JIa Ka)K)lYIO He)1,eJIIO, BCe He Moma HaCMOTpeTbCH ua CBOI1 JIIO- 6l1MbIe KapTHHbI. Bens paasuie 51 Bl1L{eJIa TOJIbKO perrpOJlYKUI1I1. Ceii-tac 51 YCTPOHJIaCb na l1HTepeCHYIO pafiory, ofiaasenacs HOBhIMl1 3HaKoMbIMH, Y MeH5I Il05lBl1JII1Cb ,Il,PY3b5l. He)laBHO MHe rrpe)lJIo)KI1JIl1 Y'laCTBOBaTb B OJl.HOM l1HTepeCHoM npoexre, 11 51 C Pa)lOCTbIO cornacanacs na 3TO npeMolKeHHe. TaK 'lTO H BIlOJIHe aaanraposaJIaCb K Mocxse.

6) Onpenenare ynpaBneH~e maronoa B BblAeneHHblX cnOBOCO'ieTaHHSlX. 3an~w~Te 3TH cnOBOCO'ieTaHHR. npHAYMaHTe C HeKOTopblMH H3 HHX npeAIlO>KeHHSI.

B) AononHHTe npeAIlO>KeHHSI: Hcnonb3YHTe rnaron H3 nepaoa 'iaCT~ npeAnO>KeH~SI B npaBHnbHOH BHAOBOH <t>opMe.

1) 06hl'lHO 51 )],06I1paIOCb)l0 YHI1BepCl1TeTa nOJITOpa xaca, a ceroJIH5I ... sa sac.

2) CeHlJaC }I YCTpal1BalOCb na flOBYIO patiory KaK TOJIhKO ... , cpasy refie HanI1lUY·

3) MbI sac TaK nonro )lO)Kl1JlaJIl1Cb, HaKOHeU-TO .... 4) Annpett )],OJIro pa36l1paJICH B npH'lI1HaX uertonanxn B KOMIlbIOTepe 11, HaKOHeu, .... 5) ECJll1 HaJIO, oopauratirecs KO MHe sa rrOMOIUblO B Jl1060e BpeM5I. nOlJeMY Bbl KO MHe He ... B npOIIlJlbIH pa3? 6) 06bI'lHO H C TPy.rrOM 0pl1eHTl1PYlOCb B He3HaKOMOM MeCTe, a aa 3TOT paa ... Cpa3y. 7) ITO'leMY Tbl He cornauraetuscs aa raxoe uirrepecnoe npeJIJIO)KeHl1e? 51 6bI ua Ti30eM MeCTe 06H3aTeJIhHO .... 8) ITeTPY Y)Ke rpanuars ner, a OH He ropornrrca 06]aBO)]'I1TbC5I ceMbei1. Bee ero O)]'HOKJIaCCHHKI1 Y)Ke JlaBHO ....

163

6. 3anoMHHTe ynpaBlleHHe maronos.

K+A. n. B+ B. n. B + n. n. + T. n. AO + p. n.
oopauiarsc» oopauiarsca OpHeHTl1pOBaTbcH sanacan.ca Ll,06HpaTbcSI
anarrntposarsca pa36l1paTbC5I YLl,OBJIeTBOp51TbC51 Ll,03BOHI1TbC5i
np11BH3bIBaTbC51 COBCPlllCHCTBOBaTbC51 3anpaBJI51TbC51 Ll,OCTytJaTbCj}
rrpl1CJIYllll1BaTbC5I
npl1fJT5ILl,bIBaTbC5I I
.~ npocneAHTe, KaK ynoTpe6mlloTcSl BblAeneHHble rnaronsi B npeAIIO>KeHHH.

1) ECJIU BaM fiyner H)')KHa nOMOLUh, oopalllaHTeCb KO MHe, a raxxe BhI MO)l(J ofiparnrsca B tram odiuc. 2) Pe6eHKY no,UapHJU1 cotiaxy, H OH 6hICTPO npHBB3aJICJI CBoeMY HOBOMY ztpyry 3) 51 ,lJ,06HpalOcb.uo pa60ThI sa sac. 4) Co6HpaHc1 B noxgj M11 aanacnacs np0,UYKTaMH Ha u,eJIYIO nenemo. 5) 5J npaexan B POCCHIO cOBepmtl CTBOBaTbCH B PYCCKOM H31IKe. 6) HHKTO He pa36HpaeTCH B 3TOM nonpoce JIYQui1 qeM nporpeccop Ilerpon. (11

~

~

7. ,Q,ononHHTe AHanorH. Mcnonb3YIIITe cnoaa AnSI cnpaaox,

1. - npl151TeJIeH Y Hero MHOro, a HaCTOHLUero npyra HeT. - LJ,a, Y Hero TaKOH xapaxrep, 'ITO eMY TPy.uHO nO-HaCT051lll,eMY ... K KOMI

Hu6y.uh. 'j

2. - B1I He saaere, Y xoro 6hl 51 Mor rtony-nrrs KOHCYJIhTaUHIO no ,UpeBHepYCCK~

apXHTeKType? ;

- HHKTO ny-nue npotpeccopa CH,UopOBa He ... B ,UpeBHepYCCKOH apxHTeKT~

3. - C KaKOH uem-io Bhl 3armCaJIUCb aa KyPChI PYCCKoro 513bIKa? .

- Xoxy ... B PYCCKOM H3hIKe. 'I

4. - MHe npennoxcann paccxaaars no TeJIeBw.ueHWIO 0 CBOliX BneQaTJIeHH51x-.l noeanxn na )laJIbHI1H BOCTOK.1

- Osem, I1HTepeCHO. Mononeu, 'uo ThI ... . 'ti

5. - TbI noeneun, C HaMI1 xynarscs na 03epo?'~ - HeT, 51 cerO,UHH )')Ke ... .j

6. - Bsmerrre eute -tauremcy xaro. - CnacH60, 51 )')Ke ....

7. - \.1T0 TbI BCe CMOTPHlllb na KapTI1HY? - HUKaK He Mory ....

8. - Ilorona xynecnaa! )laBaH euie HeMHoro norYJlHCM. - HeT, 5! )')KC .... nopa .uOMOH.

166

c J] 0 B a n JI 51 C n P aBO K: 1) npHBH3aThCH; 2) paatinparsca; 3) COBepIlIeHCTBOBaTbC51; 4) comaCWTbC51; 5) HaKynaT1C51; 6) aanI1TbCH; 7) HaJIf06oBaT1C51; 8) HarYJI5lThCH.

8. 06bSlcHHTe, KaK Bbl nOHHMaeTe pyccxae nocnoaausi:

1) Ilepen cireprsro He aanuunnusca;

2) B O.uHH ,UeH1 na ron He aaemsca;

3) He nJIfOH: B KOJIo,Ueu, npl1ro,UHTC51 BO.ubI HanWThCH;

4) C KeM noseneursca, OT 'roro H nafiepeursca.

ECTb nH B BaweM POAHOM Sl3blKe aHanorW'IHble nOCnOBH4bI? KaK OHH nepeBOASITCSI aa PYCCKHH Sl3bIK?

9. npO"lHTaHTe TeKCT. BblnOnHHTe 3aAaHHSI nocne TeKCTa.

OLl,HA)K,[J,hI HOlJhlO

Ilpotunsnr JIeTOM 51 e3.uWJI K zteztyurxe B nepesmo non Benoropcxou. 3axoTelIOCh ero rtposenars, a aaonuo OT,UOXHYTh OT ropona, OT lllYMa, B.1l0BOJIh aasynarsca B pe-nce EeJIOrOpKe, nafiparsca CWJI nepen HOBhIM Y'le6H1IM rO,UOM.

MOHM cocenoxr no xyrre OKa3aJIC51 BOeHHbIH:, nOJIKOBHHK-apTWJIJIepMcT. OH 61IJI HeBbICOKoro pOCTa, HO TaKOH: lllHpOKOnJIe'lHH:, 'lTO saropaxnuan BCe OKHO, 11 H cnepsa naxe He Mor YBl1.ueT1 MaMY, KOTopaH CTOHJla na neppoae H THXOHbKO I10MaxHBaJIa MHe O.uHOH: TOJIhKO JIa,UOlllKOH:.

nOJIKOBHHK - ero 3BaJ111 AH.upei1 HWKHTM'I - )')Ke He paa e3.uHJI no 3TOMY I1YTU, 3HaJI, Ka3aJ10Ch, xaxnyto CTaHUl1fO. Cnymars ero 6hlJIO HeBepOHTHO HHTepeCHO.

AH.llpei1 HI1KMTW'I eXaJI B rOCTH K 6paTY.

- Bpaxa COBeTYIOT JIe'H1ThC5I, B cauaropna exars, - CKa33Jl OH. - A 51 Ha OXOrY.lla na P116aJ1Ky fionsure nanetocs. BOT H eny ...

2 KaK ycnsnuan, 'lTO AH.upeIO Hl1KHTl1LJY uaao JTe'lI1ThCH, TaK yuiaa CBOHM He OOBCPI1J1. 3a'leM, .uYMafO, TaKOMY CHJIa4Y JIe'IHThCH? OH aens B nsa cxera cnpasanCa c OKHOM, xoropoe, KaK rOBOpHJII1 npOBO,UHMKH, «3aeJIO» M xoropoe OHM HHKaK lie MOfJIH OTKphlT1.

OH 3aMeTHJI MOe Y,UHBJIeHUe H CKa3aJI:

-_ )la, KopnYC-TO BPO.llC HOBhIM, a MOTOP xanaransnoro peMOHTa rpetiyer,

- KaKOH MOTOp? - y.uI1BUJIOI 51.

AH.llpeH HI1KI1TlFI nOXJTon3Jl ce65I no 60KOBOMY KapMaHY - H 51 nOHHJI, 'lTO Y Hero OOJlbHOe cepnue.

167

- ECJUI He nune-ryct. - rorna B OTCTaBKY. A He XO'leTC5I MHe, MIUlbIM, B OTJ CTaBKY, oxens HC XO'leTc5I...l AH)lpeM HHKI1TH'l 3aXO)lI1JI rro KOPH)lOpy, urarn Y Hero CTaJIH Me)lJIeHHble ~

T5I)l(CJIbIC-T5I)l(CJIbIe, 6YllTO OH na nporeaax XO)lHJI. '.

- A sezn, 51 Ha CTaHUHH aa EeJIOrOpCKoM BbIXO)KY, - CJIOBHO OTorHaB rpyc L HbIC MbICJIH, CKa3aJI OH. -- ITOJIY'IacTc5I, COCC)151MH 6Y1I,CM.

51 o-rem, 06pa)10BaJlc5I:

- ITPHX01l,1ITe K HaM B roCTH! A? Bens BaM, uasepaoe, rYJI5ITb rrOJIC3HO? M,L( nymxa KaK paa )lOKTOp ...

51 ,L(OCTaJI napacosanasnt MaMOI1 nJIaH nOCCJIKa. TaM 6bUla H nopora, KOT' pas BeJIa OT cramnm K ,L(e,L(ynIKHHY )lOMY. AH)lpeM H HKHTM'l ,L(OJIro pa3rJI5I,L(bIB . IIJIaH.

- J1a.l(HO, - rOBopHT. - KaK-HH6Y)lb Harp5lHY .

... 51 BbIIlleJI H3 saroaa aa rtnartpopvy M orJI5I,L(eJICH no croponasr. BOKPyr 6b 6epC30Ba51 poura. B03)lYX 6bUl KaKoM-To oc06eHHbIM - CBe)l(HM, 6Y,L(TO nocne zto ,L(5I. 51 CT05L'J H HHKaK HC Mor Ha,L(LlwaTbCH 3THM B03)lYXOM, HaJII060BaTLcH 3T KpacoToM. }

ITo MaMHHoMY xepreacy 51 JIerKO copHeHTHpOBaJlCH H 6bICTPO nauren ne KMH )lOM.

M Ha'laJIHCb MOH 6eJIOrOpCKHe KaHllKYJIbI. 51 nO)lPY)KlIJIC5I C Coce,L(CKHMll pe TaMH, oc06eHHO C Caurea, MOMM pOBecHHKoM. C yrpa no sexepa MbI nponan na pexe. MhI CTPOHJIll MOT, naxe <pJIOT, KaK Ha3hIBaJI ero Caura, H CKOPO Ha <pJIOTHJIH5I C061IpaJIaCh OTnpaBMTbC5I B nnasaaae rro oeJIOrOpKC. MbI )')Ke 3aD JIHCL npO)lYKTaMH, COJlblO, CnH'lKaMH. Ho BCC rrpOH30IllJIO ropaano pansure.

3TOT )leHb 51 anxorna He 3a6Y)ly. ... HO'lbIO anpyr 3a3BOHllJI TeJIe<pOH. OH 6Y}lHJI Hac He nrrepmae: ,L(C,L(YIllKY II HO'laM BbI3bIBaJIll K 60JIbHbIM. K HeMY 'laCTO 06pamaJIHCL B TPY)lHbIX CJIyqa5lx.)l nyurxa ncerna nonymenoron OTBC'laJI B TPy6KY: - E)lY. Hy KaKOM MO)KeT 6bITb paaronop!

Ha caMOM nene eMY npHXO)lHJIOCb He exars, a H)lTlI, nOTOMY 'ITO MaUIHH Hero He 6bUlO. Ha 3TOT paa OH nonro HC OTXO)lHJI OT TeJIe<pOHa.

- TaK. ITOJIO)KeHMC cxsepnoe, - TliXO rosopan OH B Tpy6KY. -)lo sac 51 6y. ,L(06HpaTLCH 'laca rrOJITOpa. 3TO eCJIW neuncov, no zropore. )la 'ITO BbI ... OTKy.. cenxac MarnllHa! ITo pexe, npasna, 6bICTpee ... )la HeT Y MCH5I nepCOHaJIbHOrO fi" poxo)la ...

