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ïa‰ãaš

m
co
bjhFâ - I & II
nkšÃiy - Kjyh« M©L

s.
áw¥g«r§fŸ :

ok
òâjhf âU¤âaik¡f¥g£l ghlüš gâ¥ò 2019-‹go jahÇ¡f¥g£LŸsJ.
mid¤J¥ ghl¥gFâfËY« ÄFâahd msÉš TLjš Édh¡fŸ k‰W« gƉá
fz¡FfŸ ÉilfSl‹ ju¥g£LŸsd.
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bfhŸF¿ (Objective) tifÆyhd 1 kâ¥bg© Édh¡fŸ Ñœf©l jiy¥òfËš
ju¥g£LŸsd
ab
1. nfho£l ïl¤ij Ãu¥òf
2. bghU¤Jf
3. bghUªjhjt‰iw nj®ªbjL¤J vGJ
ur

4. rÇahd mšyJ jtwhd nrhofis¤ nj®ªbjL¤J vGJ


5. T‰WfS«, fhuz§fS«
6. rÇahd mšyJ rÇašyhj T‰Wfis nj®ªbjL
.s

Kjš gUt ïil¤ nj®î (2018-19) [First Mid-2018], fhyh©L¤ nj®î [QY-2018],
miuah©L¤ nj®î [HY-2018],muR khâÇ Édh¤jhŸ [Govt. MQP-2018] Édh ÉilfŸ
M§fh§nf R£ofh£l¥g£LŸsd.
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muR khâÇ Édh¤jhŸ - 2, RuhÉ‹ khâÇ Édh¤jhŸ - 2 ÉilfSl‹ ju¥g£LŸsJ.


kh®¢ 2019 muR bghJ nj®î Édh¤jhŸ ÉilfSl‹ ju¥g£LŸsJ.
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Ruh g¥Ënfõ‹°
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2019-20 òâa gâ¥ò


© btËp£lhs®fŸ
ISBN : 978-93-5330-060-9
F¿p£L v© : SG 263

m
vGâ tH§»at®

co
âUkâ. by£RÄ uhk»UZz‹, M.Sc., B.Ed., DCT

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jiyik mYtyf«:
1620, `n#’ ãsh¡, 16-MtJ ãujhd rhiy, m©zh ef®,

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br‹id-600 040.  91-44-26161088, 26161099
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nkY« Étu§fS¡F / bjhl®ò¡F
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ïizajs¤âÈUªJ ïytrkhf gâÉw¡»¡bfhŸsyh«

Our Guides for XI Standard


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gâ¥gháÇa® ciu

m
11«tF¥ã‰fhd RuhÉ‹ ïa‰ãaš bjhFâ-I & II ï‹ tÊfh£oia btËÆLtâš

co
bgUÄjK« k»œ¢áí« mil»nwh«. ïa‰ãaš bjhFâ-I & II ï‹ ghl§fS¡fhd Édh
ÉilfŸ /gƉáfŸ Äfî« vËikahf, Rygkhf òǪJbfhŸS« Éj¤âš ju¥g£LŸsd.

RuhÉ‹ ïa‰ãaš tÊfh£o khzt®fË‹ všyh¤ njitfisí« fU¤âš bfh©L

s.
cUth¡f¥g£LŸsJ. ghlüiy e‹F kâ¥ghŒî brŒJ khzt®fŸ všyh¥ ghl§fisí«
btFthf c£»u»¤J m¿ªJbfh©L nj®it Rygkhf vGâ mâf kâ¥bg©fis¥ bg‰W
bt‰¿ahs®fshF« Éj¤âš, ekJ bt‰¿¡fhd ïªj tÊfh£o jahÇ¡f¥g£LŸsJ.

ok
MáÇa®fS¡F ghl« el¤JtâY«, khzt®fS¡F¡ f‰W¡bfhŸtâY« ïªj tÊfh£o
Jizahf ïU¡F«.
o
muR bghJ¤ nj®î¡fhd òâa kâ¥Õ£L KiwÆš 100 kâ¥bg©fŸ totik¥ãš,
70 kâ¥bg©fS¡fhd vG¤J¤ nj®É‹ Édh¤jhŸ mo¥gilÆš ekJ tÊfh£o
ab
cUth¡f¥g£LŸsjhš, nj®îfis Äf¢ rÇahd Éj¤âš vâ®bfhŸsyh«.

ekJ RuhÉ‹ ïa‰ãaš bjhFâ-I & II ï‹ tÊfh£oÆš ïJ ngh‹w gy áw¥g«r§fŸ


ml§»ÆUªjhY«, ïa‰ãaš ghl¤ij khzt®fŸ òǪJbfhŸs cjÉL« MáÇa®fË‹
gÂí« kf¤jhdJ v‹gij kW¥gj‰»šiy.
ur

MáÇa®fË‹ f‰W¤jU« gÂÆš cWJizahfî«, khzt®fŸ ghl§fis¡ f‰F«


Éj¤âš C¡f« jU« tifÆY« ekJ tÊfh£o âfG« vd e«ò»nwh«.
.s

ïiwaUis nt©L»nwh«.
eynk Éisf!
w

RghZ uh{, B.E., M.S.,


- gâ¥gf¤jh®.
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thœ¤J¡fŸ !!!

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bghUsl¡f«

m
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myF ghl¤ jiy¥òfŸ g¡f«

s.
bjhFâ - I
1. ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 1 - 42

ok
2. ïa¡fÉaš 43 - 84
3. ïa¡f ÉâfŸ 85 - 132
4. ntiy, M‰wš k‰W« âw‹ o 133 - 164
5. JfŸfshyhd mik¥ò k‰W« â©k¥bghU£fË‹ ïa¡f« 165 - 198
ab
bjhFâ - II
6. <®¥ãaš 199 - 232
7. gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 233 - 270
ur

8. bt¥gK« bt¥g ïa¡fÉaY« 271 - 318


9. thí¡fË‹ ïa¡fÉa‰ bfhŸif 319 - 344
.s

10. miyîfŸ 345 - 370


11. miyfŸ 371 - 402
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muR khâÇ Édh¤jhŸ - 1 ÉilfSl‹ 403 - 414


muR khâÇ Édh¤jhŸ - 2 ÉilfSl‹ 415 - 425
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RuhÉ‹ khâÇ Édh¤jhŸ - 1 ÉilfSl‹ 426 - 436


RuhÉ‹ khâÇ Édh¤jhŸ - 2 ÉilfSl‹ 437 - 445
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kh®¢ 2019 Édh¤jhŸ ÉilfSl‹ 446 - 458

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co
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o ok
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(vi)

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ïa‰ãaš

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s.
bjhFâ - I
o ok
ab
ur
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h
w
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(1)

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bghUsl¡f«

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myF ghl¤ jiy¥òfŸ g¡f«

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1. ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 3 - 42

2. ïa¡fÉaš
o 43 - 84
ab
3. ïa¡f ÉâfŸ 85 - 132

4. ntiy, M‰wš k‰W« âw‹ 133 - 164


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5. JfŸfshyhd mik¥ò k‰W« â©k¥bghU£fË‹ ïa¡f« 165 - 198


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myF

01
ïaš cyf¤â‹
j‹ikí« mså£oaY«

m
co
fU¤J tiugl«

ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY«

s.
mo¥gil msîfŸ k‰W«

ok
mj‹ myFfŸ
m¿Éaš X® m¿Kf« mså£oaš

o tÊ msîfŸ k‰W« mj‹


myFfŸ
m¿Éaš Kiw
ab
FPS

ïa‰ãaš X® m¿Kf«
msÉL« KiwfŸ CGS
ur

ïa‰ãaÈ‹ ãÇîfŸ MKS

Ús« Ãiw fhy«


.s

SI
ïa‰ãaÈ‹ ïÅikí«
thŒ¥òfS«
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msÉLjÈ‹ ãiHfŸ

bjhÊšE£g« k‰W«
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rKjha¤Jl‹ ïa‰ãaÈ‹ K¡»a v©QU k‰W«


bjhl®ò KGik¥gL¤Jjš
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tu«òfŸ
k‰w m¿Éaš ãÇîfSl‹ gÇkhz gF¥ghŒî
ïa‰ãaÈ‹ bjhl®ò
ga‹fs

[3]

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4 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ 1

ÃidÉš bfhŸs nt©oa N¤âu§fŸ


(1) bt‰¿l¤âš xU tUl¤âš xË ga¡F«
bjhiyî = xËÆ‹ âirntf« × xU tUl« (brf©LfËš)

m
= 3 × 108 × 365.25 × 24 × 60 × 60.
= 9.467 × 1015 m
(2) π nuoa‹ = 180°

co
180 180 × 7
(3) 1 nuoa‹ = = = 57.27
π 22
(4) nkY« 1° (ÉšÈDila nfhz«) = 60' (ÉšÈDila ÉdhofËš)
1' (ÉšÈDila ÉdhofËš) = 60'' (ɚȋ brf©LfËš)

s.
nuoa‹, o»Ç k‰W« ÄÅ£° ït‰¿‰»ilnaahd bjhl®ò
π
(5) 1° = nuo = 1.745 × 10–2 nuo

ok
180
1 1.745 × 10 −2
(6) ∴ 1' = = = 2.908 × 10 −4 nuo
60 60
= 2.91 × 10–4 nuo

o
1 1.745 × 10 −2 −6
(7) ∴ 1' = = = 4.847 ×10 nuo
ab
3600 3600
–6
= 4.85 × 10 rad
(8) 1 ∴ bg®Ä = 4 F = 10–15 m.
(9) Óáa« fofhu¤â‹ JšÈa« = 1013xU gFâ
ur

1. myF KiwÆ‹ tiffŸ


(1) ãÇ£oZ Kiw: mo - gî©£ - beho (m) FPS Kiw.
bk£Ç¡ KiwfŸ
.s

(2) fhÌa‹ Kiw: br‹oÛ£l® - »uh« - beho (m) CGS Kiw.


(3) Û£l® - »nyh »uh« - beho (m) MKS Kiw.
w

(4) SI myFKiw.
2. mo¥gil msîfË‹ SI myFfŸ
ïa‰ãaš msîfŸ myFfŸ F¿pL
w

1. Ús« Û£l® m
2. Ãiw »nyh»uh« kg
3. fhy« beho s
w

4. Ä‹ndh£l« M«ãa® A
5. bt¥gÃiy bfšÉ‹ K
6. xË¢ br¿î nf©lyh Cd
7. bghUË‹ msî nkhš mol
Jiz msîfŸ:
js¡ nfhz« nuoa‹ (radian) rad
â©k¡ nfhz« °onuoa‹ (Steradian) sr

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 5

3. tÊ msîfS«, mj‹ myFfS«


ïa‰ãaš msî rk‹ghL myF
gu¥ò Ús« × mfy« m2
fdmsî (gUk‹) gu¥ò × cau« m3
âirntf« ïl¥bga®¢á / fhy« ms–1

m
KL¡f« âirntf« / fhy« ms–2
nfhz¤ âirntf« nfhz ïl¥bga®¢á rad s–1
fhy«

co
nfhz KL¡f« nfhz¤ âirntf« rad s–2
fhy«
ml®¤â Ãiw / fdmsî (gUk‹) kgm–3

s.
cªj« Ãiw × âirntf« kgm s–1
Ãiyk âU¥ò¤ âw‹ Ãiw × (bjhiyî)2 kgm2
Éir Ãiw × KL¡f« kgm s–2 (m) N (Ãô£l‹)

ok
mG¤j« Éir / gu¥ò Nm–2 (m) Pa (gh°fš)
M‰wš (ntiy) Éir × bjhiyî Nm (m) J (#]š)
fzjh¡F Éir Éir × fhy« NS
gu¥ò ïG Éir Éir Ús« Nm–1
Éir × bjhiyî Nm
ÉirÆ‹ âU¥ò¤âw‹
(âU¥òÉir)
o
Ä‹}£l« Ä‹ndh£l« × fhy« As
ab
Ä‹ndh£l ml®¤â Ä‹ndh£l« / gu¥ò Am–2
fhªj¤ö©lš Éir / Ä‹ndh£l« × Ús« NA–1 m–1
ïa‰ãaš g©gsîfË‹ gÇkhz§fŸ
ur

tÊ msîfis, mo¥gil msîfËš F¿¥ãl¥ãL«nghJ, mo¥gil msîfË‹ bt›ntW mL¡FfË‹


bgU¡F¤ bjhifahf bfhŸs¥gL»wJ.
ïa‰ãaš msî x‹¿‹ gÇkhz§fŸ v‹gJ mo¥gil msîfË‹ mL¡FfshF«.
4. ïa‰ãaÈ‹ K¡»a gÇkhz§fŸ
.s

vªâuÉaš
ïa‰ãaš msî rk‹ghL gÇkhz thŒ¥ghL SI myF
w

gu¥ò (A) Ús« × mfy« L × L = L2 = [M0L2T0] m2


gUk‹ (V) Ús« × mfy« × cau« L × L × L = [M0L3T0] m3
ml®¤â (d) Ãiw M
= [ML–3T0]
w

kgm–3
gUk‹ L3
ntf« (m) âir ntf« bjhiyî / fhy« L
= [M0LT–1] ms–1
w

T
KL¡f« (a) âirntf« / fhy« LT −1
= LT–2 = [M0LT–2] ms–2
T
cªj« (p) Ãiw × âirntf« M × LT–1 = [MLT–1] kg ms–1
Éir (F) Ãiw × KL¡f« M × LT–2 = [MLT–2] N (m) kg ms–2

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6 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ 1
ïa‰ãaš msî rk‹ghL gÇkhz thŒ¥ghL SI myF
ntiy (W) Éir × bjhiyî MLT–2 × L = ML2T J (m) Nm
M‰wš (E) ntiyÆ‹ msî (amount ML2T–2 J
of work)
âw‹ (P) (Power) ntiy / fhy« ML2 T −2
= ML2 T −3 W (m) Js–1

m
T
mG¤j« (P) (Pressure) Éir / gu¥ò ML1T −2
= ML−1T −2 Nm–2 (m) Pa

co
2
L
ÉirÆ‹ âU¥ò¤ âw‹, Éir × br§F¤J¤ MLT–2 × L = ML2T–2 Nm
âU¥ò Éir τ bjhiyî
òÉ <®¥ò kh¿È (G) Éir × (bjhiyî) MLT −2 L2
= M −1L3T −2 Nm2 Kg–2

s.
Ãiw (M) × × Ãiw (m) M×m
fz¤jh¡F Éir Éir × fhy« MLT–2 × T = MLT–1 NS
jifî Éir / gu¥ò −2

ok
MLT
= ML−1T −2 Nm–2
L2
âÇò gÇkhz kh‰w«
M0L0T0 gÇkhzk‰wJ. myF ïšiy
_y gÇkhz«
ۣᡠbfG jifî
o ML−1T −2
= ML−1T −2 Nm–1
ab
âÇò 1
gu¥ò ïG Éir (T) Éir MLT −2
Ús« = MT −2 = ML0 T −2 Nm–1
L
gu¥ò M‰wš
ur

ntiy ML2 T −2
gu¥ò = MT −2 = ML0 T −2 Nm–1
L2
gh»aš Fzf« (η) Éir × (bjhiyî) MLT −2 × L
= ML−1T −1 NSm–1
.s

gu¥ò × âirntf« 2
L × LT −1

nfhz« ïl¥ bga®¢á L


(θ) Éš (Arc) = 1 = M0L0T0 gÇkhz
w

Mu« T rad
k‰wJ.
nfhz¤âir ntf« (ω) nfhz« / neu« 1
= T −1M 0 L0 T −2
w

rad S–1
T
nfhzKL¡f« (α) nfhz¤ âirntf« T −1
= T −2 = M 0 L0 T −2 rad S–2
w

neu« T
nfhz cªj« (L) Ãiw × âirntf« × Mu« M × LT–1 × L = ML2 T–1 kgm2 S–1
mâ®bt© (n) 1 1
= T −1 = M 0 L0 T −1 Hz
fhy« T
fhy« (T) ghFghL fhy« T = M0L0T S

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 7

RH‰á Mu« bjhiyî L SI myF


ghŒr‹ É»j« (σ) gÇkhzk‰wJ MLT 0 0 0 m
òÉ¥òy¢ br¿î (Eg) Éir M1L1T −2 myF ïšiy
Ãiw = M 0 L1T −2
M

m
Éirkh¿È Nkg–1
Éir MLT −2
ïl¥bga®¢á = MT −2 = ML0 T −2
L
âÇnfhzÄâ É»j§fŸ L myF ïšiy

co
Ús« = 1 = M 0 L0 T 0 (gÇkhz« m‰wJ)
(sin θ, cos θ, tan θ) L
Ús«
x¥gl®¤â bghUË‹ ml®¤â ML−3 myF ïšiy
= 1 = M 0 L0 T −1
4 ºC ÚÇ‹ ml®¤â ML−3

s.
âirntf rhŒî (Vg)
1 âir ntf ntWghL
= M0L0T–1 S–1
T bjhiyî

ok
ۣᡠFzf« (E) Éir MLT −2
gu¥ò = M 0 L−1T −2 Nm–1
L2
Ãiyk¤ âU¥ò¤ âw‹ Ãiw × (bjhiyî)2 ML2 = ML2T0
kgm2
(I)
mG¤j¢ rhŒî
o
mG¤j« ML−1T −2
= ML−2 T −2 Nm–3
ab
bjhiyî L
5. bt¥g«
ïa‰ãaš msî rk‹ghL gÇkhz thŒ¥ghL SI myF
bt¥gÃiy (T) bfšÉ‹ M0L0T0K1 K
ur

j‹ bt¥g V‰ò¤ âw‹ (C) bt¥g M‰wš ML T 2 −2


(Specific heat capacity) = M 0 L2 T −2 K −1 J Kg–1 K–1
Ãiw × bt¥gÃiy M⋅K
.s

bt¥g« (Q) (m) v‹jhšã M‰wš ML2T–2 J


bt¥g V‰ò¤âw‹ (Thermal bt¥g M‰wš ML T 2 −2
capacity Entropy) = ML2 T −2 K −1 J K–1
bt¥gÃiy K
w

cŸkiw bt¥g« (Latent bt¥g M‰wš ML2 T −2


heat)
Ãiw = M 0 L2 T −2 J Kg–1
M
w

bt¥g¡fl¤J¤âw‹ bt¥g M‰wš × bjhiyî ML2 T −2 L


= MLT −3 K −1 W m–1K–1
gu¥ò × bt¥gÃiy × fhy« L2 ⋅ K ⋅ T
w

thíkh¿È PV ML−1T −2 L3
= ML2 T −2 K −1mol −1 Nm mol–1 K–1
nT mol ⋅ K

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8 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ 1
6. fhªj¥òy msîfŸ
ïa‰ãaš msî bjhl®ò gÇkhz thŒghL SI myF
JUt tÈik Am
fhªj âU¥ò¤âw‹ AL2
fhªj òy Ús« = M 0 L0 A
L

m
bt‰¿l¤âš fhªj 4πr ⋅ F H/m
L ⋅ MLT −2
c£òF âw‹ µ0 = = MLT–2A–2
I1I 2 L A2 ⋅ L
fhªj¥ òy« F T (bl°yh)
MLT −2

co
B= = ML0T–2A–1
qv sin θ AT ⋅ LT −1 ⋅1
fhªj¥gha« φ = BA MT–2A–1L2 = ML2T–2A–1 byg® (wb)
fhªj âU¥òâw‹ Ä‹ndh£l« × gu¥ò A ⋅ L2 = M0L2T0A Am2

s.
7. Ä‹ndh£l msîfŸ
ïa‰ãaš msî k‰w msîl‹ bjhl®ò gÇkhz thŒghL SI myF
Ä‹Rik neu« × Ä‹ndh£l« T ⋅ A = M0L0TA TY« (C)

ok
bt‰¿l¤âš c£òFâw‹ qq AT ⋅ AT
ε 0 = 1 22 = M–1L–3T4A2 A2C2N–1m–2
Fr MLT −2 L2
Ä‹òy¢ br¿î F Éir MLT −2
E=
o
q
=
Ä‹Rik AT
= MLT–3A–1 NC–1 (m) vm–1
ab
Ä‹fl¤J âw‹ 1 1
G= = M–1L–2T3A2 nkh [Ω–1]
R ML T −3 A −2
2

Ä‹ mG¤j« ntiy ML2 T −2


= ML2T–3A–1
ur

Ä‹Rik V (nthš£)
TA
Ä‹jil Ä‹ mG¤j ntWghL ML2 T −3 A −1
Ä‹ndh£l« = M–1L–2T–3A–2 X« (Ω)
A
.s

Ä‹nj¡F¤ âw‹ Ä‹ Rik TA


= M–1L–2T4A2 ghu£ (F)
w

Ä‹ mG¤j« ML T −3 A −1
2

Ä‹kW¥ò Ä‹ ïa¡F Éir (EMF) ML2 T −3 A −1


= ML2T–2A–2
w

Ä‹ndh£l« AT −1 H (bA‹¿)
neu«
áw¥ò Ä‹ fl¤Jâw‹ M–1L–3T3A2
w

1
σ= Ω–1m–1
ρ
áw¥ò Ä‹ jil RA ML2 T −3 A −2 L2
ρ= = ML3T–3A–2 X« Û
L L
Ä‹ ïu£il¤ âU¥òâw‹ q × 2l AT × L = M0LTA br Û.

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 9

ãsh§¡° kh¿È (h) M‰wš ML2 T −2


= ML2T–1 Js
mâ®bt© T −1
nghš£°nk‹ kh¿È k M‰wš ML2 T −2
bt¥gÃiy = ML2 T −2 k −1 JK–1
k

m
°Og‹° kh¿È M‰wš ML2 T −2
= ML0T–3k–4 Wm–2K–4
gu¥ò × neu« × (bt¥g Ãiy)2 2
L ⋅T⋅k 4

co
Éa‹ kh¿È bjhiyî × bt¥gÃiy M0L1T0k1 mK
ÚŸÉÇî Fzf« 1 M0L0T0k–1
K
bt¥g Ãiy
NÇa kh¿È

s.
M‰wš ML2 T −2
= ML0 T −3 Wm–2
gu¥ò × fhy« L2 ⋅ T
bt¥g¤â‹ bgh¿ Kiw¢ ntiy W M 0 L2 T −2

ok
rktY = M 0 L0 T 0
bt¥g« H ML T 2 −2 myF ïšiy
gÇkhzk‰wJ
th©l®thš° kh¿È (a) Ãô£l‹ (gu¥ò)2 M1L5T–2 Nm–2
th©l®thš° kh¿È (b) gUk‹ M0L3T0 m3
8. x¤j gÇkhz§fŸ cila ïa‰ãaš msî
o
ab
gÇkhz§fŸ ïa‰ãaš msîfŸ
1. M0L0T–1 mâ®bt©, nfhz mâ®bt©, nfhz¤âir ntf«, âitntf rhŒî, k‰W« áijî kh¿È.
2. M1L2T–2 ntiy, mf M‰wš, Ãiy M‰wš, ïa¡f M‰wš, âU¥ò Éir, ÉirÆ‹ âU¥ò¤âw‹
3. M1L–1T–2 mG¤j«, jifî, a§Fzf«, gUk Fif Éiw¥ò Fzf«, M‰wš ml®¤â
4. M1L1T–1
ur

cªj«, fz¤jh¡f« (impulse)


5. M0L1T–2 òÉ<®¥ò KL¡f«, <®¥ò¥ òy br¿î
6. M1L1T–2 gu¥ò mG¤j«, Éir, vil, M‰wš rhŒî (Thrust)
7. M1L2T–1 nfhz c¤j« k‰W« ãsh§¡kh¿È
.s

8. M1L0T–2 gu¥ò ïGÉir, gu¥ò M‰wš (M‰wš / XuyFÉir)


9. M0L0T0 âÇò, x¥gl®¤â, nfhz«, âl nfhz« öurhŒî, X¥òik c£òFâw‹, x¥òik btËÆL
âw‹.
w

10. M0L2T–2 cŸkiw bt¥g«, <®¥ò mG¤j«


11. M0L0T2 K–1 bt¥g¤âw‹, thíkh¿È, nghš£°nk‹ kh¿È, v‹£uhã. (entropy)

w

ïªâa ÉŠPhÅfŸ f©Lão¥òfŸ


1. n AhÄ fh°Ä¡ fâ® bghÊîfŸ.
#Ah§Ñ®ghgh
w

2. J. C. ngh° Û FW»a nuonah miyfŸ (ultra short radio waves)


3. S.N. ngh° (ngh° - I‹°O‹)
4. C.V. uhk‹ Fth©l« òŸËÆaš xË¢ájwš (uhk‹ Éisî)
5. G.N. uhk¢rªâu‹ ònuh£o‹ _y¡TWfŸ mik¥ò
6. S. rªâunrf® rªâunrf® všiy (limit) É‹Û©fË‹ njh‰w« k‰W« mik¥ò
7. M.N. rhAh bt¥g maÅah¡f«

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10 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ 1
9. K¡»akhd f©Lão¥òfŸ áy
1. ~ghunl Ä‹nkh£lh®, Ä‹dh‰ gF¥ò ÉâfŸ Ä‹fhªj¤ ö©lš ÉâfŸ
2. rh£É¡ Ãô£uh‹
3. A¥ã‹ (Hubble) m©l¤â‹ ÉÇî
4. kh¡°btš Ä‹fhªj ÉâfŸ, xËahdJ Ä‹fhªj miyîfshf brašgLjš

m
5. Ãô£l‹ <®¥ãaš ÉâfŸ, ïa¡f ÉâfŸ
6. ngh® mQkhâÇ
7. #‹°O‹ rh®ãaš bfhŸif (Theory of Relativity)

co
bjhÊš E£g§fŸ (m¿Éaš) ïa‰ãaš bfhŸiffŸ
1. JfŸ KL¡»fŸ Ä‹ fhªj« òy¤âš ïa§F« Ä‹Rik¤ JfŸfŸ.
(particle accelerators)
2. nyr® (LASER) ö©l¥g£l cÄG« fâÇa¡f¤jhš xË bgU¡f«

s.
3. Ékhd C®â bg®bdhÈ bfhŸif (ghŒk ïa¡fÉaš)
4. uh¡bf£ vÇïa¡f« Ãô£l‹ ïa¡fÉâ
5. ÚuhÉ v‹Í‹ bt¥g ïa¡fÉaš ÉâfŸ

ok
6. thbdhÈ k‰W« Ä‹fhªj miyfË‹ cUth¡f« gu¥òjš k‰W« ïw¡f«.
bjhiy¡fh£á
7. nrhdh® ÛbahÈ miyfŸ vâbuhË¥ò
8. xË ïiHfŸ KG mf vâbuhË¥ò
(optical fibre)
9. ڮċ M‰wš
o
òÉ ïa¡f M‰wiy Ä‹ M‰wyhf kh‰Wjš
10. Ãô¡Ëa® (mQ) f£L¥gL¤j¥g£l Ãô¡Ëa® bjhl® Éid
ab
ciy
11. vy¡£uh‹ vy¡£uh‹fË‹ miy¡ bfhŸif
E©nzh¡»
12. xËÄ‹fy« (photo xË Ä‹ Éisî (photo electric effect)
cell)
ur

13. Û ca® fhªj Û ca® fl¤Jâw‹


miyfŸ
cUth¡F«
.s

14. fÂÂfŸ oÍ£lš yhÍ¡


10. g¤â‹ mL¡FfË‹ K‹ÜL
10- ï‹ K‹ÜL F¿pL 10-ï‹ Jiz¥ K‹ÜL F¿pL
w

mL¡F bgU¡fš
101 blfh(deca) da 10–1 blá (deci) d
102 bA¡nlh (hecto) h 10–2 br‹o (centi) c
w

103 »nyh (kilo) k 10–3 ÄšÈ (milli) m


106 bkfh (mega) M 10–6 ik¡nuh (micro) µ
109 Ífh (giga) G 10–9 ehndh (nano) n
w

1012 bluh (tera) T 10–12 ã¡nfh (pico) p


1015 Õ£lh (peta) P 10–15 ~bg«nlh (femto) f
1018 v¡[h (exa) E 10–18 M£nlh (atto) a
1021 é£lh (zetta) Z 10–21 br¥nlh (zepto) z
1024 nah£lh (yotta) Y 10–24 nah¡nlh (yocto) y

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 11

11. ïa‰ifÆš fhz¥gL« mo¥gil ÉirfŸ


bga® tÈik
1. òÉp®¥ò Éir 1
2. tÈik F‹¿a Ãô¡Ëa° ÉirfŸ 1025
3. Ä‹fhªj ÉirfŸ 1036

m
4. tYthd Ãô¡Ëa® ÉirfŸ 1038
12. ïa‰ifÆš fhz¥gL« mo¥gil ÉirfŸ
bghU£fË‹ msî k‰W« bjhiyîfŸ Ús« (m)

co
m©l¤â‹ všiyÆ‹ m¿ªj bjhiyî 1026
óÄ¡F«, M‹£nuhnkhlh É©Û‹ âwS¡F« 1022
ïilna cŸs bjhiyî
ekJ É©Û‹âuË‹ msî 1021
1016

s.
óÄ¡F« mU»š cŸs É©ÛD¡F«
ïilnaahd bjhiyî (NÇaid¤ jÉu)
òq£nlhÉ‹ ruhrÇ R‰W¥ ghijÆ‹ Mu« 1012
óÄÆš ïUªJ NÇaÅ‹ bjhiyî 1011

ok
óÄÆš ïUªJ rªâuÅ‹ bjhiyî 108
óÄÆ‹ Mu« 107
flš k£l¤âÈUªJ vtbu°£ áfu¤â‹ cau« 104
fhšgªjh£l ikjhd¤â‹ Ús« 102
jhË‹ jok‹ 10–4
ïu¤j át¥gQ¡fË‹ É£l«
o 10–5
xËÆ‹ miy Ús« 10–7
ab
ituÌ‹ Ús« 10–8
iA£u#‹ mQÉ‹ É£l« 10–10
mQ¡fUÉ‹ msî 10–14
ònuh£lhÅ‹ É£l« (jok‹) 10–15
13. ÃiwÆ‹ beL¡f«
ur

ÃiwÆ‹ tÇir
bghUŸ
KiwfŸ (kg)
vy¡£uh‹ 10–30
.s

ònuh£lh‹ mšyJ Ãô£uh‹ 10–27


ínuÅa« mQ 10–25
ïu¤j át¥ò mQ¡fŸ 10–14
w

brš 10–10
öá¤JfŸ 10–9
kiH¤JË 10–6
bfhR 10–5
w

âuh£ir¥gH« 10–3
jtis 10–1
kÅj‹ 102
w

fh® 103
f¥gš 105
rªâu‹ 1023
óÄ 1025
NÇa‹ 1030
ghštʤâuŸ 1041
fhz¡Toa m©l« 1055

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12 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ bjhFâ 1

kâ¥ÕL 8. ãsh§¡ kh¿ÈÆ‹ (Planck's constant) gÇkhz


thδghL [AMU, Main, JEE, NEET]
2 –1
I. rÇahd Éil nj®ªbjL¤J vGJf: (a) [ML T ] (b) [ML2T–3]
(c) [MLT–1] (d) [ML3T–3]
hc v‹w xU  [Éil. (a) [ML2T–1]]
1. mo¥gil kh¿ÈfËš ïUªJ

m
G 9. t v‹w fz¤âš xU JfË‹ âirntf«
rk‹ghL bgw¥gL»wJ. ïªj rk‹gh£o‹ myF v = at + bt2 vÅš b-ï‹ gÇkhz«
(a) kg2 (b) m3 (c) s–1 (d) m (a) [L] (b) [LT–1]
[Éil. (a) kg2]

co
 (c) [LT–2] (d) [LT–3]
2. xU nfhs¤â‹ Mu¤ij msÉLjÈš ãiH  [Éil. (d) [LT–3]]
2% vÅš, mj‹ fd msit¡ fz¡»LjÈ‹ 10. <®¥ãaš kh¿È G Æ‹ gÇkhz thŒ¥ghL
ãiHahdJ.  [AIPMT 2004]
(a) 8% (b) 2% (c) 4% (d) 6%

s.
3 –2
(a) [ML T ] (b) [M L3T–2]
–1
 [Éil. (d) 6%]
(c) [M–1L–3T–2] (d) [ML–3T2]
3. miyîW« CrÈ‹ Ús« k‰W« miyî neu«  [Éil. (b) [M–1L3T–2]]

ok
bg‰WŸs ãiHfŸ Kiwna 1% k‰W« 3% vÅš
<®¥ò KL¡f« msÉLjÈš V‰gL« ãiH 11. CGS KiwÆš xU bghUË‹ ml®¤â 4 g cm–3
 [AMPMT 2008] [HY-2018] MF«. Ús« 10 cm, Ãiw 100 g bfh©oU¡F« X®
(a) 4% (b) 5% (c) 6% (d) 7% myF KiwÆš m¥bghUË‹ ml®¤â
 [Éil. (d) 7%] (a) 0.04 (b) 0.4 (c) 40 (d) 400