51 COCKO'lHJI co caoen pacxnanyurxn:

- ECTb napoxon! ECTb, nenyurxa! Ecn! .. - 3aBOnHJI 51.

168

OT HeO)l(H)laHHOCTH nenyurxa BblPOHHJl TPy6KY.\ - 0 'lCM TbI? KaKoM napoxon? - BCe CllIC urcnorow CnpOCllJI OH.

- Ham napoxoa! Ham!

- TbI, MMJIbIM, nepeyrovanca, 'ITO JIll? Ha COJIHue rreperpenca?

- 51 He rreperpencs, nenyiuxa. Y Hac ecrs napoxon! qecTHoc CJIOBO, ecrs!

- ITapOXO.ll? Bo06pa3HTe, KaKYlO 'lenyxy OH HeCCT! - B MllHytbI BOJIHeHH5I

aC1I,YIllKa 06pamaJICH K KOMY-TO rpersevy, KaK 6Y)lTO npHCytCTBYIOIUeMY B KOMHaTe. - KaKMe cY)lOBJIa,L(eJIbUbI HarnJIHCb!

- Hy, B 06llIeM, 3TO MbI ero TaK Ha3bIBaeM ... napoxonoxr. AHa caMOM .ueJIe 3TO nJIOT. MbI c CawKOM caMH nOCTpOHJIH, 'leCTHOe CJIOBO!

- Ax, IlJIOT? TaK 6bl cpasy H CKa3aJI. - )le)lyrnKa CHOBa 3arOBOpHJI B TPy6-

KY. - 3)leCb KaK 6Y)lTO HaMe'laeTC5I BbIXO)l. 51 rrpneny

< ... > - Cxopen! - rrpc)lyrrpellHJl .ue)lynIKa. - )loponi Ka)K1Ia51 MHHyra. ITo ,L(opore K pexe nenyurxa 60PMOTaJI ce6e non HOC:

- Bens npenynpexzan ero ... CKOJIbKO pas npenynpexnan! KaK MaJIeHbKMM!..

KaK pe6eHOK .•. )1,oHrpaJICH!

Mu B306paJIMCb na nJIOT. Ilenyurxa YCTPOHJICH na MaJICHbKOM 51IUMKC, aa KOTOPOM MbI 06bI'lHO CM)lCJIH, xorna paaxarana KOCTep, BapMJIH cyn llJIH KapTOrnKY, 11 Mbl TPOHYJIHCb B nyrs.

Hawa pexxa TOJIbKO C Bll)lY TMXa51 H 6e306H)lHa5l. Ha caMOM ,L(eJIC xapaxrep y HCC KOBapHbIM, aa Ka)K1IOM mary 51MbI M BO)lOBOPOTbl. MbI C Camxon C TPY)lOM CnpaBJIHJIHCL C TC'lCHMCM.

Kpyrost 6bIJIO TCMHO. TOJIbKO Ha 6cpery CBeTHJIllCb pC,UKHe orna, )le.uyrnKa YBcpeHHO opHeHTHpOBaJICH B TCMHOTC.

- 3)leCb OCTaHOBHTC, - CKa3aJI OH .

MbI COllUIH aa 6eper M IlO,UH5IJIIlCh B ropy. B03JIC MaJICHbKOro 0,UH03Ta)l(HorO )lOMHKa Hac nO,L()l(H)laJI HeBhICOKMM rnHpOKOIlJIC'lMH MY)K'lIlHa.

- A-a, IlpMeXaJIM! .. ITPllCXaJIH! .. ,11;O)K,L(aJlHCL, CJIaBa 6ory! .. - B3BOJIHOBaHHO 3arOBOplilJl MY:>K'lHHa, rOJIOC y nero rrpCpbIBaJIC5I, W MHC 6bUlO CTpaHHO, 'ITO TaKoH 3.n;OPOB5IK MO)KCT TaK BOJIHOBaTbC5I. - C 6paToM y MCH5I IlJIOXO ... Oseus nnoxo, )lOKTOp. Bu sens ero KaK-TO CMOTpeJIH ...

- Ila, O'lCHb BHHMaTeJIbHO H3yqaJI saurero fiparua ... H ,Ua:>KC IlponHCbIBaJI eM)' Koe-'lTO. Ho OH, nasepnoe, peuerrrsr MOW no serpy pa3Be5lJI: He BepWT BClIb B Me!lI1UHHY? Bem, He BCpWT? - )lC)lYWKa rOBOpHJI C ycnOKOI1TeJIbHOH UlyrJIHBOCTblO, !laBa5I 3THM nOH5ITb, 'ITO OH He )l(.lJ.CT HH'lerO crpaunroro.

11 3TO nOlleMCTBOBaJIO na M)')K'lHHY. fOJIOC ero nepecran npoxcars.

169

r

l

,

1

- KaK )l(e BbI no Hac )]'06P3.1IHCL? )KcHa nourna sac BCTpCl.JaTb aa nopory He~

)')KCJII1 npOf1I~)],CJIa? iJ

- Bo06pa311TC, R: caM BI1HOBaT, - pa3BeJI PYKaMI1 nenyunca, - CKa3aJI - npHJ C)],Y, a na qeM I1MCHHO cnpoconsa HC C006IllI1JI. Pc6sITa na rrJIOTY MCHR: )]'OCTaBH1'! JII1. TaK BOT If )],06P3.1IHCL. "

Ilenyunca BOIlleJI B KOMHaTY. Mbl C Cauiea TO)KC BOlllJII1 - 11 ~ 3aMCp aa nopore. Y CTCHbI na Y3KOH: KpOBaTI1, HC YMCIllaSICb na HCH, JIC)KaJI AH)]'PCH HI1KI1Tl1 .. JII1ll0 Y aero 6bIJIO cepoe. - AHnpeH HI1KI1Tl1q! - He y)],ep)KaBWI1Cb, BnOJIroJIOca rr03BaJI R:.

AHnpeH HI1KMTl1l.J He YCJIbIWaJI MeH5L Ho nenyuixa 6bICTPO 06epHYJICSI. JIH Y Hero 6blJIO )')Ke He cnoxonnoe, a cepmrroe, cocpenoroxeaaoe. - Ha YJIl1ue rrO)]'O)l()1,HTe, MOJIOllble JIIOnH, - CKa3aJI OH, 6ynTo soooure 6 He3HaKOM C HaMI1.

MbI C Caurea BbIllJII1 na yJIl1uy. llcnYllKa B TY HOl.Jb Ka3aJIC~ HaM caMbIM M rYQI1M qCJIOBCKOM na 3CMJIC, OT xoroporo 3aBHCCJIH )Kl13Hb H CMCPTb, rope H pa

)],OCTb. '

51 BCrrOMHI1JI, KaK AHllPCH HHKI1Tl1q, CTOSI Y orxpsrroro OKHa B KOpH)1.0pe sa, roaa, CKa3aJI: «Bpasnr COBeTyroT JICqI1TbCR:, B caaaropan exars, A SI aa OXOTY na PbI6aJIKY 60JIbillC Ha)1,CIOCb. BOT 11 ezty ... ECJII1 HC BbIJICqYCb - rorna B OTcmB ' A HC XOqeTCSI MHC, MI1JIhIH, B oTcTaBKY, Ol.JCHb HC XOl.JCTCSI ... »

«I10QCMY)I(C BbI HC rrOBCpMJII1 apasaa, AHJlpeH HI1KI1TI1Q? I10qCMY?» - n

nYMaJI~. I'

llc)],YllKa BbIWCJI na YJII1UY TI1XO. B TY)KC MI1HYTY OTKYna-To H3 TeMHOTbI rrOSIBMJIaCh )KeHIIIHHa C pacrpenana MI1 BOJIOCaMI1, KOTOPbIC B 6ecnopSI)]'Ke naaann ua rrJICQH., - Hy, KaK OH? KaK OH? - He TO aarosopana, He TO aapsmana OHa. - A SI CTO " aa nopore, CTOIO, )1,OJKlI,11,aIOCb ... Bee rnasa npOrJISI)],CJIa. Hy, KaK OH, noxrop? lI.enYlllKa onsrn, crrOKOHHO H naxe qYTb-l.JYTb HaCMelllJII1BO OTBeTI1JI: - C JIe)KaQHM-TO C HHM nerse 6YlJ,eT. Terteps Y)K OH 06SI3aH rrO)],l.JI1HR:TbC

A TO aens He cnpaaanrsca C HI1M! ApTHJIJIepHR:, rOBopHT, Menl1UHHC rrOlJ,BJlaCTHa ... - BHC3arrHO nenyrnKHH rOJIOC H3MCHMJICR: - CTan Cyxl1M HaTR:~'

, ,I

TbIM: - A Momo 6hITb xyno, COBCCM XY.llO. ECJII1 6bl HC HX rrJIOT!r

lI.e.llYlliKa KMBHyJI B nanty CTOPOHY.

(no A. ArleKcuHY)

a) OnpeAem'ITe ynpaBneHMe BblAeneHHblX maronoa.

170

6) OTBeTbTe aa eonpocsr, ynoTpe6nSlSl B OTBeTax marcnsi C -CR. (8 cn~ae 3aTPYAHeHr.1S1 o6pantTeCb K TeKCTY.)

• 0 Y8M MeYTan repoa paccxaaa, veaxas Ha nero B ,D,epeBHIO?

• nOyeMY ManbYV1K He nosepan, YTO ero COce,D, no xyne 60J1eH? (BcnOMHV1Te ana- 30,D, C OKHOM, xoropoe BoeHHblili orxpun 6e3 YCV1mll1.)

• LITO nOYYBCTBOBaJl Manb'-lV1K, Bbll1,D,Sl 1113 earosa 111 B,D,OXHYB J1eCHOrO B03,D,yxa, YBLt1,D,8B xpacory soxpyr?

• KaKLt18 sanacu npO,D,OBOJlbCTBII1Sl Lt1 ,D,pyrLt1X H806XO,D,Lt1MbIX B8UJ,811 C,D,eJ1anr.1 6y-

nyuiae nyTeW8CTB8HHHKH?

• nOyeMY B ,D,OM8 ,D,8,D,YWKLt1 4aCTO 3BOHI1Jl T8J1eQ>OH?

• CKOJ1bKO Bp8MeHH Morna 3aHSlTb nopora K 60nbHOMY, ecnu Lt1,D,Tr.1 neWKOM?

• KaK ,D,OKTOP peurun exars K 60nbHOMY?

• TPY,D,HO JlLt1 6blJlO nJlblTb no pexe? MewaJlo J1V1 pe6SlTaM Te4eHV1e?

• KaK AOKTOP onpeaenan noporv B TeMHoTe?

• YeM OKOHYLt1JlOCb TOMLt1TeJlbHOe O)l(Lt1,D,aHV1e apa-ia p,h~ pO,D,CTBeHHV1KoB 60JlbHOro Lt1 cavoro 60JlbHoro?

• nOMOUJ,b npuuina BOBpeM~?

B) AononHHTe npeAnO>KeHHSI nOAXoASll1.\HMH no cMblcny rnaronaMH c -CR. (8 cn~ae 3aTpYAHeHMSI Mcnonb3YMTe cnoaa AnSI cripaeos.)

l) 311MOH SI I1HOrna XO)KY B fiaccejiu, a JIeTOM MO)KHO BnOBOJIb ... B pexe. 2) 3a ron 51 OqeHh YCTan OT 3aHHTI1H, BOT MHC 11 3axoTeJIOCb ... CI1JI nepen HOBhlM YQC6HhiM rOnOM. 3) 51 HI1KaK HC Mor orxpsrrs OKHO, a MOH cocen ... C HI1M 6C3 rpyaa. 4) 51 BbIllICJI 113 narona 11 ... no CTopOHaM. 5) B03)],YX 6bIJI TaKOR CBC)KHR, 'ITO SI HI1KaK HC Mor 11M .... 6) Kpyroxt 6bIJIO TaK KpaCl1BO, qTO SI HHKaK He Mor '" ::nOR xpacoroa. 7) 1.1T06bI He 3a6JlYlJ,l1TbCR: B rrYTI1, SI ... rro KapTC. 8),llo aaurero nosra SI 6ylJ,y ... fionsuie naca. 9) DOJIbHbIe ... K )],OKTOPY aa rrOMOIllbIO na)Ke HO"IhlO. l O) Caura cnnen anepemr, a 51 ." na 3anHeM canease. Il) KaK)Ke BbI no Hac ... ? 12) CKOJIbKO paa ero npenynpexnana, l.JT06bI OH He nrpan C orraCHOCTbIO. OH HI1KorO He CJIYWaJl 11 BOT .... 13) Te-renne fisrno CMJIbHOe, H TYPHCTbI C TPY)],OM C HI1M .... 14) BOKPyr He 6b1JIO HH oroasxa, HO nYTeWCCTBCHHI1KI1 6e30ll116ol.JHO '" B TeMHOTC. 15) HaKoHeU-To MbI nac .... 16) OH TaKOH ynpSIMhIH, C HHM HeB03- MO)KHO .... 17) B nopcry TYPI1CTbI ... BCCM Hc06xonl1MblM.

C rr 0 B a .u JI SI C rr p aBO K: 1) aaxynarsca; 2) aafiparecx; 3) crrpaaarsca; 4) ornanerscs; 5) nanuurarscs: 6) uamofioaarsCH; 7) 0pl1eHTHpOBaTbC5I; 8) lJ,0611paThCSI; 9) ofipamarscs; 10) YCTPOl1TbCSI; 11) nooparsca; 12) noarpaTbCSI; 13) CrrpaBJISITbCSI; 14) 0PHCHTl1pOBaTbcSI; 15) nO)l(.llaTbCSI; 16) cnpaBHTbCSI; 17) 3anaCTI1Cb.

171

6. B03spaTHo-KaY3antSHble rnaronei (rnaronu, o603Ha4alOw.lI1e AeilicTBl1e, koropoe OAHO IlIl1U,O aunonnser AJl~ npyroro nnua)

1. npO'flilTaHTe MlIIKpOTeKCTbl. "ITO 06beAlIIHSleT Bbl,AeneHHble CTPYKTYPbl? B KIDK,qO 1II3 HlIIX H830BlIITe peansaoro lIICnOnHlIITenSi AeHCTBlilSi.

JIIOBl1Mhll1 Y4I1TEJIh

MOlTO,L(YIO TaJIaHTJTMByIO rreBMUY I1PHHY )],OJl)KeHKO CnpOCMJ1M: «Koro BbI Cqll raere CBOMM y-nrrenex B MY3bIKe?» OHa OTBeTMlTa: «11 yqUJIaCb y aseecruoro ne,1l,an) ra H nesauu HPHHbl ApXHnOBoH. OHa nOCTaBMlTa MHe ronoc, OTKpbIlTa ero B03MO)l HOCTM, nay-rana npaaansno MM nomaoaarsca. Bnaronaps eif H CTaJIa HacTOHIUeJ, aprncrxoa».

HA,UE)I(HNI <t>I1PMA

Bsr xornre 06MeHHTb CBOIO KBapTMPY, HO He anaere, KaK 3TO cnenars? no BCC: sortpocav, CBH3aHHbIM C He,L(BM)((MMOCTblO, Bbl MOlKeTe npOKOHCYJlbTHpOBaTbCJI, CneQHaJlHCTOB aaurea qmpMbl.

BOJIIlIEBHI1K, KOTOPhII1 MPI1T KPACOTY

OH napaxnaxep, CTHnMCT, MOlleJIbep. XY,L(O)l(HMK. B 1998 rony CTaJI qeMnui HOM MMpa no napMKMaxepCKOMY HCKYCCTBY. Y Cepres 3BepeBa CTpHryrCH 3Be3.i4 uepaoa BeJlHqHHbl. B qeM cexper ero nonynapnocrn? Cepreii 3BepeB TOHKO qYJ crsver MH,L(MBM,L(YaJIbHOCTb -renosexa M YMeeT ee BbIHBMTb. Bee )((eHIUMHbl yxo~ )

OT Hero noxopoureanme M nOMOnO,L(eBllMe.

CI1JIA nenronu

MHOro JIeT Moero ,L(e,L(YllIKY MyqMnM 60lTM B norax. KaKMe ronsxo JIeKapc11 OH He rrpMHMMaJI! Haxero He nOMOraJIO, noxa OH He nasan JletJIITbCSI Y Bpa-d clJHToTepaneBTa. Bpas nOCOBeTOBaJI ,L(e,L(Y rrpMHMMaTb 'rpaesr. OHM-TO 11 nonnsn ,L(e,L(YllIKY na HOrM. ;

BCE 3BE3,llhI B <l>OTOfPA¢I151X

EKaTepMHa PO)l(JJ,eCTBeHCKaSI - ¢OTOXY.llO)l(HMK. Ee ¢OTOrpa¢MH Heo6bI'lHil OHa CHMMaeT CBOHX nepCOH3)((eM B mrrcpsepax KapTl1H XY,L(o)KHHKOB paanux 3110:

Y aee CHHMa.rtHCb H3BeCTHbie apracru - ArIeKCaH,ll,p BYUHOB B POlIH nYLUKHHa, JI~ paca )l,OJlHHa B pomt OYMbI, $HJIHnn KuPKOPOB B pOJIH Ilerpa I, Haraura KopoJli

172

sa B pona Benepu. XY,L(o)KHl1I..I,a cava npH,L(YMbIBaeT ,L(eKOpaUIfH, KOCTIOMbI, rpHM, t<OTopble ,L(enaIOT ee uepcoaaxeit Y,L(MBHTenbHo nOXO)l(J1M.H na MX nporornnoa,

CAMA5I 3JIEfAHTHA5I 11 npI1BJIEKATEJIhHA5I

4MTaTenM )l(ypHaJIa «7 ,L(Hett» Ha3BaJIH JIIO,L(MHJIY Iyp-reaxo caMOM CTMJIbHOM aKTPHCoif rona, Ee ryaneru BbI3bIBaIOT sceofiuree eocxaurenne. OHa O,1l,eBaeTCH Y 113SecTHoro MO,L(enbepa BaJleHTHHa lO,lJ,amKHHa.

OH nOMO)KET

- Y Moero 6paTa np06JIeMbI co 3,lJ,OpOBbeM. Bpaxn COBeTYIOT nenars onepaUMIO. He snaeun, JIM TbI xopotnero xnpypra?

- 3HaIO. MOSI 6nH3KaSI noapyra He,L(aBHO enepapoaanacs y npocIJeccopa MBaHOsa. OH C,L(eJIaJI onepauaro 6neCTHlile. Cejixac OHa a6conIOTHO 3,L(OpOBa.

2. a) CpaBHlIITe npeAnO)l(eHlIISi. 06paTlllTe BHlIIMaHlIIe: npeAnO)l(eHlIISi rpynnbl A onMCblB810T cMT}'a4MIO C n031114111111 MHM4MaTopa AeHCTBlIIst, 8 npeAnO)l{eHMSI rpynnbl 6 - co CTOPOHbl peansaoro McnonHlIITenst AeHcTBlilst.

OnpeAemne n3Ae)l(HYIO cl>0PMY MMeH C 3TlIIMlil 3Ha'feHMHMM B rpynnax A M 6.

.iJ

A. 1) 3Ta axrpnca rrpHqeChIBaeTCH Y nysurero rrapmoraxepa ropona.

2) OHa OJ1,eBaeTCH Y cansrx H3BeCTHbIX MO,L(enbepOB.

3) 31'a 6an:epHHa yxanac» Y caMoH YJIaHOBoH.

4) Cnoprcsreu TpeHJIPyeTcSI Y M3- secrnoro fioxcepa, B npOrnJIOM OJIHMnWHCKoro qeMnHOHa.

5) Y ororo spaxa JIeqaTCH fionsnste naurero paaoaa.

O. 1) 3TY axrpncy npwrecsraaer JIyqllHH napmoaaxep ropona,

2) Ee O,L(eBaIOT caxisre M3BeCTHbIe MO,L(enbepbl.

3) 3TY 6aJIepuHY yql1J1a cava YJIaHOBa.

4) Cnoprcsreaa rpeuapyer H3- BecTHbIH fioxcep, B npournosr OJII1MnMHCKMH qeMnHOH.

5) 3TOT spas lTeqHT 60lTbHbIX Hd> wero paaoaa,

6) nepeAaHTe COAep)l(aHlile npeAnO)l(eHlIIH, 1II3MeHlIIB B3rmtA Ha clIITYa14l11lO: onMWlIITe ee C n0311114MM MHII'I14l11aTOpa AeHcTBlilH.

I) MOIO COCe.llKY ne-urr npau-roveonat; 2) Bpax uafimonaer 60J1bHOrO yxe HeCKOJIbKO ner, 3) B cnysae He06xo.llMMOCTM nporpeccop scerna npoxoacynsrapyer lIaUl1eHTa. 4) CneUHaJIHCTbI naurero Me,L(HUHHCKoro ueirrpa onepapyior 60JIbHbiX C flp06neMaMH )KenY,L(OqHO-KHrne'lHoro rpaxra.

173

3. ,Q,ononHMTe AManorM. ~cnonb3YHTe 06pa3LJ.bl.

Ofi p a a e u 1.

- KaT51, TbI npexpacno pncyeurs. KTO HaYLIMJI Te651 pncoaart.?

- Metra HaY'lMJIa pMCOBaTb MaMa.

Ofi p a s e u 2.

- KaT51, TbI npexpacao pucyems. Y xoro TbI HaY'll1JIaCb TaK pnconan.?

- 51 HaY4l1JlaCb pacosars y MaMbl.

Ofi p a s e u 3.

- KaHI, TbI npexpacao pacyeurs. Ine TbI nay-nrnacs pI1COBaTb?

- 51 HayqMJlaCb pHCOBaTb B xyn;O)KeCTBeHHoH nrxone.

,fit'

1) - TbI npexpacao nrpaeun, na nrrape .... 2) - BbI osens BKYCHO rOTOBHre .... 11; 3) - BbI BeJlHKOJlenHO raHuyere .... 4) - TbI 'lyn;ecHo noeun, .... 5) - KaK xOPOlIIOj TbI nnasaeurs! ... 6) - BbI rosopare no-pyccxu rro-rru 6e3 axnenra .... 7) - 51 11 He1 3HaJI, 'ITO TbI TaKOH npexpacasni lIlaXMaTHCT .... 8) - Heyxenn TbI cava cB513aJIa\'1 3TOT urapdi? ... 9) - Kaxoe y refis xpacnaoe nnarse' ThI curuna era cava? ...'"

'j

"

4. CKalKHTe, Y KaKOrO CneLJ.ManMCTa AOn>KeH ne'iMTbCSI 'ienOBeK, ecna Y Hero B03HMK-; nM npo6neMbi co 3AopOBbeM. B OTBeTe Mcnonb3YHTe CTPYKTYPbl J1eYHTbCH Y KOlO, ? (npO)KOHCYJIbTnpOBJlTbCH Y KOlO, OOCJIe/l,OBJlTbCH Y KOlO, npOBepHTbCH Y KOlO, HJlOJ1JO-: /l,JlTbCH Y K020 M cnoea M3 CKo6oK. I

\1",:

o 6 p a 3 e u : - 51 CTaJI xyxe BM,n:eTb (OcjJTaJIbMOJIOr) .iJ

- ECJlH Y aac np06JleMbI co apenncv, BaM nano npOBepHTbC51 Y ".,.~

O<pTaJIbMOJlO ra. ' 'I'.

1) BbI CTaJIH xyxe cnsnuars (oTOJIapHHroJIor, JIO?). 2) Y nac XpOHJ1'leCKHit 6POHXJ1T (rrYJIbMOHOJIOr). 3) BaM H~HO cepseano 3aH51TbCH 3y6aMH (CTOMaTOJIor):(I." 4) Y sac np06JleMbI C )KeJly,n:KOM (rectpoonreponon. 5) BbI He JII06MTe JIe'lHTbCJI;~i rpamU.J.HOHHbIMM MeTo,n:aMJ1, npezmo-nrraere rpanu (cPHTOTeparreBT). 6) BaM H)0KHO,,:! 06paTHTbc51 K CneUJ1aJIHcTY no nosony saurero aHaJlJ13a KpOBH (reMJTOJIOI). 7) Bac!~ 6ecnoKoHT 60JlH B )KJ1BOTe (repeneet; xnpyptv. 8) Bac 6ecnOK051T 60JIJ1 B cepnuej (KapllHOJIOr). 9) BbI nonoapcaaere, 'lTO y sac ocrCOXOH,n:P03 (HeBpOrraTOJIOr). 10) Bbl'! npocTyn;I1JIJ1Cb (repenest). II) BaM H~eH spa-t, KOTOPbIH 3aHHMaeTc51 np06JIeMaMH )l(eHCKOro 3,n:OPOBb51 (rHHeKOJIOr).

5. a) npOKoMMeHTMpyHTe Ta6nMu.y. B CBOeM paccxaae ynoTpe6MTe KOHCTPYKLJ.MM ntna JIeYHTbCH Y KOlO.

174

60

57,0

Y KOrO Mbl ne'lMMCR

50

i

s: s:

CII

a 30 o c:a. I:: o

t; '#.

6) OTBeTbTe Ha aonpocsr.

• KaK ne-usrecs Bbl?

• Kaxne ¢OPMbl neyeHVl~ -rauie scero Bbl6VlpalOT B aauiea crpaue, a KaKMe ¢opMbl MeHee nonynspau?

6. nOCoBeTYMTe CBoeMY co6eceAHMKY o6paTMTbcSI MMeHHO K TOMY CneLJ.ManMcTY, KOTOPbIM, no BaweMY MHeHMIO, nOMO>KeT nYOiwe APyrMx. ~CnOnb3YHTe CTPYKTYPY TMna JIeynCb Y Hero B CMTYaLJ.MSlX:

• -renoaexy npeACTOIIJT onepauas:

• OH nonxe« HaxOAVlTbCs:J nOA nOCTO~HHbIM Ha6nlOAeHVleM cneLJ.lIJanI1CTa;

• eMY H)l)KHbl nOCTO~HHble TpeHVlpOBKVl;

• Bbl He coservere CBoeMY 3HaKOMOMY yaCTO MeH~Tb AOKTOPOB, ny-uue neYVlTbC~ Y roro, KTO XopOWO sac 3HaeT.

7. PearMPYMTe Ha pennaxa. ~cnonb3YHTe rnaron C -CH, 06pa30BaB ero OT BblAeneHaoro cYLLJ.eCTBMTenbHoro.

o 6 p a 3 e u : - BbI rOBOpHJlH, 'lTO XOTHTe 06MeH51Tb xaaprupy BaM Hy)KHa KOHcYJlbTaI.l,HH KBaJlJ1CPHUJ1pOBaHHoro CneUHaJlJ1CTa?

- KOHe'IHO, 51 XOTeJI 6bI npoKoHcYJlbTHpOBaTbcH y CneUHaIIHCra.