4.
o
bghUbsh‹¿‹ Ús« 3.51 m vd msÉl¥g£LŸsJ.
 [Éil. (c) 40]
JšÈa¤j‹ik 0.01 m vÅš, mså£o‹ ÉG¡ 12. ÉirahdJ âirntf¤â‹ ïUko¡F ne®É»j¥
ab
fh£L¥ ãiH bghU¤jKilaJ vÅš É»j kh¿ÈÆ‹ gÇkhz
(a) 351% (b) 1% thŒ¥ghL  [JEE–2000]
(c) 0.28% (d) 0.035% (a) [MLT0] (b) [MLT–1]
 [Éil. (c) 0.28%] (c) [ML–2T] (d) [ML–1T0]
ur

 [Éil. (d) [ML–1T0]]


5. Ñœf©lt‰WŸ mâf K¡»a v©QU¡fis¡ 1
(µ ε )

bfh©lJ vJ?  [First Mid-2018 13. 0 0
2 ‹ gÇkhz¤ij¡ Ñœf©lt‰WŸ vJ
(a) 0.007 m2 (b) 2.64 × 1024 kg bg‰¿U¡F«?  [Main AIPMT 2011]
.s

(c) 0.0006032 m2 (d) 6.3200 J (a) Ús« (b) fhy«


 [Éil. (d) 6.3200 J] (c) âirntf« (d) Éir
6. π ï‹ kâ¥ò 3.14 vÅš π2 ï‹ kâ¥ò  [QY-2018]  [Éil. (c) âirntf«]
w

(a) 9.8596 (b) 9.860 14. ãsh§ kh¿È (h) bt‰¿l¤â‹ xËÆ‹ âirntf«
(c) 9.86 (d) 9.9 (c) k‰W« Ãô£lÅ‹ <®¥ò kh¿È (G) M»a _‹W
 [Éil. (c) 9.86] mo¥gil kh¿ÈfŸ bfh©L bgw¥gL«. ÑœfhQ«
w

vªj bjhl®ò Ús¤â‹ gÇkhz¤ij¥ bg‰¿U¡F«


7. Ñœ¡f©l ïizfËš x¤j gÇkhz¤ij  [NEET 2016 (phase II)]
bg‰WŸs ïa‰ãaš msîfŸ[First Mid-2018; HY-2018]
hG hG
w

(a) Éir k‰W« âw‹ (a) (b)


3 5
(b) âU¥òÉir k‰W« M‰wš c
c 2 2
(c) âU¥òÉir k‰W« âw‹
hc Gc
(d) Éir k‰W« âU¥ò Éir (c) (d) 3
[Éil. (b) âU¥òÉir k‰W« M‰wš] G
 h2
hG
 [Éil. (a) 3 ]
c2

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 13

15. X® msÉ‹ Ús« (l) Ä‹fh¥ò bghUË‹ ÉLâw‹ (v) bkh¤j ïlkhW njh‰w¡nfhz«,
(e) nghš£°nk‹ kh¿È (kB) jÅ¢RÊ bt¥gÃiy ∠AMB = θ1 + θ2 = θ.
(T) XuyF gUkD¡fhd Ä‹}£l JfŸfË‹
v©Â¡if (n) x›bthU JfË‹ Ä‹}£l« (q) AB AB
(vi) gl¤âÈUªJ θ = =  [AM = MC]
M»at‰¿id bghU¤jJ vÅš Ñœf©lt‰WŸ AM MC
Ús¤â‰fhd vªj rk‹ghL gÇkhzKiwÆš rÇ? AB

m
 [JEE (advanced) 2016] MC =
θ
(a) l =
nq 2 (b) l = ε kBT
(vii) AB k‰W« θ bjÇí« vÅš, òÉÆÈUªJ
ε kBT rªâuÅ‹ bjhiyî MC I¡ f©l¿ayh«.

co
2
nq
3. K¡»a v©QU¡fis fz¡»Ltj‹ Éâfis¤
q2 q2
(c) l = (d) l = jUf.  [QY-2018]
2
ε nkBT Éil. (i) RÊa‰w mid¤J v©fS« K¡»a
ε n kBT
3
v©QU¡fŸ.

s.
εkBT
 [Éil. (b)l = ] (ii) RÊa‰w ïU v©fS¡F ïilg£l RÊfŸ
nq2
II. FWÉdh¡fŸ: K¡»a v©QU¡fŸ MF«

ok
(iii) RÊa‰w v©fS¡F tyJ òw« Mdhš jrk
1. ïa‰ãaš msîfË‹ tiffis ÉtÇ: òŸË¡F ïlJ òwKk cŸs RÊfŸ K¡»a
Éil. (i) ïa‰ãaš msîfŸ ïU tif¥gL«. mit v©QU¡fŸ.
mo¥gil msîfŸ, tÊ msîfŸ. (iv) a) 
jrkòŸË m‰w xU v©Âš ïWâahf
(ii) mo¥gil msîfŸ: ntW vªj ïa‰ãaš tU« RÊfŸ K¡»a v©QU¡fŸ MfhJ.
o
msîfshY« F¿¥ãl¥gl ïayhj msîfŸ. b)  myFl‹ vGj¥gL« ïa‰ãaš
mit: (1) Ús«, (2) Ãiw, (3) fhy« msåLfŸ tU« všyh RÊfS« K¡»a
ab
(4) Ä‹ndh£l«, (5) bt¥gÃiy (6) xË¢ v©QU¡fŸ.
br¿î (7) bghUË‹ msî. (v) x‹iw Él¡ Fiwthd jrk v©Âš
jrk òŸË¡F tyJòwK« Mdhš KjÈš
(iii) tÊ msîfŸ: mo¥gil msîfshš
RÊa‰w v©Q¡F ïlJòwK« tU« RÊfŸ
F¿¥ãl¡Toa msîfŸ.
ur

K¡»a v©QU¡fŸ MfhJ.


cjhuz«: (1) gu¥ò, (2) fdmsî (3) âir
(vi) jrk òŸË¡F tyJòw« cŸs RÊfS«,
ntf« (4) KL¡f« (5) Éir.
jrk v©Âš RÊa‰w v©Â‹ tyJ
2. ïlkhW njh‰w KiwÆš rªâuÅ‹ (moon) òwK« cŸs RÊfŸ K¡»a v©QU¡fŸ
.s

É£l¤ij Ú§fŸ v›thW ms¥Õ®fŸ?  [HY-2018] MF«.


Éil. C v‹gJ òÉÆ‹ ika« v‹f. S M S (vii) K¡»a v©QU¡fŸ my»L« Kiwia
1 2
(Significant figures) bghU¤jJ mšy.
w

(i) A & B v‹gd òÉÆ‹


É£l¤âš vâ® vânu mikªj θ1 θ
2 4. gÇkhz¥ gF¥ghŒÉ‹ tu«òfŸ ahit?
θ θ
KidfŸ. θ1 2
[Govt.MQP-2018] [HY-2018]
Éil. (i) ïâš v©fŸ, π, e, ngh‹w gÇkhzk‰w
w

(ii) AB v‹gJ òÉÆ‹


É£l« k‰W« MC v‹gJ kh¿ÈfË‹ kâ¥òfis bgw ïayhJ.
òÉÆÈUªJ rªâuÅ‹ A C B (ii) bfhL¡f¥g£l rk‹ghL °nfyuh mšyJ
bt¡luh vd Ô®khÅ¡f ïayhJ.
w

bjhiyî
(iii) mL¡F¡F¿, âÇnfhzÄâ k‰W« kl¡if¢
(iii) θ1 & θ2 v‹gd Kiwna S1, S2 v‹w mUfhik rh®òfS¡F ïij¥ ga‹gL¤j KoahJ.
É©Û‹fis¥ bghU¤j rªâuÅ‹ ïlkhW (iv) _‹¿‰F« nk‰g£l ïa‰ãaš msîfŸ
njh‰w¡ nfhz§fŸ MF«. ml§»a rk‹ghLfS¡F ïJ ga‹glhJ.
(iv) thÅaš bjhiyneh¡»Æ‹ _y« θ1 k‰W« (v) ïâš xU rk‹gh£il gÇkhz Kiw¥go
θ2 M»ad f©l¿a¥gL»‹wd, k£Lnk rÇah vd nrhâ¡f Koí« Mdhš
c©ik¢ rk‹gh£il¡ f©l¿a KoahJ.
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14 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ bjhFâ 1
5. E£g« k‰W« JšÈa¤ j‹ik tiuaW: xU (ii) K¡nfhz Kiw: (Triangulation method)
vL¤J¡fh£Ll‹ És¡Ff. 1. AB = h v‹gJ ms¡f nt©oa ku¤â‹
Éil. (i) JšÈa¤j‹ik: ïa‰ãaš g©gsÉ‹ cau« mšyJ nfhòu¤â‹ cau«
_y kâ¥ã‰F beU§»a msåL. ïJ mšyJ nfhòu¤â‹ cau« v‹f.
ãiH âU¤j¥g£l msthF«. ãiHia 2. B ÆÈUªJ x bjhiyÉš cŸs C v‹w
Fiw¡F«nghJ msåL Äfî« JšÈakhf ïl¤âš c‰W neh¡Fgt® ïU¥gjhf¡

m
ïU¡F«. bfhŸnth«.
(ii) E£g«: 3. C ÆÈUªJ å¢ir ms¥gt® A íl‹
1. ïJ ïa‰ãaš g©gsit msÉLt V‰gL¤J« V‰w¡ nfhz« ∠ACB = θ.

co
j‰fhd tu«ãidí«, Ô®khd¤ijí«
F¿¡»wJ. 4. br§nfhz K¡nfhz« ABC ÆÈUªJ
2. mså£L¡ fUÉÆ‹ Äf Fiwªj AB h
v©Â¡ifia Ô®khÅ¡»wJ. tan θ = = (mšyJ) cau« h = x
BC x
3.  Û v©Â¡if á¿jhdhš E£g« tan θ.

s.
A
bgÇjhf ïU¡F«.
(iii) v©Â‹ E£gkhdJ bgU«ghY«
mj‰F¥ ã‹ ± v‹W F¿¥ãl¥gL«.

ok
(c.«) _‹W ngiu¡bfh©L ït‰¿‰ h
»ilnaahd ntWgh£oid bjËî gL¤jyh«
xU FË®gjÅÆ‹ bt¥gÃiy, ã‹tUkhW
msÉl¥g£LŸsJ. mJ 10.4°c, 10.2°c, θ
10.3°c, 10.1°c, 10.2°c, 10.1°c, 10.1°c, 10.1°c.
Mdhš, mj‹ c©ikahd bt¥gÃiy
o C x
K¡nfhz Kiw
B

9°c. vÅš bt¥gÃiykhÅ JyÈa¤j‹ik


5. bjhiyî x I m¿ªâUªjhš cau« h I
ab
m‰wJ. msÉl¥g£l mid¤J msîfS«
10°c ¡F mU»š cŸsjhš E£gkhdJ. bgwyh«. 
cau« ifahs Koahj kiy F‹W
III. beLÉdh¡fŸ:
ngh‹wt‰¿‹ msîfis¡ fz¡»l
mjdhš c©lhF« nfhz Ú£á θ1
ur

1. (i) Fiwªj bjhiyit ms¥gj‰F ga‹gL«


âUF msÉ k‰W« bt®Åa® msÉ g‰¿ k‰W« θ2 ïU òŸËfËš fz¡»l¥g£L
ÉtÇ. mJ bjhiyî d Ædhš ãÇ¡f¥gL»wJ
(ii) Ú©l bjhiyîfis ms¡F« K¡nfhz d
h=
.s

Kiw k‰W« nulh® Kiw g‰¿¡ F¿¥ãLf. cot θ 2 − cot θ1


 [Qy-2018] (iii) nulh® Jo¥ò Kiw:
Éil. á¿a bjhiyîfis msÉLjš:
1. ïJ vâbuhË¥ò Kiw¤ j¤Jt¤â‹
w

(i) âUF msÉ: mo¥gilÆš ïa§F»wJ.


1. ïJ 50 mm tiuÆyhd bghU£fË‹
gÇkhz§fis Äf¤JšÈakhf 2. nulh® v‹gJ Radio Detection And
Ranging v‹gj‹ RU¡f«. (RADAR)
msÉl¥ ga‹gL« fUÉ.
w

2. ïj‹ j¤Jt« âU»‹ t£l ïa¡f¤ij¥ 3. ïjid¡ bfh©L br›thŒ ngh‹w


ga‹gLjâ bgÇjh¡f¥g£l ne®¡nfh£L òÉ¡F mU»š cŸs nfhË‹
ïa¡f«. bjhiyit JšÈakhf msÉl Koí«.
w

3. ïj‹ Û¢á‰wsî 0.01 mm 4. ï«KiwÆš òÉ¥gu¥ãÈUªJ


(ii) bt®Åa® msÉ: nuonah gu¥ò (Transmitter) _y«
1. JisÆ‹ MH« mšyJ É£l« nuonah miy¤Jo¥òfŸ gu¥g¥g£L
ngh‹w msåLfis ms¡f¥ga‹gL« nfhËÈUªJ vâbuhË¡f¥g£l
(Receiver) Jo¥òfŸ V‰ã _y«
g‹Kf¤j‹ik bfh©l fUÉ.
czu¥gL»wJ.
2. ïj‹ Û¢á‰wsî .1 mm.
Ú©l bjhiyîfis msÉLjš:
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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 15

5. nuonah miy gu¥ãÆÈUªJ mD¥g¥ jÅ¥g£l nrhjidÆ‹ fUÉÆ‹


g£lj‰F«, V‰ãÆš bgw¥g£lj‰F« ãiHfŸ nghJ msÉL Kiwahd
ïilnaahd neu ïilbtË ‘t’ vÅš gtÇ‹ braš Mu«g¢
nfhË‹ bjhiyÉid Ñœf©l bjhl®ò gh£lhš ÓuikîfŸ,
_y« bgw Koí«. cUth»wJ k‰W«
flªj bjhiyî d K‹bd¢
=
ntf« =

m
vL¤J¡bfh©l neu« t rÇ¡if el-
∴ d = v×t to¡iffŸ,
2 msåL-
gtNj

co
xÈ miy mD¥g¥g£L, vâbuhË¡f¥ ftdkhf
t c‰Wneh¡fš
g£L âU«g milí« fhy msî .
2 nk‰ bfhŸs
6. ï«Kiw _y« òÉ¥gu¥ãÈUªJ xU nt©L«
Ékhd« v›tsî cau¤âš gwªJ òw¡ fhu nrhjidÆ‹ nrhjid¡

s.
bfh©oU¡»wJ v‹gij f©l¿ayh«. fshš nghJ òw¢NHÈš nf‰w òw¢N-
2. ãiHfË‹ bt›ntW tiffis És¡Ff. V‰gL« V‰gLk khW Hš
ãiHfŸ gh£lhš mikªJŸs
Éil. ïa‰ãaš msî x‹iw msåL brŒí«nghJ

ok
msÉLjÈš ÃiyÆš
V‰gL« JšÈa¤j‹ik ãiH vd¥gL«. mit ãiHfŸ V‰gL« nrhjid
(i) Kiwahd ãiHfŸ (ii) xG§f‰w ãiHfŸ (c.«) bt¥gÃiy Ãfœ¤j¥gL«
(iii) bkh¤j¥ ãiHfŸ. khWghL <u¥gj« nghJ
(i) Kiwahd ãiHfŸ: (Systematic errors) (mšyJ) mså£o‹
bjhl®¢áahf Û©L« Û©L« xnu khâÇ mG¤j¤jhš KoîfËš
o
cUthF« ãiHfŸ. ïJ MŒÉ‹ Mu«g«
Kjš Koî tiu bjhl®ªJ ÃfG«
V‰gL« kh‰w« V‰gL«
ãiHfis¤
ãu¢ridfshš V‰gL»‹wd.
ab
jÉ®¡fyh«.
ãiHfË‹ ãiHfŸ njh‹W« ãiHia¤ Û¢á‰wsî X® msî ca®
tiffŸ Éj« jÉ®¡F« ãiHfŸ nfhyhš E£g«
tÊ ms¡f¡Toa bfh©l
xU fUÉahdJ Û¢á‰wisdhš fUÉfis
fUÉ¥ fUÉfis
ur

ãiHfŸ jahÇ¡f¥gL« ftdkhf¤ V‰gL« ãiH- ga‹


nghJ Kiwahf nj®ª fŸ. msÉL« gL¤Jtjhš
msåL brŒa¥ bjL¥gj‹ fUÉÆ‹ Fiw¡fyh«.
glÉšiy vÅš _y« rÇ gFâw‹, kâ¥ig¢
.s

ï ¥ ã i H f Ÿ brŒayh«. rh®ªJ V‰gL«.


njh‹wyh«. (c.«)
KidnjŒªj (ii) xG§f‰w ãiHfŸ: (Random errors)
msînfhiy¥ rkthŒ¥ò¥ ãiHfŸ:
w

ga‹gL¤Jjš
1. Û©L« Û©L« xnu msÉid msåL
gÇnrhjid nrhjid brŒí« nrhjid
Æ‹ Fiw fUÉfis Ãfœ¤J« brŒí«nghJ x‹W¡ bfh‹W r‰W
ghLfŸ mik¡F« nghJ khWg£l kâ¥òfŸ »il¥gJ©L. ïit
w

(m) brŒ nghJ MŒtf¢ njitahd Kiw¥go V‰gLtâšiy. rkthŒ¥ò


KiwÆ‹ NHÈš V‰gL« cgfuz§ KidÆš V‰gL»‹wd.
Fiw áy jtWfshš fËš 2. nrhjidia gyKiw Û©L« Û©L«
ghLfŸ njh‹W»‹wd. njitahd brŒJ mid¤J kâ¥òfS¡F« T£L
w

(c.«) fnyhÇ âU¤j§fis


kÆš bt¥g¡ nk‰ bfhŸs ruhrÇÆid fz¡»£lhš ï¥ãiH
fh¥ÕL rÇahf nt©L«. Fiw¡f¥g£L rÇahd Koit¥
brŒa¥glÉšiy bgwyh«.
baÅš fâ®å¢R 3. (c.«) - âUF msÉia¡ bfh©L xU
KidÆš bt¥g f«ãÆ‹ jok‹ msÉLjš.
ïH¥ò .V‰gLk.
vdnt KoîfŸ 4. xU nrhjidÆš ‘n’ v©Â¡ifÆš
ãiHahf vL¡f¥g£l msåLfŸ.
mikí«.
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16 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ bjhFâ 1
a1, a2, a3, ... an vÅš T£L¢ruhrÇ TLjš Z = A + B
a1 + a2 + a3 +  an
TLjš Z‹ãiH ∆∆Z MF«.
am = mšyJ Z ± ∆Z = (A ± ∆A) + (B ± ∆B)
n
= (A + B) ± (∆A + ∆B)
1 i=n
m n ∑ ai
a = = Z ± (∆A + ∆B)
mšyJ ∆Z = ∆A + ∆B

m
i =1
T£LruhrÇ kâ¥ò v‹gJ áwªj,
rh¤âakhf ÃfH¡Toa c©ik kâ¥ò ïU msîfis¡ T£L« bghGJ
MF«. V‰gL« bgU«ãiHahdJ jŤjÅ
msîfË‹ jÅ¥ ãiHfË‹

co
(iii) bkh¤j ãiH: Ñœ F¿¥ã£l fhuz§fSŸ TLjY¡F¢ rk«.
VnjD« x‹¿dhš mšyJ x‹W¡F nk‰g£l
t‰whš bkh¤j¥ ãiHfŸ V‰gL»‹wd. (ii) ïU msîfË‹ ntWgh£odhš cUthF«
ãiHfŸ:
1. fUÉia Kiwahf¥ bghU¤jhkš
msåL vL¤jš. 1. ∆A k‰W« ∆B v‹gd Kiwna A,

s.
B v‹w msîfË‹ jÅ¥ãiHfŸ
2. ãiHÆ‹ _y¤âidí«, v‹ngh«.
K‹bd¢rÇ¡if elto¡iffisí« 2. msÉl¥g£l kâ¥ò A = A ± ∆A
ftd¤âš bfhŸshkš jtwhf msåL

ok
3. msÉl¥g£l kâ¥ò B = B ± ∆B
vL¤jš.
ntWghL Z = A – B
3. jtwhf c‰W neh¡»aij¥ gâÉLjš ntWghL Z ‹ ãiH ∆Z MF«.
4. fz¡Ñ£o‹nghJ jtwhd kâ¥ÕLfis¥ Z ± ∆Z = (A ± ∆A) – (B ± ∆B)
ga‹gL¤Jjš.nrhjidia¢ brŒgt® = (A – B) ± (∆A + ∆B)
o
ftdkhfî«, ÉÊ¥òlD« brašg£lhš = Z ± (∆A + ∆B)
ï¥ãiHfis¡ Fiw¡fyh«. bghJthf mšyJ ∆Z = ∆A + ∆B
ab
ãiH x‹iw ÉG¡fhL¥ ãiHahf¡
F¿¥ãLtJ c©L. x v‹w msit ïU msîfË‹ ntWgh£odhš
msÉLjÈš JšÈa¤j‹ik ∆∆x V‰gL« ãiHÆ‹ bgU« kâ¥ghdJ
jŤjÅ msîfË‹ jÅ¥ ãiHfË‹
∆x
vÅš xš ÉG¡fhL¥ ãiH × 100% TLjY¡F¢ rk«.
x 4.
ur

MF«. Ñœf©lt‰iw¥ g‰¿ F¿¥bgGJf:


(a) myF
3. ãiHfË‹ bgU¡f« g‰¿ ÚÉ® m¿ªjJ v‹d? (b) KGik¥gL¤Jjš
T£lš k‰W« fʤjÈš ãiHfË‹ bgU¡f¤ij (c) gÇkhzk‰w msîfŸ
.s

ÉtÇ. Éil. (a) myF :


Éil. ãiHfË‹ bgU¡f«: 1. msî x‹iw msªj¿a v¥nghJ«
xU nrhjidÆš bt›ntW tifahd xU áy go¤ju msîl‹ mjid
w

fUÉfis¥ ga‹gL¤â msÉL«nghJ bt›ntW x¥ãL»nwh«.


tifahd ãiHfŸ V‰gL»‹wd. nkY« xU 2. bfhL¡f¥g£LŸs ïa‰ãaš msîl‹
nrhjidÆš mâf msîfŸ ms¡f¥g£L x¥ãl¥ ga‹gL«, cyfsÉš V‰W¡
ïWâ¡ fz¡Ñ£oš ga‹gL¤j¥glyh«. ïit bfhŸs¥g£l jŤJtÄ¡f bjÇî
w

(1) jŤjÅahd msåLfËš cŸs ãiHfŸ brŒa¥g£l X® msÉ‹ go¤ju msnt


(2) fÂj braÈfË‹ bra‰gh£o‹ ïašig¢ ‘myF’ vd tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ.
rh®ªJ ïU¡F«. ïitna ãiHfË‹ bgU¡f« 3. mo¥gil msîfis msªj¿í«
w

mšyJ ãiHfË‹ x‹¿iz¥ò ït‰¿‰fhd myFfŸ “mo¥gil myFfŸ”


rh¤âa¡ TWfshf¡ bfhŸsyh«. vd¥gL«.
(i) ïU msîfË‹ TLjÈš V‰gL« ãiHfŸ: 4. k‰w ïa‰ãaš msîfis
msÉLtj‰fhf mo¥gil myFfË‹
1.  ∆A k‰W« ∆∆B v‹gd Kiwna A, B jFªj bgU¡fš mšyJ tF¤jšfË‹
v‹w msîfË‹ jÅ¥ ãiHfŸ. mL¡Ffshš bgw¥gL« myFfŸ tÊ
2. A Æ‹ msÉl¥g£l kâ¥ò = A ± ∆A myFfŸ vd¥gL«.
3. B Æ‹ msÉl¥g£l kâ¥ò = B ± ∆B
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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 17

(b) KGik¥gL¤Jjš : 5. gÇkhz¤â‹ xUgo¤jhd be¿Kiw v‹whš


1. j‰fhy¤âš fz¡ÑL brŒa v‹d? mj‹ ga‹fŸ ahit? vL¤J¡fh£L jUf.
fÂ¥gh‹fŸ bgU«ghY« ga‹gL¤j¥  [Qy-2018; HY-2018]
gL»‹wd. Éil. gÇkhz§fË‹ xU go¤jhd be¿Kiw:
2. mt‰¿‹ KoîfŸ gy ïy¡f§fis¡ (i) rk‹ghL x‹¿‹ ïU òw§fËY«
bfh©ljhf cŸsd. cŸs gšntW msîfË‹ gÇkhz§fŸ

m
3. fz¡Ñ£oš cŸsl§F« jftšfË‹ ïU¥ã‹ mªj¢rk‹ghL gÇkhz Kiw¥go
K¡»a v©QUit Él KoÉ‹ K¡»a rÇ v‹whF«. ïjid gÇkhz§fË‹
v©QU mâfkhf ïU¡f¡TlhJ. xUgo¤jhd be¿ Kiw v‹W Twyh«.
4. fz¡Ñ£o‹ KoÉš ÃiyÆšyhj

co
(ii) xnu khâÇahd gÇkhz§fis cila
ïy¡f§fŸ x‹W¡F nk‰g£lit msîfis k£L« T£l Koí«.
ïU¥ã‹ mªj v©iz KGik¥ (iii) »il¡f¡ Toa msî«, mnj gÇkhzfis¥
gL¤j nt©L«. bg‰¿U¡F« v‹gj‹ mo¥gilÆš ï¤
ïªj KGik¥gL¤Jjš E£gkhdJ, j¤Jt« mikªJŸsJ.
m¿ÉaÈ‹ ga‹gh£L¤ JiwfËš

s.
X + Y = Z v‹w rk‹ghL rÇahf ïU¡f
ga‹gL¤j¥gL»wJ. nt©LbkÅš X, Y k‰W« Z ït‰¿‹
v.fh. gÇkhz§fŸ rkkhf ïU¡f nt©L«.
(i) 2.786 v‹w v© _‹W K¡»a (iv) gÇkhz§fË‹ xUgo¤jhd be¿Kiw¥go

ok
v©QU¡fŸ cilajhf 2.89 vd xU rk‹gh£oš cŸs x›bthU cW¥ã‹
KGik¥ gL¤j¥gL»wJ. gÇkhz§fS« rkkhF«.
(ii) 2.783 v‹w v© _‹W K¡»a ga‹fŸ: bfhL¡f¥g£l rk‹ghL
v©QU¡fis cilajhf 1.78 gÇkhz§fŸ mo¥gilÆš rÇbad nrhâ¤J
vd KGik¥gL¤j¥gL»wJ.
o
(iii) 1.845 v‹w v©Âš 5 v‹w
m¿a ïaY«. ïJ gÇkhz§fË‹ xU
go¤jhd be¿ Kiwia¢ rh®ªjJ. ïj‹go
ïy¡f« K¡»a v©QU xU rk‹gh£o‹ ïU òw§fËY« cŸs
ab
ïšyhjJ. ïj‰FK‹ò cŸs všyh cW¥òfË‹ gÇkhz§fS« rkkhf
ïy¡f« ïu£il¥gil ïy¡fkhf ïU¡f nt©L«. vdnt, bfhL¡f¥g£l
ïU¥gjhš mªj K¡»a v©QU bjhl®ãš ïUòw§fËY« cŸs cW¥òfŸ
ïšyhjij Ú¡»É£L 1.84 vd rkkhd gÇkhz§fis¥ bg‰¿Uªjhš m¤
KGik¥gL¤j nt©L«. bjhl®ghdJ rÇ vd bkŒ¥ã¡fg£lJ.
ur

(iv) 1.715 v‹w v©Âš 5 v‹w v.fh: ã‹tU« bjhl®ã‹ c©ik¤


ïy¡f« K¡»a v©QU ïšyhjJ. j‹ikia rÇgh®¡fyh«.
ïj‰F K‹ò cŸs ïy¡f« 1 2
x‰iw¥gil ïy¡fkhf ïU¥gjhš S = ut + at
.s

2
mjDl‹ 1 T£l¥g£L 1.72 vd
KGik¥gL¤j¥gl nt©L«. S ‹ gÇkhz« =L
(c) gÇkhzk‰w msîfŸ : ‘u’ ‹ gÇkhz« = LT–1
w

1. áy F¿¥ã£l ïa‰ãaš msîfS¡F neu¤â‹ gÇkhz« = T 1 X® v© v‹gjhš


gÇkhz§fŸ ïšiy. mit, 2
gÇkhzk‰w msîfŸ vd¥gL«. gÇkhz« ïšiy.
w

2. v.fh: âÇò, nfhz«, x¥gl®¤â, xË


‘a’ ‹ gÇkhz« = LT–2
Éyfš v© ïitfŸ xnu gÇkhz
thŒ¥ghL cŸs ïU ïa‰ãaš (KL¡f«)
msîfË‹ jfthf ïU¥gjhš t2 ‹ gÇkhz« = T2
w

~ ut + 1 at2 ‹ gÇkhz«
gÇkhz§fŸ ïšiy.
ï›thwhd ïa‰ãaš msîfŸ 2
gÇkhz« m‰W Mdhš khWg£l
kâ¥òfis¡ bfh©LŸsjhš S= LT–1T
+ LT–2T–2
mit gÇkhzk‰w kh¿fŸ vd L=L+L
miH¡f¥gL»‹wd. ïUòw§fËY« xnu khâÇahd gÇkhz§fŸ
ïU¥gjhš bkŒ¥ã¡f¥gL»wJ.

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18 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ bjhFâ 1
(v) gÇkhz§fË‹xUgo¤jhd be¿Kiw 2. xU t£l¤â‹ Mu« 3.12 m vÅš mj‹ gu¥ig
bfh©L rk‹ghL x‹¿š cŸs bt›ntW K¡»a v©QU¡fËš fz¡»Lf.
ïa‰ãaš msîfS¡F »il¡f¥g£l Ô®î. xU t£l¤â‹ Mu« r = 3.12 m
bjhl®ãid jUɤJ ÃWt ïaY«. t£l¤â‹ gu¥ò A = ?
v.fh: jÅ CrÈ‹ miyî fhy¤â‰F A = πr2
rk‹gh£oid¥ bgwyh«. = 3.14 × 3.12 × 3.12 m2 = 30.566016

m
1. miyî¡fhy« T, K¡»a v©QU Éâ¥go A = 30.6 m2 (bfhL¡f¥
2. Crš F©o‹ Ãiw m, g£l juÉ‹go K¡»a v©QU 3)
3. CrÈ‹ Ús« l k‰W« 3. mâ®tilí« f«ãÆ‹ mâ®bt© (υ) MdJ

co
4. Crš bjh§fÈl¥g£l ïl¤âš <®¥ã‹ (i) mË¡f¥g£l Éir (F)
KL¡f« g M»at‰iw rh®ªjJ.
(ii) Ús« (l)
mjhtJ T∝mxlygz mšyJ T = kmxlygz
k v‹gJ gÇkhz‰w jfî kh¿È (iii) XuyF Ús¤â‰fhd Ãiw (m) M»at‰iw¥
bghW¤jJ vd¡ bfh©lhš gÇkhz Kiw¥go
[T1] = [Mx] [Ly] [LT–2]z

s.
1 F
or [T1] = [Mx Ly+z T–z] mâ®bt© v ∝ vd Ã%ã.
l m
M, L, T ‹ mL¡Ffis x¥ãl  (related to JIPMER 2001)
x = 0, y + 2 = 0, –2z = 1

ok
Ô®î. υ = kla Fb mc
1 1 k = gÇkhzk‰w É»j kh¿È
x = 0, y = ,z=–
2 2 a, b, c v‹gd l, F, m ïa‰¿‹ mL¡FfŸ.