175

1) - Y BaC BeJUIKOJIerrHbIH ronoc, qYBCTByeTcSI rtpexpacnaa BOKaJIbHa5l11IKOJIa. KTO 6bIJI BallIl1M Y'lUTeJIeM?

a) OnpeAem1Te, B KaK ... X cny ... aax BblAeneHHble rnaronst ... MeIOT 3Ha ... eH ... e 'caM ce6S1', a B KaK ... X 'He caM ce6S1'.

- Ilocne onepauan eMY peKOMeH.llOBaJIM rrOCTOHHHoe Ha6JIIo,!J;eHHe B paaonHOH rrOJIMKJIMHMKe?

- )la, OH ,llOJI)f(eH ...

//

6) AaMTe CroHi.tM ...... ecx ... e aap ... aHTbI3aMeHbI3TMX rnaronca,

!

9. AononH .... Te TeKCTbl.

a) BMeCTO TOLteK ynoTpe6 ... re rnaron CHHMRTb ... n ... CHHMRTbCJl B Hy>KHOM tl>opMe. /13 HHTepBbJO c «uuopescucccpou BJl3J1IfMI1POM MeHbilloBbIM:

IOJIMH Measurosa Moma 6bl BrrOJIHe KOMcPOPTHO cyutecraosars non KPbIJIOM csoero orua, .naypeara rrpeMl1l1 «Ocxap», xnaopexaccepa RlJa.D,l1Ml1pa Measuresa, eCJIl1 6bl OHa ... B ero xaprnaax, OHa )ICe pemnna H)1,Tl1 rro )f(113Hl1 cava. Oreu He ocnapnsan ee npasa. C Hl1M 51 11 aasana fiecezry 06 3TOM.

- IIoqeMY Bbl HHKOr,IIa He ... IOmo B CBOMX cPlIJlbMax?

- Bo-nepsux, y MeH51 6bIJIO MaJIO KapTHH C )1,eTCKMMH POJIHMH, a BO-BTOPbIX,

KOr,IIa 51 ... cPMJIbM <JI1060Bb H ronytia», 10m.! rro aoapacry HH ira O,IIHY pOJIb He rrO,IIXO)1,l1JIa. Ila H He 6bIJIO y MeHH )l(eJIaHM5l ... csoero pefieaxa. 51 noofiute nporas roro, qT06bl MaJIeHbKHe .D,eTl1 'lacro ... B <pHJIbMax. 3ro Bpe,IIHO JVLII neoxperuuea .D,eTCKOH rrCHXHKH.

6) BMeCTO TOLteK ynoTpe6 ... Te rnaron (Ha)YVHTb ... n ... (HR)YVHTbCJl B Hy>KHOM tl>opMe. 113 HHTepBblO c 8KTepOM AJIeKceeM EaTaJIOBbIM:

- BbI ... 6Y,IIYIUHX aKTepOB na c06cTBeHHoM npaxepe. Ho ~ BaM-TO XOPOlliO H3BeCTHO, 'ITO MOJIO)1,ble ... TOJIbKO Ha c06CTBeHHbIX 01lIl16Kax?

- A6COJI1OTHO TOqHO. JI1060H MOJIO,IIOH qeJIOBeK, qeMY 6bl ero CTapWHe HH ... , ,IIYMaeT: «Bee paBHO Tbl YMpelIIb, a 51 C,IIeJIa1O rrO-CBoeMY!» BOT 51 H cnpaumnato y CBOHX cryneirron: KaK BbI XOTHTe nrpars? OHI1 Be,IIb rrOHl1MaIOT: .llJlSI roro qT06bl KaK-TO nrpars, HM nano XOTb qeMY-To Y MeH5I .... BOT 51 H paCKJIa)1,bIBaIO rrepen HHMH «wBe,IICKHH CTOJI» H3 cnoea )lCH3Hl1 - Moli onsrr, Moe peMeCJIO, MOH B3rJIH,IIbl. Flyers XO,IIHT soxpyr H BbI6HpaIOT. TIpwleM 51 He CTapaIOCb HX ... TOMY, 'ITO MHe caMOMY censac HpaBHTCH, rrOTOMY 'ITO H He ysepen, 4TO naunr BKYCbl COBrrauaIOT. KaK TOJIbKO uasneun, 'ITO-TO HaB5I3blBaTb, cpaay YMeHbllIaTCH uranCbI tIeMY-TO I1X ....

- A BbI tIeMY-H116YUb y CBOMX )"feHHKOB ... ?

- KOHeqHo. 11 MOR OrrTMM113M CerO,IIHSII11I-I11H l1.J1H paanonyunre K TOMY, tITO

CerOllH5I rrpOHCXOllHT, - BCe 3TO TOJlbKO firtaronapa TOMY, 4TO H Ka)l(JlbIH )1,eHb C HI1MI1 06I11aIOcb.

2) - MHe Ka)KeTC5I, rerie CTOHT H3MeHHTb npn-recxy C,IIeJIaH CTPIDKKY Y xopourero MaCTepa.

3) - Mapnua I1BaHoBa - 3aMeqaTeJIbHaH qll1rypHcTKa. A KTO ee rpenep?

4) - Ilanaare rrpIHJIaCHM B naur Kl1HOKJIy6 axrpncy Anacy <lJpeHH.llJlHx. OHa TOJIbKO tITO BepHYJIaCb co C'LeMOK y PH3aHoBa M MO)l(eT paccxasars MHOro I1HTepecHoro.

5) - ECJIH BaM He novoraior rpanmutonasre JIeKapCTBa, MO)l(eT 6blTb, BaM CTOMT rrpOHTI1 xypc JIe'leHUSI Y roxeonara?

6) - KTO )1,eJIaJI samesry fipary onepanmo?

8. npO ...... TaMTe M ... KpOTeKCTbl.

1) MbI BOllIJIl1 B napmoraxepcxyio.

- Ilpoury, - CKa3aJI rrapHKMaxep H rrOJIO)l(MJI PYKH aa KpeCJIO: - qTO 6Y)1,eM nenars?

- liPUTbCH, - 6acoM OTBeTl1JI Bl1TbKa. OTKYua Y Hero rrOHBI1JICH fiac? HasepHO, OT BOJIHeHl1R.

- A 51 )1,YMaIO, MbI CHatIaJIa nOCTpIDKeMCSI. 51 BaM C)leJIa1O TaKOH rrOJIy60KC - ponaas MaMa He Y3HaeT (no E. Banmepyv.

2) Korna KOCHI satuen K )1,H)1,e MHI11e, TOT 6PHJ1CH.lI.eJIaJI OH 3TO oseas JIOBKO, HO He JII06HJI, xorna era BH)l,SIT BO BpeM5I 6PHTbH: TaK KaK Y Hero He 6hIJIO BTOPOH PYKl1, KOTOPOH MO)l(HO HaTHrHBaTb KO)KY, 4TOGhI 6pl1TBa I11JIa POBHO, eMY npuxo;J,I1JIOCb rpHMaCH114aTb. Ho na 3TOT pas OH 6bIJI B O'1eHb xopoiuexr HaCTpoeHHH H He BeJIeJl KOCTe YHTI1 113 KOMHaTbI (B. Illedmep).

176

177

10. npO-tMTaHTe aanacs 6eceAbi >l<YpHam'lCTa M M3BeCTHoro nyrewecTBeHHMKa.

BblnOnHMTe 38AaHMJI nocne TeKCTa.

X04EIllh eTATh Y4I1TEJ1EM? CTAHh YlJEHI1KOM

BI1TaJuul CYHlIaKOBa Ha3bIBaIOT nepnuv uporpeccaonam.asra nyreurecraenHHKOM. A emc 0 HeM rOBopHT: qeJIOBeK-Be3LJ;eXOLJ;, 6pOLJ;H'-II1H aKaneMI1K, rrportoBeLJ;HI1K B ,1l)I<J1HCaX, npeannetrr 6e3nOpO)KbH, npo<peCCI10HaJlbHbIH: aBaHTlOpI1CT .•• B Ka)J()lOM 113 3TI1X orrpeztenenua - -racruua I1CTI1HbI.

- BI1TaJlI1H, aasepnoe, He TOJlbKO 113 JII060nbITCTBa BbI ezrere TO B TIOJII1He-

31110, TO B AMa30HI1IO, TO na KpaMHI1M Cesep, TO B fHMaJlal1? ~

- 51 eny I1, qTO casroe nopasarensaoe, HaXO)KY ofiutee y HapOnOB, He nono- 3peBa1OIUI1X 0 cymecrsonamor npyr npyra. 11 B MH<pax, seposanaax, 11 B 6bITy._

BOT B3rJUlHHre na 3TOT HHcTpYMeHT 1IJIH py6KH xavsnna, KOTOPblH H npJtBe3 113 KI1Ta5l. A BOT TO'-lHO TaKoti. )Ke: ero MHe rrpHBe3 CbIH 113 A$Pl1Kl1. Ho BOT TpeTl1~.( Ero C03naJIH q)l1HHbl c noxsoun.ro KOMnblOTepa, HaHJIH HneaJIbHYIO <P0PMY py-nroro pexyuiero l1HCTPYMeHTa. TaK KTO y xoro yql1JIC5I? Cyutecrayer rnnoreaa, qrO KOma-TO npaurensnsr C npyrnx IIJIaHeT Hayql1JIl1 )Kl1TeJIeH 3eMJII1 OllHOMY 11 TOM}' )Ke. MHe )Ke npe)ICraBJIHeTCH, 'ITO 3eMJIH - )KI1BOH pa3YMHbIM opraaassr, a qeJIOBeqeCTBO - MbICJIHIUa51 6H03Hepro<popMa aa nnanere 3eMJIH. 51 xoxy COIIOCraBl1Tb I1HTeJIJIeKTYaJIhHbII1 onsrr caxsrx OTnaJICHHbIX npyr OT npyra HapOnOB.

- Ho, n06bIBaH 3TH 3HaHH5I, BbI nOCT05IHHO pHCKYeTe )K113HbIO, acnursraae're nesenoseaecxne JII1WeHl151; BaM npl1XOnl1TC5I B 6YKBaJIbHOM CMbICJIe BbDKI1~ aars. MO)l(eT 6bITb, nns sac BhI)KI1BaHl1e B 3KCTpeMaJlbHbIX YCJIOBI15IX - 3TO caMOueJIb?

- KOHe'-lHO HeT. MHe aooouie CMewHO, xorna H CJIbIWY, qTO I1HCTl1Tyr MenH-,~ Ko-6I1oJIofI1'-1eCKl1X np06JIeM, otiyxaa KaHJIHnaTOB B KOCMOHaBTbI rtponepxarsca CYTKH B TYH)]'pe I1J111 nYCTbIHe, safipacsrsaer I1X B 6e3JIIOJIHbIe npOCTpaHCTBa. A6- cypn' He ny-nue JIH OTnpaBI1TbC5I K 06HTaTeJl5lM TOH )Ke nYCThIHI1 11 noy-nrrscs Y JIIOJIeH, M5I KOTOPbIX nYCTbIHH - nysuree MecTO na 3eMJIe? 51 nocrynato HMeHHd TaK. 51 BCIO )KH3Hb CTpeMI1JICH aHaJI11311pOBaTb 11 CHCTeMaTI13l1pOBaTb BCC, qTO $I Y3HaBaJI. 51 ytIl1JICH Y oznroro COBeTCKoro paaaensuxa, KOTOPbI11 BCIO c06paHHYro;, J.1H(jJ0pMaUI1IO 3anJilCbIBaJI B TPI1 cronfiua: «BI1LJ;eJI», «CJIbIWaJI», «npeanonaras» • .'

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178

_- 3TO euie sonpoc, KTO JII1Kapl1. HaM HaJIO y HHX Y'Il1TbC5I, OTbICKI1BaTb B onsrre JIanCKHX OT Hac HapOaOB TO uennoe, '-lTO MhI naBHO yrparann.

(ITo uamepuanau nepUOdU'1eCKOU neuamu)

a) Koro BliITanlilH CYHAaKOB c-orraer CBOlilMliI y-tlilTenJiMliI? KaKlo1e npliIMepbl npaaoAMT OH, roeops 0 Tex, y xoro OH y-tlilnCH? 'ieMY Ha}"iMnM ero 3TIo1 nlOAliI?

6) HaHAMTe B TeKCTe nplo1Mepbl lo1cnonb30BaHlo1J1 onsrra pa3HbiX HapOAOB M3 paaHblX peraouoa Mlilpa M paaasrx BpeMeH. KTO y xoro }"iMncH? KTO xoro -teMY uay-tMn?

B) PaCKpOHTe CMblcn BbICKa3bIBaHMJI: (XO-teWb CTaTb Y-tMTeneM? CTaHb }"ieHMKOM)).

r) Pa3blrpaHTe npo-urraanoe liIHTepBblO B nauax: xoppecnonneur raaersi - rePOH MHTepBblO.

11. npO-tMTaHTe OTPblBOK M3 paccxasa ...,. rpeKoBoH «AaMCKMH MaCTep),. BblnonHMTe 38AaHMH nocne TeKCTa.

D,AMCKI1I1 MACTEP

51 npmuna C pa60TbI rOJIoJ(Ha5l, KaK cofiaxa. Mamsmnnor - HY, KOHC'IHO! -

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Ha CTOJIC 6bIJIO TI1nI1LIHOe CBI1HCTBO.

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5l. nana eMY PYKy.

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- 06cJ(aJII1? - crporo cnpocuJIa 5I.

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- A nOMa '-Iro-HI16YJIb ecrs?

- Hnxero. Cert-rac cfieraev.

179

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51 BbIWJIa H XJIOrrHYJla nsepsro.

MOJIOKa 6bl BbIITI1Tb, 'lTO JIH . .51 OTKpLIJIa XOJIO):(HJlbHHK. OH 6bIJI rrycroa. HI1- xaxoro MOJIOKa, pasysreerca, HeT 11 B rrOMMHe. A YTPOM 6blJIO.

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- .51 YXO)KY, - eKa3aJIa H MaJIb'lHKaM.

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2

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Moxer, YHTM? HeT, peuteno, BbICTOIO .

.51 CrrpOCHJIa:

- K TO nOCJIe):(HMH?

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180

- qaca zma B KpaHHeM cnysae, - OTBeTHJla nO)!(HJlaH.

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3

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.51 peiu anacs:

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He H3YPOJl,OBaTb. Ilponnewre.

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181

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MHe BLI,Pyr 3aXOTeJIOCb, YTo6bI Y MeHH npnsecxa 6bIJIa pacxnnaaa serpoxt. - Ll,aBaHTe Xl1MlllO, - CKa3aJIa H.

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sac cnpowy. BOT BbI CKa3aJIM, YTO Bl1TaJI11K 11JI11 3,llI1K He B ztyxe PYCCKoro H3hlJai A caMll ynOM5IHYJIM MMH Ilsep. Pa3Be ::lTO pyccxoe l1MH?

At\: zta rrapeus! IlOHMaJI-TaKH MeH5I. Ll,YMaJI-,llYMaJI 11 nOHMaJI.

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182

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- A B xaxue 3TO spexena?

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5{ yyrh He 3aCMe5lJIaCh, HO OH 6hIJI oseut, cepsesen. 51 B11)leJIa B sepxane ero

CTporoe, 03a6oyeHHOe mIUO.

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- A %e 3TO npoaanenenae?

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- Ilocronre. - OH CHOBa BhIHYJI 3an11CHYIO KHI1~ 11 CTaJI JII1CTaTh. - Ara.

BOT OHO, aanncano: JIeB TOJICTOH, «BOHHa 11 Ml1p». 3TO npoaasenenae Y MeH5I B nnaae rrpOCTaBJIeHO. 51 nan CBOHM pa3B11T11eM pafioraro no TIJIaHY.

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183

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CTHTyr?

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A BhI caMH "IeM XOTeJIH 3aHHMaThC5I?

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- B Ka"IeCTBe xoro, BHTaJIHH? qTO 6hl XOTeJIH Bbl - npenonasars? I1JIH 6blTh TeopeTHKOM, pa3BHBaTh HaYKY?

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- MeH5I paao Ha3hIBaT.b XYllO)KHMKOM, HO eCJ1M 51 6YllY 3aHMMaTbC5I 3TOH cne-

UMaJIbHOCTbIO, ro nocrapaiocs np05lBMTb ce651 KaK xYllO)!(HMK. - CnacM60, 60JIhIllOe cnacaco: A CKOJIhKO 51 BaM nonxna?

- B xaccy TI5lTh py6J1eH. A csepx roro - 3aBHCMT OT )KeJIaHM5I KJIMeHTa.

no ero JlI1UY HeJIh351 6hIJIO CKa3aTh, YllOBJIeTBOpMJIO JIM ero na 3TOT paa «)KeJ1aHMe KJIMeHTa». ,lleHbrM OH B3S1JI npOCTO M cyxo CKa3aJI «crtacufio».

- ..uo cBMD;aHM5I, BMTaJIMH, - CKa3aJIa 51. - KaK-HM6Y,llh SI euie K BaM 3aHllY, JIaD;HO? KaK BaM 3BOHMTb?

OH Ha3BaJI TeJIetPOH. 51 3anMCaJIa.

- CnacM60. EYD;y sac nOMHMTh. XOPOIIIMH BbI MaJIh"IMK, BMTaJIMH. A MeIDl 30Byr MapbSl BJIaD;MMMpOBHa KOBaJIeBa.

OH nonan MHe PYKY M CKa3aJI: - 51 TO)Ke OT nac noneprmyn.

4

5I BepHYJ1aCb ,llOMOH. B xsaprapc 6hIJIO TMXO (cnar, naplIIMBUbI, HarOJIOllaJIMCh M Cn5lT), HO B MoeH KOMHaTe ropen CBeT. 51 BOIIIJIa. Ha KPYfJIOM CTOJIe non KJIacCM"IeCKHM OpaH)!(eBbIM a6a~pOM CT05lJI 6YKeT UBeTOB, OKp~eHHbIH 6yrbIJIKaMM MOJIOKa. Ha 60JIbliiOH 'rapenxe 3aTeHJlI1BO pa3JIO)!(eHhI fiyrepfiponsr - 60)!(e ThI MOH, KaKMe fiyrepfiponsr - C BeT"IMHOH, 6aJIhIKOM, MKpOH ...

B MaJIbQI1IlleCKOH KOMHaTe "ITO-TO ynano, M n05lBMJIC5I sacnamnaa KOCT5I B rpycax.

- Hy KaK? - CnpOCHJI OH. M aapyr, YBMlleB MeH5I, 3aBOTIl'fJI: - Mars! KaKa5I

npasecxa! ITOTP5lCHO! HMKOJIaH, cxopea CIOJ],a! ITorJl5lD;H, KaKaSI y Hac MaTb!

BbIJIe3 K0J151, TO)!(e B rpycax, H oCToJI6eHeJI. - Hy M HY, - TOJIhKO M CKa3aJI OH. - Jlany!

5I nana MM no O,llHOH pyxe. M onrrrs OHM ueJ10BaJIM Ka)!(1lhlH CBOIO PYKY, a SI cuorpena na zme rOJIOBhI - C0J10MeHHO-)!(eJITYIO M yrOJIhHO-"IepHYIO.

... ..uypaKM Bbl MOM ponnsre. Hy xyzta )Ke 51 OT sac yH,llY. ..

a) HaHAMTe B TeKCTe cnoaa, CBS13aHHble C TeMOM ((napMKMaxepCKaS1», M 3anMWMTeMX.

6) AononHMTe npeAJ10)KeHMS1, ynoTpe6nS1S1 nOAXOAS1l1.\Me no CMblcny rnaronei c -CR. rAe B03MO)KHO, Mcnonb3YMTe BapMaHTbl.

1) 51 ... Y 3TO[0 napmoraxepa yxe HeCKOJIhKO JIeT. 2) KaK 6blCTPO y MeHSI OTpaCJIM BOJIOCh!, BM,ll KaKOH-TO HeYXO)KeHHhIH. Hano rrOHTH .... 3) Hanoeno 6hITh

184

13 -98

185

6pIOHeTKOH, MO)«eT 6bITb '" B npyrori UBeT? 4) Ilepen npa3LJ:HHKOM B «CaJIOHe xpacorsr. MHoro Hap0LJ:Y, see XOT5IT .... 5) «Ilana, xyna TbI H)lellIb?» - cnpocnn MaJIbIIlI. «B napmoraxepcxyro, CbIHOK, MHe nano .... C 3TOH 60POLJ:OH 51 noxox na )le)la Moposa», 6) B naurea napIIKMaxepcKoH BbI MO)«eTe ... no npensaparensnoa 3anHCH HJIII B nOp5ILJ:Ke 06IUeH OqepeLJ:II. 7) 3aqeM TbI '" HarOJIo? Y Te651 6bIJIa raKa5I POCKOIlIHa51 IIIeBeJIlOpa! 8) K 3TOMY MacTepy ncerna 60JIbllIa51 oxepens. Y Hero ... MHome H3BeCTHble apTIICTbI.

B) Pa3blrpaMTe no POIUIM OTPblBOK H3 paccxasa «AaMCKHM MaCTep", ynoTpe6HTe BblAeneHHble B TeKCTe rnaronsi C -CR.

r) Pa3blrpaMTe cueay: «8 napHKMaxepcKoM. Pa3roBop KnHeHTa H MacTepa".

A) CKa>KMTe, 'faCTO nH BaM npHXOAMTCH 6blBaTb B napHKMaXepCKOM? KorAa,~Ka.<

KOM l!,enblO Bbl TYAa xOAHTe? -~

7. naccLo1BHo-KallecTBeHHble rnaronst (rnaronsr, 0603Ha'-lalOLU,Vle CBo~cTBa BeLU,e~ H npernaeroa)

1. npO'fHTaHTe TeKCT. 06paTHTe BHHMaHMe aa KOHTeKCT ynoTpe6neHMH BblAeneHHblX rnaronoa. CKa>KMTe, 'fTO 0603Ha'fa1OT 3m rnaronsr.

KAK PA3)J,EJlATbC~ C EECnOP51)J,KOM

Msr qaCTO )«aJIyeMC5I na 6ecnOp5I)lOK, 06Bl1H5I5I B 3TOM CBOH MaJIora6apHTnsre xsaprupu. «BOT ecnn 6bI y MeH5I 6bIJ1a 60JIbIlIa51 xsapnrpa», - MeqTaTeJIbHC). B3)lbIXaeM Mbl. «Y Te651 6bI n05lBIIJIOCb 60JIbllIe MeCTa)l1I5I 6eCnOp5l)lKa», - eXHLJ:HO npOLJ:OJ1)«aeT BHYTpeHHHH roJIOC. Bens B rJIy6HHe )lylliH MbI rtpexpacuo nOHHMaeM,:' 'ITO LJ:eJIO He B xaanparnux MeTpax, a B TOM, HaCKOJIbKO npaBHJ1bHO oprannaosarra naura )«H3Hb cpezm BeIlIeH. )laBaHTe no6bIBaeM B O)lHOH MOCKOBCKOH cevse, KOTOPOH Y)laJIOCb pa3YMHO oprannaoaars )«H3Hb B He60J1bIlIOH )lBYXKOMHaTHOH: xsaprnpe. I1TaK, Hac nparnamaer B roCTH CeMb51 fapIlIHHbIX: EJ1eHa, BJIa)lHMHp, HX CbIH I1BaH H 6a6YllIKa Onsra.

B rOCTlmOH CTOHT )lHBaH, aa KOTOPOM )lHeM BC5I CeMb51 C Y)lOBOJ1bCTBHeM CMOTpHT TeJ1eBH30p. )lHBaH paCKJ13,L1,bIBaeTCH, H na HO'Ib OH J1erKO rrpeapautaercs B Y)l06- HYIO KpOBaTb. KCTaTI1, LJ:I1BaH-KpOBaTb ua KOJleCHKax. OH CB060)lHO nepensaraercs no KOMHaTe, OCBo6o)KJla51 npOCTpaHCTBO H MeW:l5I 06CTaHOBKY.

Orrsra peIlIHJ1a paaaemrn, KOMHaTY na )lBe 'IaCTII HeBbICOKHM pa3)lBH)I(HbIM CTeJIJIa)«OM C OTKH)lHOH )lOCKOH H BbI)lBH)«HbIMH 51IUHKaMH. Terreps Y nee ecrs

186

MeCTO )l1I5I pafiosero CTOJIa, xyna OHa CKJIa)lbIBaeT npenjrerst )l1I5I csoero JII06HMOro PYKO)lCJIH5I.

KaKOH 6bI MaJleHbKOH HH 6bIJIa naura KYXH5I, scex KaK MarHHTOM T5IHeT HMeHHO crona. 3):IeCb e)l5IT H 60JITaIOT, CCOP5ITC5I H CMeIOTC5I, )leJI5ITC5I CBOHMH MeqTaMH 11 nJIaHaMH. Korna c06HpaeTC5I BC5I CeMb5l, na xyxne CTaHOBHTC5I TeCHOBaTO. A ~ CCJ1H npHXOL(5IT npY3b5l, rorna Bo06IUe 516J1oKY nerne ynacrs, JIeHa naurna BbIXOLJ: (13 nOJlO)l(eHH5I. OHa BbI6paJIa nJUI KYXHH KOMnaKTHbIH pa3nBH)l(HOM CTOJI, KOTOPbIH npH Heo6xonHMOCTH pacsxaasraaerca, H CKJIaJlHble CTYJIb5I, xoropue JIerKO y6HpaIOTCJI, OCBo6o)I(,Ua5I MeCTO.

)lByxJIeTHHH BaH5I ysepen, 'ITO see C06bITH5I na KYXHe )lOJI)«Hbl npOXOAHTb npa ero aKTHBHOM yqaCTHH, n03TOMY ero neTCKHH CTYJIbqHK BCerLJ:a crour P5IllOM. CryJ1b'-lHK oxens yno6HbIH, H3 6eJIoro TIJIaCTHKa, C perYJIHpyeMbIM CHLJ:eHbeM, JIerKO MOeTCJI.

JIeHa H BJla,UHMHP peIlIHJIH C03naTb csoa paM B cnansue. Korna rr05IBHJ1C5I Bane-rxa, ciona )l(e nOCTaBHJIH Hero KpOBaTKY. OnHY CTeHY 3aHHMaeT rapnepofi, rne YMeCTHJIHCb see HX BeIUH, nOCKOJ1bKY rapnepof HMeeT MHO)l(eCTBO BbI)lBH)l(HbIX 5IIUHKOB, BellIaJIOK H n0J10K, xoropsre JIerKO peryJlHpYIOTCH no BbICOTe.