1
∴ T = km0l 2 g − 2
1 ÉirÆ‹ gÇkhz thŒghL F = MLT–2
ÃiwÆ‹ gÇkhz thŒghL m = ML–1
l 2
1
l
o mâ®bt© v ¡fhd
T = k   ; T = k gÇkhz« = klaFbmc
g
ab
g
M0L0T–1 = La [M1L1T–2]b [ML–1]c
nrhjid_y« k ‹ kâ¥ò 2π vd T–1 = La+b–c Mb+c T–2b
m¿a¥g£lhš ïUòw§fËY« cŸs L, M, k‰W« T ‹
l mL¡Ffis x¥ãl
∴ T = 2π
ur

g a + b + c = 0 (1)
b + c = 0 (2)
IV. gƉá fz¡FfŸ: –2b = –1 (3)
1
∴ b =
.s

1. nrhdh® fUÉ (sonar) bghU¤j¥g£l xU Ú®_œ»¡ 2


f¥gÈÈUªJ mD¥g¥g£l Jo¥ò 80 ÉdhofS¡F¥ 1
b = vd rk‹ (2) š ãuâÆl
ãwF vâbuhÈahf vâÇ Ú®_œ»¡ f¥gÈÈUªJ 2
1
w

bgw¥gL»‹wJ. ÚÇš xÈÆ‹ âirntf« b + c = 0; +c=0


1460 ms–1 vÅš vâÇ Ú® _œ»¡ f¥gš cŸs 2
1 1 1
bjhiyî ahJ? c = − ; b = , c = − vd rk‹ (1) š ãuâÆl
Ô®î. ÚÇš xÈÆ‹ âirntf« V = 1460 ms–1
2 2 2
w

Jo¥ãdhš (pulse) K‹D« ã‹D« ga¡f a+b+c=0


vL¤J¡ bfh©l 1 1
T 80s a+ + =0
2 2
w

fhy msî t= = = 40s


2 2 a + 1 = 0 or a = –1
∴bjhiyî d = vT
1
a = –1, b = , c = −
1
2 2 2 1 1

= 1460 × 40 = 58400 m υ = k la Fb mc š ãuâÆl υ = kl −1F 2 m 2
= 58.40 km
k F
υ=
l m

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 19

4. òÉÆÈUªJ #]ãlÇ‹ bjhiyî 824.7 ÄšÈa‹ V. fU¤JU Édh¡fŸ:


km. mj‹ msÉl¥g£l nfhz É£l« 35.72" vÅš
#]ãlÇ‹ É£l¤ij¡ fz¡»Lf. 1. É©Û‹fË‹ bjhiyit km š msÉlhkš
Ô®î. òÉÆÈUªJ #]ãlÇ‹ bjhiyî xËah©L mšyJ g®br¡ my»š F¿¥ãLtJ
áwªjJ V‹?
D = 824.7 × 106 km (824.7 × 1000 × 106)
Éil. òÉÆÈUªJ É© bghU£fŸ Kiwna

m
D = 824.7 × 107 km
É©Û‹fŸ nfhŸfŸ ngh‹wt‰¿‹ bjhiyîfŸ
nfhzÉ£l« θ = 35.72" Äf¥ bgÇait. Mdhš òÉÆ‹ ÛJŸs
= 35.72 × 4.85 × 10–6 nuoa‹ bjhiythdJ á¿aJ. vdnt, ïit ».Û. k‰W«
1" = 4.85 × 10–6 nuoa‹ Û£lÇš ms¡f¥gL»‹wd.

co
#]ãlÇ‹ É£l« d = ? (c.«) M‹£uÛoah âuË‹ bjhiyî
21,000,000,000,000,000 km. (i.e) 21 × 1018 km.
d
θ = D ï›bt©Â¡ifahdJ vGJtj‰F«, g»®jY¡F«
fodkhd bgÇa v©. vdnt, xË M©L, gh®br¡
∴ d = D × θ

s.
ngh‹w thÅaš myFfŸ beLªbjhiyîfS¡F¥
= 824.7 × 107 × 35.72 × 4.85 × 10–6 ga‹gL¤j¥gL»‹wd.
= 142872.677 × 103 m
= 142872.677 × 103 × 10–3 km 2. 20 ãÇîfŸ bfh©l efU« msî nfhiy¡ bfh©l

ok
bt®Åa® msÉia Él 1 mm òÇ¡nfhY« 100
d = 1428 × 105 km
ãÇîfS« bfh©l âUF msÉ áwªjJ vd
5. xU jÅ CrÈ‹ Ús¤â‹ msÉl¥g£l kâ¥ò Ã%ã.
20 cm k‰W« 2 mm JšÈa¤ j‹ik bfh©lJ. Éil. âUF msÉÆ‹ Û¢áW v©Â¡if
nkY« 50 miyîfS¡fhd fhy msî 40 S òÇ¡nfhš msî
k‰W« gFâw‹ 1 S vÅš òÉ<®¥ò KL¡f« (g)
o
=
ãÇîfË‹ v©Â¡if
fz¡»LjÈš JšÈa¤â‹ rjåj¤ij¡
1
ab
fz¡»Lf. = = 0.01 mm or 0.001 cm.
Ô®î. l, k‰W« T š V‰gL« ãiHfŸ áWk v©Â¡if¥
100
bt®Åa® msÉÆ‹ Û¢áW v©Â¡if
ãiHfŸ.  19  1
= 1 MSD – 1 USD = 1 −  = = 0.05 cm.
T = 2π l 20 20
ur

g vdnt, âUF msÉ Äfî« E£gkhdJ.


2 l 3. ntW nfhËš kÅj‹ cŸsnghJ vªj mo¥gil
T2 = 4π
g msîfËš kh‰w« ÃfG«? V‹?
.s

Éil. neukhdJ xG§f‰wjhf ïU¡F«. VbdÅš


l
2 ïuî, gfš, tUl« ngh‹w fhy msîfŸ nfhË‹
∴ g = 4π T 2 j‰RH‰á k‰W« mJ NÇaid¢ R‰¿ tU« fhy
l k‰W« T š ãiHfŸ áWk v©Â¡if ãiH msit¥ bghW¤jJ
w

∆g ∆l 2 ∆T (v.fh) ínud° k‰W« be¥oô‹ ÄfÄf


vÅš = +
O l T bkJthd ïa¡fKilait. NÇaÅÈUªJ btF
jÅ CrÈ‹ Ús« l = 20 cm bjhiyÉš cŸsjhš gUtÃiyfis msÉL«
w

JšÈa« ∆l = 2 mm = 0.2 cm thÅaš m¿¡ifÆY« khWghL ïU¡F«.


50 miyîfS¡fhd neu« T = 40 s 4. mid¤J myFfË‹ mQ¥go¤ju« Äfî«
jÅ¥ãiH ∆T gaDŸsjh - ÉtÇ.
w

∆g  0.2   1 0.2 2 1.2 Éil. fhy«:


∴ =  + 2   = + =
g  20 40 20 40 40 Äf¢áwªj mQ¡ fofhu§fŸ (Kj‹ik
ÉG¡fhLãiH go¤jukhf cŸsit) Äf¤ JšÈakhdit.
ït‰¿š 1 ÄšÈa‹ M©LfËš 1 brf©L¡F«
.2
∆g 1.2 Fiwthf fhy ïH¥ÕL V‰gL»wJ. ï¡fhy
× 100 = × 100 = 6%
g 20 10 go¤ju« cyfshÉaJ (universal). VbdÅš
všyh mQ¡fS« x¤jitahf ïU¥gjhš
g ‹ JšÈa« = 6% rjåj«. mQ¡fofhu¤â‰F, xnu miyÚs« mD¥g¥gL«.

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20 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ bjhFâ 1
ï¥ãugŠr¤âš v›Él¤âY« f£L¥gL¤j¥g£l Ãiw:
nrhjid ÃiyfËš xnu goÃiyÆš ïU¡F« mQÉ‹ mo¥gilÆyhd go¤ju Ãiw ïJtiu
eåd ca® bjhÊšE£g¤ JiwÆš cyfkhdJ V‰W¡ bfhŸs¥glÉšiy. eåd áÈ¡f‹
fhy¤â‹ JšÈa¤ij¢ rh®ªJŸsJ. fÂÅ, bjhÊšE£g¤ij¥ ga‹gL¤â áÈ¡f‹ - si
gof¤ij¡ bfh©L mj‹ mQÉ‹ ÃiwÆ‹
cUth¡f¤JiwfŸ, Ä‹ M‰wš »Ç£ bra‰if¡ kh¿Èkâ¥ig¡ f©l¿í« MŒî eilbg‰W¡

m
nfhŸ bjhiy bjhl®ò JiwfŸ Û¤JšÈa bfh©oU¡»wJ.
fhy msit¢ rh®ªJŸsd. (c.«) thfd¥ bghJthf ï«_‹W msîfS« mo¥gil
gaz¤â‰fhd GPS. ahdit kh¿ÈfË‹ kâ¥ò fhy¤ij¥ bghW¤J

co
Ús«: v‹Wnk khWtâšiy.
Fth©l« bfhŸif¥ go [vλ = c] ngh£lhid 5. gÇkhz KiwahdJ _‹W¡F c£g£l ïa‰ãaš
msîfŸ cŸs rk‹ghLfS¡F k£Lnk bghUªJ«
ga‹gL¤â tÇ Ãwkhiyia »s®ªbjGªj
V‹?
mQÉ‹ M‰wš k£l§fS¡»ilna cÄœtj‹
Éil. _‹W¡F nk‰g£l fhuÂfis¡ bfh©LŸs

s.
_y« áijtiljyhš mo k£l Ãiy¡F xU ïa‰ãaš msÉ‹ gÇkhz thŒgh£oid¤
jŸs¥gL«. ï«KiwÆš »Ç¥lh‹ 86 tÇia¡ jUÉ¡f ïayhJ. VbdÅš, M, L k‰W« T ‹
bfh©L cyfshÉaJ« Ûs¡ bfhz®jYkhd mL¡Ffis ïUòw¤â‰fhd gÇkhz¢ rk‹ghL,

ok
Û£l® msî nfhiy mik¡fyh«. _‹W rk‹ghLfshf¡ »il¡F«. mâÈUªJ
_‹W bjÇahj gÇkhz§fŸ k£Lnk fz¡»l
Koí«.
oTLjš Édh¡fŸ
ab
I. rÇahd Éilia nj®ªbjL¤J vGJf: 5. 'ir‹áah' v‹gj‹ bghUŸ
 (a) mnj khâÇ (b) m¿ªJ bfhŸSjš
1 kâ¥bg© (c) f£L¥ghL (d) ifahSjš
1. bghUbsh‹¿‹ Ãiw 4.27 g k‰W« mj‹ gUk‹  [Éil. (b) m¿ªJ bfhŸSjš]
ur

1.3 cm3 vÅš, m¥bghUË‹ ml®¤âÆ‹ K¡»a 6. thÅaš msî ______ tif ïa‰ãaš
v©QU¡fË‹ v©Âif [Govt.MQP-2018] (a) Ûnrh°nfhã¡ (b) ik¡nuh°nfhã¡
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (c) nk¡nuh °nfhã¡ (d) vJîÄšiy
 [Éil. (d) 4]  [Éil. (c) nk¡nuh °nfhã¡]
.s

X 7. Û E©zik¥ò (microscopic) tif ïa‰ãaÈ‹


2. Éir = bfhL¡f¥g£l rk‹gh£oš X-‹ ã‹tU« tif.
Density
gÇkhzf§fŸ ahJ? [First Mid-2018] (a) kuò ïa‰ãaš (b) ÃiyÆaš
w

(a) M L T (b) M L T–1


1 4 –2 2 –2 (c) ghŒk vªâuÉaš
(c) M2L–2 T–2 (d) M1L–2 T–1 (d) Fth©l« ïa‰ãaš

[Éil. (c) M2L–2 T–2]  [Éil. (d) Fth©l« ïa‰ãaš]
w

8. ã‹tUtdt‰WŸs v›tif ïa‰ãaš ïil¥g£l


3. ÚÇ‹ K¥òŸË bt¥gÃiy _______. [QY-2018] ÚŸ msit¡ F¿¡»wJ.
(a) 273.16 K (b) 237.16 C (a) nk¡nuh°nfhã¡ ïa‰ãaš
(c) 273.16 C
(d) 0 K (b) Ûnrh°nfhã¡ ïa‰ãaš
w

 [Éil. (a) 273.16 K] (c) ik¡nuh°nfhã¡ (d) všyht‰iwí«


 [Éil. (b) Ûnrh°nfhã¡ ïa‰ãaš]
4. Ãiw, bt¥gÃiy, Ä‹ndh£l« M»ait  [QY-2018]
9. thÅaš fhy msîfŸ k‰W« ik¡nuh°nfhã¡
(a) mo¥gil msîfŸ (b) °nfyh® msî¡Fkhd å¢R.
(c) bt¡l® msîfŸ
(a) 1015s Kjš 10–15s (b) 109s Kjš 10–18s
(d) (a) k‰W« (b) ïu©L«
(c) 1018s Kjš 10–22s (d) 1011s Kjš 10–16s
 [Éil. (d) (a) k‰W« (b) ïu©L«]
 [Éil. (c) 1018s Kjš 10–22s]

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 21

10. Ä‹ndh£lÉaY«, fhªjÉaY¡Fkhd Éâ 17. 1 g®br¡ v‹gJ v¤jid xË M©LfŸ


KiwfŸ ga‹gL¤j¥gLtJ. (a) 3.26 (b) 6.67 (c) 1.5 (d) 9.4
(a) jªâÆyh bjhl®ò  [Éil. (a) 3.26]
(b) Ãô¡Ëa® ciyfËš 18. v¤jid mQ myF 1 Û£lU¡F¢ rk«?
(c) ÚuhÉ v‹Í‹ (d) MfhaÉkhd¤âš (a) 3.26 × 1011 AU (b) 1.496 × 1011 AU
 [Éil. (a) jªâÆyh bjhl®ò]

m
(c) 3.08 × 1016 AU (d) 6.684 × 10–12 AU
11. bghU¤Jf:
 [Éil. (d) 6.684 × 10–12 AU]
1. ÚuhÉ v‹Í‹ a. b
 g®bdhÈÆ‹ 19. xU Yhdh® khj«
bfhŸif
(a) 29 eh£fŸ (b) 27.3 eh£fŸ

co
2. Ãô¡Ëa® ciy b. bt¥g ïa¡fÉaš
bfhŸiffŸ (c) 365 eh£fŸ (d) 30 eh£fŸ
3. c
 a® òwfhªj¥ c. f
 £L¥gL¤j¥g£l  [Éil. (b) 27.3 eh£fŸ]
òy§fŸ cUth¡f« Ãô¡Ëa® Éid 20. 1 xË M©o‹ kâ¥ò bluhÛ£lÇš
4. Mfha Ékhd« d. Û¡fl¤Jâw‹. (a) 9.46 × 106 Tm (b) 9.46 × 109 Tm

s.
1 2 3 4 (c) 9.46 × 102 Tm (d) 9.46 × 103 Tm
(a) b c a d  [Éil. (d) 9.46 × 103 Tm]
21. KL¡f« 20 m/s2 v‹gJ km/h2 š

ok
(b) d a b c
(c) c d a b a) 2.59 × 105 km/h2 (b) 1.29 × 105 km/h2
(d) b c d a [Éil. (d) b c d a] (c) 2.0 × 103 km/h2 (d) 3.5 × 105 km/h2
 [Éil. (a) 2.59 × 105 km/h2]
12. ã‹tU« mo¥gil Éirfis mj‹ bjhl®òila
22. mQ¡fË‹ Ãiwia msÉl¥ ga‹gL« rhjd«
tÈikíl‹ bghU¤Jf.
1. òÉ <®¥ò Éir
o a 1 (a) °bg¡£uh»uh¥ (b) bg®Ä
2. Ä‹ fhªj Éir b 10–39 (c) bly°nfh¥ (bjhiyneh¡»)
ab
(d) ik¡nuh°nfh¥ (E©nzh¡»)
3. tÈik Fiwªj Ãô¡Ëa® Éir c 10–2
[Éil. (a) °bg¡£uh»uh¥]
4. tÈikahd Ãô¡Ëa® Éir d 10–13
23. ã‹tUtdt‰¿š jtwhd T‰W
1 2 3 4 (a) 1 bg®Ä = 1015 m
ur

(a) a d b c (b) všyh RÊ mšyhj ïy¡f§fS« K¡»akhdit.


(b) b c d a
(c) c d a b
(c) 1AU = 1.496 × 1011 m
(d) c a b d [Éil. (b) b c d a] (d) ntf« xU tÊ myF
 [Éil. (a) 1 bg®Ä = 1015 m]
.s

13. 1 bl¡fh»uh« v‹gJ


(a) 10 g (b) 100 g (c) 1 kg
(d) 100 kg 24. ã‹tUtdt‰WŸ jtwhd T‰W vJ?
[Éil. (a) 10 g]
(a) jifî gÇkhz‰wJ
w

(b) mo¥gil msîfŸ moÃiy myFfŸ


14. 1 neneh brf©L ïj‰F rkkhdJ vd¥gL«.
(a) 10–6 s (b) 10–3 s (c) Éir = Ãiw × KL¡f«
(c) 10–15 s (d) 10–9 s
w

(d) 1 nrhyh® tUl« = 1500 eh£fŸ


 [Éil. (d) 10–9 s] [Éil. (d) 1 nrhyh® tUl« = 1500 eh£fŸ]
15. Ãô¡Ëa° mik¥ã‹ msɉfhd myF
25. ã‹tUtdt‰¿š rÇahd T‰W vJ?
w

(a) M«°£uh§ (b)


ik¡uh‹
(a) âirntf« v‹gJ mo¥gil msî
(c) neneh (d) bg®Ä[Éil. (d) bg®Ä]
(b) 1 NÇaehŸ = 24 kÂneu«
16. 1 g®br¡ (parsec or parallatic second) (c) 1 n[¡ = 104s
(a) 3.08 × 1016 m (b) 1.49 × 1011 m (d) Ãiw tÊ msî
(c) 9.46 × 1015 m (d) 1.66 × 10–27 m [Éil. (b) 1 NÇaehŸ = 24 kÂneu«]
 [Éil. (a) 3.08 × 1016 m]

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This is only for Sample Materials
for Full Book order online and available at all Leading Bookstores
22 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ bjhFâ 1
26. 0.0006012 m š v©QU 33. fd rJu¤â‹ ml®¤â mj‹ g¡f¤â‹ Ãiw
(a)
3 (b)
4 (c)
7 (d) 5 k‰W« Ús¤ij msÉLjyhš fz¡»l¥gL»wJ.
 [Éil. (b) 4] Ãiw k‰W« Ús¤âš V‰gL« Û¥bgU ãiH 5%
27. 2.64 × 104 kg š cŸs K¡»a v©QU¡fË‹ k‰W« 3%. ml®¤âÆš V‰gLk Û¥bgUãiH
v©Â¡if. (a) 9% (b) 8%
(c) 14% (d) 2%
[Éil. (c) 14%]

m
(a)
2 (b)
4 (c)
5 (d)
3
[Éil. (d) 3] F¿¥ò :
M M
28. xU JfË‹ ïl¥bga®¢á X-m¢áš fhy¤ij¥ x¥gl®¤â ρ = = 3 ∆M = 5% ∆C = 3%
V L
bghU¤J ïa§F»wJ vÅš x = at + bt2– ct3. b ‹

co
∆P ∆M ∆V ∆P  ∆M ∆L 
gÇkhz§fŸ = + ⇒ %= + 3⋅  %
P M V P  M L
(a) L0T–3 (b) L0T–3 (c) LT–2 (d) LT–3
[Éil. (c) LT–2]  ∆P 
  % = (5% + 3×3%) = (5 + 9) = 14%
F¿¥ò : x = at + bt2 – ct3 P

s.
L = aT + bT2 – cT3 ∆x
34. ã‹d¥ãiH
∴ b = LT–2 x
29. E k‰W« B Ä‹òy«, k‰W« fhªj¥òy« vÅš E,  ∆a   ∆a 

ok
B ¡fhd É»j¤â‹ gÇkhz« (a) ±   (b) ±n  
 a   a 
(a)  nfhz« (b)  KL¡f«
∆a ∆a
(c)  âir ntf« (d)  ïl¥bga®¢á (c) ± n log e   (d) ± n log10  
 a   a 
 [Éil. (c) âir ntf«]
o
F¿¥ò:  ∆a 
      [Éil. (b) ± n   ]
F = q(E + v × B) E ‹ gÇkhz« vB ¡F rk«. a
ab
35. xU xËah©o‹ kâ¥ò bluhÛ£lÇš
E
‹ gÇkhz« = v Æ‹ gÇkhz«. (a) 9.46× 106 Tm (b) 9.46 × 109 Tm
B (c) 9.46 × 102 Tm (d) 9.46 × 103 Tm
30. Éir |F|, âirntf« |v| k‰W« fhy« |T| v‹gd  [Éil. (d) 9.46 × 103 Tm]
36. mQÉ‹ Ãiwia¡ fz¡»l cjî« rhjd«
ur

mo¥gil myFfŸ vÅš ÃiwÆ‹ gÇkhz§fŸ.


(a) Fv–1T (b) Fv–1T (a) °bg¡£nuhkhÅ (b) ïa‰ãaš juhR
(c) FvT–1 (d) FvT–2 (c) bjhiy neh¡»
 [Éil. (c) FvT–1] (d) E©neh¡» (ik¡nuh°nfh¥)
.s

F¿¥ò :  [Éil. (a) °bg¡£nuhkhÅ]


mv 37. 2.64 × 104
‹ K¡»a v©QU
F= [m] = [F v −1 T] (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) 3
t
w

v  [Éil. (d) 3]

∵ a = t  38. p = 3.14 vÅš p2 ‹ kâ¥ò
(a) 9.8596 (b) 9.860
w

31. K.E ‹ gÇkhz«


(a) M2L2T–1
(b) M1L1T1 (c) 9.86 (d) 9.9
(c) M1L2T–2
(d) M2L2T–2  [Éil. (c) 9.86]
w

[Éil. (c) M1L2T–2] 39. ã‹tU« nrhofËš x¤j gÇkhzKila ïa‰ãaš


msîfŸ
32. íÅbt®rš òÉ <®¥ò kh¿ÈÆ‹ gÇkhz«
(a) Éir k‰W« M‰wš
(a) M–2L3T–2
(b) M–2L2T–1
(b) mG¤j« k‰W« jifî
(c) M–1L3T–2
(d) ML2T–1
(c) cªj« k‰W« Ãiyk Éir
[Éil. (c) M–1L3T–2]
(d) âU¥ò Éir k‰W« ÉirÆ‹ âU¥ò¤âw‹
 [Éil. (b) mG¤j« k‰W« jifî]

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 23

40. nghš£°nk‹ kh¿ÈÆ‹ gÇkhz thŒ¥ghL II. bghU¤Jf:


(a) [M L2 T–1] (b) [AT mol–1]
1. ãÇî ftd« brY¤j¥g£l gFâ
(c) [ML2T–2 K–1] (d) VJÄšiy
1) xÈÆaš (a)
btË, neu« k‰W«
 [Éil. (c) [ML2T–2K–1]) M‰wš bjhl®òilaJ
41. x¥gl®¤â ïj‰F xU vL¤J¡fh£L 2) ca® M‰wš (b) xÈ g‰¿aJ

m
(a) gÇkhzKŸs kh¿fŸ ïa‰ãaš
(b) gÇkhzk‰w kh¿fŸ 3) Fth©l« (c) JfŸfË‹ ïašòfis¥
vªâuÉaš g‰¿a És¡f«

co
(c) gÇkhzKŸs kh¿ÈfŸ
4) rh®ãaš (d) mQ k‰W« mQ
(d) gÇkhzk‰w kh¿ÈfŸ
c£JfŸ k£l§fËš
 [Éil. (b) gÇkhzk‰w kh¿fŸ] eilbgW« Ãfœîfis¥
42. 8.250 I KGik¥gL¤J« nghJ g‰¿aJ

s.
(a) 8.3 (b) 8.2 (c) 8.25 (d) 8.26 1 2 3 4
 [Éil. (b) 8.2] (a) c b d a
(b) c a d b

ok
43. E v‹gJ Ä‹òy¤ijí«, B v‹gJ fhªj¥òy
(c) b c d a
ö©liyí« F¿¡Fkhdhš E k‰W« B
É»j¤â‹ gÇkhz thŒghL
(d) d c b a [Éil. (c) b c d a]
(a) [Lt–2] (b) [MLT–2] 2. ïa‰ãaš msî myF
–1
(c) [LT ] (d) [MLT–1]

o
[Éil. (c) [LT–1]]
1) Éir kh¿È (a) NS
2) nghlš£°nk‹ kh¿È (b) Nm
(c) Jk–1
ab
44. ã‹tUtdt‰¿š vj‰F mâfkhd K¡»a 3) fz¤jh¡F Éir
v©QU¡fŸ cŸsJ? 4) âU¥òÉir (d) Nm–1
(a) 600800 (b) 5213.0 1 2 3 4
(c) 2.65 × 1024 (d) 0.0006032 (a) d c a b
ur

 [Éil. (b) 5213.0] (b) b a c d


(c) b d a c
45. xU beho ɚȋ nfhz«
(d) d b a c [Éil. (a) d c a b]
(a) 48.5 × 10–6 nuoa‹
3. K‹ÜL Jiz¥
.s

(b) 0.485 × 10–5 nuoa‹


(c) 4.85 × 10–6 nuoa‹ bgU¡fš
1) br¥nlh (z) (a) 10–18
(d) 48500 × 10–6 nuoa‹
2) ã¡nfh (p) (b) 10–1
w

 [Éil. (c) 4.85 × 10–6 nuoa‹]


3) M£nlh (a) (c) 10–12
46. 1 nah£lh v‹gJ 4) blá (d) (d) 10–21
(a) 1021 (b) 10–24 (c) 10–21 (d) 1024
w

1 2 3 4

[Éil. (d) 1024]
(a) b d a c
47. xU vy¡£uhÅ‹ Ãiw 9.11 × 10–31 kg vÅš (b) d b a c
w

1 mg š v¤jid vy¡£uh‹fŸ cŸsd? (c) c d a b


(a) 1.68 × 1018 (b) 1.097 × 1024 (d) d c a b [Éil. (d) d c a b]
(c) 1.45×1022 (d) 1.970 × 1023

[Éil. (a) 1.097 × 1024 ]

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24 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ bjhFâ 1

4. rhjd§fŸ bfhŸiffŸ 1 2 3 4
(a) c d b a
1) ÚuhÉ vªâu« (a)bg®bdhÈÆ‹ (b) a d c b
bfhŸif (c) a c d b
2) mQ ciy (b) bt¥g ïa¡fÉaš (d) b a c d [Éil. (a) c d b a]
bfhŸif
8.

m
ãiHfŸ fhuz«
3) òw ca® fhªj¥ (c) f£L¥gL¤j¥g£l
1) Kiwahd ãiHfŸ (a) ftd¡ Fiwî
òy¤â‹ cUth¡f« bjhl® Éid
2) xG§f‰w ãiHfŸ (b) ã‹d¥ãiH
4) Ékhd« (d) ca® fl¤Jâw‹

co
3) bkh¤j¥ ãiH (c) rkthŒ¥ò ãiHfŸ
1 2 3 4
4) x¥Õ£L¥ ãiH (d) bjhl®¢áahf
(a) b c a d Û©L« Û©L«
(b) d a b c xnu khâÇ
(c) c d a b

s.
cUthF« ãiHfŸ
(d) b c d a [Éil. (d) b c d a] 1 2 3 4
5. mo¥gil ÉirfË‹ tiffŸ tÈik (a) b c d a
(b) d c a b

ok
1) <®¥ò Éir (a) 1
(c) a c d b
2) Ä‹ fhªj Éir (b) 10–39
(d) b a d c [Éil. (b) d c a b]
3) tÈik Fiwªj (c) 10–2
Ãô¡Ëa® Éir o 9. v©fŸ K¡»a v©QU
–13 1) 40.00 (a) 6
4) tÈikahd (d) 10
Ãô¡Ëa® Éir 2) 0.030400 (b) 3
ab
1 2 3 4 3) 0.00345 (c) 5
(a) a d b c 4) 307000 (d) 4
(b) b c d a
(c) c d a b 1 2 3 4
(d) c a b d [Éil. (b) b c d a] (a) b d c a
(b) b c d a
ur

6. ïa‰ãaš msîfŸ cjhuz« (c) c d a b


1) gÇkhzKŸs kh¿fŸ (a) (π) (d) d c b a [Éil. (d) d c b a]
2) gÇkhzk‰w kh¿fŸ (b) ãsh§¡ kh¿È III. nfho£l ïl¤ij Ãu¥òf:
.s

3) gÇkhzKŸs (c) âirntf« 1. X® bgÇa mik¥ãid mšyJ bghUis mjDŸ


kh¿ÈfŸ ml§»a E©Âa JfŸfË‹ _y« És¡f
4) gÇkhzk‰w kh¿ÈfŸ (d) âÇò Ka‰á¥gnj ...............
w

1 2 3 4 (a) x‹¿iz¤J¥ gh®¤jš


(a) b d a c (b) gF¤J¥ gh®¤jš
(b) b c a d (c) E© ïa‰ãaš
w

(c) c d b a (d) gU¥bghUŸ ïa‰ãaš


(d) a c d b [Éil. (c) c d b a]  [Éil. (b) gF¤J¥gh®¤jš]
2. ÃiwfË‹ beL¡f« m©l¤â‹ Äf¥ bgÇa
7.
w

mo¥gil myF gÇkhz thŒghL


ÃiwÆÈUªJ vy¡£uhÅ‹ Äf¢á¿a Ãiwahd
1) gu¥ò ïGÉir (a) [ML–1T–1] _______ MF«.
2) bt¥g¤âw‹ (b) [ML2] (a) 105 kg Kjš 10–28 kg
3) Ãiyk¤ (c) [MT–2] (b) 1055 kg Kjš 1028 kg
âU¥ò¤âw‹ (c) 1055kg Kjš 10–31 kg
4) gh»aš Fzf« (d) [ML2T–2 K–1] (d) 10–55 kg Kjš 1031 kg
 [Éil. (c) 1055 kg Kjš 10–31 kg]

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 25

3. cgs, mks k‰W« SI myF KiwÆ‹ myFfŸ 12. fhªj¤ ö©lÈ‹ gÇkhz thŒghL
_______Kiw myFfŸ (a) ML2A–1 (b) MT2A
(a) bk£Ç¡ mšyJ jrk –2 –1
(c) MT A (d) MA–1
(b) K«kl§F (c) â£l m£ltiz  [Éil. (c) MT–2A–1]
(d) mQÉaš
 [Éil. (a) bk£Ç¡ mšyJ jrk] 13. gu¥ò M‰wY¡fhd rk‹ghL _______

m
(a) ntiy / Ús« (b) Éir / Ús«
4. _______ v‹gJ bjÉ£L ÚuhÉ, öa Ú® k‰W« (c) ntiy / fhy« (d) ntiy / gu¥ò
cUF« gÅ¡f£o M»a _‹W« rk ÃiyÆš cŸs
nghJ cŸs bt¥gÃiy MF«.  [Éil. (d) ntiy / gu¥ò]

co
(a) óÇâkhjš (b) cUFòŸË 14. x¥Õ£L¥ãiH _______ vd miH¡f¥gL»wJ.
(c) ÚÇ‹ K¥òŸË (d) bt¥g V‰ò âw‹ (a) bkh¤j¥ ãiH (b) ÉG¡fh£L¥ãiH
 [Éil. (c) ÚÇ‹ K¥òŸË] (c) jÅ¥ãiH
5. â©k¡ nfhz¤â‹ rk‹ghL _______ (d) ã‹d¥ãiH mšyJ rh®ò¥ãiH

s.
(a) nuoa‹ / gu¥ò (b) nk‰gu¥ò / (Mu«)2 [Éil. (d) ã‹d¥ãiH mšyJ rh®ò¥ ãiH]
(c) (Mu«)2 (d) nk‰gu¥ò / Mu« 15. 'ïa‰ãaš' v‹w bga® 350 B.C _______v‹gtuhš
 [Éil. (b) nk‰gu¥ò / (Mu«)2] m¿Kf¥gL¤j¥g£lJ.

ok
6. Jkg–1k–1 v‹gJ _______ ‹ myF. (a) jhy° (b) lhyÄ
(a) bt¥gâw‹ (b) cŸkiw bt¥g« (c) mÇ°lhoš (d) nfhg®Ã¡f°
(c) j‹ bt¥gV‰òâw‹  [Éil. (c) mÇ°lhoš]
(d) M‰wš [Éil. (c) j‹bt¥g V‰ò¤âw‹]
IV. bghUªjht‰iw njªªbjL¤J vGJf:
7. 1 o»Ç = _______ nuoa‹
o
1. (a) x¥gl®¤â (b) âÇò
(a) 1.754 ×10–2 (b) 1.745 ×102
ab
(c) xËÉyfš v© (d) ãsh§¡ kh¿È
(c) 1.745 ×10–2
(d) 1.547 ×10–2

[Éil. (c) 1.745 × 10–2]  [Éil. (d) ãsh§¡kh¿È]
F¿¥ò : (a), (b), (c) M»ad É»j mo¥gilÆyhd
8. _______ Äf¥bgÇa bghU£fisí« Ú©l msîfŸ.
bjhiyîfisí« cila bgÇa cyf¤ij¡
ur

F¿¡»wJ. 2. (a) jÅ¥ãiH (b) rh®ò¥ãiH


(a) ngu©l« (b) E© cyf« (c) ÉG¡fhL ãiH (d) bkh¤j¥ãiH
(c) thÅaš (d) m©l«  [Éil. (d) bkh¤j¥ãiH]
 [Éil. (a) ngu©l«] F¿¥ò : (a), (b), (c) M»ad ãiHfË‹ gF¥ghŒî, (d)
.s

9. ÃiwÆ‹ Äf¥ bgÇa brašKiw myF


ãiHfË‹ tifahF«.
(a) CSL (b) gh®br¡ 3. (a) NÇa fofhu« (b) Ä‹ miyÆa‰¿
(c) xË M©L (d) AU
w