Pa60'lHH yrOJIOK BJIa,UHMHpa 3aHHMaeT B xaaprnpe HeMHoro MeCTa, HO BbIrJ15InHT CTHJIbHO H npoc):>eCCHOHaJIbHO. Ha ero pa60qeM MeCTe scerna rroPMOK. EYMaru, KHHrH H nanxn ytipaust B urxadis: H TYM6bl C BbI)lBH)l(HbIMH 51IUHKaMH. Han KOMnbIOTepHbIM CT0J10M - Y1l06Ha5I nauna. Illrarna y JlaMnbI Bbl)lBHraeTCH H perynnpyerca no BbICOTe, a6a)1(YP nOBOpaQHBaeTCJI B JII06yIO CTOPOHY. IIepeJJ; CTOJIOM - KpeCJ10 na KOJleCHKax, xoropoe J1erKO OTOJJ;BHraeTCJI B CTOpOHy.

Jlerxo 11 yJJ;06HO )«HTb B xsaprape, rne X035IeBa paaotipanncs c xpaaennex BemeH. )l06po nO)«aJIOBaTb B cexn.to, rne pa3YMHO peIlIaeTC5I )l(HJII1IUHbIM sonpoc.

(IIo uamepuanan nepuoouuecxoii nesamu)

KaK Bbl o6paTVlnVl BHVlMaHVle, BblAeneHHble rnaronu MOryl' 0603Ha'-laTb csoaCTBa Bew,eC1 VI npenueros: 3TOT CTOJI peumnreercn, a CTY.1I CKJlaJ[bIBaeTCH. Ta. KVle rnaronu ynorpefinsuorca B cpopMe uecoeepureuaoro BVlAa, TaK KaK cBoC1- CTBa, xoropue OHVI 0603Ha'-la1OT, VlMelOT nOCT051HHble xapaKTepVlCTVlKVI.

2. Cocraasre AHanorH no 06pa3l!,Y.

o 6 p a 3 e u : - 3TOT CTOJ1 pa31lBI1)«Hoi1:? - Ila, OH pa3)1BHraeTC5I.

- A 3TOT?

- 3TOT He pa3)lBHraeTC5I.

187

1) 51llJ,HKH Y IlIKaQ:>a BbIllBIDKHble? 2) CTOJ1 CK1IMHOtf? 3) Kponars paCK1Ia,UHa5lt 4) IloJ1Ka orxnnnas? 5) qexoJ1 cbeMHbrH? 6) Toptuep nepenocnog? 7) IloTOJ1KJ1 HaT5DKHbIe? 8) Marpau HMYBHOtf? 9) .1lBepllbI Y IlIKaQ:>a pa3,UBH)!(Hble? 10) IlJ1HTa nepe,UBH)!(Ha5l? 11) 3aMoK Bpe3Hotf? 12) 3aMoK aasecnoa? 13) Kaneunap), nepeKI1.llHOtf? 14) Kaneanaps OTPbIBHOtf?

3. CKIDKIIITe IIIHalle.

06 p a 3 ell: IloJ1Ka OTKH,UblBaeTC5I. - IloJ1KY MO)!(HO OTKH,UbIBaTb.

IloJ1Ka He OTKl1.llbIBaeTC5I. - IlOJ1KY HeJ1b351 OTKH,UblBaTb.

1) CTeJ1J13)!( pa311BHraeTCSl. 2) LI,ocKa Y CTeJ1J13)!(a OTKHllblBaeTC5I. 3) 51llJ,HKH ~ IlIKaQ:>a BbIllBHraIOTC5I. 4) CTOJ1 paCK1IMbIBaeTC5I. 5) CryJ1b51 CKJ1a)l;blBaIOTc5L6) Ilo~ BepXHOCTb CTOJ1a MOeTC5I. 7) Bucora J1aMnbI perymtpyercn. 8) Me6eJ1b na KOJ1~CJt-: xax OTO,UBHfaeTCH. 9) qeXJ1bI na ,UHBaHe CHHMaIOTCH. 10) qeXJ1bI na Me6eJ1H crnpaIOTCH. 1 I) qeXJIbl He CTHpaIOTCH, a TOJ1bKO qHCTHTCH.

4. OTBeTbTe Ha aonpocei, YKIDKIIITe, KaK npOHBnSUOTCH CBoHcTBa Be~eH H npe,AMeT08, o KOTOPblX H,AeT pe'tb. Iitcnonb3YHTe Hape'tHSI: a) JIerKO, npocro, CBOOOJUIO, OblCTfJOi C TPY,!{OM, oel TPY,!{Hj 6) cosceu, HOCOJIIOTHO, cosepsuenuo.

o 6 p a 3 ell: - 3TY xpoaars MO)!(HO paCK1IMbIBaTb? - l/,a, OHa paCK.!Ia,J1.hIBaerCR npocro.

-A3TY? I

- 3ra COBceM He paCK.!Ia,J1.hmaerCR. 'I

o 6 p a r l-1 T e 8 H l-1 M a H l-1 e : Hape'll-1S'l nerxo, npOCTO, 6bICT~ po, CB060,AHO, C TPY,AOM, 6e3 TpY,Aa ynoTpe6JlS'lIOTCS'l 8 YT8epAH~ rensaux npeAIlO)l(eHl-151X C naCCl-18HO-Ka'leCTSeHHbIMl-1 rnarOJlaM~ KpOBaTb nerxo pectouuureserce. B orpuuarensaux npennoxaaaS'lX ynorpefinsuorcn Hape'll-1S'l COBceM, a6conJOTHO, coaepureaHO. 3Ta KpOBaTb COBceM (a6COJllOTHO, COBepmeHHO) He paCKJIanuseercn.

1) 3TOT CTOJ1 MO)!(HO pa311BI1:raTb? 2) 3ry Me6eJlb MO)!(HO rtepezranrars? 3) 3TH 060H MO)!(HO MbITb? 4) 3TH qeXJ1bI MO)!(HO cHHMaTb? 5) 3TY nonyurxy MO)KJ-IO CTHparr.? 6) BbICOTY 3TOM nOJ1KI1 MO)!(HO peryrmpoaars? 7) 3ry naxtrry MO)l(HO nOBOpa'nraan, B CTOPOHY? 8) 3TY TYM60qKY MO)l(HO aarnrpars? 9) Ilonyuncn Y 3TOro ,Uusaaa MO)!(HO y6HpaTb? 10) 3rOT HllJ,HK MO)!(HO aunanrars? I I) 3TY IlITOPY MO)I{HO nO))'HMMaTb?

5. CocTaBbTe cnHCOK aonpocoa, xoropsre Bbl sanana 6bl npO,AaB~Y npa nOKYnKe HO" aoro ,AHBaHa, crona, HacTonbHoH naMnbl, aaaaeeco«, nocrensaoro 6enbH H T. n.

188

6. PaCCKIDKHTe 0 CBoeH KBapTHpe - 0 Me6enH B roCTHHOVl, cnansae, KYXHe. no KaKOMY nplIIH'-'Hny Bbl ee Bbl6HpanH?

7. npOlllIITaViTe III paasrrpatrre ,AHanorH.

1) - KaK TbI zryxraeun., 'ITO nysure B3HTb B nopory - CYMKY HJIl1 qeMo,UaH? - B03bMl1 CYMKY: OHa JIerKO CK.J1MbIBaeTCH H MoeTCH.

2) - qaM YTe6H npOCTO He06bIKHOBeHHbIM - KpenKHM, llYIIIHCTbIU. qTO 3TO sa COpT? - MOM JII06HMbIM, «DO'uPOCTb». OH JIerKO 3aBapHBaeTCH, 6bICTPO HaCTaHBaeTCH. qYSCTByeIlIb, KaKOU apoxiar?

3) - q TO 6bI HaM rrpHrOTOBHTh na Y)lillH? BpeMeHH Y Hac MaJIO, a MHCO BapHTCHllOJ1ro. - A MO)!(eT 6bITh, psrtiy? PbI6a )!(apHTCH 6b1crpee.

4) (Paseoeop 6 anmexe.)

-llaMTe, nO)l(aJIYMCTa, BHTaMHHbl.

-- BaM B xancynax HJlH B m6JIeTKax?

- A 'ITO nyxure?

- B KanCYJIax y,U06Hee. Ta6J1eTKH xpourarcs, paCCbmaIOTC5I.

5) - Kyna MHe, nO)!(aJIyMCTa, MOJIOKa.

- Te6e xaxoe: nacrepaaoaanaoe HJlM CTepHJIH30BaHHoe?

-- Kynn JIyqIIle CTepHJIH30BaHHoe, OHO nonsnre xpaanrca.

8. nepe,AaVlTe cOAep}J(aHHe npeAllo}J(eHIIIVI, 3aMeHIIIB BblAeneHHble cnoaa rnaronaMM roro >Ke KOPHH C -CR. 1it3MeHIIITe, rne He06xo,AIIIMO, CTPYKTYPY npe,AJ10}J(eHIIIR.

1) 51 B03bMY B 1l0POry 3TOT KOCTIOM: OH HeMHyw,uHcH. 2) 5111YMalO, reoe B 3TOM «yprxe 6y,UeT XOJIO,llHO - OHa 6e3 3aCTe:IKKu. 3) 3TO OqeHb Yll06Ha51 cYMKa, Y Hee C'beMHa51 pysxa, 4) He 6epH B ztopory CKOPOIIOpT5ImUeCH nponyxrsr, 5) 3T0 oseas npo-maa Me6eJ1b, OHa He GOUTCH nOJlOMOK. 6) 11311eJIMH H3 3TOM TKaHH HeJIh351 nonaeprars XUM'IUCTKe. 7) Karnouroa y nnauia C'beMHbIH, ero MO)!(HO npacrernyrs H OTcrernyrs. 8) 3TH CTaKaHhI MO)!(HO MblTb B nocYJlOMOeqHOM MaIlIHHe: OHH He6bJOuureca. 9) 51 KYJ1HJIa MH KYXHH MOJOmueCH 060H, 3TO osem, Yll06HO H npaxnrmo. 10) Ilasaa B03bMeM B noxon HanyBHOH MaTpac, OH 3aHHMaeT MaJIO MeCTa.

9. 06bHcHMTe c nOMOU4bJO O,AHOKopeHHblx rnaronoa Ha -CR, "ITO TaKoe: 6blCTpopacTBopHMbIM caxap, )!(HpOpaCTBopHMble BHTaMHHbI, BOllopaCTBopHMbIe B~naMI1Hbl, TpYllHOYCBaHBaeMhIe nponyxrsi, TpYllHOBblBOllHMhle nHTHa, perYJIHPyeMaH no BblCOTe naxrna, BCTpaI1BaeMaSl 6blTOBaH TeXHHKa.

189

10. 3aKOH"IMTe BblcKa3b1BaHMSI, MOTMBMpySI Heo6xoAMMOCTb AeVlcTBMH. YnoTpe6MT~ rnaron C -CR. Lr1cnonb3YHTe cnosa AnSI cnpaaox,

o 6 p a 3 e U, : He KJI,UU1 Py6awKI1 na ,IlHO lJeMO,IlaHa. Omr '" . _ He KJIa,U11 pytiauncn aa ,IlHO lJeM011,aHa. OHI1 MHyrC5I.

1) He cOBeTYJO re6e 6paTh B nOXO,Il cpapQ:>opOBYJO nocyny OHa .... 2) B03hMF nysure npyrne HI1TKI1. 3TI1 nerrpo-mue, OHI1 .... 3) B03hMI1 nysure npyron xapan. ,Ila~. 3TOT nOCT05lHHO .... 4) B03hMI1 B ztopory 3TY KYPTKY. OHa He .... 5) He ern. pan 3TOT csurep, a ny-nne OT,IlaH: ero B XHMlJHCTKY. OH .... 6) He 60H:c5I IT0J10)l(HTl ary Kop06KY B CYMKY. OHa He .... 7) He CTaBb 3Ty Ba3Y na KpaH: WKaQ:>a. OHa ... 8) ~e OCTaBJ15lH M5ICO na CTOJ1e, n0J10)l(11 B X0J10,IlHJ1hHHK. OHO 6hICTPO .... 9) H~ MOI1 3TH lJaWKI1 B nOCY,IlOMOelJHOH: MaWI1He. OHH ....

C J1 0 B a n J1 51 CIT P aBO K : 1) 6I1ThC5I; 2) pBaThC5I; 3) J10MaTbC5I; 4) M5IThC5I, nasKaTbC5I; 5) Ca,UI1ThC5I, ,IlecpopMl1pOBaTbC5I; 6) J10MaTb. C5I, M5IThC5I; 7) 6I1TbC5I; 8) nOpTHTbC5I; 9) 6I1TbC5I.

11. PaCCKa>KMTe 0 AOCTOMHCTBax KaKoH-nM60 MMelOl.I..teHcSI y aac Bel.l..tM (oAelKAbi npeAMeToB o6MxoAa M T. n.). nO"leMY Bbl peurana nOnb30BaTbCSI MMeHHO elO? '

12. npeAcTaBbTe ce6S1 COTPYAHMKOM omena peKnaMbl. CocTaBbTe TeKCT peKnaMbi KaKoro-HM6YAb npoAYKTa MnM Be~M.

13. npeAcTaBbTe ce6S1 B pona npOA3B~a-KoHcynbTaHTa

• Me6enbHoro Mara3MHa;

• Mara3MHa ccOAe>KAa»;

• raCTpOHOMa.

PaCCKa>KMTe nOKYnaTenlO, 06paTMBweMYCSI K BaM C BonpOCOM, 0 AOCTOMHCTBruI M HeAOCTaTKax roro MnM MHoro roeapa,

\

14. npOAYMaHTe cnMCOK Bel.l..teVl, xoropeie Bbl B03bMEhe C co6oVl ornpaansacs B Aanb"l

HIOIO 0 (- ' ,

A pory TYpMCTM"IeCKMM noxon l-1nl-1 KOMaHAl-1pOBKY). MOTl-1Bl-1PYHTe CBOH Bbl ...

6op.'

190

8. AKHtBHO-6e306beKTHble rnarorua

(rnaronu, 0603HayalOUJ,Lile CBo(;1cTBa >KLilBbIX CYUJ,eCTB Lil pacreuua)

1. npO"ll-1TaHTe Al-1anOrl-1. 06paTl-1Te BHl-1MaHllle aa ynoTpe6neHl-1e BblAeneHHblX rnaronos.

1) - Bawa cofiaxa xycaerca?

- HeT, He KYcaeTCSl, OHa OqCHb ,Il06pa51 11 CnOKOH:Ha5l.

2) - KaKOH: XOPOWCHbKI1H: KOTeHOK! MO)l(HO ero nOf)1a,UI1Th? - OCTopmKHo, OH l1,apanaeTCH.

3) - ObIJ1a CCrO,IlH5l Ha xY,IlO)l(CCTBeHHOH: BblCTaBKC. nOTp5lCaIOIlI,c! CTOJ1bKO HHTepeCHhIX nenieii!

- A cefie lJTO-HI16Y,Ilb KYITI1J1a?

- Lla HeT, uenu KycaIOTCH. Bee CJ1HWKOM noporo, MHe He no KapMaHY.

I 0 6 p a r VI T e B H VI M a H VI e : B KOHCTPYKLI,VlSlX rnna Co6aKa KYcaeTCSI rnaron VlMeeT 3HaLJeHVle 'MO>KeT YKYCVlTb'.

2. 3anl-1Wl-1Te Hal-16onee ynoTpe6l-1TenbHble Bblpa>KeHl-1S1 C rnaronaraa, o603Ha''lalOI.I..tl-1Ml-1 CBOHCTBa >Kl-1BbIX cy~ecTB M paCTeHl-1H.

C06aKJ1 KycaIOTC5I, KOllIKI1 u,apaITaIOTC5I, KYpbI KJ1IOIOTC5I, rycn IlI,HTIJ1IOTC5I, xoM5IKH KYCaIOTC5I, nepfirnonsr nJ1IOIOTC5I, KOPOBbI 60,IlaIOTC5I, J10llIa,IlH 6pbIKaIOTC5l, P03bl KOJ1IOTC5I, xparmaa )!()!(eTC5l, UCHbl KycalOTC5I inepen.),

06 p a r VI T e B H VI M a H VI e : AaHHbie rnaronu ynorpetinsuorcs B cpopMe uecosepureuuoro BVlAa, TaK KaK OHVI 0603HaLJalOT 06b1LJHYIO peakumo cy6beKTa (arpeCCVlBHYIO VlnVl 3all.l,VlTHYIO) ua LJb8-TO eoaneacrene.

3. a) npO"ll-1TaHTe OTPblBOK l-13 nOBeCTl-1 B. naHOBOH ccCepe>Ka». B HeH Onl-1CbIBaeTCSI AepeBeHCKl-1H ABOP rnaaassa pe6eHKa. CKa>Kl-1Te, KaKl-1e c<onaCHOCTl-'I» nOACTeparana nsrraneruero Manblwa.

CKOJ1bKO aeuien xpyroja' MHP Ha611T seutavu.

nOlJTI1 see seuta OlJCHb 60JIbWMe: naepn Y>KaCHO BhICOKHe, J11O,Il1i (KpOMe nerei1) nO'lTI1 TaKOH >KC BbICOTbI, KaK nscpn. BOT XO,IlHT no nsopy 3BCpb. Y Hero xpyrfIbli1 nO,Il03pHTCJ1bHbIH, BHHMaTejlbHblti rJIa3, rpyns KOJIeCOM H )l(CJ1e3HbIH KJ1IOB. Korna OH BhIT5IrHBaeT ureio, TO OH neJIaeTC5I onuoro pOCTa C Cepexea. 11 MO)KeT TaK >Ke 3aKJIeBaTh CepC)KY, KaK 3aKJIeRaJI MOJIO;J,oro cocencxoro rteryunca, KOTOPhIH C~WPY pa3JleTeJ1C51 B rOCTH. Ccpexa CTOPOHOH 06X011,I1T KpOBO)KanHOrO 3BCP5I·

191

I1eTYXH KJIIOIOTCSl, KOlliKH uapanasrrca, xparrasa }IOKeTCH, JIlO.!lH TOJ1KaIOTCSI, MaJIbtIHIIIKlf ,lJ,epYTCH, 3eMJIH cpsrsaer KO)f(Y C KOJIeH, xorna rranaeurs, - If Cepexa sees nOKpbIT uapanaaavn, CCMHHaMIf If ClfHHKaMIL TIOtITIf KIDK.UbU1: ,lJ,eHb tITOTO CJIyqaeTCH.

6) KaKllle e~e >KIIIBOTHble III pacreaaa cnoc06Hbi 3a~lII~aTb ce6S1 Hnlll npOSIBnAllt,

arpeccmo? B 'teM 3aKnIO'taeTCSI 3Ta 3a~IIITa IIInlll arpeCCHSI? '·1

B) 3aMeHillTe cnOBOCO'teTaHIllSi C BblAeneHHblMIll rnaronaMIll smo MOlKeT coesam» smo.

KOHCTPYK4Heiil I

,j

I

.'~

"'1

4. npO'tIllTaMTe TeKCT. CK3>KIIITe, KaKaSi IIIH$opMa4111S1 oxaaanacs AnSI aac HOBOM.

A BELJ,b BEPEJIlO)lbI HE ITJIlOlOTOI!

KaK pearapyer nepfimon, eCJIH eMY 'ITO-TO He nOHpaBlfTCH? «nJ1IOe-rCSl!» - OT- , sernr no-rrn Ka)f(,lJ,bIM. 11 0Illll6eTCH. OpraHl13M Bep6JIlO)],a YCTpOeH TaK, tIT06bI re-] pars KaK MO)J(HO MeHbllle BJIam, If rparnrs ee nanpacao OH He 6y)],eT. ECJIH sep-] 6JIlO.!l cep)],HTCH, TO OH 06bIqHO JIHraeTCSl lfJIH sycaerca. '

A otTO AYManlll no 3TOMY nOBoAY Bbl?

3aAaMTe 3TOT eonpoc CBOIllM 3HaKOMbIM. iltHTepecHO, otTO OHIII BaM oTBeTSlT?

5. npO'tIllTaMTe WYTKY III nepeCKa>KIIITe ee B nauax.

rOCTEITPl1l1MCTBO

fOCTb npnxoznrr B .!lOM. B D,BepHX ero ncrpexaer orpoxaas cofiaxa. - Flpoxomrrel - rrpllfJIalliaeT X03HIfH.

- A OHa He KYCaeTC51?

- HaM caMllM mrrepecao. OHa Y Hac rtepasnt ,lJ,eHb )J(HBeT.

OA06pSleTe nlll Bbl nOA06HYIO nlO603HaTenbHOCTb?

6. 3aKoH'tIllTe Alilanorill. iltcnonb3YMTe cnoaa AnSI cnpaaox.

I) - 5I BIDKy, aaur KOTeHOK refe nOHpaBlfJICH. Xoxeurs, nornans ero, He 60HCH. - OH MeHH MO)J(eT ouapanars. - Hy tITO TbI, OH Y Hac He ....

2) - 3)lpaBCTByHTC, rrpOXO)],MTe, npoxoznrre B KOMHaTy, 'ITO BbI CTOIfTe B .!lBe-· pHX!

- A saura cofiaxa MeHH He YKYCMT?

- JJ.a HeT, 3TO eute IUeHOK, OH COBceM He '" .

192

3) (Jlemou B oepeBHe.)

_- MO)J(HO, H noxaraiocs aa 3T0i1 JIOIIla)]'l1?

- OHa Y Hac C xapaxrcpoxt, nmcoro K ce6e He nO.1lnYCKaeT, ....

4) - Kaxon xpacaseu 3TOT neryx'

- )la,Ho OH OtIeHb 3MIfPIfCTbIi1, .rr.patIJII1BbIM 11 3)],OPOBO ....

5) - 5I oxem, 60lOCb rycen. - TIOtIeMY?

- Y HMX raxae MllHHble men, crpaurnsre KJIIOBbI. MHe Ka)J(eTCH, ona 60JIb-

HO ....

6) - qTO Y Te6H C PYKoi1? TIOtIeMY naneu 3a6MHTOBaH?

- TbI ce6e ,lJ,a)f(e He npencrannsems! XOTeJIa nornamrrs naurero XOMHtIKa, a OH KaK YKYCllT MeHH 3a naneu!

- qTO TbI roaopnurs! 51 If He aaana, tITO XOMHKM ....

C JI 0 B a n JI H C rr p aBO K : 1) uapanarscs; 2) xycarsca; 3) JIHraTbCH, 6pbIKaTbCH; 4) KJIeBaThCH; 5) IUIfrraTbCH.

7. OTBeTbTe aa aonpocer. YKa>KIIITe, B KaKoM creneua MOryT npoaansreca CBoMcTBa pacTeHIllM III )l(IIIBOTHbIX, 0 KOTOPblX IIIAeT pe'tb. iltcnonb3YMTe Hape'tIllSl: a) OYeHb, CHJIbHO, 3,aOPOBO (pase.), )'lKacHo (pase.), 6) COBceM, coeeptueuuo, aOCOJIJOTHO.

o 6 p a 3 e U : - 3Ta cotiaxa KYCaeTCH? - ,aa, oses» KycaeTcH.

-A3Ta?

- 3Ta COBceM He KycaeTCH.

06 p a r IIJ T e B H 111 M a H IIJ e : Hape4l11fl O'teHb, ClllnbHO, Y>KacHO ynorpetinsuorcs B YTBepAII1TenbHblX npennoxeuasx C aKTIIJBHO- 6e306beKTHblMlI1 rnaronaua. B OTpIIJI.\aTeJlbHblX npennoxeaasx 3TII1 CJlOBa He ynorpetinsnorca. OWIIJ604HO npennoxeuae: *3Ta co6aK8 osens He xyceerce. B orpnuarensuux npennoxeauax MorYT ynorpetinarscs Hape411JS'l COBceM, aficoruoruo, COBepweHHO: 3Ta cotisxs COBceM He «yceercs.

CITPAllJl1BAlOT l1,ETI1

1) - Banta KOIIlKa uapanaercs? -)la, ....

-A KOTeHoK?

- HeT, eMY acero J{Be He.rr.eJ1H, OH ... He ....

193

2) - Kparnma )I()j(eTC5I? -ll,a, ... )I()j(eTC5I.

- A nerpyurxa?

- HCT, nCTpYlliKa ... HC )I()j(eTC51.

3) - illI1noBHI1K KOJICTC5I? -ll,a, ....

- A CMOpO,llI1Ha?

- CMOpO,llI1Ha ... HC ....

4) - XOM51'lKI1 KycaIOTC5I? -ll,a, I1HOr,lla ....

- A MOPCKI1C CBI1HKI1?

- 51 ,llYMaJO, MOPCKI1C CBI1HKI1 ... HC ....

5) - BOpOHhI KJIIOIOTC5I? -ll,a, ...••..

- A rOJIy6I1?

- MHC Ka)KCTC5I, rOJIy6I1 ... HC ....

6) - JIOllIa,llI1 KYCaIOTC5I? -ll,a, naoma ....

- A KOpOBhl?

- KOPOBhl ... HC ..•.

7) - Iycn IUI1rrJIIOTC51? -ll,a, ....

- A YTKI1?

- YTKl1 ... He ....

8) - E)Kl1 KOJIIOTC5I? -ll,a, ....

- A xepenaxa?

- qeperraxl1 ... HC ....

8. 3aAa~Te aHanOn'l"lHble eonpocsi APyr APYry 0 «xapaxrepe» )I(~BOTHbIX ~ pac~ .•.

H~~, ecrpe-raioutaxcs B aauiax crpaaax (Hanp~Mep: KaKTYc, araea, nanseaa, a .... T~WOK, anenscaa; open, 3aH~, xponnx, 6enKa, oneus, A~K06pa3, KeHrypy, 0 .. 3bSlHa ~ AP.). ~

9. AononH~Te npeAnO)l(eH~H, ynoTpe6nHSI B YTBepA~TenbHbiX npeAnO)l(eH~SlX cn08~ osen», CHJlbIlO, a B orpauarensaerx - cnosa COBceM, aOCOJlIOTIIO, coseputesuo.

1) Pansure Y Hac na na-re 6hVla xoposa, OHa ... 60JlanaCh, BCC ee 605IJII1Ch. A reneps Y Hac JIPyra51 xoposa, OHa ... He 60naeTC5I.

194

2) 8 Mae xparursa ... He )K)KeTC5I, l13 nee LJ,a)Ke roTOB5IT canarsr, a B aBrYCTC ...

)(OKeTC51.

3) Ham KOTeHOK C BI1,llY JIaCKOBhIM, HO ... napanaercs.

4) CanOBHl1K astsen HOBhIM COpT P03, KOTOPhlC ... HC KOJIIOTC5I.

5) 3BcpeK MaTIeHhKI1M, HO ... K),caeTC51.

6) Baura cofiaxa MCH5I He YKYCl1T? - qTO BhI, OHa ... HC KYcaeTC51, 3TO ,l106PCMwee CYlUeCTBO.

7)}I roast 605lPhlUlHl1Ka BKYCHhle l1 nonesnsre, HO C06l1paTh l1X TPY,llHO, rrOTOMY 'ITO y 6051PhlllIHI1Ka CCTh uranu, 11 OHl1 ... KOJIIOTC5I.