(c) fâÇa¡ftaJ fÂ¥ò


 [Éil. (a) CSL] (d) Ä‹dD juhR [Éil. (d) Ä‹ juhR]
10. c‰W neh¡FgtÇ‹ ftd¡ FiwÉ‹ fhuzkhf F¿¥ò : (a), (b), (c) M»ad fhy¤ij msÉLtj‰fhf
V‰gL« ãiHfŸ _______ vd¥gL«. (d) Ãiwia msÉl.
w

(a) jÅ¥ ãiH (b) bkh¤j¥ ãiH


4. (a) M‰wš (b) ntiy
(c) fUÉ¥ãiH (d) RÊ¥ãiH
 [Éil. (b) bkh¤j¥ãiH] (c) âU¥ò Éir (d) Éir
w

 [Éil. (d) Éir]


11. xU kh¿È gÇkhzk‰W, Ãiyahd kâ¥ig¥
F¿¥ò : (a), (b), (c) M»ad xnu my»dhš Mdit.
bg‰¿U¥ã‹ mit _______ vd¥gL«.
(a) gÇkhzk‰w kh¿ÈfŸ 5. (a) Ús« (b) Ãiw
(b) gÇkhzKŸs kh¿fŸ (c) fhy« (d) gUk‹
(c) gÇkhzk‰w kh¿fŸ  [Éil. (d) gUk‹]
(d) gÇkhzKŸs kh¿ÈfŸ F¿¥ò : (a), (b), (c) Kiwna °nfy® MF«. (d) bt¡l®
 [Éil. (a) gÇkhzk‰w kh¿ÈfŸ] MF«.
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This is only for Sample Materials
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26 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ bjhFâ 1
6. (a) f.p.s (b) c.g.s 2. (a) âirntr« - nfhz âirntf«
(c) m.t.s (d) r.m.s
(b) Éir - âU¥ò Éir
 [Éil. (d) r.m.s]
(c) Ãiw - Ãiyk¤
F¿¥ò : (a), (b), (c) M»ad gšntW msÉL« KiwfŸ âU¥ò¤âw‹
MF«.
(d) mâ®bt© - miyÚs«

m
7. (a) xËÆaš (b) xÈÆaš  [Éil. (d) mâ®bt© - miyÚs«]
(c) th‹ ïa‰ãaš
3. (a) ml®¤â - x¥gl®¤â
(d) mQ¡fU ïa‰ãaš
(b) jifî - xËÉyfš v©

co
 [Éil. (d) mQ¡fU ïa‰ãaš]
(c) π - e
F¿¥ò : (a), (b), (c) Æš lh¥s® Éisî rh¤âa«.
8. (a) Éir kh¿È (d) ãsh§¡ kh¿È - °Obg‹ kh¿È
(b) ãsh§¡ kh¿È  [Éil. (a) ml®¤â - x¥gl®¤â]
(c) nghš£°nk‹ kh¿È 4. (a) bt¥g« - M‰wš

s.
(d) xËÉyfš v© (b) Ãiw - Ãiyk«
 [Éil. (d) xËÉyfš v©] (c) Ä‹D£l« - Ä‹ndh£l«
F¿¥ò : (a), (b), (c) M»ad gÇkhzKŸs kh¿ÈfŸ.

ok
(d) fz¤jh¡F Éir - âU¥ò Éir
(d) jfî MF«.
 [Éil. (c) Ä‹D£l« - Ä‹ndh£l«]
V. rÇahd nrhofis¤ nj®ªbjL¤J vGJf: VII. T‰WfS«, fhuz§fS« :
1. (a) 30.00 - 2009
o F¿¥òfŸ
(b) 0.00345 - 2.6 (a) T‰WfS«, fhuz§fS« rÇahdit k‰W«
(c) 0.040500 - 20100 m fhuz§fS¡fhd És¡f§fS« rÇ.
ab
(d) 153 - 3072 (b) T‰W k‰W« fhuz« c©ik Mdhš
 [Éil. (a) 30.00 - 2009] fhuz¤â‰fhd És¡f« c©ikašy
2. (a) bjhiyneh¡» - E©nzh¡» (c) T‰W c©ik Mdhš fhuz« bkŒašy
(b) âUF msÉ - uhlh® Kiw (d) T‰W bkŒašy Mdhš fhuz« bkŒ
ur

(c) ïlkhW - bt®Åa® 1. T‰W : ntWg£l ïa‰ãaš Ãfœîfis xU áy


njh‰w¥ãiH msÉ j¤Jt§fŸ k‰W« Éâfis¥ ga‹gL¤â
(d) RUŸ juhR - rhjhuz És¡f Ka‰á¤jš x‹¿iz¤J¥
juhR
.s

gh®¤jš vd¥gL«.
 [Éil. (d) RUŸ juhR - rhjhuz juhR]
fhuz« : X® bgÇa mik¥ãid mšyJ
3. (a) âU¥ò Éir - Nm bghUis mjDŸ ml§»a E©Âa
w

(b) ãsh§¡ kh¿È - J/s JfŸfË‹ _y« És¡f Ka‰á¥gnj


(c) j‹ bt¥g« - J kgk–1 gF¤J¥gh®¤jyhF«.
(d) Ãiyk¤ âU¥ò¤âw‹ - kg / m2 [Éil. (b) T‰W k‰W« fhuz« c©ik
w

 [Éil. (a) âU¥ò Éir - Nm] Mdhš fhuz¤â‰fhd És¡f«


c©ikašy ]
VI. bghU¤jk‰w nrhofis¤ nj®ªbjL¤J vGJf:
2. T‰W :
xËia¥ g‰¿a ïa‰ãaš ãÇî
w

1. (a) ntiy - M‰wš xËÆaš.


(b) jifî - mG¤j« fhuz« : xËÆaš xË¥ g©òfis¥ g‰¿
(c) Éir - Ú£á f‰ã¡f¥gL»wJ. mit ãuâgÈ¥ò, xË
(d) gu¥ò - Éir Éyfš ngh‹wit.
ïGÉir [Éil. (a) T‰W k‰W« És¡f« rÇ.
 [Éil. (d) gu¥ò ïGÉir - Éir] T‰W¡fhd És¡f¥g£l
fhuz§fS« rÇ.]

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This is only for Sample Materials
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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 27

3. T‰W : mo¥gil msîfshš F¿¥ãl¡Toa 9. T‰W : gÇkhz¥ gF¥ghŒî Kiw xU mik¥ò


msîfŸ tÊ msîfŸ vd¥gL«. myF rh®ªj ïa‰ãaš msîfis
fhuz« : vL¤J¡fh£LfŸ : Ãiw, Ús«, fhy« k‰bwh‹W¡F kh‰w ga‹gL»wJ.
ngh‹wit. 1
fhuz« : mv2 = mgh
[Éil. ( c) T‰W c©ik Mdhš fhuz« 2
bkŒašy.] [Éil. ( d) T‰W k‰W« fhuz« c©ik

m
Mdhš T‰W¡fhd És¡f¥g£l
4. T‰W : 'Centimeter' š ga‹gL¤j¥gL« 'meter'  fhuz« bkŒašy.]
v‹gJ cy»dhš V‰W¡ bfhŸs¥g£l VIII.rÇahd mšyJ rÇašyhj T‰Wfis

co
vG¤J Kiw. nj®ªbjL¤J vGJf:
fhuz« : 'Metre' v‹gJ cyfsÉš
1. (I) 'RADAR' Kiw Ú©l bjhiyîfis
cgnah»¡f¥gL« myF. 'Meter' v‹gJ msÉl¥ ga‹gL«.
mbkÇ¡fÇ¡f®fË‹ vG¤J Kiw (II) ïa‰ãaš msî x‹iw msåL brŒí« nghJ
(Spelling)

s.
V‰gL« JšÈak‰w j‹ik ãiH vd¥gL«
[Éil. (a) T‰W k‰W« És¡f« rÇ. vªj¡ T‰W rÇ?
T‰W¡fhd És¡f¥g£l
(a) I k£L« (b) II k£L«
fhuz§fS« rÇ.]
(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy

ok
5. T‰W : RH‰á ïa¡f¤jhš V‰gL« Ãiw Ãiyk¤  [Éil. (c) ïu©L« rÇ]
âU¥ò¤âw‹.
fhuz« : RH‰á Ãiw RH‰á Mu« g‰¿ És¡F»wJ. 2. (I) GCGS = 6.6 × 10–8 dyne cm2 g–2
[Éil. (a) T‰W k‰W« És¡f« rÇ. T‰W¡fhd g
(II) T = 2 p
o
És¡f¥g£l fhuz§fS« rÇ.] l
vªj¡ T‰W rÇ?
6. T‰W : Äf Ú©l bjhiyîfis mjhtJ
ab
(a) I k£L« (b) II k£L«
òÉÆÈUªJ nfhS¡F« mšyJ
(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy
É©ÛD¡F« ïilnaahd bjhiyit
 [Éil. (a) I k£L« rÇ]
ïlkhW njh‰w KiwÆ‹ _y«
msÉlyh«. 3. (I)  Ä‹}£l« rk‹ghL Ä‹ndh£l« / fhy«.
ur

fhuz« : msî k‰W« mQ c£bghU£fË‹ (II) ~ghunl kh¿ÈÆ‹ rk‹ghL.


á¿a Ãiwfis ÃiwkhiykhÅ _y« mynf£nuh kh¿È ×× Jt¡f Ä‹ Rik
fz¡»l¥gL»wJ. vªj¡ T‰W rÇ?
[Éil. ( b) T‰W k‰W« És¡f« c©ik (a) I k£L« (b) II k£L«
.s

Mdhš T‰W¡fhd És¡f¥g£l (c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy


 fhuz« bkŒašy.]  [Éil. (b) II k£L«]
T‰W : âUF msÉ, bt®Åa® msÉ ït‰whš
w

7. 4. (I)  Éir kh¿È k‰W« ~ghunl kh¿È


msÉl¥gL« Äf¢ á¿a kâ¥ò gÇkhzKŸs kh¿È¡F vL¤J¡fh£L.
Û¢á‰wsî vd¥gL«.
(II) RH‰á Mu«, Ãiyk¤ âU¥ò¤âwid¥
fhuz« : c©ik kâ¥ã‰F« msÉl¥g£l
w

bghU¤jšy.
kâ¥ã‰F« ïilnaahd msÉ‹
ntWghL rh®ò¥ãiH mšyJ vªj¡ T‰W rÇašy?
ã‹d¥ãiH vd¥gL«. (a) I k£L« (b) II k£L«
w

[Éil. ( c) T‰W c©ik Mdhš fhuz« (c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy


 bkŒašy.]  [Éil. (b) II k£L«]
8. T‰W : 27.653 v‹w v©iz 3 ïy¡f§fS¡F
5. (I) 
ruhrÇ jÅ¥ãiH¡F«, ruhrÇ kâ¥ã‰F«
KGik¥gL¤j »il¥gJ 27.6
ïilnaahd jfî x¥Õ£L¥ ãiH (m) ã‹d
fhuz« : 10200 _‹W v©QU¡fis cilaJ. ãiH MF«.
[Éil. ( d) T‰W bkŒašy Mdhš fhuz«
 bkŒ.]

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28 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ bjhFâ 1
(II) c‰W neh¡FgtÇ‹ jtwhd msî¥gâå£odhš 1 2
k£Lnk V‰gLtJ xG§f‰w ãiH (m) v = u + at (M) s = ut + at [First Mid-18]
2
vªj¡ T‰W rÇ?
Éil. (m) v = u + at v‹w ïa¡f¢ rk‹gh£il
(a) I k£L« (b) II k£L« vL¤J¡bfhŸnth«.
(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy [LT−1] = [LT−1] + [LT−2] [T] = [LT−1] + [LT−1]

m
 [Éil. (a) I k£L« rÇ] (xnu khâÇahd gÇkhz§fis bg‰WŸs
msîfisna T£l Koí«)
6. (I)  òÉÆÈUªJ ÃyÉ‹ bjhiyî 1011 m.
ïUòwK« cŸs gÇkhz§fŸ rk« v‹gij
(II) xU bršÈ‹ Ãiw 10–10 kg

co
eh« fh©»nwh«. vdnt ïªj rk‹ghL
vªj¡ T‰W rÇašy? gÇkhz KiwÆš rÇahdJ.
(a) I k£L« (b) II k£L« (M) [L] = [LT−1] [T] + [LT−2] [T2]
(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy [L] = [LT−1 + 1] + [LT−2+2] = [LT0] + [LT0]
[Éil. (a) I k£L«]

s.
 [L] = [L] + [L]
7. (I)  âUF msÉÆ‹ Û¢áW msî 0.01 mm. ïlJòw« cŸs gÇkhz thŒ¥ghL«
(II) bt®Åa® msÉÆ‹ Û¢áW msî 0.1 mm tyJòw« cŸs gÇkhz thŒ¥ghL« rk«;

ok
vªj¡ T‰W rÇ?
vdnt, ï¢rk‹ghL gÇkhz Kiw¥go
rÇahd rk‹ghlhF«.
(a) I k£L« (b) II k£L«
3. K¡»a v©QU¡fS¡F KGik¥gL¤Jf.
(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy
 [First Mid-18]
 [Éil. (c) ïu©L« rÇ]
o
bjÇahj bjhiyî (x)
(m) 3.1 + 1.780 + 2.046 (M) 12.637 – 2.42
(ï) 1.21 × 36.72 (<) 36.72 ÷ 1.2
8. (I) 
ïlkhW nfhz« q =
mo gFâ (b) Éil. (m) 6.96 (M) 10.22 (ï) 44.4 (<) 31
ab
(II) nfhË‹ bjhiyî d = 4. xG§f‰w ãiHfŸ v‹whš v‹d? mt‰iw
nuonah miyÆ‹ âirntf« v›thW Fiw¡fyh«? [First Mid-18]
= (ve) × vL¤J¡bfh©l fhy« (t) d = v ¥ t Éil. xG§f‰w ãiHfŸ (Random Errors):
2
ur

vªj¡ T‰W rÇašy? (i) mG¤j«, bt¥gÃiy, mË¡f¥gL«


(a) I k£L« (b) II k£L« Ä‹dG¤j« ngh‹wt‰whš nrhjidÆš
(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy
V‰gL« bjhl®g‰w khWghLfshš, rkthŒ¥ò
ãiHfŸ V‰gL»‹wd. nrhjidia
[Éil. (a) I k£L« rÇ]
.s

 c‰W neh¡FgtÇ‹ ftd¡Fiwthš


9. (I)  mâ®bt© k‰W« nfhz âirntf« x¤j V‰gL« ãiHahY«, msÉLgt® brŒí«
gÇkhz thŒghL cilait. ãiHÆdhY« ï›tif ãiHfŸ V‰glhš.
xG§f‰w ãiHfŸ, thŒ¥ò ãiHfŸ (Chance
w

(II) âU¥ò Éir v‹gJ RH‰á RH‰á Éir MF«


Errors) vdî« miH¡f¥gL»‹wd.
vªj¡ T‰W rÇ?
(ii) mâf v©Â¡ifÆš Ãiwia fh©f.
(a) I k£L« (b) II k£L«
w

òŸËÆaš gF¥ghŒî _y« xG§f‰w


(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy ãiHfis fz¡ÑL brŒa Koí«. nkY«
 [Éil. (c) ïu©L« rÇ] mâf v©Â¡ifÆš Û©L« Û©L« brŒJ
2 kâ¥bg©fŸ gh®¥gj‹ _y« bgw¥gL« kâ¥òfË‹
w

FWÉdh¡fŸ:
ruhrÇia¡ bfh©L Fiw¡f Koí«.
1. ã‹tU« v©fË‹ K¡»a v©QU¡fis¡ 5. SI myF KiwÆ‹ áw¥ãašòfŸ ahit? [QY-2018]
fh©f: (i) 0.007 (ii) 400.  [Govt.MQP-2018] Éil. 1. xU ïa‰ãaš msɉF xnu xU myF
Éil. (i) x‹W (ii) x‹W k£Lnk ga‹gL¤j¥gL»wJ. mjhtJ
ï«Kiw X® g§Ñ£L gF¤j¿î»irªj
2. gÇkhz§fË‹ mo¥gilÆš bfhL¡f¥g£l KiwahF«.
rk‹ghLfŸ rÇah vd nrhâ¡f

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 29

2. mid¤J tÊ myFfS«, mo¥gil (ii) msî x‹¿‹ v© kâ¥ò (numerical value)


myFfËš ïUªJ vËjhf jUÉ¡f¥ (n), myF v¤jid Kiw cŸsl¡»aJ
gL»‹wd. X® XÇaš myF KiwahF«. v‹gJ bfh©L ïa‰ãaš msî (R)
3. ïJ X® bk£Ç¡ myF Kiwahjyhš ms¡f¥gL»wJ. Q = nu.
bgU¡fš k‰W« Jiz¥bgU¡fš M»ad 12. ã‹tU« 10‹ Jiz¥ bgU¡fš mL¡Ffis¡

m
10 ï‹ kl§Ffshf neuoahf ju¥gL»‹wd. bfh©L mj‹ F¿pLfis bgaÇLf.
6. ‘mså£oaš’ v‹gJ ahJ? Éil. 101, 106, 1012, 10–1, 10–6, 10–12.
Éil. mså£oaš v‹gJ vªj xU ïa‰ãaš msití« 101- deca F¿pL da, 106-bkfh F¿pL M, 1012-
bluh F¿pL T, 10–1-blá F¿pL d. 10–6-ik¡nuh

co
mj‹ go¤ju msîl‹ x¥ãLtJ MF«. mid¤J
m¿Éaš MuhŒ¢áfS¡F«. nrhjidfS¡F« F¿pL µ, 10–12-ãnfh F¿pL P.
mo¥gil "mså£oayhF«". ïa‰ãaš v‹gJ 13. Û¢áW bjhiyîfis msÉl¥ ga‹gL« 4
msªj¿í« m¿ÉayhF«. myFfis¥ bgaÇLf.
7. Éil. (i)  1 ik¡uh‹ mšyJ ik¡nuhÛ£l®

s.
Ãiw k‰W« gu¥ò ït‰¿‰fhd eilKiw _‹W
myFfis¥ bgaÇLf:  1 µm = 10–6 m
(ii) 1 nenehÛ£l® 1 nm = 10 m
–9
Éil. Ãiw gu¥ò
(iii) 1 M«°£uh§ myF 1Å = 10–10 m

ok
1 gî©L 1 b gh®‹ 1 gh®‹
(iv) 1 bg®Ä 1 Fm = 10–15 m
= 0.4536 kg = 10–28 m2
2 FÉ©lhš V¡f® 1 V¡f® 14. Äf Ú©l bjhiyîfis msÉl¥ ga‹gL« ïu©L
–9
1 q = 100 kg = 4047 m2 myFfis¡ F¿¥ãLf.
3 mQÃiw myF bA¡nl® 1 Éil. (i) thÅaš myF (AU): òÉÆ‹ ika¤âÈUªJ
–27
1 amu = 1.66 × 10 kg
o
bA¡nl® = 104 m2 NÇaÅ‹ ika« tiu cŸs ruhrǤ
bjhiyî. 1 thÅaš myF
8. nrhyh® tUl«, ä¥ tUl« v‹gd ahit?
ab
AU = 1.496 × 1011 m.
Éil. (i) 
nrhyh® tUl«: óÄahš j‹ m¢áš NÇaid
(ii) xË M©L: bt‰¿l¤âš xËahdJ X®
xU KG R‰W R‰¿ tu MF« fhy msî.
M©oš bršy¡Toa bjhiyî.
1 nrhyh® tUl« = 365.25 ruhrÇ nrhyh®
eh£fŸ 1 xËah©L = 9.467 × 1015 m.
ur

= 366.25 br£Çaš eh£fŸ. 15. “ghuhyh£o¡ beho” mšyJ g®br¡ tiuaW:


(ii) ä¥ tUl«: xU tUl« 4 Mš ÛâÆ‹¿ Éil. thdÉaš bjhiyɉfhd Äf¥bgÇa myF
gFgLkhdhš mJ ä¥ tUl«. ïâš ã¥utÇ ÉšÈ‹ Ús« xU thÅaš myF« 1 AU, ika¡
khj¤â‰F 29 eh£fŸ MF«. nfhz« xU beho ÉšY« bfh©l t£lɚȋ
.s

9. ïa‰ãaš msÉ‹ K¡»a¤Jt« ahJ? mj‹ Munk 1 g®br¡ MF«.


tiffŸ ahit? 1 g®br¡ = 3.08 × 1016 m = 3.26 xË M©L (ly).
Éil. (i) b
 ghUŸfË‹ g©òfis m¿ªJ bfhŸS« 16. msåL brŒjÈš 'ãiH' v‹whš v‹d? ïjdhš
w

m¿ÉaÈ‹ ãÇî. vdnt Ús«, Ãiw, fhy« msåLfËš V‰gL« jh¡f« ahJ?
ngh‹w ïa‰ãaš msîfis msåL Éil. vªj xU mså£o‹ KoîfS« áy JšÈak‰w
brŒjš ï‹¿aikahjJ. j‹ikia cŸsl¡»ÆU¡F«. ïa‰ãaš msî
w

(ii) tiffŸ: 1) mo¥gil ïa‰ãaš msîfŸ x‹iw msåL brŒí«nghJ V‰gL« Ãiya‰w
j‹ik ‘ãiH' vd¥gL«. vdnt ïa‰ãaš
2) tÊ ïa‰ãaš msîfŸ. msÉ‹ c©ikahd kâ¥ã‰F« msªj¿a¥g£l
10. ïa‰ãaš msÉ‹ ‘myF’ v‹gij tiuaW:
w

kâ¥ã‰F« ïilna cŸs ntWghL ãiHahF«.


Éil. bfhL¡f¥g£LŸs ïa‰ãaš msîl‹ x¥ãl¥ (Error) ãiH = c©ikahd kâ¥ò – fz¡»l¥g£l
ga‹gL« xU ÃWt¥g£l go¤ju msî ïa‰ãaš kâ¥ò.
msÉ‹ myF vd tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ. ïjdhš, ï«kâ¥òfis¥ ga‹gL¤â brŒa¥gL«
11. xU ïa‰ãaš msîfis msÉLjÈš fz¡ÑLfS« ãiHahf mikí«.
njitahdit ahit? vªj xU MŒÉY« Äf¢ rÇahd msåLfis
Éil. (i) 
msî x‹iw msªj¿a mj‰F x¥ãL vL¡f KoahJ.
brŒa xU go¤ju msî njit.
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30 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ bjhFâ 1
17. msÉLjÈš ga‹gL¤j¥gL« TWfŸ ahit? 23. ãiHfË‹ ïWâ KoîfŸ vt‰iw¢ rh®ªJŸsJ?
bjËîgL¤J. Éil. (i) jŤjÅahd msåLfËš cŸs ãiHfŸ
Éil. JšÈa¤j‹ik (Accuracy) k‰W« E£g« (ii) fÂj braÈfË‹ bra‰gh£o‹ ïašig¢
(Precision) M»a ïU ntWg£l TWfŸ rh®ªJ ïWâ Koî bgw¥gL«. vdnt,
ga‹gL¤j¥gL»‹wd. ãiHfis x‹W nr®¡f¤ njitahd
(i) JšÈa¤j‹ik: c©ikahd kâ¥ã‰F Éâfis m¿ªâU¡f nt©L«.

m
v›tsî mU»š msåL brŒnjh« v‹gij¡
24. K¡»a v©QU¡fŸ F¿¥ò tiuf.
F¿¡F«.
Éil. msåL brŒí«nghJ jFªj fhuz¤âdhš njit
(ii) E£g«: ïu©L mšyJ mj‰F nk‰g£l
vd Ãid¤J v©Â¡if brŒj ïy¡f§fË‹

co
msîfŸ x‹W¡ bfh‹W v›tsî
v©Â¡if K¡»a v©QU MF«. X® v©Âš
beU¡fkhf cŸsJ v‹gij¡ F¿¡F«.
bghUSŸs ïlkâ¥òfŸ mªj v©Â‹ K¡»a
18. jÅ¥ãiH mšyJ rh®ãyh¥ãiH v‹whš v‹d? v©QU. msåLfËš bt›ntW myFfis¤
Éil. ïa‰ãaš g©gsÉ‹ mså£oš jÅ¥ãiH bjǪ bjL¥gjhš ïJ khwhJ.

s.
v‹gJ c©ik kâ¥ã‰F« fz¡»l¥g£l
kâ¥ã‰F« cŸs ntWgh£L msî. 25. ‘gÇkhz§fŸ' v‹gJ ahJ?
∆an = am – an Éil. ïa‰ãaš msÉ‹ gÇkhz¤ij¥ bgWtj‰fhf
mo¥gil msîfË‹ gÇkhz§fË‹

ok
19. msåL brŒjÈš ãiHfË‹ tiffŸ ahit?
Éil. (i)  Kiwahd ãiHfŸ: 1. fUÉ¥ãiHfŸ ca®¤j¥g£l gofns mªj ïa‰ãaš msÉ‹
2. brŒKiwÆ‹ FiwghLfŸ 3. jÅ¥g£l gÇkhz§fŸ MF«.
ãiHfŸ 4. òw¡fhuÂfshš V‰gL« ïl¥bga®¢á [L]
âir ntf« = = = [M0LT–1]
ãiHfŸ 5. Û¢á‰wsî ãiHfŸ fhy« [T]
o
(ii) xG§f‰w ãiHfŸ mšyJ thŒ¥ò ãiHfŸ 26. ML–1 T–2 gÇkhz thŒghL bfh©l ïa‰ãaš
(iii) bkh¤j¥ ãiHfŸ g©gsiyfis¡ F¿¥ãLf.
ab
20. ruhrÇ jÅ¥ãiH v‹gJ ahJ? Éil. mG¤j«, jifî, a§Fzf«, gUk Fzf«,
Éil. ruhrÇjÅ¥ãiH v‹gJ mid¤J msîfË‹ Éiw¥ò Fzf«, M‰wš, ml®¤â.
jÅ¥ ãiHfË‹ v© kâ¥òfË‹ T£L¢ruhrÇ
MF«. 27. Fiwªj kh¿fis¡ bfh©l gÇkhz§fS¡F
1 n vL¤J¡fh£L jUf.
ur

∆am = ∑ | ∆ai |
n i =1
Éil. (1) gu¥ò - [L2] (2) gUk‹ - [L3] (3) RH‰á
Mu« - [L] (4) mâ®bt© - [T–1] (5) nfhz¤âir
am – c©ikahd kâ¥ò.
ntf« - [T–1] (6) nfhzKL¡f« - [T–2]
∆am – ruhrÇ jÅ¥ãiH vÅš msîfË‹ v© (7) âirntf« - [LT–1] (8) KL¡f« - [LT–2]
.s

kâ¥òfŸ (am + ∆am  ) k‰W« (am – ∆am   ) ïilÆš (9) Ä©Q£l« - [AT] (10) Éir kh¿È - [MT–2]
ïU¡F«.
21. x¥Õ£L¥ãiH v‹whš v‹d? (m) ã‹d¥ãiH 28. x¥gl®¤â, nfhz«, âÇò ït‰¿‰F V‹ gÇkhz«
w

v‹whš v‹d?  [QY - 2018] ïšiy?


Éil. (i) r
 uhrÇ jÅ¥ ãiH¡F«, ruhrÇ c©ik bghUË‹ ml®¤â
Éil. (i) x¥gl®¤â 4ºc š ÚÇ‹ ml®¤â
kâ¥ã‰F« ïilnaahd jfî.
w

(ii) ïJ ã‹d¥ãiH mšyJ rh®ò¥ãiH vdî« ML−3


miH¡f¥gL»wJ. =−3
= M0L0T0
ruhrÇ jÅ¥ãiH ∆am ML
x¥Õ£L¥ ãiH = = Éš L
= M0L0T0
w

ruhrÇ kâ¥ò am (ii) nfhz« = =


Mu« L
22. ÉG¡fh£L¥ ãiH v‹whš v‹d?
Éil. x¥Õ£L¥ãiHÆ‹ ÉG¡fh£oš F¿¥ã£lhš mJ gÇkhzkh‰w« 0 0 0
ÉG¡fh£L¥ ãiH vd¥gL«.
(iii) âÇò =
_ygÇkhz« = M L T
∆am ïitfŸ xnu gÇkhz thŒghL cŸs ïU
ÉG¡fh£L¥ ãiH = × 100% ïa‰ãaš msîfË‹ jifthf ïU¥gjhš
am
gÇkhz§fŸ ïšiy.

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 31

29. ïa‰ãaÈš fhy msî k‰W« ÃiwfË‹ å¢R 35. ÚÇ‹ K¥òŸË v‹gJ ahJ?
g‰¿ TW. Éil. ÚÇ‹ K¥òŸË v‹gJ bjÉ£L ÚuhÉ, öaÚ®
Éil. vy¡£uh‹ k‰W« ònuh£lh‹fis cŸsl¡»a k‰W« cUF« gÅ¡f£o M»a _‹W«
Û¢áW msîfŸ Kjš thÅaš ÃfœîfŸ ngh‹w rkÃiyÆš cŸsnghJ cŸs bt¥gÃiy MF«.
Äf¥bgÇa msîfŸ tiu ïa‰ãaš vL¤Jiu¡»wJ. ÚÇ‹ K¥òŸË bt¥gÃiy 273.16 k.

m
(i) fhy msÉ‹ å¢R: thÅaš msîKjš
36. ã‹tU« tÊ msîfS¡fhd mt‰¿‹ rk‹ghL,
E©Âa msî tiu (1018 s Kjš 10–22 s)
myFfis¡ TW.
(ii) ÃiwfË‹ å¢R: Û¥bgU th‹
bghU£fËÈUªJ vy¡£uh‹ tiu. 1055 kg Éil. (1) Ãiyk¤âU¥g¤âw‹ (2) fz¤jh¡F Éir

co
(msÉl¡ Toa ãugŠr¤â‹ Ãiw) Kjš (3) mG¤j« (4) ~ãsh§¡ kh¿È
vy¡£uhÅ‹ Ãiw 9.11 × 10–31 kg tiu. (5) fhªj¤ö©lš (6) j‹ bt¥g«
30. bjhÊš E£g¤âš ïa‰ãaÈ‹ g§F ahJ? (7) Éirkh¿È (8) âU¥òÉir
Éil. ïa‰ãaÈ‹ nfh£ghLfis eilKiwÆš  (mšyJ) ÉirÆ‹ âU¥ò¤âw‹.

s.
ga‹gL¤Jtnj bjhÊš E£gkhF«. gšntW ïa‰ãaš rk‹ghL myF
JisfË‹ gaDŸs bghU£fis f©Lão¡fî« msî
mt‰iw¤ jahÇ¡fî« k‰W« eilKiw Ãiw × (bjhiyî)2 kg m2

ok
1 Ãiyk¤
ãu¢ridfis¤ Ô®¡fî« m¿î âwid âU¥ò¤
ga‹gL¤JtJnk bjhÊš E£gÉayhF«. âw‹
31. thÅaYl‹ ïa‰ãaÈ‹ bjhl®ò ahJ? 2 fz¤jh¡F Éir × fhy« NS
Éil. nfhŸfË‹ïa¡f« k‰W« th‹ bghU£fŸ g‰¿ Éir
o
m¿a thÅaš bjhiy neh¡»fŸ ga‹gL»‹wd. 3 mG¤j« Éir Nm–2
thÅayhs®fŸ m©l¤â‹ bjhiyöu¤ij mšyJ
ab
c‰W neh¡f nuonah bjhiy neh¡»ia gu¥ò Pa
ga‹gL¤J»‹wd®. ïa‰ãaš j¤Jt§fis¥ gh°fš
ga‹gL¤jš m©l¤âid¥ g‰¿¡ f‰W¡ bfhŸs 4 ~ãsh§¡ JS
Ko»wJ. ngh£lhÅ‹ M‰wš
kh¿È
32. SI myFKiwÆš Ãiw¡fhd my»‹ tiuKiw mâ®bt©
ur

ahJ?
5 fhªj¤ Éir NA–1
Éil. ÃiwÆ‹ myF »nyh»uh«. F¿pL kg. ghÇR¡F ö©lš m–1 (m)
mU»š r®t° v‹w ïl¤âš cŸs g‹dh£L Ä‹ndh£l« × Ús« bl°yh
.s

vilfŸ k‰W« msitfŸ ÃWtd¤âš 6 j‹ Jkg–1 k–1


bt¥g M‰wš
it¡f¥g£LŸs ãsh£od« - ïÇoa« cnyhf¡ bt¥g«
Ãiw × bt¥gÃiy
fyitÆyhd cUisÆ‹ Ãiwna xU »nyh»uh«
w

ïj‹ É£l« mj‹ cau¤â‰F¢rk«. 7 Éir Éir Nm–1


kh¿È
33. SI myF KiwÆš Ús¤ij tiuaW. ïl¥bga®¢á
Éil. Ús¤â‹ myF Û£l®. F¿pL m. bt‰¿l¤âš
w

8 âU¥ò Éir × bjhiyî Nm


1 Éir
behoÆš xËahdJ fl¡F«
299, 79, 2458
ghijÆ‹ Ús« 1 Û£l® MF«. 37. ik¡nuhr« (E©cyf«) cUth¡Fgit ahit?
w

34. xË¢ br¿É‰fhd SI myF ahJ? tiuaW? Éil. _y¡TWfŸ, mQ¡fŸ, ònuh£lh‹fŸ,
Hz mâ®bt© cila
Éil. nf©oyh. 5.40 × 1014 Ãô£uh‹fŸ, vy¡£uh‹fŸ, gh¡OÇah
xË_y« cÄG« x‰iw Ãw¡ fâ®å¢á‹ br¿î, ngh‹w bghU£fS« mt‰¿‹ ïilnaahd
1 bjhiyîfS« E© cyf¤ij cUth¡F»‹wd.
xU F¿¥ã£l âirÆš th£/°nuoa‹ vÅš
683
m¤âirÆš xË¢ br¿î xU nf©oyh MF«.

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32 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ bjhFâ 1
38. 10–5m Kjš 102m tiuÆyhd bjhiyîfis (ii) eåd ïa‰ãaš (modern physics)
v›thW ms¥ghŒ? (i) kuò ïa‰ãaš: (1) kuò vªâuÉaš,
Éil. 10–5m Kjš 102m tiuÆyhd bjhiyîfis (2) bt¥g ïa¡fÉaš (3) xËÆaš
neuo KiwÆš ms¡f Koí«. vL¤J¡fh£lhf (4) Ä‹ndh£lÉaY« fhªjÉaY«
10–3m Kjš 1 m tiuÆyhd bjhiyit (5) xÈÆaš (6) th‹ ïa‰ãaš (7) rh®ãaš

m
1 Û£l® msînfhiy¡ bfh©L ms¡f Koí«. (ii) eåd ïa‰ãaš: (1) Fth©l« vªâuÉaš
10–4m tiuÆyhd bjhiyit bt®Åa® msÉ (2) mQ ïa‰ãaš (3) mQ¡fU ïa‰ãaš
bfh©L«, 10–5m tiuÆyhd bjhiyia âUF (4) bghâî gU¥ bghUŸ ïa‰ãaš (5) ca®
msÉ bfh©L« ms¡f Koí«.

co
M‰wš ïa‰ãaš.
39. 50 mm tiuÆyhd bghU£fË‹ gÇkhz§fis ïa‰ifÆ‹ Éâfis btË¡ bfhz®tâš
msÉl¥ ga‹gL« fUÉ vJ? mj‹ j¤Jt« ahJ? JizòǪj mo¥gil m¿Éaš
Éil. (i)  UF msÉahdJ 50 mm tiuÆyhd
â ïa‰ãayhF«. ïj‹ bkhÊ fÂjÉayhF«.
Kj‹ KjÈš ts®¢áailªj m¿Éaš

s.
bghU£fË‹ gÇkhz§fis Äf¤
JšÈakhf msÉl¥ ga‹gL« fUÉ ãÇî thÅaY«, fÂjÉaYnkahF«.
vªâuÉaš v‹gJ ïU ãÇîfis cilaJ.
(ii) j¤Jt«: âU»‹ t£l ïa¡f¤ij¥ ga‹gL¤â miy ÃiyÆaš, ïa¡fÉirÆš. nkY«

ok
bgÇjh¡f¥g£l ne®¡nfh£L ïa¡fkhF«. ïa¡fÉirÆaš ïa¡fÉaš, ÉirÆaš
ïj‹ Û¢á‰wsî 0.01 mm. v‹w c£ãÇîfis¡ bfh©lJ.
áWÉdh¡fŸ: 3 kâ¥bg©fŸ 5. ïa‰ãaš f©Lão¥òfË‹ tiffŸ ahit?
1. gÇkhz¥ gF¥ghŒî Kiwia¥ ga‹gL¤â E = mc2 És¡Ff.
v‹w rk‹ghL rÇahdjh vd nrhâ¡f.
o Éil. (i) 
ïa‰ãaš f©Lão¥òfŸ ïU tif¥gL«.
 [Govt.MQP-2018] (1) j‰brayhd f©Lão¥òfŸ (2) cŸSz®î
ab
Éil. E = mc 2
v‹w ïa¡f¢ rk‹gh£il vL¤J¡ _y« f¤jt‰iw MŒtf§fŸ _y« e‹F
bfhŸsî«. gF¥ghŒî brŒJ f©l¿jš.
ML2 T–2 = [M] . [LT–1]2 ; ML2 T–2 = [M][L2T–2] (ii) vL¤J¡fh£lhf fhªj¤ j‹ik j‰brayhf
czu¥g£lJ.
ïªj rk‹ghL gÇkhz KiwÆš rÇahdJ.
ur

(iii) Mdhš fhªjÉaÈ‹ Éndhj¥ g©òfŸ


2. ïU Ä‹jilfŸ R1 = (100 ± 3)Ω k‰W« R2 = nfh£gh£lsÉš gF¥ghŒî brŒa¥g£ld.
(150 ± 2)Ω bjhl® ïiz¥ãš ïiz¡f¥ g£LŸsd. ïªj¥ gF¥ghŒî fhªj¥ bghU£fË‹
mt‰¿‹ bjhFga‹ Ä‹jil ahJ?[Govt.MQP-2018] mo¥gil¥ g©òfis btË¥gL¤âaJ.
.s

Éil. R1 = (100 ± 3) Ω; R2 = (150 ± 2) Ω (iv) ïj‹ _y« bra‰if¡ fhªj§fŸ


bjhFga‹ Ä‹jil R = ? MŒtf¤âš cUth¡f¥g£ld.
R = R1 + R2 (v) ïa‰ãaš nfh£ghLfis ga‹gL¤â
w


= (100 ± 3) + (150 ± 2) = (100 + 150) ± (3 + 2) K‹d¿í« KiwahdJ bjhÊš E£g«
k‰W« kU¤Jt¤ JiwÆ‹ ts®¢áÆš
R = (250 ± 5) Ω
K¡»a g§F t»¡»wJ (c.«) #‹°OÅ‹
3. hc/G v‹w rk‹gh£o‰FÇa gÇkhz thŒ¥gh£il
w

fU¤âaš ßâahf f©l¿a¥g£l E = mc2


jUf.  [QY-2018]
rk‹ghL.
Éil. h, c, G Æ‹ gÇkhz thŒ¥ghL
h – [ML2T–1], c – [LT–1] (vi) nfh£ghL ßâahd fÂ¥òfS«,
w

G – [M–1L3T–2] fz¡Ñ£L eilKiwfS« K¡»akhd


ga‹ghLfS¡F¤ njit¥gL« bghU¤jkhd
hc [ ML2T −1 ][ LT −1 ] _y¥bghU£fis¤ nj®î brŒa¥
= = [M2]
G [M L T ]
−1 3 −2 ga‹gL»‹wd. (c.«) kUªJ jahÇ¥ò
4. ïa‰ãaÈ‹ ãÇîfŸ v¤jid tif¥gL« mit ÃWtd§fŸ òâa kUªJ¥ bghU£fis¤
ahit? jahÇ¡f ïªj mQF Kiwiana
Éil. (i) kuò ïa‰ãaš (classical physics)
ga‹gL¤J»‹wd.

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 33

6. vªâuÉaÈš ga‹gL« bghJthd myF Kiwfis 8. nuoa‹ o»Ç k‰W« ÄÅ£° ït‰¿‰»ilnaahd
És¡F. bjhl®ãid¤ jUf.
Éil. vªâuÉaÈš ga‹gL« bghJthd myF KiwfŸ Éil.
π
(i) f.p.s. myF Kiw X® ãÇ£oZ myF 1° = nuoa‹ = 1.745 × 10–7 nuoa‹
180
KiwahF«. ï«KiwÆš Ús«, Ãiw k‰W«
1 1.745 × 10 −2

m
fhy¤ij ms¡f Kiwna mo (Foot), gî©£ ∴ 1' =
= = 2.908 × 10–4 nuoa‹
60 60
(Pound), Édho (Second) M»a _‹W ≈ 2.91 × 10–4 nuoa‹
mo¥gil myFfŸ ga‹gL¤j¥gL»‹wd. 1 1.745 × 10 −2
ïJ bk£Ç¡ myFKiw mšy. ∴ 1'' =
=

co
3600 3600
(ii) c.g.s. myF Kiw ïJ X® fh°Ìa‹
= 4.847 × 10 nuoa‹ = 4.85 × 10–6 nuoa‹
–6
(Gaussian) KiwahF«. ï«KiwÆš Ús«,
Ãiw k‰W« fhy¤ij ms¡f Kiwna 9. AU, xË M©L k‰W« g®br¡ ït‰¿š bgÇa
br‹oÛ£l®, »uh« k‰W« Édho M»a _‹W msî vJ? tÇir¥gL¤J. NÇaÅÈUªJ òÉÆ‹

s.
mo¥gil myFfŸ ga‹gL¤j¥gL»‹wd. ruhrǤ bjhiyÉid (i) xË M©L (ii) g®br¡
ït‰¿š F¿¥ãL.
(ii) m.k.s. myF Kiw ï«KiwÆš Ús«, Ãiw
k‰W« fhy¤ij ms¡f Kiwna Û£l®, Éil. g®br¡
bgÇa myF MF«.

ok
»nyh»uh« k‰W« Édho M»a _‹W g®br¡ > xË M©L > mQmyF
mo¥gil myFfŸ ga‹gL¤j¥gL»‹wd. 3.08 × 1016m > 9.467 × 1015m > 1.496 × 1011m
7. òÉÆÈUªJ ÃyÉ‹ bjhiyit ïlkhW NÇaÅÈUªJ òÉÆ‹ ruhrǤ bjhiyî (d)
njh‰wKiw _y« fz¡ÑLf. (thÅaš myF)
Éil. òÉÆÈUªJ ÃyÉ‹ bjhiyit¡ fz¡»Ljš
o (i) d = 1 AU = 1.496 × 1011 m
(ïlkhW njh‰wKiw):
1.496 × 1011
ab
(i) gl¤âš C v‹gJ òÉÆ‹ ika«. A k‰W« = 15
= 1.58 × 10–15 xË M©L
B v‹gJ òÉ nk‰gu¥ãš ne® vâbuâuhd 9.46 × 10
11
gFâfŸ. thÅaš bjhiy neh¡»Æ‹ (ii) d = 1.496 × 1016 g®br¡ = 4.86 × 10–6 g®br¡
cjÉahš A k‰W« B ÆÈUªJ mU»š 3.08 × 10
cŸs É©ÛD¡F« rªâuD¡F« (M) 10. msÉ‹ mL¡»dhš V‰gL« ãiHÆid És¡Ff.
ur

ïilnaahd ïlkhW njh‰w¡nfhz« Éil. msÉ‹ mL¡»dhš ã‰gL« ãiH


Kiwna ¸θ1 k‰W« ¸θ2 f©l¿a¥gL»wJ. A Æ‹ n tJ mL¡F Z v‹f Z = An
(ii) vdnt, òÉÆÈUªJ ÃyÉ‹ bkh¤j ïlkhW

Z ‹ ãiH ∆Z vÅš
.s

n
∆A 
njh‰w nfhz« Z ± ∆Z = (A ± ∆A)n = An 1± 
∠AMB = θ1+ θ2 = θ  A 
∆A 
AB = Z 1± n
w

θ= ; AM ≈ MC  
AM A 
AB AB n
θ= ⇒MC = ; AB k‰W« θ (ï§F x << 1, (1 + x) ≈ 1 + nx v‹w rk‹ghL
MC θ ga‹gL¤j¥gL»wJ)
w

kâ¥ò m¿ªâUªjhš òÉ¡F« rªâuD¡F«, ïUòwK« Z Mš tF¡f


ïilnaahd bjhiyit (MC) fz¡»lyh«.
S1 ∆Z ∆A ∆Z ∆A
M
1± = 1± n ⇒ =n
S2

Z A Z A
w

θ
θ1 θ2
xU msÉ‹ n MtJ mL¡»‹ bgUk ã‹d¥
ãiHahdJ. mj‹ ã‹d¥ãiHia n Mš
A C B bgU¡FjY¡F rk«.
Ap Bq
ïlkhW njh‰wKiwÆ‹ _y« òÉÆÈUªJ bghJthd ÉâfŸ vÅš Z = š bgUk
rªâuÅ‹ bjhiyit¡ fz¡»Ljš ã‹d¥ ãiH Cr

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34 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ bjhFâ 1
∆Z ∆A ∆B ∆C (ii) gÇkhzk‰w kh¿fŸ
=p +q +r vªj ïa‰ãaš msîfŸ gÇkhz«
Z A B C
mj‹ ÉG¡fh£L¥ãiH m‰W Mdhš khWg£l kâ¥òfis¡
bfh©LŸsnjh mit gÇkhzk‰w kh¿fŸ
∆Z ∆A ∆B ∆C vd miH¡f¥gL»‹wd.v.fh :- x¥gl®¤â,
× 100 = p × 100 + q × 100 + r × 100
Z A B C

m
âÇò, xËÉyfš v© k‰W« gy.
11. nrhjid Kiw ãiHfis¡ Fiw¥gj‰F¥ (iii) gÇkhzKŸs kh¿ÈfŸ
ga‹gL« Kiwfis vL¤J¡fh£Ll‹ És¡F. vªj ïa‰ãaš msîfŸ gÇkhz¤Jl‹
Ãiyahd kâ¥ig¥ bg‰WŸsnjh

co
Éil. nrhjid Kiw ãiHfis Fiw¤jš
mit gÇkhzKŸs kh¿ÈfŸ vd
ãiHÆ‹ vL¤J¡fh£L Fiw¡F«
miH¡f¥gL»wJ. v.fh:- <®¥ãaš kh¿È,
tiffŸ tÊKiw
ãsh§ kh¿È k‰W« gy.
xG§f‰w xU tisa¤â‹ mâf v©Â¡ifÆš
ãiHfŸ Ãiwia Ãiwia fh©f. (iv) gÇkhzk‰w kh¿ÈfŸ

s.
_‹W Kiw òŸËÆaš gF¥ghŒî xU kh¿È gÇkhzk‰W ïU¥ã‹ mit
xnu juhir¡ _y« xG§f‰w gÇkhzk‰w kh¿ÈfŸ vd¥gL»‹wd.
bfh©L ãiHfis fz¡ÑL v.fh:- π, e (MŒy® v©) v©fŸ k‰W« gy.

ok
msÉLtjhf¡ brŒa Koí«. nkY«
bfhŸnth«. mâf v©Â¡ifÆš 13. gÇkhz KiwÆš bfhL¡f¥g£l ïa‰ãaš
ïjdhš Û©L« Û©L« rk‹gh£il rÇah vd nrhâ¡f¥gLjiy
bgw¥g£l brŒJ gh®¥gj‹ vL¤J¡fh£Ll‹ És¡Ff:
á¿J khWg£l _y« bgw¥gL«
Éil. gÇkhz KiwÆš bfhL¡f¥g£l ïa‰ãaš
msîfŸ kâ¥òfË‹
o
ruhrÇia¡ bfh©L rk‹gh£il rÇah vd nrhâ¤jš.
Fiw¡f Koí«. v = u + at v‹w ïa¡f¢ rk‹gh£il vL¤J¡
ab
Kiwahd xU tUl¤â‰F Kiwahd
ãiHfŸ nkyhf¥ ãiHfis¡ bfhŸnth«.
ga‹gL¤j¥gL« f©l¿tJ Äfî« [LT–1] = [LT–1] + [LT–2] [T]
Ú£l¥g£l JÂ fod« mjid [LT–1] = [LT–1] + [LT–1]
msî ehlh òŸËÆš KiwÆš

ur

msî¡nfhiy¡ gF¥ghŒî brŒa (xnu khâÇahd gÇkhz§fŸ bg‰WŸs


bfh©L xU KoahJ. VbdÅš msîfisna T£l Koí«)
bghUË‹ mid¤J ïUòwK« cŸs gÇkhz§fŸ rk« v‹gij
Ús¤ij msåLfS« xnu eh« fh©»nwh«. vdnt ïªj rk‹ghL gÇkhz
.s

ms¥gjhf¡ KiwÆš ïU¡F« KiwÆš rÇahdJ.


bfhŸnth« (Äf mâf« mšyJ
(msÉl¥gL« Äf¡ Fiwî) 14. bt›ntW ïa‰ãaš msîfS¡»ilna cŸs
všyh bjhl®ãid¤ jU« rk‹gh£oid gÇkhz
w

Ús§fS« thŒ¥gh£o‹ _y« bgWf.


rÇahf Éil. bt›ntWïa‰ãaš msîfS¡»ilna cŸs
ïU¥gâšiy).
bjhl®ãid¤ jU« rk‹gh£oid¥ bgWjš.
w

12. gÇkhz§fis¥ bghW¤J ïa‰ãaš msîfis


Q v‹w ïa‰ãaš msî Q1, Q2 k‰W« Q3
v¤jid tiffshf tif¥gL¤j Koí«?
M»at‰iw¥ bghW¤jJ vÅš
Éil. (i) gÇkhzKŸs kh¿fŸ a
Q ∝ Q1 Qb2 Q3c ; Q = k Q1a Qb2 Q3c
w

vªj X® ïa‰ãaš msî gÇkhz¤ijí«


khWg£l kâ¥òfisí« bg‰WŸsnjh ï§F k - gÇkhzk‰w kh¿È. Q, Q1, Q2 k‰W«
mit gÇkhzKŸs kh¿fŸ vd Q3 M»at‰¿‹ gÇkhz thŒ¥gh£il ãuâÆ£L,
miH¡f¥gL»‹wd. v.fh:- gu¥ò, fd msî, gÇkhz¤â‹ xU go¤jhd be¿Kiw¥go M, L, T
âirntf« k‰W« gy. mL¡FfŸ ïUòwK« rk‹gL¤j¥gL»wJ.
ïj‹ _y« a, b, c -ï‹ kâ¥òfis¥ bg‰W
rk‹gh£il¥ bgwyh«.

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 35

15. gÇkhz¥ gF¥ghŒÉ‹ tu«òfŸ ahit? ∑ ∆Tt


(iii) ruhrÇ jÅ¥ãiH =
Éil. gÇkhz gF¥ghŒÉ‹ tu«òfŸ n
(i) v©fŸ, π, e (MŒy® v©) ngh‹w DTm = 0 . 01 + 0 . 06 + 0. 20 + 0.09 + 0.18
gÇkhzk‰w kh¿ÈfË‹ kâ¥ig 5
ï«KiwÆ‹ _y« bgw KoahJ. 0.54
DTm = = 0.108s = 0.11s
5

m
(ii) bfhL¡f¥g£LŸs msî bt¡l® msth? (ïu©L jrk v©Â‰F KGik¥gL¤j¥g£lJ)
mšyJ °nfy® msth? v‹gij ï«Kiw ∆T 0.11
m
_y« Ô®khÅ¡f KoahJ. (iv) x¥Õ£L¥ãiH: ST = ⇒ ST = = 0.0419;
Tm 2.62
ST = 0.04

co
(iii) âÇnfhzÄâ, mL¡F¡F¿ k‰W« kl¡if 
rh®òfŸ cŸsl§»a rk‹ghLfË‹ bjhl®ò (v) ÉG¡fh£L¥ãiH = 0.04 × 100% = 4%
fis¡ f©l¿a ï«KiwÆš ïayhJ. (vi) jÅ CrÈ‹ miyî T = (2.62 ± 0.11)s

(iv) _‹W¡F nk‰g£l ïa‰ãaš msîfŸ 2. SI myF KiwÆ‹ VG mo¥gil msîfisí«


m£ltiz¥gL¤J.

s.
cŸsl§»a rk‹ghLfS¡F ï«Kiwia¥
ga‹gL¤j ïayhJ. Éil. m¿Éaš m¿P®fŸ k‰W« bgh¿Æaš
tšYd®fshš cyf« KGtJ« ga‹gL¤j¥g£l
(v) ï«KiwiwÆš xU rk‹ghL gÇkhz myF Kiw bk£Ç¡ Kiw (Metric System) vd

ok
KiwÆš rÇahdjh, v‹nw bkŒ¥ã¡f miH¡f¥g£lJ. 1960 ¡F ãwF ïJ g‹dh£L
Koí« mj‹ c©ikahd rk‹gh£il¡ myF Kiw mšyJ SI myF Kiwahf (Systeme
International - French name) midtuhY«
f©l¿a KoahJ.
V‰W¡bfhŸs¥g£lJ. cyfshÉa m¿Éaš,
vL¤J¡fh£lhf, s = ut + 1/3 at2 v‹gJ o bjhÊšE£g«, bjhÊš Jiw k‰W« tÂf¥
gÇkhz Kiw¥go rÇ. Mdhš c©ikahd ga‹gh£o‰fhf, 1971 ïš eilbg‰w vilfŸ
rk‹ghL s = ut +1/2 at2 MF«. k‰W« msåLfŸ bghJkheh£oš SI myF
KiwÆ‹ Ãiyahd â£l¡ F¿pLfŸ, myFfŸ
ab
beLÉdh¡fŸ: 5 kâ¥bg©fŸ k‰W« RU¡f¡F¿pLfŸ cUth¡f¥g£L
midtuhY« V‰W¡bfhŸs¥g£ld.
1. xU nrhjidÆš mL¤jL¤J bjhl®¢áahf (i) ï«KiwÆš xU ïa‰ãaš msɉF xnu xU
msåL brŒí« bghGJ, jÅ CrÈ‹ miyî myF k£Lnk ga‹gL¤j¥gL»wJ. mjhtJ
neu¤â‰fhd bgw¥g£l msåLfŸ 2.63s, 2.56s, 2.42s,
ur

ï«Kiw X® g§Ñ£L, gF¤j¿î¡»irªj


2.71s k‰W« 2.80s vÅš (i) miyî fhy¤â‹ ruhrÇ (rational method) KiwahF«.
kâ¥ò. (ii) x›bthU mså£o‰F« jÅ¥ãiH, (ii) ï«KiwÆš mid¤J tÊ myFfS«,
(iii) ruhrÇ jÅ¥ãiH (iv) x¥Õ£L ãiH (v) ÉG¡fh£L mo¥gil myFfËš ïUªJ vËjhf
.s

ãiH M»at‰iw fz¡»Lf. Koîfis jUÉ¡f¥gL»‹wd. vdnt, ïJ X® XÇaš


Kiwahd toÉš jUf.  [Govt. MQP-2018] (coherent) myF KiwahF«.
Éil. t1 = 2.63s, t2 = 2.56s, t3 = 2.42s, t4 = 2.71s, t5 = 2.80s (iii) ïJ X® bk£Ç¡ myF Kiwahjyhš bgU¡fš
k‰W« Jiz¥bgU¡fš M»ad 10 ï‹
w

(i) ruhrÇ kl§Ffshf neuoahf ju¥gL»‹wd. SI


2.63 + 2.56 + 2.42 + 2.71 + 2.80
T t1 + t2 + t3 + t4 + t5 = myF KiwÆ‹ VG mo¥gil msîfS«
5 5
m£ltizÆš bjhF¡f¥g£LŸsd.
Tm = 13.12 = 2.624s
w

5 mo¥gil msîfS« mt‰¿‹ SI myFfS«


Tm = 2.62s
(ïU jrk v©Â‰F¤ âU¤jkhf KGik¥ mo¥gil myF F¿pL
gL¤j¥g£lJ) msîfŸ
w

(ii) jÅ¥ãiH = ΔT = Tm – t Ús« Û£l® m


Δ T1 = 2.62 – 2.63 = 0.01s, Δ T2 = 2.62 – 2.56 = + 0.06s Ãiw »nyh»uh« kg
Δ T3 = 2.62 – 2.42 = + 0.20s, Δ T4 = 2.62 – 2.71 = – 0.09s fhy« Édho s
Δ T5 = 2.62 – 2.80 = – 0.18s Ä‹ndh£l« M«ãa® A
bt¥gÃiy bfšÉ‹ K
bghUË‹ msî nkhš mol
xË¢br¿î nf©oyh cd

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36 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ bjhFâ 1
3. ãiH gF¥ghŒÉ‹ Ñœ tU« ãiHfË‹ fz¡Ñ£L vL¤J¡fh£lhf, xU fh® 62 km h–1 ntf¤âš
Kiwíl‹ ÉtÇ. bršY«nghJ, ntfkhÅ fh£L« msî
Éil. (i) jÅ¥ãiH (Absolute error) X® msÉ‹ 60 km h–1 ï§F jÅ¥ãiH 62–60 = 2 km h–1
c©ikahd kâ¥ã‰F« msÉl¥g£l MF«. x¥Õ£L ãiH = 2/60 =0.033.s
kâ¥ã‰F« ïilna cŸs ntWghL jÅ¥ãiH
(iv) ÉG¡fh£L¥ãiH (Percentage error) x¥Õ£L¥
vd¥gL«. n Kiw 'a' nrhjid Ãfœ¤j¥g£l

m
`a' v‹w xU msÉ‹ msÉl¥g£l kâ¥òfŸ ãiHÆid ÉG¡fh£oš F¿¥ã£lhš, mJ
a1, a2, a3, .....an vÅš mt‰¿‹ T£L¢ ruhrÇ ÉG¡fh£L¥ ãiH vd¥gL«.
kâ¥ng mªj msÉ‹ c©ikahd kâ¥ò ÉG¡fh£L¥ ãiH RÊ¡F Äf mU»š

co
(am) vd miH¡f¥gL»wJ. ïUªjhš, mªj msåL c©ikahd
a1 + a2 + a3 + .............. + an msɉF Äf mU»š vL¡f¥g£l
am = msålhF«. ïJ rÇahdJ«, V‰W¡
n
mšyJ bfhŸs¡ToaJ« MF«. ï¥ãiHfŸ

s.
1 n JšÈak‰w fUÉÆdhš V‰gL»wjh mšyJ
am = ∑ ai jtwhd gÇnrhjid Kiwfshš V‰gL»wjh
n i =1
v‹gij¥ òǪJbfhŸtJ mtáakh»wJ.
msÉl¥g£l kâ¥òfË‹ jÅ¥ãiHfŸ

ok
4. ïU msîfis¥ bgU¡Ftjhš, tF¥gjhš V‰gL«
∆a1 = am − a1
ãiHfis ÉtÇ.
∆a2 = am − a2 Éil. ïU msîfis¥ bgU¡Ftjhš V‰gL« ãiHfŸ :
........................o (i) ∆A k‰W« ∆B v‹gd Kiwna A, B v‹w
msîfË‹ jÅ¥ ãiHfŸ v‹f
..........................
mt‰¿‹ bgU¡fšgy‹ Z = AB
∆an = am − an Z ï‹ ãiH ∆Z MF«.
ab
(ii) ruhrÇ jÅ¥ãiH (Mean Absoulte error) ruhrÇ Z ± ∆Z = (A ± ∆A) (B ± ∆B)
jÅ¥ ãiH v‹gJ mid¤J msîfË‹
= (AB) ± (A ∆ B) ± (B ∆ A) ± (∆A . ∆B)
jÅ¥ ãiHfË‹ v© kâ¥òfË‹ T£L¢
ruhrÇ MF«. ïlJ òw¤ij Z MY« tyJ òw¤ij AB
ur

ÆY« tF¡f eh« bgWtJ.


∆a + ∆a2 + ∆a3 + ........... + ∆an
∆am = 1 1±
∆Z
=1±
∆B ∆A ∆A ∆B
± ± .
n Z B A A B
1 n ∆A ∆B
mšyJ am = ∑ ∆ai , M»ait Äf¡ Fiwªj msî.
.s


n i =1 A B ∆A ∆B
am v‹gJ c©ikahd kâ¥ò, ∆am v‹gJ vdnt mt‰¿‹ bgU¡fš .
A B
ruhrÇ jÅ¥ ãiH vÅš, msîfË‹ v© òw¡f¡f¥gL»wJ. ï‹ bgUk ã‹d¥
w

kâ¥òfŸ (am + ∆am) k‰W« (am – ∆am) ãiH


ïilÆš ïU¡F«. ∆Z  ∆A ∆B 
= ± + 
(iii) x¥Õ£L¥ãiH (Relative error) ruhrÇ Z  A B
w

jÅ¥ãiH¡F«, ruhrÇ kâ¥ã‰F« (c©ik ïU msîfis¥ bgU¡Ftjhš V‰gL«


kâ¥ã‰F«) ïilnaahd jfî x¥Õ£L¥ ãiH bgUk¥ ã‹d¥ ãiHahdJ jŤjÅ
vd¥gL«. ïJ ã‹d¥ ãiH mšyJ rh®ò¥ msîfË‹ ã‹d¥ ãiHfË‹ TLjY¡F¢
w

ãiH vdî« miH¡f¥gL»wJ. rk«.


ruhrÇ jÅ¥ãiH ∆am (ii) ïU msîfis tF¥gjhš V‰gL« ãiHfŸ
x¥Õ£L¥ ãiH = = ∆A k‰W« ∆B v‹gd Kiwna A, B v‹w
ruhrÇ kâ¥ò am
msÉl¥g£l bghUË‹ bkh¤j msîfË‹ jÅ¥ ãiHfŸ v‹f
gÇkhz¤Jl‹ x¥ãL«nghJ jÅ¥ ãiH A
mt‰¿‹ ã‹d« Z =
v›tsî bgÇaJ v‹gij ÉtÇ¥gnj B
x¥Õ£L¥ ãiHahF«. Z ‹ ∆Z ãiH MF«.

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 1 ➠ ïaš cyf¤â‹ j‹ikí« mså£oaY« 37

∆A  b) myFl‹ M) 30700m
A 1 ± vGj¥gL« ïa‰ãaš MdJ
A ± ∆A  A 
Z ± ∆Z = = msåLfËš IªJ K¡»a
B ± ∆B ∆B 
B 1 ±
tU« všyh v©QU¡fŸ
 B RÊfS« K¡»a bfh©lJ.
−1
v©QU¡fns
A  ∆A   ∆B 

m
=  1 ±  1 ±  v) x‹iw Él¡ 0.00345 MdJ
B  A  B Fiwthd _‹W K¡»a
mšyJ jrk v©Âš, v©QU¡fis
 ∆A   ∆B  jrkòŸË¡F tyJ bfh©lJ

co
= Z ± ∆Z = Z 1 ±  1∓  òwK« Mdhš Kjš
A  B RÊa‰w v©Q¡F
[x<<1] Mf ïU¡F«nghJ (1 + x)n ≈ 1 + nx] ïlJòwK« tU«
ïUòwK« Z Mš tF¡f, RÊfŸ K¡»a
v©QU¡fŸ
∆Z  ∆A   ∆B  MfhJ
1± = 1 ±  1∓

s.

Z  A  B vi) jrkòŸË¡F tyJ 40.00 K¡»a
∆A ∆B ∆A ∆B òw« cŸs RÊfS« v©QU eh‹F
= 1 ± ∓ ∓ . jrk v©Âš bfh©lJ.
A B A B

ok
∆A/A, ∆B/B Äf¡ Fiwî, vdnt mt‰¿‹ RÊa‰w v©Â‹ 0.030400 K¡»a
tyJ òwK« cŸs v©QU IªJ
bgU¡fšgy‹ òw¡f¡f j¡fJ. Z ï‹ RÊfŸ K¡»a bfh©lJ.
∆Z
 ∆A
 ∆B v©QU¡fŸ
bgUk ã‹d¥ãiH, = +  MF«.
Z  A B
ïU msîfis tF¥gjhš bgw¥gL« vii) K¡»a v©QU¡fŸ 1.53 cm,
bgUkã‹d¥ ãiHahdJ
o
jŤjÅ my»L« Kiwia 0.0153 m,
msîfË‹ ã‹d¥ãiHfË‹ TLjY¡F¢ bghU¤jJ mšy. 0.0000153 km
ab
M»ait _‹W
rk«. K¡»a v©QU
5. K¡»a v©QU¡fis fz¡»LjÈš Éâfis
bfh©lJ.
vL¤J¡fh£Ll‹ m£ltiz¥gL¤J. 6. KGik¥gL¤jÈ‹ Éâfis vL¤J¡fh£Ll‹
Éil. K¡»a v©QU¡fis fz¡»Ltj‹ ÉâfŸ m£ltiz¥gL¤J.
ur

t. Éil. KGik¥gL¤jÈ‹ ÉâfŸ


v©. ÉâfŸ vL¤J¡fh£L
t. ÉâfŸ vL¤J¡fh£L
i) RÊa‰w mid¤J 1342 MdJ v©.
v©fS« K¡»a eh‹F K¡»a
.s

v©QU¡fŸ v©QU¡fis i) K¡»a v©QU i) 7.32 MdJ


MF«. bfh©lJ. mšyhj X® ïy¡f« 7.3 Mf
ii) RÊa‰w ïU 2008 MdJ IªJ¡F Fiwî KGik¥gL¤j¥
v©fS¡F ïil¥ eh‹F K¡»a
w

vÅš Ú¡f¥gL»wJ. gL»wJ.


g£l RÊfŸ K¡»a v©QU¡fis vdnt mj‰F K‹ò
v©QU¡fŸ bfh©lJ ii) 8.94 MdJ
MF«. cŸs ïy¡f« 8.9 Mf KGik¥
khwhJ
w

iii) RÊa‰w v©fS¡F 30700 MdJ gL¤j¥gL»wJ.


tyJ òwK« Mdhš IªJ K¡»a ii) K¡»a v©QU i) 17.26 MdJ
jrk òŸË¡F ïlJ v©QU¡fis mšyhj X® ïy¡f« 17.3 Mf
òwK« cŸs RÊfŸ bfh©lJ.
Iªij Él mâf« KGikah¡f¥
w

K¡»a v©QU¡fŸ
MF« vÅš mJ Ú¡f¥g£L gL»wJ.
iv) a) jrk òŸË m‰w m) 30700 MdJ mj‰F K‹ò cŸs ii) 11.89 MdJ
xU v©Âš _‹W K¡»a ïy¡f¤Jl‹ 1 I 11.9 Mf
ïWâahf tU« v©QU¡fŸ mâfÇ¡f nt©L«. KGikah¡f¥
RÊfŸ K¡»a bfh©lJ.
v©QU¡fŸ gL»wJ
MfhJ.