8) 11 ens, 11 COCHa, l1 JIl1CTBCHHl1ua OTHOC5ITC5I K XBOMHhlM ,llCPCBh5IM. Ho Y CJIl1 11 COCHhI I1roJ1Kl1 ... KO.TIIOTC51, a Y JIl1CTBCHHI1Uhl ... HC KOJIIOTC51.

10. l!1cnonb3YSl rnaronsr C -CH, ycnoKoMTe pe6eHKa, KOTOPblM onacaercs, "ITO ero

MO)l(eT:

• YKYC~Tb llteHOKj

• YKYC~Tb XOMSI"IOK;

• 3a60AaTb xopoea;

• ouapanars KOTeHOK.

11. PaCCKa>K~Te, ecrs n~ y aac ~n~ aaumx APy3e~ KaK~e-H~6YAb AOMaWH~e )I(~BOTHble. PaCCKa>K~Te 06 ~x xapaxrepe ~ noeanxax. B paccxaae ynoTpe6~Te maronst T~na (He) KycaThcH, (He) ~apaDaThcH ~ T. n.

12. Bbl XOT~Te 3aBeCT~ ce6e KaKoe-H~6YAb AOMaWHee )l(I1BOTHOe ~ npl1XOAI1Te B 300- Mara3~H. KaKl1e aonpoces Bbl 3aAaA~Te npOAaB~y 0 xapaxrepe III npl1Bbl"lKaX )1(11- BOTHblX ~ nTI1~, )I(~Byllt~X B 300Mara311He?

13. L1cnonb3YSl ofipaseu, cxasorre, "ITO raeoe: OOJV1HBaH sopos«, Kyca<faH cotias», Jl.pa<fJlUBhlif K03e.n, )l(lJT<fan KpanHBa, KOJlIO<fHif KycTapHHK, mHDJ"Iee MbIJlO.

06 p a 3 C U : ,lJ,pa'lJIl1BhIH rrCTYX - 3TO neryx, KOTOPhlM nepercs.

14. 06bSlcH~Te, KaK Bbl nOH~MaeTe pyccKl1e nocnoeausr.

1) DOJI]Tl1BOM xopose 60r por He naer;

2) ,lJ,pa'lJ1I1BhIM neryx )Kl1peH HC 6hIBacT;

3) Jlatotuaa cofiaxa He KYcaCTC5I.

ECTb m'l aHanOrl1"1Hble nocnoeausi B BaweM POAHOM Sl3b1Ke? B KaKI1X c~TYa~I1S1X !'IX ynoTpe6nSlIOT?

195

15. B nonynHpHOl1 necae noercs: «Co6aKa 6blBaeT KYca .. elll ronsxo OT >KH3H ... co6a. '"!belll». 06bHCH ... Te, KaK Bbl nOH ... MaeTe 3T ... cnoaa.

16. HapoAHaH MYAPOCTb mac ... T: «60l1CH K03na cnepeaa, nowaAb C3aA"', a n ... xore .. enoaexa co acex CTOPOH». KaK Bbl nOH ... MaeTe 3T ... cnoaa?

17. npO ..... Tal1Te TeKCTbl. BblAen ... Te MeCTa, rne roaop ... TCH 0 <Il0pMax npOHBneHM~ arpecc ...... Y paaaeix >KliIBOTHbIX. OTBeTbTe aa aonpocei nocne TeKCTOB.

3API1COBKH C HATYPhI

,ll,OEPOTA

Haunt )]'aJICKJ1e npenxn, npJ1pY'II1B llJ1KHX BOJlKOB J1rnaKaJIOB, rroaapnnn HaI\! nOMOmHI1KOB 11 3aIUI1THI1KOB - c06aK. C ronasra, a nepnee, C BeKaMI1 JlIO)],11 H~ Y'II1JlI1Cb npxcnocatinanars c06aK K pa3JIH'IHblM pa60TaM, a TO H npOCTO - B Ka, 'IeCTBe nrpyurex. TaK 1105lBI1JH1Ch MHOrO'II1CJleHHble noponsr c06aK.

OIlHa II3 HHX - cenriepnap. Ilopona nsrsencaa CrreUHaJIbHO llJrn cnacanna JlIO~ )],eM B ropax. 3Ta llo6peMrna51 cofiaxa cnocofina B YCJ10BI151X ropnsrx JIaBHH H 06t BaJIOB npHHTH na nouotus 'IeJIOBeKY. Y HCe )],06pblM npas 11 Cl1JIbHa51 BOJm, - BeC 3HaIOT, 'ITO OHa nonYCTY He KYcaeTC5I. t

O)]'HIDKllbI5I 6blJla CBH)],eTeJIeM, KaK B IIIKOJIe)],.JUI c06aK cTPOrHe HHCTPYKTOpJ:il IIbITaJIHCb 06yqHTb ceufiepnapa )],orOH5ITb H aaztepzomars HapyrnMTeJI5I. «HapymaTeJIh» B BaTHOM xanare fieran nepen rrCOM H CTapaJICH crtpoaonaposars Hanan~~ HHe. C06aKa He pearnposana. «HapYlUHTeJIb» rronoexan K HeM, CXBaTHJI KaKYIO-'fi1 nems, BH)],MMO, npnnannexautyro X0351MKC, n06C)KaJI npO'IL. X0351Hxa H HHCTPYK~ TOp TOJIKaJIM 6e)lHOrO «IIIKOJIbHI1Ka» H KPIFlaJIH: «B351Tb! B351Tb erols C06aKa nos TPYCHJIa sa «aapyurarenese HC enema, OCTaBJrnJI CBOH MeTKH na KO'IKax. MeTP~ B rpex 01' «HapyrnI1TeJI5I» OHa cena H nO'ICCaJIaCb. Torna CTPOrMH: I1HCTPYKTOP npR~ )],YMaJI HOBhIt', npHeM. OH rronaen K cenoepnapy 3JIYIO OBLIaPKY, BH)IMMO, OTJIHi HI1UY, H 06b5lBHJI X03SIH:KC: «CHa'IaJIa 6e)l{Jl.T «HapYIIII1TeJIb», 3aTeM JI nYCKalO OB'IapKY, a aa HeM - saurero 1l06p5lKa. 3Jl06a )IoJI)KHa nOpO)II1Th 3JI06y». I1 4TO )Ke,,.. YBH)IeJIa? 3JI06Ha51 OB'-IapKa HaCTlH'JIa «HapYIIIHTeJ1JJ», CJIe,lIOM M4aJICSI ceutiepnap, HO KOr)Ia onxapxa B3McTHYJIaCb B npsrxxe, Ha Bee npurnyn centiepnap 11 samaTI1JI (!!!) 4eJIOBeKa. :ilro 61.1]10 npexpacno. Cenfiepuap He cvor 113MeHl1Th CBoet uarype. BCKOPC 3TOT «aecnocotiaun» yyeHHK 61.lJI OTLll1CJIeH H3 IIIKOJIbI, TaK Kid TaJIaHT HHCTPYKTOPOB OKa3aJIC5J cnafiee ranaura )I06POT1.I.

vl

(JJo H. KYJlIOKUlWUl

196

-

YKPOIUEHI1E

3Ta OB'IapKa 6blJla rp030M nanrero paaona. Macro )KepTB 'IHCJIHJIOCh aa Hett; 11 co6aKI1, H JIIO)IH 3HaJIl1, KaK OHa YMeeT KycaThC5I. ,Ua)Ke Tpe60BaJIM ee JIHKBH)],aUMM, <rr06bI 06e30naCI1Th )KH3Hb na namea C06a'Ibet'I nnoutanxe. I1 BOT O)II-!a)K)IhI.. .

O)IHa)K)IbI JI ry.TIJIJla CO CBOHM 6eCrrOpO)!HhIM rreCHKOM B rrYCfbIHHOM HO'IHOM nnope 11 HeO)l(I1)IaHHO CTOJIKHYJIaCb C cHOM orpovaon omapxon. HeMaJI cuena. Ee X03HI1H OKa3a..'IC5I sa Moett CnI1HOH:. Bee MOe BHI1M3HMe 11 BOT!51 6bTJIH aanpaaneau ua OB'IapKY. 51 CnOKOH:HO Ha'IaJIa C HeM 6eCe)IOBaTb. 51 CKa3aTIa, 'ITO OHa KpaCaBI1- ua (TaK OHO H 6bIJIO), 'ITO OHa YMHaJI 11 MOIO c06aKY rporars He 6Y)IeT. Bo BpeM5I TaKHX neperonopos 06bI'IHO Y c06aK HC'Ie3aeT arpeCCI151, rrOTOMY 'ITO lla)Ke B raKOH MOMeHT 51 npononxaio I1X JII06I1Th ncen nyuron. KaK)J(e OHH 3TO QYSCTBYIOT! MOH: nee CTOJIJI He rneJIOXHYBlUI1Cb. Ho TYT, BH)II1MO, X0351I1H ClleJIaJI 3HaK nanacrs, H B TY )I(e CeKYHllY orpOMHa51 cofiaxa HaKphIJIa MOIO MaJIeHbKYIO c06a'IKy. Pa311aJIC5I BOIlJIb Moero JII06HMua. Bee peurann ceKYH)I1.I. 3Ha5l, 'ITO C06aKI1 snanaror B nrox, eCJII1 I1X oropsars OT 3CMJIM, 51 CXBaTI1Jla 3JIO)leSI aa OCHOBaHHe XBOCTa, pe3KO nonH5IJIa 3aJ],HHe HOrM 11 TaK)Ke pesxo npanexarana I1X K 3eMJIe (ueJII1KOM -TO nO)IH5ITb TaKYIO MaXI1HY 6bIJIO He non CI1JIY). OB'IapKa 3aMepJIa, TYT )Ke 3a6hIB 0 MOCM BOn5IIUeM nee, Me)IJleHHO pa3BepHYJIaCb, M MbI BCTPeTI1JII1Ch rnaaasm. Drasa YMHhIe. Ha'IaJIc5I HeMOM zmanot OHa: «qTO 3TO?» 51: «YxollM. 31'0 M051 cofiaxa. HeJIh3H rporars MOIO cofiaxy Yxonn. ThI YMHa5I, KpaCI1Ba5l. Ax, KaKa51 KpaCHBa5l! M O'IeHb YMHa5l. TbI He rponeurs MOIO c06aKY. YXO,lIW). 11 naxe B 3TOT MOMCHT 113 MeH5I BhIfi.TIeCKI1BaJIaCb - HeT, He HeHaBMCTh, a JII060B1. K 3TOH: cofiaxe. Bem, ee HCnOpTI1JI X03HHH, pasae OHa BI1HOBaTa? 1151 6blJla YCJIhIIIIaHa. OB'IapKa nepemarayna xepea Moero nacueprs nepenyraanoro nca 11 nomna, He OrJI5I)IhIBaHCb, rrposs. TOJIhKO TyT SI n03BOJII1JIa ce6e OTBeCTH OT nee rnasa 11 nOBepHYThC5I K X0351HHY (B oCTPhIe MOMeHThI nano CMOTPeTb npano B rnasa )KMBOTHOMY). X0351HH CTOM 6eJIbIH KaK caer (sens ero OBQapKa 6pOCaJIaCh H na JlIO)IeM). qTO MO)J(HO 6blJl0 eMY cxasars? TOJIhKO TO, 'ITO ero cofiaxa YMHee ero. K C'IaCTblO.

(JJo H. KYJlIOKUHOU)

TIPO PEJO I1 TIJ1JOWY

B TC'IeHI1e TPCX JIeTHlIX ce30HOB MHe )!OBeJIOCb )l(HT1. B CTeI1H na 6110cTaHUMH 601( 0 60K C pyqH1.IM CypKOM no KJII1'IKe [l.TI 10 rna. IlJIIOIIIa 61.IJI TOJICTbIM, CI1MnaTl1l[H1.IM YSaJIbHeM. Korna 51 nnepssre CHUM n03HaKOMHJlaCb, 3BephKY 6blJlO scero l-lecKOJIhKO MeC5IueB. B )leTCKOM nospacre Ilmoura JII06I1.TI BCCX JIIO)Ieti 11 n03BOJI5lJl rJJa1U1T1. ce65I 11 fipari, na PYKI1. K CO)l(aJIeHI1IO, K rOJIY Y Hero rr05lBMJIC5I BeCbMa CYUlccTBeHH1.IH He)lOCTaTOK: OH CTaJI KycaT1.CH. OH npnanauan TOJIhKO CBOIO XO-

197

3~thcy 11 eure ,UBYX-TpeX «1136paHHhIX». Co BCeMI1 OCTaJIhHhIMI1 Ilmoura pacnpasJI~JTC~ 6hICTPO 11 pennrrensao: pacnyumsumcs, Me,UJIeHHO nepeaanuaaacs, cypox rro,Uxo,UI1JI K CBOeMY «spary», yrpoxcaioute CTY'·la 3y6aMI1, rrOTOM rrOllHI1MaJIC5I aa 3a,UHl1e nansi, ,UeJTa51 «cTOJI6I1K», 11 eCJII1 BhI IyT )l(e He peTHpOBaJIHCh, 06HHMaJ1 saury nory na YPOBHe KOJTeHa 11 )l(a)J.HO BrrHBaJIC5I B aee 3y6aMI1.

O,UHO J1eTO B naur KOJIJIeKTI1B, 'lJTeHOM xoroporo 6hIJI II Ilrnoura, BXOlll1JIa eme cofiaxa, HblO<paYHMeH,U ITO KJII1'lKe Pe5I. OHa 6bIJIa XOPOlliO BOCITI1TaHa, rsepno yc; BOHJTa rrpaBHJIO «He 0611)1(aTb MaJIeHhKI1X» H He rrp05IBJT5IJIa Bpa)l(,lJ,e6HOCTH ITO OT"'!

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