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ JfŸfshyhd mik¥ò k‰W« â©k¥bghU£fË‹ ïa¡f« 193

→ → (iii) vdnt Ãiw ika« XŒî ÃiyÆš


it r mšyJ p nahL nr®ªJ vGj →

Koí«. ïU¡F« nghJ vCM RÊahF«. Óuhd


L = r (p sinθ) = r (p⊥) ïa¡f¤âš cŸsnghJ Ãiwika¤â‹

L = r (sinθ)p = r (⊥)p âirntf« kh¿Èahf ïU¡F«. ( vCM = 0

m
(iii) ï§F, p⊥ v‹gJ r ¡F br§F¤jhd →
or vCM = kh¿È). ï§nf Ãiw ikakhdJ
( )
ne®nfh£L cªj¤â‹ TW, mij¥ngh‹w
r⊥ v‹gJ p ¡F br§F¤jhd Ãiybt¡lÇ‹ KL¡f¤âid¡ bfh©oU¡fhJ a→ = 0
CM
TW.

co
rk‹ghL
(iv) ne®¡nfh£L cªj« RÊahF« nghnjh →

(p = 0) mšyJ JfshdJ Mâ¥òŸËÆš



v CM =
∑m v i i
= 0 mšyJ kh¿È

( r =0) cŸsýnghnjh mšyJ

r k‰W« ∑m i

s.
→ →
p ïizahd âirÆnyh, vâbuâuhd


a CM =
∑m a i i
=0
âirÆnyh mikªâU¡F« (θ = 0 or 180º)
nghnjh nfhz cªj« RÊ (L = 0) MF«.
∑m i

ok
(iv) ï§F x›bthU JfS« mfÉirÆ‹
beLÉdh¡fŸ: 5 kâ¥bg©fŸ fhuzkhf mt‰¿‹ âirntf« k‰W«
1. xU â©k¥ bghUŸ ïa§F«nghJ ÃiwikaK« KL¡f¤Jl‹ ïa§F»‹wd. òwÉirfŸ
bghUnshL nr®ªnj ïa§F»wJ v‹gij Ã%ã.o brašgL«nghJ (i.e Fext ≠ 0) Ãiwika¤â‹
Éil. (i) xU â©k¥ bghUŸ ïa§F« nghJ, KL¡f¤â‰fhd rk‹gh£il Ñœ¡f©lthW
mj‹ Ãiw ikaK« bghUnshL nr®ªnj bgwyh«.
ïa§F«. Ãiw ika¤â‹ âir ntf«
ab

(VCM) KL¡f«a (aCM)ngh‹w ïa¡fÉaš
(∑ mi ) a CM ; F ext = M a CM ; a CM = FMext
→ → → → →
msîfis¥ bgw, Ãiw ika¤â‹ Ãiyia F ext =
bjhl® tifpL. brŒtj‹ _y« bgwyh«.
vËikahf¡ fz¡»l, bghUŸ X - m¢áš 2. nfhz cªj« k‰W« nfhz¤âirntf«
k£L« ïa§Ftjhf¡ fUJnth«.
ur

ït‰¿‰fhd¤ bjhl®ãid¤ jUÉ.



 dx i  Éil. (i) Ãiyahd m¢ir¥g‰¿ RHY« â©k¥
dx CM ∑ i  dt 
 m bghUŸ x‹iw¡ fUJf. gl¤âš cŸsthW

v CM = = m Ãiwíila òŸË ÃiwahdJ Ãiyahd
dt ∑mi
.s

m¢ir¥ g‰¿ RH‰áia V‰gL¤J»wJ.




v CM =
∑mi v i ω
L

∑mi
w

 F
 dv 

 
d  dx CM   dv CM  ∑mi  dti 
a CM =  = =
dt  dt   dt  ∑mi
r m
w



a CM =
∑miai
∑mi
w

→ →

(ii) òw ÉirfŸ ïšyhj Fext = 0 mik¥ã‹ (ii) L v‹gJ Ãiy bt¡l® r ¡F br§F¤jhd

jŤjÅahd JfŸfŸ mfÉirÆdhš
k£Lnk ïa¡fnkh mšyJ ïl¥bga®nth nfhz cªj« k‰W« p v‹gJ ne®¡nfh£L
milí«. ïJ Ãiwika¤â‹ Ãiyia cªj bt¡l® v‹f.
ghâ¡fhJ. mjhtJ òwÉir ïšyhj bghJ (iii) nfhz cªj« ne®¡nfh£L cªj¤â‹
Ãiw ika« XŒî ÃiyÆnyh mšyJ Óuhd âU¥ò¤âw‹ v‹gjhš,
ïa¡fÃiyÆnyh ïU¡F«.

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194 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ 1 ➠ myF 5

L = r psin 90º [ sin 90º =1] (viii) bghUË‹ vilia msÉL« nfhš juhR
L = r mv = rm rw sin 90º  [ p = mv] ï¤j¤Jt¤ij¡ bfh©L d1 = d2 k‰W«
2
L = mr ω F1 = F2 v‹w ÃgªjidÆ‹ Ñœ brašgL»wJ.
(iv) mid¤J JfŸfS¡F«, mr2 = ∑ mi ri 2 (ix) ïaªâu yhg« (MA):
(v) vdnt,
rk‹ghL (1) ÈUªJ,
(∑ m r ) ω

m
L= 2
i i
F1 d 2  ...(2)
L = Iw =
F2 d1
ï§F, I = ∑ mi ri 2 â©k¥bghUË‹ Ãiyk¤

co
(x) F1 v‹gJ gS k‰W« F2 v‹gJ Ka‰á
âU¥ò¤âw‹, vÅš, d1 < d2 vD«nghJ ek¡F mDTy«
(vi) bt¡l® tot¤âš, »il¡F«. ïJ F1 > F2 v‹gij¡ F¿¡»wJ.
→ → Mifahš, eh« bgÇa gSit Fiwªj
L = Iω Ka‰áahš ö¡f Koí«.

s.
3. âU¥ò¤ âw‹fË‹ j¤Jt¤ij ÉtÇ?
 d2 
Éil. (i) T‰W: xU bghUŸ rkÃiyÆš cŸsnghJ, (xi) rk‹ghL (2)š  d  v‹gJ vËa
mj‹ ïlŠRÊ âU¥ò¤ âw‹fË‹ 1
be«ònfhÈ‹ ïaªâu yhg« MF«. RHš

ok
TLjyhdJ, mj‹ tyŠRÊ âU¥ò¤ ïa¡f¥ ika¥òŸËia Mjhu¥òŸË
âw‹fË‹ TLjY¡F¢ rk«.
vdî« miH¡fyh«.
(ii) Ã%gz«: Ústh¡»š xU òŸËÆš RHÈa¡f d2
ika¤âš jh§f¥g£LŸs òw¡f¡f¤j¡f (xii) Mfnt, ïaªâu yhg« (MA) =
d1
o
Ãiwíila nyrhd j©L x‹iw¡ fUJf. (xiii) nk‰¡f©l j¤Jt¤â‹ go, gytifahd
(iii) F1 k‰W« F2 v‹gJ RHÈa¡f vËa ïaªâu§fŸ brašgL»‹wd.
ab
ika¥òŸËÆÈUªJ d1 k‰W« d2 4. xG§fhd mšyJ Óuhd tot« bfh©l â©k¥
bjhiyÉš brašgL« ïU ïiz ÉirfŸ bghUË‹ RH‰á Mu«, Ãiyk¤âU¥ò¤ âwDl‹
v‹f. N v‹gJ RHÈa¡f ika¥òŸËÆš v›thW bjhl®òilaJ vd ÉtÇ.
cŸs br§F¤J vâ® braš v‹f.
Éil. (i) xG§fhd cUt mik¥ò bfh©l
ur

N gU¥bghU£fË‹ ÃiwahdJ Óuhf guÉ


cŸsJ vd¡ fUâdhš, m¢ir¥ bghU¤j
Ãiyk¤ âU¥ò¤âwʼnfhd rk‹ghL
d1 d2 v‹gJ mj‹ bkh¤j Ãiw k‰W« toÉaš
.s

m«r§fshd Mu«, Ús«, mfy«


F1 F2 ngh‹wt‰iwí«, bghUË‹ msî k‰W«
tot« M»at‰iwí« cŸsl¡»aJ
(iv) j©lhdJ »il¤js¤âš Ãiyahf mika, v‹gij ftd¤âš bfhŸs nt©L«.
w

mJ ïl¥bga®î k‰W« RH‰á rkÃiyÆš (ii) Mdhš ek¡F¤ njitahd Ãiyk¤


mikant©L«. vdnt, bkh¤j Éir âU¥ò¤âwʼnfhd nfhit v‹gJ bghUË‹
k‰W« bkh¤j âU¥ò Éir RÊahF«. Ãiw, tot«, msî k£Lkšyhkš RHY«
w

(v) bkh¤j Éir RÊahjyhš m¢ir¥ bghU¤J mj‹ Ãiyiaí«


nr®¤jjhf ïU¡f nt©L«.
–F1 + N – F2 = 0
N = F 1 + F2 (iii) ïJ ngh‹w rk‹ghlhdJ Óu‰w tot« k‰W«
w


Óu‰w Ãiw gutš bfh©l bghU£fS¡F«
(vi) bkh¤j âU¥òÉir RÊahjyhš, bghUªj¡Toa bghJthd rk‹ghL MF«.
d1F1 – d2F2 = 0 Ãiyk¤ âU¥ò¤âwÅ‹ bghJthd rk‹ghL
d1F1 = d2F2  ...(1) I = MK2
(vii) nk‰¡f©lrk‹ghL âU¥ò¤âwÅ‹ ï§F, M v‹gJ bghUË‹ bkh¤j Ãiw
j¤Jt¤ij¡ F¿¡»wJ. k‰W« K v‹gJ RH‰á Mu« v‹W
miH¡f¥gL»wJ.

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ JfŸfshyhd mik¥ò k‰W« â©k¥bghU£fË‹ ïa¡f« 195

(iv) xU bghUË‹ RH‰á Mu« v‹gJ RHY« nkny cŸs rk‹gh£oš RH‰á Mu« K
m¢áÈUªJ rkhd òŸË Ãiw JfË‹ v‹gJ, RHY« m¢ir¥ bghU¤J òŸË
br§F¤J¤ bjhiyî MF«. ïªj ÃiwfË‹ br§F¤J bjhiyÉ‹ ïUko
rkhd òŸË ÃiwahdJ bghUË‹ x¤j
Ãiwiaí«, Ãiyk¤ âU¥ò¤âwidí« _y¤â‹ ruhrÇÆ‹ t®¡f¤â‰F rkkhF«.
mtáa« bg‰¿U¡f nt©L«. vdnt, vªjbthU bghUË‹ Ãiyk¤

m
(v) RH‰á Mu¤â‹ myF, bjhiyit¥ âU¥ò¤âwidí« I = MK2. v‹w rk‹gh£o‹
ngh‹nw Û£l® (m) MF«. mj‹ gÇkhz« go Tw ïaY«.
L MF«. RH‰á ïa¡f¤âš ïU¡F« â©k¥ (vii) cjhuzkhf, M Ãiwí« k‰W« l ÚsK«
bghUshdJ m1, m2, m3, . . .mn v‹w òŸË

co
Ãiwfshš Mdjhf¡ fUJnth«. ïªj bfh©l xU Óuhd Ãiw ml®¤â bfh©l
ÃiwfŸ RH‰á m¢áÈUªJ Kiwna r1, r2, â©k¤j©o‹ Ãiyk¤âU¥ò¤âwid
r3 . . . rn bjhiyÉš cŸsd v‹f vL¤J¡ bfhŸf. Ãiwika¤â‰F
br§F¤jhf¢ bršY« m¢áÈUªJ

s.
1 2
Ãiyik¤ âU¥ò¤âw‹ I = Ml
12
RH‰á Mu¤â‹ thÆyhf, I = MK2

ok
m1
m2
r1 1 2
r2 v‹gjhš MK2 = Ml
2
r4 m4 1 2
K2 = l
m3 r3
o 2
C 1 1
K= l mšyJ K = l mšyJ
ab
2 2 3
.
K = (0.289) l.
RH‰á Mu«
n TLjš fz¡FfŸ:
∑ mi ri2 = m1r12 + m2r22 + m3r32 + ...... + mn rn2
ur

I=    
i =1 1. Ãiy bt¡l® r = (7 i + 4 j − 2k ) m bfh©l
   
JfŸ x‹¿‹ ÛJ F = (4i − 3 j + 5k ) Éir
"n" v©Â¡if bfh©l mid¤J òŸË
brašgL»wJ. M⥠òŸËia¥ bghU¤J ÉirÆ‹
.s

ÃiwfË‹ Ãiwia rk« vd¡bfh©lhš,


âU¥ò Éiria¡ fh©f.
m = m1 = m2 = m3 = .... = mn        
r = (7i + 4 j − 2k ) ; F = (4i − 3 j + 5k )

ãwF,
w

2 2 2 2  [Govt.MQP-2018]
I = mr1 + mr2 + mr3 + ... + mrn   
âU¥ò Éir, t = r × F
(
= m r12 + r22 + r32 + ... + rn2 ) i j
 k
w

 r12 + r22 + r32 + ... + rn2  t = 7 4 −2


= nm  
 n 4 −3 5
I = Mk2    
w

t = i (20 – 6) – j (35 + 8) + k (–21 – 16)


(vi) ï§F, nm bkh¤j ntf« M k‰W« K v‹gJ 
t = (14i − 43 j − 37 k ) N m
RH‰á Mu« MF«.
r12 + r22 + r32 + ... + rn2
K =

n

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196 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ 1 ➠ myF 5

2. m ÃiwíŸs ïU x¤j JfŸfis¡ bfh©l 2


Ml 2 l
xU mik¥ig¡ fUJf. m Ãiw bfh©l xU = + M 
12  2
JfshdJ, JfŸfË‹ ÃiwÆ‹ ika¤ij
2
neh¡» x bjhiyî¡F jŸs¥g£lhš JfŸfË‹ Ml Ml 2  1 1
= + = Ml 2  + 
ÃiwÆ‹ ika¤ij bjhl¡f ÃiyÆnyna it¡f 12 4 12 4 
1

m
k‰bwhU Jfis ef®¤j nt©oa bjhiyî ahJ?
= Ml 2  
 [Govt.MQP-2018]  3
m × m(d – x) = 0  d Ml 2
I = .

co
md + mx = 0 m m 3
} cm

}
d x x 6. xU âl¡ nfhstot gªâ‹ Ãiw 1 kg k‰W« Mu«
m = =d 3 br.Û. ïJ ika¤â‹ tÊna bršY« m¢ir¥g‰¿
x
50 rad/s nfhz¤âir ntf¤Jl‹ RHš»wJ.

s.
3. xU âlkhd cUisÆ‹ Ãiw 20 kg, mj‹ RH‰á¡fhd ïa¡f M‰wiy¡ fz¡»Lf.
﨔.
m¢ir¥ g‰¿ 100 nuoa‹fŸ S nfhz ntf¤Jl‹
1 1 2
RHš»wJ. cUisÆ‹ Mu« 0.25 m cUisÆ‹ ERoT = Iω 2 = ×  mr 2  ω 2
2 2 5 

ok
RH‰áíldhd ïa¡f M‰wiy¡fz¡»L.
1 2 2
Ô®î. 1 ERoT = mr ω
RH‰áíldhd KE = Iω 2 5
2 1
ERoT = × 1 × (3 × 10 ) (50)
−2 2 2
1  1 2 2 5
KE ROT =  mr  ω
2 2
o
1
= × 9 × 10−4 × 25 × 100
1 5
× 20 × (0.25) × 100 × 100
2
=
ab
4 = 9 × 5 × 10–4 × 102
= 5 × .0625 × 104.
KE ROT = 3125 J. ERoT = 45 × 10–2 = 0.45 J.

4. Ãiyk¤ âU¥ò¤âw‹ 100 kgm–2 bfh©l xU


áªjid Édh¡fŸ
ur

r¡fu« xU Ãiyahd ïu£il 500 Nm Mš


âU¥g¥gL»wJ. ï¢braš mj‹ m¢ir¥ g‰¿
ika¤â‹ tÊna el¡»wJ. 2brf©LfS¡F¥ã‹
1. eilKiwÆš KGikahd â©k¥ bghUŸ v‹gJ
r¡fu¤jhš V‰f¥gL« nfhz¤âir ntf« ahJ?
.s

»ilahJ. V‹?
﨔.
Éil. Éir brašgL« nghJ mid¤J¥ bghU£fSnk
τ = Ia
jdJ tot¤ijnah mšyJ cUt mik¥ignah
I (ω 2 − ω1 )
w

τ = kh‰¿¡ bfhŸ»‹wd. ïªj¡ T‰¿id


t âl¥bghU£fË‹ Û£áahš bfh©L És¡fyh«.
tt
ω2 – ω1 =
I 2. â©k¥ bghU£fËš F¿¥ãL« tifÆš
w

500 × 2
ω2 – ω1 = = 5 × 2 = 10 rad/s òwÉirahš cUt kh‰w« ÃfHhjj‰F¡ fhuz«
100 ahJ?
5. Ãiw 'm' cila bkšÈa j©o‹ Ãiyk¤ Éil. òw ÉirfŸ brašgL« nghJ â©k¥ bghUË‹
w

âU¥ò¤âw‹ k‰S« Ús« 'l' (m¢ir¥g‰¿) mj‹ mQÉil¤ bjhiyî khwhJ.


Ml 2
ika« 12 . j©o‹ ïWâ Ús¤â‰F ïizahd 3. âU¥ò Éir v›tif RH‰áia V‰gL¤J« vd
m¢ir¥g‰¿a Ãiyk¤ âU¥ò¤âw‹ ahJ? v›thW f©l¿ayh«.
Ô®î. ïiz m¢R¤ nj‰w¤â‹go, Éil. (i) âU¥ò ÉirÆ‹ âiria¡ bfh©L,
I = I0 + mx2 m¤âU¥ò Éir v›tifahd RH‰áia
V‰gL¤J« v‹W f©l¿ayh«.

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ JfŸfshyhd mik¥ò k‰W« â©k¥bghU£fË‹ ïa¡f« 197

(ii) cjhuzkhf âU¥ò ÉirÆ‹ âirahdJ


vd¡ F¿¡fyh«. gU¥bghUË‹ bkh¤j
js¤â‰F btËna brašgL»wJ vÅš Ãiyk¤âU¥ò¤âwid nk‰f©l
âU¥ò ÉirÆdhš V‰gL« RH‰á fofhu KŸ rk‹gh£il bjhifpL brŒa,
RHY« (ïlŠRÊ) âir¡F v⮤ âirÆY«,
I = ∫ dI = ∫ ( dm ) r 2 I = ∫ r dm
2
khwhf js¤ij neh¡» âU¥ò ÉirahdJ
brašgL»wJ vÅš RH‰áÆ‹ âir (iv) nk‰fhQ« rk‹gh£il ga‹gL¤â

m
fofhu KŸ RHY« âirÆnyna (tyŠRÊ) bghJthd tot§fshd cnyhf¤j©L
brašgL»wJ. tisa«, t£l¤j£L ngh‹w gU¥bghU£fË‹
Ãiyk¤âU¥ò¤âwid f©l¿ayh«.

co
6. xU âl cUisÆ‹ Ãiw 20 kg. 100 rod/s
nfhz ntf¤Jl‹ mj‹ m¢ir¥g‰¿ RHš»wJ.
cUisÆ‹ Mu« 0.25m. cUisÆ‹ RH‰á rh®ªj
(m) fofhuKŸ RHY« âir¡F vâ®âir ïa¡f M‰wš ahJ? mj‹ m¢ir¥ g‰¿a nfhz

s.
cªj¤â‹ msî ahJ?
﨔.
cUisÆ‹ m¢ir¥g‰¿a Ãiyk¤âU¥ò âw‹

ok
1
= MR2
(M) fofhuKŸ RHY« âir
M = Ãiw, R = Mu« 2
âU¥ò ÉirÆ‹ âir k‰W« RH‰áÆ‹ tiffŸ
1
= × 20 × (0.25)2 kg - m2
4. Ãiyk¤ âU¥ò¤ âwid¡ fh©gj‰F¤ o 2
njitahd nj‰w§fË‹ mtáa« ahJ? = 0.625 kg - m2.
Éil. xU bghUË‹ Ãiyk¤ âU¥òâwdhdJ RHY«
cUisÆ‹ RH‰á ïa¡f M‰wš
ab
m¢ir rh®ªâU¥gJ k£Lkšyhkš m¢áÈUªJ 1 2 1
RHY« âiraik¥ig¥ bghU¤J« bt›ntwhd = Iw = (0.625) (100)2J = 3125J.
m¢R¡fis¥ bghU¤J« khWgL«. vdnt 2 2
RHY« m¢R¡fis ïl¥bga®î brŒJ Ãiyk¤ cUisÆ‹ brhªj m¢ir¥ g‰¿a nfhz cªj«
âU¥ò¤âwid¡ fhz ïiza¢R¤ nj‰w«
= Iw2 = 0.625 ×100
ur


br§F¤J m¢R¤ nj‰w« mtáakh»wJ.
= 6.25 kg/m2.
5. xU bghUËš Óuhf guÉíŸs ÃiwÆ‹ Ãiyk¤
âU¥ò¤âwid v›thW f©l¿thŒ? 7. 100 kg vilíŸs t£ltisa¤â‹ Mu« 2m mJ
.s

Éil. (i) gU¥bghUË‹ ÃiwahdJ khwhjJ »il¤js¤ jiuÆš cUS»wJ vÅš mj‹
(»£l¤j£l xËÆ‹ âirntf¤âš Ãiwika¤â‹ ntf« 20 br.Û/S. mij ÃW¤j
ga¡F« bghU£fis¤ jÉ®¤J) brŒa¥gL« ntiyÆ‹ msî ahJ?
w

Mdhš, Ãiyk¤âU¥ò¤âw‹ kâ¥ghdJ Ô®î.


khw¡ToajhF«. t£l tisa¤â‹ m¢ir¥g‰¿a Ãiyk¤
âU¥ò¤âw‹ I = MR2
(ii) ïJ bghUË‹ Ãiwia k£LkšyhJ RHY«
w

m¢ir¥ bghU¤J Ãiw guÉ ïU¡F« tisa¤â‹ M‰wš = KTRANS + KROT


j‹ikiaí« rh®ªJŸsJ.
1 2 1 2
(iii) xU bghUËš Óuhf guÉíŸs ÃiwÆ‹ = mv + Iw
w

2 2
Ãiyik¤âU¥ò¤âwid¡ f©l¿a KjÈš,
1 2 1 2 v2
eh« gU¥bghUË‹ ÛE©Ãiw (dm) ia xU = mv + mR × 2 = mv2
òŸË Ãiwahfî«, m¢ir¥bghU¤J mj‹ 2 2 R
Ãiyia (r) v‹W« fUJnth«. m¥òŸË tisa¤ij ÃW¤j¢ brŒa¥gL« ntiy
ÃiwÆ‹ Ãiyk¤âU¥ò¤âw‹
dI = (dm) r2 = tisa¤â‹ bkh¤j ïa¡f M‰wš
= mv2 = 100 × (0.2)2 = 4 J.

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198 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ 1 ➠ myF 5

8. â›ah xU âwikahd ir¡»Ÿ X£LgtŸ mtŸ (2) R cosθ → Äât©oíl‹, ir¡»Ÿ X£LgtÇ‹
jªijahš gÇrË¡f¥g£l Äât©oÆš gŸË¡F viliaí« rk‹ brŒí«.
bršthŸ v¥bghGJ« å£oÈUªJ jhkjkhf mv 2
nghtjhš Äât©oÆš ntfkhf bršthŸ. xU R sinθ =  .....(1)
r
ehŸ rhiyÆš bršY«nghJ rW¡» ÑnH ÉGªJ
mog£lJ. mtrukhf ïUªjjhš tisthd R cosθ = mg.....(2)

m
ghijia fl¡f nt©oÆUªjjhš nk‰f©l mv 2
1 I 2 Mš tF¡f R sin θ
= v
Ãfœî ne®ªjJ. â›ah Äât©oÆÈUªJ rW¡»
ÉH¡ fhuz« ahJ? R cos θ mg

co
(i) rW¡FjY¡fhd Ãgªjid v‹d? v 2  2
v 
(ii) ghJfh¥ghd rthÇ¡fhd nfhz¤â‰fhd tan θ = θ = tan–1  
rg  rg 
rk‹gh£oid¤ jUÉ.
Éil. (i) t£l tot¥ ghijÆ‹ Mu« r òw¡f¡f¥g£L, 9. fnzZ mšyJ gŸËÆš áwªj »Ç¡bf£ åu®.
âirntf« 'V' Æš ir¡»Ëš gaz« brŒgt® ikjhd¤âš gƉá¡fhf cŸs nghJ bt›ntW

s.
v2 Éj§fËš k£ilia RH‰Wth‹. gƉWÉ¥gtÇ‹
br§F¤âÈUªJ θ nfhz«  tan θ = bga® âU.Fzhs‹. mt® fnzõÅl«
rg
(rW¡fš mšyJ ÑnH ÉGjiy¤ jL¡f) k£ilÆ‹ ãoia¥ão¤J ntfkhf RH‰W« go

ok
rkÃiyÆš ïU¡f nt©L«. vdnt, â›ah T¿dh®. Mdhš fnzZ RH‰w KoaÉšiy.
t£l¥ghijÆš bršY«nghJ rW¡Fjiy ifiaÉǤJ. ã‹d® k£ilÆ‹ ika¥gFâia
jÉ®¡f F¿¥ã£l ntf¤âš bršy nt©L«. ão¤J RH‰WkhW T¿dh®. ïªÃiyÆš ntfkhf
RH‰w KoªjJ. fnzZ M¢rÇa¤Jl‹ v§§d«?
Mdhš mij mtŸ ã‹g‰w Éšiy
vd ÉdhÉdh‹?

o
ikaneh¡F Éir cuhŒî Éiria Él
mâfkhdhš rW¡fš V‰gL»wJ. M v‹gJ
(i) gƉWÉ¥gtÇ‹ gâš v‹d?
(ii) Mu¢ RH‰á v‹whš v‹d? cjhuz« jUf.
rhiy¡F«, laU¡F« ïilnaahd cuhŒî 'μ'
ab
(iii) Ãiyk¤ âU¥ò¤ âw‹ v›thW nfhz¤
Fzf« vÅš f£L¥gL¤J« cuhŒî F = μR. âirntf¤Jl‹ bjhl®òilaJ?
R = mg f = μ (mg)
Éil. (i) xU bghUË‹ Ãiw m MdJ mj‹
vdnt rW¡FjY¡F EÅia¥ão¤J RH‰W« nghJ mâfkhf
ïU¡F«. ïj‹ fhuzkhf k£ilia mâfkhd
ur

ikaneh¡F Éir > cuhŒî Éir


nfhz âir ntf¤Jl‹ RH‰w KoahJ.
mv 2 v2 ika¥gFâia¥ ão¤J RH‰W« nghJ Ãiyk¤
> μ (mg), >μ
r rg âU¥ò¤âw‹ Fiwthf ïU¡F«. vdnt, mâf
v2 nfhz¤âirntf« (ω) cl‹ RH‰w Koí«.
.s

= tan θ (θ - rhiyÆ‹ ca®¤j¥g£l Ãiyk¤âU¥ò¤âw‹ RH‰á Ãiw v‹W


rg
 gFâÆ‹ nfhz«) miH¡f¥gL«.
(ii) RH‰á Mu« : jiu Ä‹Éá¿ mj‹ m¢á‹
w

 tan θ > μ (ïªj ÃgªjidÆš rW¡Fjš


tÊna RHš»wJ. G v‹gJ Ä‹Éá¿Æ‹
Ãfœ»wJ).
òÉp®¥ò Éir (m¥òŸËÆš) RHš
(ii) t£l¥ghijÆ‹ Mu« r. m¢á‰F«, Ä‹Éá¿Æ‹ òÉp®¥ò Éir¡F«
w

m v‹gJ â›ahÉ‹ Ãiw ir¡»Sl‹ ïilnaahd br§F¤J¤ bjhiyî RH‰á


Mu« (k) vd¥gL«.
v - âirntf«
cjhuz« : Mfha Ékhd« k‰W« ïju
w

ir¡»Ÿ X£Lgt® tisÉš cŸneh¡F


thfd§fËš rkÃiy njitahdt‰¿š
tisªJ nfhz« θ V‰gL¤J»wh®. R v‹gJ
Mdhš xG§f‰w tot« cilad.
â›ahÉ‹ ÛJ jiuÆš V‰gL« vâ®Éid. R
I ïU TWfshf ãÇ¡fyh«. (iii) Ãiyk¤ âU¥ò¤âw‹ (I) k‰W«
(1) R sinθ → tisÉ‹ ika¥gFâia neh¡» nfhz¤âirntf« (ω). I ∝ 1 xU kh¿È.
brašgLtjhš njitahd ikaneh¡F ω
i.e L = I ω
Éiria mË¡»wJ.

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This is only for Sample Materials
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m
ïa‰ãaš

co
s.
bjhFâ - II
o B 0 ok B B
ab
10
R
D
20 D D

30

40

50 P
E
60
ur

70

80

90

100
T
.s

Rubber tube
Iron base
w
w
w

[ 199 ]

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bghUsl¡f«

m
co

s.
myF ghl¤ jiy¥òfŸ g¡f«

ok
6. <®¥ãaš 201 - 232

7. gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 233 - 270

8. bt¥gK« bt¥g ïa¡fÉaY«


o 271 - 318
ab
9. thí¡fË‹ ïa¡fÉa‰ bfhŸif 319 - 344

10. miyîfŸ 345 - 370


ur

11. miyfŸ 371 - 402


.s
w
w
w

[ 200 ]

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06 <®¥ãaš

m
fU¤J tiugl«

co
s.
o ok
ab
ur
.s
w
w
w

[201]

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202 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II

ÃidÉš bfhŸs nt©oait



GMm
1. Ãô£lÅ‹ <®¥ãaš bghJÉâ = E =
r2
G - <®¥ãaš kh¿È G = 6.626 × 10 Nm2 kg–2
–11

m

4π2r3
2. nfhŸ mšyJ Jiz¡nfhË‹ Ãiw M = GT2 →
→ → →
3. <®¥ãaš ÉirfË‹ nk‰bghUªJjš bfhŸifÆ‹go Fr = F1 + F2 + .... + Fn τ

co
myFfŸ : [F - Ãô£l‹, Ãiw - kg, r - Û£l®] →
→ → → → dL
4. τ
NÇaÅ‹ <®¥ò ÉirÆdhš óÄÆ‹ ÛJ V‰gL« âU¥ò Éir = × F = = dt = 0
r τ
(ïJ všyh nfhŸfS¡F« bghUªJ«)
5. òÉ¥gu¥ã‹ ÛJ <®¥ãaš KL¡f« g = Gm2

s.
R
gR2
6. óÄÆ‹ Ãiw M =
G 3g
7. óÄÆ‹ ruhrÇ ml®¤â (Mean density) = ρ= 4πGR

ok
bf¥sÇ‹ R‰W¡fhy§fË‹ ÉâÆÈUªJ M = 4π r2
2 3
8.
GT
9. xU bghUË‹ vil W = mg, (myFfŸ) <®¥ò KL¡f« g ⇒ ms-2, R‰W¡fhy« T ⇒ ÉdhofŸ, ρ = kgm-3
10. <®¥ò KL¡f« g‹ kâ¥ò Fiwî h v‹w cau¤âš
o
2gh
g - gh =
R
ab
g - gh α h
g - gh 2h
rjåj¡ Fiwî = × 100 = R × 100%
g
2mgh
11. xU bghUË‹ vil ïH¥ò h v‹w cau¤âš = mg - mgh =
R
12. É©btË Xl¤â‹ F¤Jau« h = 400 km (bghJthf h MdJ R cl‹ x¥ãl¡Toa ÃiyÆš)
ur

R2  2h 
13 gh = g 2 1 − 
( R + h) R
2
R  2h 
.s

14. gh 2= g 1 −  h << R vÅš


( R + h) R
 d
15. MH« d I¥ bghW¤J KL¡f« gd = g 1− 
 R
w

16. d =2h vÅš gh = gd myF [d - h, R = Û£l® ] g, gh, gd = Ûbr–2 (ms–2)


17. g ‹ kâ¥ò (bt›ntW) RH‰áia¥ bghW¤J :
w

1. òÉ FW¡F¡ nfh£oš λ, gλ= g - Rω2 ωs2 λ


2. òÉ ika¡ nfh£oš λ= o°, ge = g - Rω2
w

3. JUt¥ gFâfËš λ= 90°, gp = g


4. gp - ge = Rω2 myFfŸ (g, ge, gp, g = Ûbr–2 , λ = degree, ω = rad s–1, R = Û.
F GM
18. <®¥ò¥ òy¤â‹ br¿î E = m = 2
R
19. <®¥ò j‹Åiy M‰wš V(r) = brŒa¥g£l ntiy = GM
Ãiw r

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš 203

GMm
20. <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wš U(r) = <®¥ò j‹Åiy M‰wš × Ãiw = -
r
dv
21. E = -
dr 1  21GMm  GMm 
22. xU <®¥ò¥ òy¤âš xU bghUË‹ bkh¤j M‰wš = K.E + P.E = mv  −2+  −  r 
2 r
myFfŸ [E = N kg-1 (or) ms-2, V = Jkg-1, U = Joule (#]š)]

m
2GM 8
23. ÉLgLntf« ve = = 2 gR = πGρR 2 , myF [v - ms-1]
R 3 e

co
24. Jiz¡nfhŸfË‹ R‰W t£l¤ âirntf«
GM gR 2 g
1. h v‹w cau¤âš R‰W¤ âirntf« vo = = =R
R+h R+h R+h
2. òÉ¥ gu¥ã‰F mU»š R‰W«nghJ vo = gR , VgR 2V 2Vo
e =o

s.
2π ( R + h) ( R + h)3 2π ( R + h) 2 3π( R + h)3
3. Jiz¡nfhË‹ RH‰á¡ fhy« T = = 2π = =
Vo Gm R g GR 3
1

4. Jiz¡nfhË‹ cau« h =  T R g  3 -R
2 2

ok

 4π 2 
 
25. Jiz¡nfhË‹ bkh¤j M‰wš, ãiz¥ò M‰wš
1  GMm  GM
1. Ãiy M‰wš U =  − = òÉ <®¥ò mG¤j« Ãiw = – ×m
2 
1  GM  1 GM2
o r  1  GM  1 GM
m =
r
2. ïa¡fmM‰wš   == mVo = 2  r  2 r
K
2 r 2 r
ab
1  GM  1 GM2 GMm GMm
3. bkh¤j M‰wš m E = K + U == mVo - =-
2  r  2 r r
2 2r
U
4. E = = - K, ∴Δk = - ΔE ; Δu = - 2ΔE
2 GMm
ur

5. ãiz¥ò M‰wš =
2
myF [K, U, E = #]š]
26. nfhŸfË‹ ïa¡f« g‰¿a bf¥sÇ‹ ÉâfŸ
.s

1. nfhz cªj« L = mvr = kh¿È


∆A 4π 2
2. gu¥ã‹ Éâ = = kh¿È
∆t GM ∈
w

∆A 4π 2
3. R‰W¡fhy§fË‹ Éâ T2 α r3, ∴ T2 = Kr3
T22 r23
∆ t GM = 3 ∆A 4π 2
òÉÆ‹ Jiz¡nfhˉF ∈
T12
r1 K = = 10-13s2 m-3
T22
r 3 ∆ t GM
w


4. = 23 myF [T1, T2 =2ÉdhofŸ, 3 r1, r2 = m]
T12
r1 T2 r2
=
27. vilƋik : T12 r13
w

1. j§F jilÆ‹¿ Ä‹ö¡» ÑnH efU«nghJ njh‰w vil R = m(g - a) [Mdhš a = g]


2. É©btË Xl« (Space Craft) - Xl¤â‹ cŸns njh‰w vil R = O.
mË¡f¥g£l Éir
28. Ëw Ãiyk« = c©lhF« KL¡f« = mi = Fa
2
29. <®¥ò Ãiw mg = FR
Gm l
30. jÅ CrÈ‹ miyî¡ fhy« T = 2π ; g' = g cos α.
g'

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204 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II

gƉá Édh¡fŸ
I. rÇahd Éilia nj®ªbjL¤J vGJf: 5. òÉ¡F« NÇaD¡F« ïilna cŸs bjhiyî
ïUkl§fhdhš, Xuh©L v‹gJ v¤jid eh£fŸ
1. nfhË‹ Ãiy bt¡lU« nfhz cªjK« (a) 64.5 (b) 1032

m
x‹W¡bfh‹W br§F¤jhf miktJ (c) 182.5 (d) 730
(a) m©ik Ãiy k‰W« nrŒik ÃiyÆY«
 [Éil. (b) 1032]
(b) mid¤J òŸËfËY«

co
(c) m©ik ÃiyÆš k£L« 6. bf¥sÇ‹ ïu©lh« Éâ¥go NÇaidí«
(d) v¥òŸËÆY« mšy nfhisí« ïiz¡F« Mu bt¡l® rkfhy msÉš
rkgu¥òfis V‰gL¤J»‹wd. ï›ÉâahdJ
[Éil. (a) m©ik Ãiy k‰W« nrŒik .......... khwh Éâ¥go mikªJŸsJ.
 ÃiyÆY«]
(a) ne®nfh£L cªj« (Linear momentum)

s.
2. âObud òÉ k‰W« NÇaÅ‹ ÃiwfŸ ïUkl§fhf (b) nfhz cªj« (Angular momentum)
kh¿dhš, mitfS¡»ilnaahd <®¥ãaš Éir  (c) M‰wš
(a) khwhJ (d) ïa¡f M‰wš

ok
(b) 2 kl§F mâfÇ¡F«
[Éil. (b) nfhz cªj« (Angular momentum)]
(c) 4 kl§F mâfÇ¡F«
(d) 2 kl§F Fiwí« 7. òÉÆid¥ bghW¤J ÃyÉ‹ <®¥òÃiy M‰wš
 [Éil. (c) 4 kl§F mâfÇ¡F«] (a) v¥bghGJ« ne®¡F¿ cilaJ

3. NÇaid xU nfhŸ ÚŸt£l¥ ghijÆš R‰¿


o (b) v¥bghGJ« v⮡F¿ cilaJ
(c) ne®¡F¿ahfnth mšyJ vâ®F¿ahfnth
tU»wJ. nfhË‹ m©ik bjhiyî (r1) k‰W«
ab
mikí«
nrŒik¤ bjhiyî (r2) fËš âirntf§fŸ
v1 (d) v¥bghGJ« RÊ
Kiwna v1 k‰W« v2 vÅš = (NEET 2016)
2
v2
2 2 2
 [Éil. (b) v¥bghGJ« v⮡F¿ cilaJ]
r2 r1  r2 r2 r1 r1   r2   r1 
8.
ur

(a) (b) r r   r   r  NÇaid ÚŸt£l¥ghijÆš R‰¿ tU« nfhŸ


r1 r2  r1 r1 2 2 1 2 x‹W A, B k‰W« C M»a ÃiyfËš bg‰WŸs
2 2 2
 r2  r1  r1 r2 
2 ïa¡f M‰wšfŸ Kiwna KA, KB k‰W« Kc MF«.
r2 r  r1 
(c) 1 r2 (d)  ï§F be£l¢R AC k‰W« SB ahdJ NÇaÅ‹ Ãiy
r1 r2 r1 r1  r2  r2 r1   r 
.s

2 S-š tiua¥gL« br§F¤J vÅš, (NEET 2018)


r
 [Éil. (a) r 2 ] (a) KA > KB >KC
1 B
4. (b) KB < KA <KC
w

òÉÆid t£l¥ghijÆš R‰¿ tU« A C


Jiz¡nfhË‹ R‰W¡fhy« vjid rh®ªjJ (c) KA < KB <KC S
mšy? (d) KB > KA >KC
(a) R‰W¥ ghijÆ‹ Mu«
w

 [Éil. (a) KA > KB >KC]


(b) Jiz¡nfhË‹ Ãiw
(c) R‰W¥ghijÆ‹ Mu« k‰W« Jiz¡nfhË‹ 9. òÉÆ‹ ÛJ NÇaÅ‹ <®¥ãaš Éir brŒí«
Ãiw M»a ïu©ilí« ntiy
w

(d) R‰W¥ghijÆ‹ Mu« k‰W« Jiz¡nfhË‹ (a) v¥bghGJ« RÊ


Ãiw M»a ïu©ilí« mšy (b) v¥bghGJ« ne®F¿ cilaJ
(c) ne®¡F¿ahfnth mšyJ vâ®F¿ahfnth
 [Éil. (b) Jiz¡nfhË‹ Ãiw] mikí«
(d) v¥bghGJ« vâ®F¿ cilaJ
 [Éil. (a) v¥bghGJ« RÊ]

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš 205

10. òÉÆ‹ Ãiwí« MuK« ïUkl§fhdhš <®¥ã‹ II. áW Édh¡fŸ


KL¡f« g
g 1. bf¥sÇ‹ Éâfis¡ TW. 
(a) khwhJ (b) [HY-2018]
2 g
(c) 2g (d) 4g [Éil. (b) 2 ] bf¥sÇ‹ Éâfis Ñœ¡f©lthW Twyh« :
(i) R‰W¥ghijfS¡fhd Éâ : NÇaid xU

m
11. òÉÆdhš czu¥gL« NÇaÅ‹ <®¥ò òy¤â‹ FÉa¥ òŸËÆš bfh©L x›bthU nfhS«
v©kâ¥ò  [HY-2018] NÇaid ÚŸt£l¥ ghijÆš R‰¿ tU»wJ.
(a) M©L KGtJ« khwhJ. (ii) gu¥ò Éâ : NÇaidí« xU nfhisí«
ïiz¡F« Mu bt¡luhdJ rkfhy

co
(b) #dtÇ khj¤âš Fiwthfî« #]iy
khj¤âš mâfkhfî« ïU¡F«. ïilbtËÆš rk gu¥ò¡fis V‰gL¤J«.
(c) #dtÇ khj¤âš mâfkhfî« #]iy khj¤âš (iii) R‰Wfhy§fË‹ Éâ : ÚŸt£l ghijÆš
Fiwthfî« ïU¡F«. NÇaid R‰W« nfhË‹ R‰W¡fhy¤â‹
(d) gfš neu¤âš mâfkhfî« ïuî neu¤âš ïUko, mªj ÚŸt£l¤â‹ miube£l¢á‹

s.
Fiwthfî« ïU¡F«. K«ko¡F ne®jfÉš ïU¡F«. mjid
Ñœf©lthW vGjyh«.
[Éil. (c) #dtÇ khj¤âš mâfkhfî« #]iy
khj¤âš Fiwthfî« ïU¡F«.] T2 ∝ a3

ok

T2 = kh¿È
12. br‹idÆÈUªJ âU¢á¡F xU kÅj®
a3
br‹whš, mt® vilahdJ 2. Ãô£lÅ‹ <®¥ãaš bghJ Éâia jUf.
(a) mâfÇ¡F« o ïU ÃiwfS¡F ïilnaahd <®¥ãaš
(b) Fiwí« ÉirahdJ mt‰¿‹ ÃiwfË‹ bgU¡fš
(c) khwhJ gyD¡F ne®¤jfÉY«, mt‰¿‰»ilnaahd
ab
(d) mâfǤJ ã‹ò Fiwí« bjhiyÉ‹ ïUko¡F vâ®jfÉnyh mikí«.
[Éil. (a) mâfÇ¡F«] GM1 M2
 bt¡l® toÉš F→ = − r
r2
13. RUŸÉš juhR x‹Wl‹ 10 kg Ãiw ïiz¡f¥ 3. nfhË‹ nfhz cªj« khWkh? c‹ Éilia Ã%ã.
g£LŸsJ. RUŸÉš juhR Ä‹ca®¤â x‹¿‹ NÇaÅ‹ <®¥ò ÉirÆdhš óÄÆ‹ ÛJ V‰gL«
ur

TiuÆ‹ bghU¤j¥g£LŸsJ. Ä‹ ca®¤â âU¥ò Éir,


jhdhf ÑnH ÉG«nghJ, juhR fh£L« msåL.
→ → → →  GM s M E 
(a) 98 N (b) RÊ τ = r × F = r ×  − r  = 0
r2 
.s

(c) 49 N (d) 9.8 N → ∧ ∧ ∧


Vbd‹whš r = r r ,( r × r ) = 0
 [Éil. (b) RÊ] →
→ dL
14. <®¥ã‹ KL¡f¤â‹ kâ¥ò mj‹ j‰nghija vdnt τ = dt
= 0. óÄÆ‹ nfhz cªj«
w


kâ¥ãid¥ nghy eh‹F kl§fhf kh¿dhš, ÉLgL L NÇaid¥ bghW¤J xU khwh bt¡luhF«.
ntf« ïJ mid¤J¡ nfhŸfS¡F« bghUªJ«.
(a) khwhJ (b) 2 kl§fhF« ïªj nfhz cªj khwh¤ j‹ikjh‹ bf¥sÇ‹
w

(c) ghâahF« (d) 4 kl§fhF« ïu©lh« Éâia V‰gL¤J»wJ.


 [Éil. (b) 2 kl§fhF«]
4. <®¥ò òy« tiuaW. mj‹ my»id¤ jUf.
w

15. òÉÆid¢ R‰W« Jiz¡nfhË‹ ïa¡f M‰wš xU bghUis¢ R‰¿íŸs btËÆš mjdhš
czu¥gL« òÉ<®¥ò ÉirahdJ mj‹ òÉ<®¥ò
(a) Ãiy M‰wY¡F¢ rk«
òy« vd tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ.
(b) Ãiy M‰wiyÉl¡ Fiwî
Ãiw M Mš r bjhiyÉš V‰gL« <®¥ò òy«
(c) Ãiy M‰wiy Él mâf«
ã‹tUkhW F¿¡f¥gL»wJ.
(d) RÊ [Éil. (b) Ãiy M‰wiyÉl¡Fiwî]
 GM
E = − 2 1 r
r

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206 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
5. <®¥ò òy¤â‹ nk‰bghUªJjš v‹whš v‹d? 9. <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wY¡F« <®¥ò j‹Åiy M‰wY¡F«
cŸs ntWghL ahJ?
xU òŸË P Æš bjhFga‹ <®¥ò¥ òykhdJ
t. <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wš <®¥ò j‹Åiy
jŤjÅ Ãiwfshš V‰gL« jŤjÅ <®¥ò¥ v© M‰wš V(r)
U(r)
òy¤â‹ bt¡l® TLjY¡F rk«. ï¤j¤Jt« <®¥ò
Gm1m21. Gm1m2 −Gm1m2 Gm1

m
òy§fË‹ nk‰bghUªJjš j¤Jt« vd¥gL«. − + U(r) = V(r) = -
→   
r r' r r
Ebkh¤j« = E1 + E 2 + .....E n 2. ïj‹ myF #]š ïj‹ myF J/kg

co
Gm1  Gm2  Gm 3. <®¥ò Ãiy ÃiyahdJ
=− 2
r1 − 2 r 2 − ..... 2 n r n
r1 r2 rn M‰wyhdJ <®¥ò j‹Åiy
n
Gmi 
Ãiyfisí« M‰wš ÄFªj
= −∑ 2
ri mt‰W¡F gFâÆÈUªJ
i =1 ri ïilnaahd Fiwªj <®¥ò

s.
bjhiyití« j‹Åiy M‰wš
P E2 rh®ªJ mikí« bfh©l gFâ¡F
Etot bršY«

ok
E1 E2
E1 4. h cau¤âš xU h cau¤âš <®¥ò
bghUË‹ <®¥ò j‹Åiy M‰wš
Etot
r1 r1 Ãiy M‰wš mgh v(h) = v(h)/m = gh
o MF«.
m m
11. òÉÆ‹ ÉLgL ntf« v‹whš v‹d?
ïU <®¥ò òy§fŸ nk‰bghUªJtjhš
V‰gL« bjhFga‹ <®¥ò òy« (i) nfhË‹ <®¥ãaš òy¤âÈUªJ ÉLg£L
ab
j¥ã¢ bršYkhW xU bghUŸ v¿a¥gl
nt©oa áWk ntf« ÉLgL ntf« vd¥gL«.
6. <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wš - tiuaW.
(ii) òÉÆ‹ ÉLgLntf« 11.2 km (or) 11.2 kms–1.
(i) ‘r’ bjhiyÉš mikªj ÃiwfŸ m1 k‰W« m2
cila mik¥ãš, m1 Ãiyahf cŸsnghJ, 12. bra‰if Jiz¡nfhË‹ M‰wš mšyJ vªj xU
ur

m2 it KoÉyh bjhiyÉÈUªJ ‘r’ nfhË‹ M‰wš v⮡F¿íilajhf ïU¥gJ V‹?


bjhiyî¡F bfh©L tu brŒj ntiy <®¥ò  [HY-2018]
Ãiy M‰wš vd¥gL«. v⮡F¿ahdJ Jiz¡nfhŸ òÉíl‹
Gm1m2 Gm1m2 −Gm1m2 ãiz¡f¥g£LŸsJ v‹gijí« Jiz¡nfhŸ
.s

− + U(r) = òÉÆ‹ <®¥ò òy¤âÈUªJ j¥ã¢ bršy ïayhJ


r r' r
(ii) ïJ xU °nfy® msî, ïj‹ myF #]š (J). v‹gijí« vL¤J¡fh£L»wJ.
7. 13. òÉ Ãiy¤Jiz¡ nfhŸ v‹whš v‹d? JUt
w

Ãiy M‰wš v‹gJ jŤj xU bghUË‹ g©gh?


És¡f« jUf. Jiz¡nfhŸ v‹whš v‹d?
ïšiy. VbdÅš, òÉ gu¥ãš <®¥ò j‹Åiy (i) 
òÉÃiy¤ Jiz¡nfhŸfŸ : òÉÆ‹
M‰wš RÊ MF«. gu¥ãÈUªJ 36000 km bjhiyÉš cŸs
w

Ãiyahd Jiz¡nfhŸfns òÉÃiy


8. <®¥ò¤ j‹Åiy M‰wš - tiuaW.
Jiz¡nfhŸ vd¥gL«.
(i) XuyF Ãiwia KoÉyh¤ bjhiyÉÈUªJ
(ii) 
JUt¤ Jiz¡nfhŸfŸ : òÉÆ‹ tlbj‹
w

m¥òŸË¡F bfh©Ltu¢ brŒj ntiy


MF«. mšyJ m¥òŸËÆš XuyF JUt§fŸ nkš bršY« R‰W¥ghijÆš
Ãiw¡fhd <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wY¡F rk« vd òÉÆid R‰¿ tU« Jiz¡nfhŸfŸ
Twyh«. JUt¤ Jiz¡nfhŸfŸ vd¥gL«. ïit
(ii) ïJ xU °nfy® msî, ïj‹ myF J/kg. r
òÉÆ‹ gu¥ãÈUªJ 500 Kjš 800 km
bjhiyÉš <®¥ò j‹Åiy M‰wyhdJ, cau¤âš R‰¿ tU»‹wd.
Gm1
V(r) = -
r

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš 207

14. vil - tiuaW. F


(i) xU bghUË‹ ÛJ brašgL« <®¥ãaš
Éirna m¥bghUË‹ vil MF«.
(ii) vilÆ‹ âir òÉ<®¥ò ÉirÆ‹ G(m1m2)
F =
âirÆnyna F¿¡f¥gL»wJ. r2

m
(iii) xU bghUis <®¥ãaš ÉirahdJ v›tsî
tÈikahf <®¡»wJ v‹gij fh£L«
msålhF«.

co
(iv) ïj‹ myF Ãô£l‹.
bjhiyit¥ bghU¤J <®¥ãaš r
15. x›bthU khjK« rªâu »ufzK« NÇa Éir khWgLjš
»ufzK« eilbgWtJ ïšiy. V‹?
(i) KG ÃyÉ‹ nghJ ÃyÉ‹ R‰W¥ghijí« (ii) 
ïU JfŸfS¡F ïilna brašgL«

s.
òÉÆ‹ R‰W¥ghijí« xnu js¤âš <®¥ãaš Éir v¥bghGJ« braš -
mikªjhš rªâu»ufz« njh‹W« v⮢braš (action - reaction) ïizahfnt
mnj nghš mkhthir m‹W elªjhš mikí«. òÉ ÛJ NÇa‹ V‰gL¤J«

ok
NÇa»ufz« njh‹W«. <®¥ãaš Éir NÇaid neh¡» brašgL«.
mnjnghš NÇa‹ ÛJ òÉ V‰gL¤J«
(ii) ÃyhÉd R‰W¥ghijahdJ òÉÆ‹
<®¥ãaš Éir òÉia neh¡» brašgL«.
R‰W¥ghij js¤âÈUªJ 5º rhŒªJ
ïJ v⮢braš Éir (reaction force) MF«.
fhz¥gL»wJ. ïªj 5º rhŒî cŸsjhš,
ïU ÉirfS« bt›ntW bghUŸfË‹ ÛJ
M©o‹ F¿¥ã£l fhy¤âš k£Lnk NÇa‹,
o
òÉ k‰W« Ãyî M»ait xnu ne®nfh£oš brašgL»‹wd.
mik»‹wd. (iii) NÇaÅ‹ <®¥ò ÉirÆdhš óÄÆ‹
ab
(iii) ïªj neu¤âš k£Lnk ï«_‹¿‹ Ãiyia ÛJ V‰gL« âU¥ò ÉirahdJ ÑnH
bghU¤J rªâu»ufznkh (m) NÇa»ufznkh ju¥g£LŸsJ.
V‰gL«.  GM s M E 

τ = r × →
→ − → r  = 0
F = r ×  r2 
16. òÉahdJ j‹id¤jhnd R‰¿ tU»wJ v‹gij
ur

→ ∧ ∧ ∧
v›thW Ã%ã¥ghŒ? Vbd‹whš r = r r ,( r × r ) = 0
ïuî neu§fËš É©Û‹fŸ ef®tJ nghy → →
njh‹Wtij c‰W neh¡Ftj‹ _y« òÉ vdnt τ = dL = 0. ïâÈUªJ m¿tJ
dt →
j‹id¤jhnd RHš»wJ vd Ã%ã¡fyh«.
.s

v‹dbt‹whš óÄÆ‹ nfhz cªj« L


òÉÆ‹ j‰RH‰á fhuzkhfnt JUt É©Ûid NÇaid¥ bghW¤J xU khwh bt¡luhF«.
k‰w É©Û‹fŸ t£l¥ghijÆš R‰¿ tUtJ ïJ mid¤J¡ nfhŸfS¡F« bghUªJ«.
nghy njh‹W»wJ. ï‹D« brhštbj‹whš ïªj nfhz cªj
w

khwh¤ j‹ikjh‹ bf¥sÇ‹ ïu©lh«


III. beL Édh¡fŸ Éâia V‰gL¤J»wJ.
1. <®¥ãaš ÉâÆ‹ K¡»a TWfis És¡Ff. (iv) m1 k‰W« m2 ÃiwfŸ òŸË ÃiwfŸ
w

<®¥ãaš ÉirÆ‹ K¡»a g©òfŸ : v‹w mDkhd¤â‹ mo¥gilÆnyna


→ GM1 M2
(i) <®¥ãaš ÉirahdJ r2 ¡F v⮤jfÉš F =− r rk‹ghL ga‹gL¤j¥
r2
w

cŸsjhš ïU ÃiwfS¡F ïilnaahd gL»wJ. NÇaÅ‹ <®¥ò ÉirÆ‹ fhuzkhf


bjhiyî mâfÇ¡F« nghJ, <®¥ãaš òÉahdJ NÇaid¢ R‰¿ tU»wJ vD«
ÉirÆ‹ tÈik Fiw»wJ. Mfntjh‹ nghJ eh« NÇaidí« òÉiaí« òŸË
NÇaÅlÄUªJ òÉia Él mâf bjhiyÉš Ãiwfshf fUJ»nwh«.
cŸs ínud° òÉÆid Él Fiwªj msî
<®¥ãaš ÉirÆid cz®»wJ. (v) Óuhd ml®¤âí« Ãiw MK« cila
cŸçl‰w nfhs¤â‰F«, m¡nfhs¤â‰F
btËna cŸs òŸËÃiw m¡F« ïilna

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208 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
cŸs <®¥ãaš Éiria fz¡»L« nghJ, (vi) ïjid rk‹ghL (4)-š ãuâÆl.
ïit ïu©L« Fiwªj bjhiyÉš cŸs
4π 2 mk
nghJ« nfhs¤ij òŸË Ãiw vd fUâ F=-
<®¥ãaš Éir rk‹gh£il ga‹gL¤jyh«. r2
cŸçl‰w nfhs¤â‰F gâyhf Ãiw

m
M cila òŸË ÃiwahdJ m¡nfhs¤â‹
r
ika¥òŸËÆš cŸsjhf¡ fUJnth«. a= - vr
2

ã‹ò ï›ÉU òŸË ÃiwfS¡F« ïilna


cŸs <®¥ãaš Éiria fz¡»lyh«.

co
O
ïªj kâ¥ò cŸçl‰w nfhs¤â‰F« òŸË
Ãiw¡F« ïilnaahd <®¥ãaš Éir¡F
rk« MF«. cŸçl‰w nfhs¤â‹ bkh¤j
òŸË Ãiw t£lghijÆš
Ãiwí« mj‹ ika¥òŸËÆš ïU¥gJ

s.
R‰¿ tUjš
nghy njh‹W«.
(vi) Ãiw M cila cŸçl‰w nfhs« x‹iw (vii) Mdhš Ãô£l‹ _‹wh« Éâ¥go, òÉahdJ
fUJnth«. cŸçl‰w nfhs¤â‹ c£òw« NÇadhš <®¡f¥gL«nghJ NÇaD« òÉahš

ok
Ãiw m I it¥ngh«. Ãiw m czU« <®¡f¥gl nt©L«. vdnt NÇaÅ‹ Ãiw
<®¥ãaš Éir RÊ MF«. M rk‹gh£oš ïl«bgw, 4π2k = GM vd
ãuâÆ£lh®. vdnt
(vii) e‹F gG¤j kh§fÅ, ku¤âÈUªJ ÑnH
GMm
ÉGtj‰F«, Ãyh òÉia R‰Wtj‰F« F= − 2  ... (5)
fhuz« xnu <®¥ãaš Éirjh‹ v‹W
o (viii)
r
ïJnt <®¥ãaš ÉâahF«, <®¥ãaš
És¡»anj <®¥ãaš ÉâÆ‹ bt‰¿ahF«.
ÉirahdJ ft®¢á Éir v‹gij vâ®F¿
ab
2. Ãô£l‹ v›thW <®¥ãaš Éâia bf¥s® fh£L»wJ.
ÉâÆÈUªJ jUɤjh®?
3. <®¥ãaš Éâia Ãô£l‹ v›thW bkŒ¥ã¤jh®
(i) 
Ãô£l‹ nfhŸfË‹ R‰Wghijia v‹gij És¡Ff.
t£lghijahf fUâdh®. (i) bf¥s® Éâfisí« fÈÈnahÉ‹
ur

(ii) 
t£l ghijÆ‹ Mu« r k‰W« âirntf« v MŒîfis gF¥ghŒî brŒj Ãô£l‹
vÅš, ikaneh¡F KL¡f«, mt‰¿‹ mo¥gilÆš <®¥ãaš Éâia
v2 jUɤjh®.
a= - r  ... (1)
.s

(ii) M Ãiw cila JfŸ, m©l¤âš cŸs


(iii) Mdhš R‰¿a¡f fhy« T vÅš, mid¤J JfŸfisí« F¿¥ã£l
âirntfkhdJ, Éiríl‹ <®¡»wJ. mªj <®¥ò ÉirÆ‹
2πr
w

v= T  ... (2) tÈikahdJ, mt‰¿‹ ÃiwfË‹


bgU¡f‰gyD¡F ne®¤jfÉY«, mt‰W¡F
(iv) rk‹ghL (2) -I rk‹ghL (1)-š ãuâÆl ïilnaahd bjhiyÉ‹ ïUko¡F
2 v⮤jfÉY« ïU¡F« v‹gnj Ãô£lÅ‹
w

 2πr 
  <®¥ãaš ÉâahF«.
T  4π 2 r 2 4π 2 r
a=- =– = −  ... (3)
r T2 T2 fÂjÉaš toÉš <®¥ãaš ÉirÆid
(iv) nfhË‹ Ãiw m vÅš, Ãô£l‹ Éâ¥go Ñœf©lthW vGjyh«.
w

ÉirahdJ,
 4π 2 r  4π 2 m r → GM1 M2
F= ma = m  − 2  = −
 ... (4) F =− r
2
 T  T r2
(v) bf¥s® _‹wh« Éâ¥go
r3 r k ï§F M1 ÈUªJ M2 neh¡» bršY« myF
= k (kh¿È) (or) 2
= 2 ∧
T2 T r bt¡l® r MF«.

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M M2
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r

RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš 209

z
r F
M1 M2

F12 F21
m y
r m

m
10 m

ïUÃiwfŸ x‹iw
x
x‹W <®¤jš
z
gl¤âš ÉirfŸ brašgL« âir

co
(iii) G <®¥ãaš kh¿È; G ‹ kâ¥ò 6.626 F¿¡f¥g£LŸsd. nkY« → = −

F 12 F 21 v‹gJ,
[10-11Nm2kg2. r-v‹gJ ÃiwfŸ M1 k‰W« Ãô£lÅ‹ _‹wh« Éâia cWâ¥gL¤J»wJ.
M2 ïilna cŸs bjhiyî. Ãiw M1 MdJ 4. <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wY¡fhd nfhitia¤ jUÉ.
Ãiw M2 MšmczU« F12 F21<®¥ãaš Éiria →
F <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wY¡fhd nfhit:

s.
y
m
bt¡l® F¿¡»wJ. v⮡F¿ahdJ <®¥ãaš m2 m2
10 m
Éir v¥bghGJ« <®¡F« j‹ik cilaJ m1 r dr

v‹gijx F¿¡»wJ. <®¥ãaš ÉirahdJ r +dr

ok
v¥nghJ« ïU Ãiwfisí« ïiz¡F«
(i) 
m1 k‰W« m2 v‹git bjhl¡f¤âš r′
ne®¡nfh£o‹ tÊna brašgL«.
bjhiyÉš cŸsJ v‹f.
fh®Oáa‹ Ma m¢RfËš 'r' v‹w (ii) m2 it r′ ÃiyÆÈUªJ r Ãiy¡F ef®¤j
bjhiyÉ‹ ïUko (r2 = x2y2z2) vd
F¿¡f¥gL«.
o ntiy brŒa¥gl nt©L«.
(iii) 
dr v‹w á¿a bjhiyî ef®¤j <®¥ãaš
~ ÉirÆ‹ v© kâ¥ò
ab
Éir¡F vâuhf brŒa¥gl nt©oa òw
  Gm1m2 -11 ntiy
F
ext = F GF =
= = 6.67×10 ×1×2
r2 100  Gm1m2  

= 13.34 ×10-13 N. dW = F ext .d r = r.d r
r2
(iv) ï›ÉirÆ‹ v© kâ¥ò Äf¡ Fiwthf Gm1m2  
ur

→ ∧
(or) dW = 2
r.d r  [ dr = dr r ]
cŸsJ v‹gJ ftÅ¡f¤j¡fJ. ïjdhš r
  Gm1m2 ∧ ∧
jh‹ ïU kÅj®fS¡»ilnaahd <®¥ãaš F ext F G ==
(or)= dW dr  [ r . r = 1]
2
Éiria eh« czu KotJ ïšiy. r
.s

(iv) 
vdnt r′ ÃiyÆÈUªJ r Ãiy¡F ef®¤j
<®¥ãaš ÉirÆ‹ tÈikia îza«
brŒa¥gl rnt©oar bkh¤j ntiy,
brŒtâš G-‹ Äf¡ Fiwªj kâ¥ò K¡»a¥ r r Gm m
g§fh‰W»wJ.
∫ ∫
dW
dW =
= ∫ ∫
Gm
r
1 2
1m2 2  1
r
w

1 m2  − 

W= r′ dr = G m
r′ 2
(v) Ãiw m1 Mš Ãiw m2 czU« <®¥ãaš r′ r′ r  r r '
r
Éir (→ F 21) y m¢R v⮤âirÆš  Gm1m 1r2 
1
 G−mm m2 2  
 1m
 1 2 2r  r −rr'′
∧ ∧ W = –− G
brašgL»wJ. mjhtJ r = - j Ãô£lÅ‹
w

r r′
_‹wh« Éâ¥go, Ãiw m1 MdJ Ãiw (or) W = Gm1m2 Gm1m2  ...(1)
m2 ÛJ rkkhd v⮤âirÆš brašgL« Gm− 1m2 G+m1m2
− r+ r′
(v) r > r´ vÅš,−Ãiwr r′
w

Éiria V‰gL¤J»wJ. vdnt Ãiw m2 Gm1m m22 m


Mš m1 czU« <®¥ãaš Éir → it −Ãiw Gm1m2 m 1 r m m 2 2

F 12 MdJ r 1
y m¢á‹ ne® âirÆš brašgL»wJ. f t ® t j rh š , r ′
∧ ∧ ÈUªJ r-¡F r
'
r =-j ef®¤j btË¥òw ntiy njit ïšiy.
→ ∧
F 21
= − 13.34 ×10-13 Nj ï§F mik¥ghdJ jdJ M‰wiy bryî
→ ∧
brŒJ ntiy brŒ»wJ. vdnt brŒa¥g£l
F 12
= 13.34 ×10-13 Nj ntiy v⮡F¿ bgW«.
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210 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
(vi) r´ > r vÅš, Ãiw m2 it r′-ÈUªJ r-¡F (iv) ï§Fh << R v‹gjhš, igdhÄaš
ef®¤j <®¥ò Éir¡F vâuhf nj‰w¤ij ga‹gL¤â ÉÇî gL¤j,
btË¥òw¤âÈUªJ ntiy brŒa nt©L«. GMm h
M f n t m 1r
' m m 2 2 U = R 1− R  ...(1)
brŒa¥g£l ntiy (v) Mdhš òÉ<®¥ò KL¡fkhdJ,
ne®F¿ kâ¥ig

m
GM
r

bgW«. GM
g = 2 (or) =gR
R R
(vii) r´ = ∞ vÅš, rk‹ghL (1) MdJ, (vi) ïjid rk‹ghL (1)š ãuâÆl,
G m1 m2 G m1 m2

co
W= +0= −  h
r r U = – m g R 1− 
 R
(viii)
ïªj ntiyna <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wyhF« U=–mgR+mgh ...(2)
vdnt, (vii) rk‹ghL (2) š cŸs Kjš nfhit, cau«
G m1 m2

s.
U (r) = ...(2) h - I rh®ªjjšy, vdnt m¡nfhitia
r òw¡f¡fyh«. vdnt,
(ix) <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wyhdJ v¥nghJ« vâ®F¿
kâ¥ò bgW«. (viii) òÉ¥gu¥ãÈUªJ h - cau¤âš cŸs Ãiw

ok
m -š nrÄ¡f¥g£LŸs <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wš,
5. òÉ gu¥ò¡F mUnf ‘h'- cau¤âš cŸs òŸËfËš
xU bghUË‹ <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wš U=mgh vd
U = m g h  ...(3)
Ã%ã. 6.
vilÆ‹ik v‹gij Ä‹ ca®¤â ïa¡f¤ij
(i) òÉÆ‹ Ãiw = M o ga‹gL¤â És¡Ff.
òÉÆ‹ Mu« = R 
Ä‹ ca®¤âÆš ÉF« kÅj® ÛJ ïU ÉirfŸ
bghUË‹ Ãiw = m brašgL»‹wd.
ab
òÉ¥gu¥ãÈUªJ bghUË‹ cau« = h (i)  Ñœneh¡» brašgL« <®¥ò Éir. eh«
òÉika¤âÈUªJ bghUË‹ cau« = r br§F¤J âirÆid ne® y m¢R âir
vd vL¤J¡bfh©lhš, mªj kÅj® ÛJ
h << R → ∧
m
brašgL« <®¥ãaš Éir FG = - mg j
ur

h
(ii) Ä‹ ca®¤âÆ‹ js¤âdhš kÅj® ÛJ
r brY¤j¥gL« nkšneh¡»a br§F¤J Éir
R → ∧
N =Nj
Ãfœî (i) Ä‹ ca®¤â XŒî ÃiyÆš cŸsnghJ:
.s

o
kÅjÇ‹ KL¡f« RÊ MF«. vdnt kÅj® ÛJ
brašgL« bkh¤j Éirí« RÊahF«. Ãô£lÅ‹
ïu©lh« Éâ¥go
w

òÉika¤âÈUªJ r bjhiyÉš
it¡f¥g£LŸs Ãiw → →
FG + N = 0
(ii) ï›tik¥ã‹ <®¥òÃiy M‰wš, ∧ ∧
- mg j + Nj = 0
w

GM e m G MMme m bt¡l® TWfis x¥ã£lhš eh« bgWtJ


U = − r = −– G R + h
R( +eh ) N-mg=0 mšyJ N = mg vd vGjyh«. vdnt
(iii) ïªj rk‹gh£il Ñœf©lthW vGjyh«.
M m Me m
w

−G G M m e −G vil W = N v‹gjhš kÅjÇ‹ njh‰w vil


U = – R e (1 + h / R e ) Re mtÇ‹ c©ik vil¡F rk«.
RM h
1+m  h  Ãfœî (ii) nkšneh¡» mšyJ Ñœneh¡»
− G  e R1 −
R  R−1  Ä‹ca®¤â Óuhf ïa§F«nghJ: Óuhd
G M me h  e ïa¡f¤â‹nghJ (khwhj âirntf«) kÅj® ÛJ
U= 1+ 
R  R brašgL« bkh¤j Éirí« RÊna. vdnt ïªj
ÃfœÉ‹nghJ« kÅjÇ‹ njh‰w vil mtÇ‹
c©ik vil¡F¢ rk«.
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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš 211

Ãfœî (iii) Ä‹ ca®¤â nkšneh¡» 7. ÉLgL ntf¤â‰fhd nfhitia¤ jUÉ. [HY-2018]


KL¡f¥gL«nghJ : nkšneh¡»a KL¡f¤Jl‹ (i) 
nfhË‹ <®¥ãaš òy¤âÈUªJ ÉLg£L¤
→ ∧
(a = aj )Ä‹ ca®¤â ïa§F»wJ vÅš j¥ã¢bršy bghUŸ v¿a¥gl nt©oa áWk
jiuia¥ bghW¤J (Ãiyk¡ F¿¥gha«) ntf« m¡nfhË‹ ÉLgL ntf« vd¥gL«.
Ãô£lÅ‹ ïu©lh« Éâia ga‹gL¤âdhš, (ii) òÉÆ‹ ÉLgL ntf«
→ → →

m
ek¡F »il¥gJ FG + N = m a òÉÆ‹ Ãiw = Me
nk‰f©l rk‹gh£il br§F¤J âirÆ‹ myF òÉÆ‹ Mu« = Re
bt¡l®fis ga‹gL¤â vGJnth«.
bghUË‹ Ãiw = m

co
∧ ∧ ∧
-mg j + Nj = maj
(iii) bghUshdJ vi âirntf¤âš nkšneh¡»
bt¡l® TWfis x¥ãl N = m(g + a) v¿a¥gL»wJ v‹f.
vdnt kÅjÇ‹ njh‰w vil mtÇ‹ c©ik (iv) bghUË‹ Mu«g bkh¤j M‰wš
viliaÉl mâf«.

s.
Ei = Mu«g bkh¤j M‰wš + òÉ gu¥ãš
Ãfœî (iv) Ä‹ ca®¤â Ñœneh¡» <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wš
KL¡f¥gL«nghJ: Ä‹ca®¤âahdJ 1 2 GMM E
→ ∧
Ñœneh¡»a KL¡f¤Jl‹ (a = aj ) ïa§F»wJ Ei = Mni −  ...(1)
2 RE

ok
vÅš Ãô£lÅ‹ ïu©lh« Éâia ga‹gL¤â (v) Äf mâfkhd cau¤âš (KoÉyh bjhiyî)
→ → → bkh¤j M‰wš
eh« bgWtJ FG + N = ma
Ef = 0 + 0 = 0
nk‰f©l rk‹gh£il br§F¤J âirÆ‹ myF
(vi) M‰wš khwh Éâ¥go,
bt¡l®fis ga‹gL¤â vGJnth«.
∧ ∧ ∧
o Ei = Ef
-mg j + Nj = maj
1 GM e m
ab
bt¡l® TWfis ïUòwK« x¥ãl eh« bgWtJ m ni2 − =0
2 Re
N = m(g - a) 1 GMM
GM e mE
Mni2 =

vdnt kÅjÇ‹ njh‰w vil 2 R Ee
(vii) <®¥ò òy¤âÈUªJ j¥ã¢bršy bghUŸ
ur

{W = N = (m (g - a)} mtÇ‹ c©ik vilia


v¿¥gl nt©oa áWk ntf« mjhtJ ÉLgL
Él Fiwî.
ntf« ve vÅš
jhnd ÑnH ÉG« bghUŸfË‹ vilÆ‹ik :
1 GM e m
m ve 2 =
.s

jhnd ÑnH ÉG« bghUŸfŸ <®¥ãaš Éiria


2 Re
k£Lnk cz®»‹wd. jilÆ‹¿ jhnd ÉGtjhš
mit vªj gu¥òlD« bjhl®ò ïšyhkš cŸsd. 2G M e
ve2 =  ...(2)
Re
w

(fh‰¿‹ cuhŒî Éir òw¡f¡f¥gL»wJ).


(viii) Mdhš òÉ¥gu¥ãš <®¥ò KL¡f«,
vdnt bghUË‹ ÛJ brašgL« br§F¤J Éir
G Me
RÊahF«. bghUË‹ Ñœneh¡»a KL¡f« òÉÆ‹ g=  ...(3)
R e2
w

<®¥ò KL¡f¤â‰F¢ rk«. mjhtJ a = g.


(ix) rk‹ghL (3)-I rk‹ghL (2)-š ãuâÆl,
∴ N = m (g - g) = 0
ve2 = 2 g Re ...(4)
ïjidna vilÆ‹ik Ãiy v‹»nwh«.
w


(x) vdnt ÉLgL ntfkhdJ, <®¥ã‹ KL¡f«
Ä‹ ca®¤â Ñœ neh¡»a KL¡f« (a = g) š k‰W« òÉÆ‹ Mu« M»at‰iw rh®ªjJ.
ÉG«nghJ, Ä‹ ca®¤âÆ‹ cŸns ïU¡F« Mdhš bghUË‹ Ãiwia rh®ªjjšy.
kÅj® vilÆ‹ik Ãiyia mšyJ jhdhfnt (xi) nkY« ÉLgL ntf« bghUŸ v¿a¥gL«
ÑnH ÉG« Ãiyia cz®th®. âiria rh®ªjjšy.
(xii) òÉÆ‹ g = 9.8 ms–2 k‰W« Re = 6400 km
v‹gjhš, ve = 11.2 kms–1
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212 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
8. cau¤ij bghW¤J g v›thW khWgL«? Z

 òÉgu¥ãÈUªJ h cau¤âš cŸs Ãiw m I


Q
fUJnth«. òÉÆ‹ <®¥ò Éirahš m¥bghUŸ R
P
Fc =m 2
R

czU« KL¡f« mg

GM GM O
R E

g´ =

m
2
(R e + h) 2  h
R e 2 1 + 
GM GM  Re 

(R e + h) 2g´ = 2
2 h
R e 1 + 

co
 Re  FW¡nfh£il¥ bghW¤J
g khWgLjš
−2
GM  h hGM
g´ =
Re 2 1 + R 
1 − 2 R  (v) òÉ RHyÉšiy vÅš bghUË‹ ÛJ
Re 2
e e brašgL« <®¥òÉir m g MF«.

s.
(vi) òÉ RHštjhš, bghUshdJ TLjyhf
m

h
ikaÉy¡F Éiriaí« bgW»wJ.
(vii) òÉahdJ w-v‹w nfhzâirntf¤âš Z

ok
R e
m¢ir¥ bghU¤J RHY»wJ v‹f.
(viii) vdnt m¢áÈUªJ R′ bjhiyÉš gu¥ãš
O
o cŸs bghUŸ m¢ir ikakhf bfh©L
t£l¥ghijÆš R‰¿tU«.
(ix) ï§F bghUŸ ÛJ brašgL« Éy¡F Éir
ab
òÉika¤âÈUªJ  = mω2R′
h cau¤âš Ãiw (x) FW¡F¡nfh£o‹ kâ¥ò λ vÅš R´ = R cos λ
h << Re vÅš <UW¥ò nj‰w¤âid ga‹gL¤â MF«.
ã‹ò ca® mL¡Ffis¥ òw¡f¤J¥
(xi) vdnt <®¥ò Éir¡F vâuhf mikªj
ur

ã‹tUkhW vGjyh«.
−2 ikaÉy¡F ÉirÆ‹ TW,
GM  h GM  h Fcf = m ω2R´ cos λ = m ω2 (R cos2 λ) cos λ
2 
1 +  g´ = 2 
1− 2 
Re  Re  Re  Re 
Fcf = m ω R´ cos λ
.s

2 2
−2
GM  h GM  h (xii) vdnt Ãfu ÉirahdJ
2 
1 +  g´ = 2g 1 − 2 
Re  Re  Re  Re  mg´ = mg – m ω2 R cos2 λ
w

ïâÈUªJ g´ < g vd eh« fh©»nwh«. ïj‹


g´ = g – ω2 R cos2 λ  ...(1)
bghUŸ F¤Jau« h mâfÇ¡F«nghJ <®¥ò
KL¡f« g Fiw»wJ v‹gjhF«. 1. òÉika¡nfh£oš, λ = 0 vdnt
w

9. FW¡Fnfh£il¥ bghW¤J g v›thW khWgL«? g´ = g – ω2 R, mjhtJ, òÉika¡nfh£oš


(i) RHY« F¿¥gha¤âš bghUË‹ ïa¡f¤ij <®¥ã‹ KL¡f« áWkkhF«.
gF¥ghŒî brŒí« nghJ ika Éy¡F 2. JUt¥gFâÆš, λ = 90º, vdnt
w

Éiriaí« fU¤âš bfhŸs nt©L«.


g´ = g mjhtJ JUt¥gFâÆš <®¥ã‹
(ii) òÉahdJ j‹ m¢ir¥g‰¿ RHštjhš mJ KL¡f« bgUkkhF«.
xU RH‰á F¿¥ghakhF«.
(iii) vdnt òÉ¥gu¥ãš xU bghUŸ cŸsnghJ 10. òÉÆ‹ MH¤ij¥ bghW¤J g v›thW khWgL«?
mJ ikaÉy¡F ÉirÆid cz®»wJ.  MH¤ij¥ bghW¤J g khWgLjš: òÉÆ‹ Mœ
Ru§f« x‹¿š cjhuzkhf (beŒntÈ Ãy¡fÇ¢
(iv) m›ÉirahdJ òÉÆ‹ FW¡F nfh£l
Ru§f«) d MH¤âš Ãiw m cŸsJ v‹f.
kâ¥ig rh®ªJŸsJ.
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3
 3 e  πR 
This is only for Sample Materials
 d 
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R 1− 
M 1
e
R e 
RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš R 3e (R e − d )2 R 3e 213


vdnt d   d 
1−   R e 1 −
m
d Re   d   R e 
1 −
R e g´ = g  R e  R e2

(R-d)
ï§F« g´< g.
Re O
MH« mâfÇ¡F«nghJ g´ kâ¥ò Fiw»wJ. vdnt

m
òÉÆ‹ nk‰gu¥ãš <®¥ã‹ KL¡f« bgUkkhf
ïU¡»wJ. Mdhš gu¥ò¡F canu br‹whnyh
mšyJ òÉÆ‹ MH¤â‰F br‹whnyh <®¥ã‹

co
Ru§f¤â‹
d MH¤âš Ãiw
KL¡f« Fiwí«.
11. òÉia ty« tU« Jiz¡nfhË‹
Ru§f¤â‹ MH« d v‹f. d MH¤âš g´ kâ¥ig R‰W¡fhy¤â‰fhd nfhitia jUÉ.
fz¡»l Ñœ¡f©l fU¤Jfis ftd¤âš

s.
bfhŸnth«. Ãiw milí« KL¡f¤âš òÉÆ‹ Jiz¡nfhË‹ R‰W¡fhy«:
(Re- d) ¡F nkny cŸs òÉÆ‹ gFâahdJ (i) xU KG R‰W¡F MF« fhy« R‰W¡fhy«
ïªj KL¡f¤â‰F VJ« g§fË¥ò brŒtâšiy. (T) vd¥gL«.

ok
Kªija gFâÆš Ã%ã¡f¥g£l KoÉ‹go (ii) ï¡fhy¤âš Jiz¡nfhŸ fl¡F« bjhiyî
d MH¤âš <®¥ã‹ KL¡f« 2π(Re+h) MF«.
GM ′ M (iii) vdnt R‰¿a¡f ntf«, tiuaiw go,
g´ =
(R e − d ) 2
V 2π ( R e + h )
vo = ...(1)
(Re- d) cila òÉ gFâÆ‹ Ãiw M′ MF«.
o T
òÉÆ‹ ml®¤â ρ Óuhf mid¤J gFâÆY« Óuhf (iv) Mdhš, R‰¿a¡f ntf¤â‰fhd rk‹gh£o‹
ab
cŸsJ vd¡ fUândh« vÅš, go
2π ( RE + h ) GM E
GM ′ M vo =  ...(2)
ρ 2= T ( RE + h)
( Re − d ) V
ï§F M-òÉÆ‹ Ãiw k‰W« V-òÉÆ‹ gUk‹ (v) 2 πrk‹ghL (1)3 k‰W«
MF«. nkY« ml®¤â Óuhf 4π 2(2) ÈUªJ,
 cŸsjhš
 ( RE + h) 2
ur

M' M  M   4
= 3 GM E GM e GM
2π (REe + h)
ρ =  π (R e − d ) 
V ' V  4 πR 3   3
=
  e
4π 2 (R e +4πh2) GM E T
3′ 
GMM′ ' MM  MGM   4 M GM E g
2
RER
2== Mfnt  2π (RV
M´ = e −
V´d )3   ( e + h)
.s

   2
(R e −Vd') V M' (πRMRe 3e− d )3M R e 41 − d 
V 4   TR=E 2 π (Re + h)
G Me
M= 3 1   R e  3 
V 3' V  4 2 3   3 π3(R e − d )  RE
M ' M Re M (R e−d4)πR e d R3 e  (vi) ïUòwK« t®¡f¥gL¤Jf
= =  R  e3'π1(R
M −Me − d ) M  g
w


VM ' V  1M 4 ' d 3M
1 − π=R e  3   M
= R e  4     4dπ3(R e − d )3  (R e + h)
3 V' V 3  43R  πe(dR31e−−3d )   T2 = 4 π2 (Re + h)2
R 3e (Re −Vd'R) 2e V 4Rπ3eRdR  
e
  1 π
− Re  R e 
 G Me
M 1  1 −  3 R  e
  M´ d=  3Re(Re-R d)3132− dR e  d3 eR e2
4π 2 (R e + h)3
w

1R4 e  (R4e − d3) R e31 −R e dR  1 − d 


e
M' M M1M−   M T2 =
= M ' = M 3 Re π(2R  e −πd(M R) − d ) R 1 e 1R−e R e  G Me
V' V V ' R4V 3 4 −
e πR( R e πR
3dM 3)  d13− 1 eR3 3e 2
 e   d R e 
 3 g´Ree=3G1 e−3R  (Re- R d) 3 R 2R e 1 − 3

 d   R e e(R  eR−eed ) 2(Red −ded)R3e  RRee 4π 2
w

1 − 1 − (vii) ï§F = c v‹gJ kh¿È vdnt,


1 − R   R  d   d R
 de R
 e  R  R e2 d   d  G Me
R 1 −
e e  R 1 − 1 − e d d e R e 1 −
M M 1 R1  1 1Re−  
  ReR R e R e  Rd2   e d  R   R e 
−   R 1 −
e = GM e e e 1− T2 = c (Re + h)3

R e (R e3e − d(R) e − d ) 2 R 3e R 3e Re1 −
3 2   e R2 ....(4)
Re  R e   R eR e2 e
 d  d   d  d 
1 − R1 −  d  R e 1 −RR e  1 − (viii) ï¤bjhl®ãÈUªJ òÉia R‰¿tU«
e R e   d  e  R e 
1g´−= GM 1 − Jiz¡nfhŸ, bf¥s® _‹wh« Éâia
R e R e  Re  R e  R e2 R 2 bfh©LŸsJ v‹gij m¿ayh«.
e

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214 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
(ix) nkY« h << Re v‹gjhš, rk‹ghL (3) MdJ, 13. òÉ Ãiy Jiz¡nfhŸ k‰W« JUt¤
Jiz¡nfhŸ - ÉÇthf És¡Ff.
4π 2 R e3 4π 2 R e 4π 2 R e
T2 = = = òÉ Ãiy Jiz¡nfhŸ:
G Me  G Me  g
(i) òÉÆ‹ j‰RH‰á fhy¤â‰F rkkhd
 R 2   G Me 
e R‰W¡fhy« (T = 24 kÂ) bfh©l
∵g = R 2  bra‰if JiznfhshdJ, òÉÆÈUªJ

m
  e 
gh®¡F«nghJ Ãiyahf ïU¥gJnghš
T = 2π
Re
 ...(5) njh‹W«.
g (ii) Jiz¡nfhË‹ R‰W¡fhykhdJ, mt‰¿‹

co
R‰WghijÆ‹ Mu¤ij rh®ªJ mikí«.
(x) òÉÆ‹ g = 9.8 m/s2 k‰W« Re= 6.4 × 106 m
(iii) bf¥s® _‹wh« Éâia ga‹gL¤â
v‹gjhš, T ≅ 85 ÃÄl§fŸ.
fz¡»l¥g£l rk‹ghL,
12. Jiz¡nfhË‹ M‰wY¡fhd nfhitia jUÉ. 4π 2 (R e + h)3

s.
òÉia R‰W« Jiz¡nfhË‹ M‰wš: T2 =
G Me
òÉ¥gu¥ãÈUªJ h cau¤âš òÉÆid ty« (iv) ïâš
tU« Jiz¡nfhË‹ bkh¤j M‰wš Ñœ¡f©l Re = 6.4 × 106 m → òÉÆ‹ Mu«
KiwÆš fz¡»l¥gL»wJ. Jiz¡nfhË‹ Me = 6.02 × 1024 kg → òÉÆ‹ Ãiw

ok
bkh¤j M‰wš mj‹ ïa¡f M‰wš k‰W« Ãiy G = 6.67 × 10–11 Nm2kg2 → bghJ<®¥ãaš
M‰wÈ‹ T£L¤bjhifahF«. kh¿È
Jiz¡nfhË‹ Ãiy M‰wš: T = 24 hour = 86400s →JiznfhË‹
R‰Wfhy«
GM s M E GM E
U=-
( RE + h)

o ...(1)
( RE + h)
(v) ï«kâ¥òfis ãuâÆl, òÉ¥gu¥ãÈUªJ
Jiz¡nfhË‹ cau« h = 36000 km vd
ï§F Ms - Jiz¡nfhË‹
GMÃiw, bgw¥gL»wJ.
ab
EMs GM s M E

ME - òÉÆ‹ Ãiw,( R + h) 2( R + h) (vi) ïªj cau¤âš ÃiyÃW¤j¥g£l bra‰if
E E JiznfhŸ òÉÆ‹ F¿¥ã£l òŸË¡F
RE - òÉÆ‹ Mu«.
Jiz¡nfhË‹ ïa¡f M‰wš: Ãiyahf ïU¥gJ nghš njh‹W«. ï¤jifa
Jiz¡nfhŸ òÉÃiy Jiz¡nfhŸ
1  GMm 
ur

K.E = Ms−
v2   ...(2) vd¥gL»wJ.
2  r  (vii) ïit bghJthf braâ bjhl®ò¡F
ï§F v v‹gJ Jiz¡nfhË‹ R‰¿a¡f ntf«
ga‹gL»wJ.
nkY« mj‹ kâ¥ò
GM M s E GM E (viii) ï‹rh£ (INSAT) tif JiznfhŸfŸ
.s

v=  ...(3)
( RE + h) ( RE + h) mo¥gilÆš òÉÃiy bra‰if
JiznfhŸfns.
GM
ï«kâ¥ig EMs
rk‹ghL GM sGM
ïš M E sM E
ãuâÆl GM E
JUt Jiz¡nfhŸfŸ:
( RE + hïa¡f RE (+RhE)+ h)
w

Jiz¡nfhË‹ ) 2(M‰wš: ( RE + h)
(i) òÉÆ‹ gu¥ãÈUªJ 500-800 km cau¤âš
1 GM EGMmM s  GM s M E òÉÆid tl¡F - bj‰F âirÆš Rw¿
K.E = GM −M 
2 ( RsE +Ehr)  2GM
tU« JiznfhŸfŸ JUt JiznfhŸfŸ
( RE E+ h)
w

( RE + M‰wš
vdnt Jiz¡nfhË‹ bkh¤j h) ( RE + h) vd¥gL«.
(ii) JUt JiznfhŸfË‹ R‰W fhy« 100
GM s M E 1 GM GM M  GM
GMm GMs M s ME E GM E
E =  − E E s - ÃÄl§fŸ MF«. vdnt xU ehËš gy
( RE + h) 2 ( RE + hr)  2((RREE ++ hh))
w

( RE + h) Kiw òÉia R‰¿ tU»‹wd,


GM E M s GM s M E GM E M s GM s M(iii)
E xU R‰¿‹ nghJ òÉÆ‹ tl JUt« Kjš
E =-
( RE + h) 2( RE + h) ( RE + h) 2( RE + h) bj‹ JUt« tiu xU á¿a Ãy¥gu¥ò gFâ
nkš flªJ bršY«.
ï§F v⮡F¿ahdJ Jiz¡nfhŸ òÉíl‹
ãiz¡f¥g£LŸsJ v‹gijí« Jiz¡nfhŸ (iv) mL¤j R‰¿‹ nghJ, òÉahdJ á¿a nfhz
òÉÆ‹ <®¥ò òy¤âÈUªJ j¥ã¢ bršy ïayhJ msî RH‹W ÉLtjhš, ntW Ãy¥gu¥ò
v‹gijí« vL¤J¡fh£L»wJ. gFâ nkš flªJ bršY«.

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš 215

(v) ï›thwhf mL¤jL¤j R‰WfË‹ _y« efÇš br§F¤J¤ âir¡F 7.2° nfhz«
JUt Jiz¡nfhshdJ òÉÆ‹ KG rhŒthf NÇa xË ÃHš ÉG»wJ vd
Ãy¥gu¥ò nkš flªJ bršy Koí«. f©lh®.
14. òÉika¡ bfhŸif¡F gâyhf NÇaika¡f¡
bfhŸif V‰W¡ bfhŸs¥gLtj‰F nfhŸfË‹

m
ã‹ndh¡»¢ brštJnghy¤ njh‹W« ïa¡f¡
fU¤J v›thW cjÉaJ?
(i) nfhŸfË‹ ã‹neh¡F ïa¡f¤ij És¡f
òÉika¡ nfh£gh£oš bgUt£l¤â‹ nkš

co
mikí« áW t£l¢RH‰á v‹w fU¤ij
jhyÄ K‹bkhʪjh®. Mdhš ïªj
És¡f« Äfî« fodkhf ïUªjJ. (iii) ïªj ÃHš V‰gl fhuz« òÉÆ‹ nk‰gu¥ò
(ii) ïªj á¡fiy Ô®¡f NÇa ika¡bfhŸif tisªJ fhz¥gLtnj vd vu£nlh°jÜ°
cz®ªjh®.

s.
nfh¥g®Å¡f° v‹gt® btËÆ£lh®.
ï¡bfhŸifÆ‹ go, NÇa FL«g¤â‹ (iv) ïªj nfhz« nuoa‹ my»š :
ikakhd NÇaid mid¤J nfhŸfS«
t£l¥ghijÆš R‰¿ tU»‹wd. 1 500
θ = 7.2° = nuoa‹

ok
(iii) òÉÆid rh®ªj nfhŸfË‹ rh®ò 8 θ
ïa¡f¤â‹ fhuzkhf nfhŸfŸ ã‹ndh¡» (v) nkY« irba‹ ika k‰W« mby¡rh©oÇah
brštJ nghš ïa¡f¤ij bgW»‹wd. efU¡F ïilnaahd
1 ÉšghijÆ‹ Ús« :
(iv) vL¤J¡fh£lhf, br›thŒ nfhisÉl S = 500 ikš
o 8
òÉahdJ Éiuthf NÇaid R‰¿ tU»wJ. S = Rθ
(v) òÉ¡F« br›thŒ nfhS¡F« ïilnaahd S 500
ïªj rh®ò ïa¡f¤â‹ Éisthf, ã¥utÇ (or) R= =
ab
θ  1
Kjš »H¡»ÈUªJ nk‰F neh¡» K‹neh¡»  
bršY« br›thŒ nfhshdJ, #]iy Kjš
8
m¡nlhg® tiu ã‹ndh¡» brštJ nghš R = 4000 ikš
njh‹W»wJ. (vi) 1 ikš = 1.609 km. v‹gjhš, R = 6436 km
vd vu£nlh°jÜ° vd fz¡»£lh®.
ur

(vii) ï«kâ¥ò j‰nghJ f©l¿a¥g£l kâ¥ghd


6378 km¡F Äf mUnf cŸsJ.
g

g
f

16. KG rªâu »ufz¤â‹nghJ òÉ


e

ÃHÈ‹
b

f
.s d

(fUÃHÈ‹) Mu« v›thW ms¥ghŒ?


c

e
b

(i) rªâu »ufz¤â‹ nghJ Ãyh òÉÆ‹ ÃHiy


a

fl¡F« nghJ òÉÆ‹ fUÃHÈ‹ njh‰w


w

(vi) ïJnghš k‰w nfhŸfË‹ ã‹ndh¡F Mu« msÉl¥gL»wJ. ïjid RS v‹f.


ïa¡f¤ij nfh¥g®Å¡fÌ‹ NÇa (ii) Ãyh btËnaW« nghJ mJ ãiw Ãythf
w

ika¡bfhŸif vËikahf És¡»aJ. át¥ghf njh‹W«. mj‹ njh‰w Mu«


15. òÉÆ‹ Mu« fhQ« vu£nlh°jÜ° Kiwia msÉl¥gL»wJ. ïjid Rm v‹f.
ÉtÇ.
w

òÉÆ‹ Mu¤ij fhQ« vu£nlh°jÜ° Kiw:


(i) nfhil NÇa âU¥ò Kf ÃiyÆš (NÇa‹ j‹ òÉÆ‹ fUÃHš
Rs
ïa¡f âiria kh‰W« ehŸ) e©gfÈš
irba‹ efÇš NÇa xË ÃHš V‰glhjij
vu£nlh°jÜ° f©lh®. Ãyh
(ii) mnj neu¤âš irba‹ efÇÈUªJ 500 Rm
ikš bjhiyÉš cŸs mby¡[h©£Çah

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216 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
(iii) ÃH‰gl¤âÈUªJ, 5. ÃyhÉ‹ Ûjhd òÉÆ‹ <®¥ò Éir âObud
Rs = 13.2 cm kiwªjhš rªâuD¡F v‹d ÃfG«?
Rm= 5.15 cm <®¥ò Éir âObud kiwí«nghJ rªâu‹
òÉia¢ R‰¿ tU« jdJ RH‰áia ÃW¤âÉL«.
(iv) vdnt Mu§fË‹ jfî,
mj‹ tH¡fkhd R‰W¥ghij¡F bjhL nfh£L¤
R s 13.2

m
= ≈ 2.56 âirÆš xU ntf¤Jl‹ óÄia¢ R‰WkhW
R m 5.15 rhŒªJ mikí«.

(v) vdnt òÉÆ‹ fUÃHÈ‹ Mu«, 6. j‰nghJ òÉ j‹ RH‰á m¢áÈUªJ rhŒªJ

co
Rs = 2.56 Rm mikaÉšiy vÅš gUt¡fhy§fËš v‹d
khWghL V‰gL«?
(vi) ÃyÉ‹ c©ikahd Mu« Rm 1737 km
gUt§fns ïU¡fhJ. òÉahdJ NÇaid
vdnt òÉ fUÃHÈ‹ Mu« Rs = 2.56 23.5° nfhz rhŒîl‹ R‰¿ tUtjhnyna gUt

s.
Rm = 2.56 × 1737 ≅ 4446 km. fhy§fŸ njh‹W»‹wd.
(vii) òÉ Mu¤â‹ rÇahd kâ¥ò = 4610 km. 7. ``nfhilfhyK« FË®fhyK« òÉÆš V‰gLtJ
v›thW'' v‹w Édhî¡F khzt® xUt® òÉ

ok
IV. fU¤JU Édh¡fŸ ÚŸt£l¥ghijÆš R‰W«nghJ, òÉ NÇaD¡F
1. Ñœ¡f©l msitfËš vit kh¿È? mUnf tU«nghJ (m©ik Ãiy) nfhil fhyK«
(a) nfhË‹ ne®nfh£L cªj« NÇaid É£L Éy» mâf¤ bjhiyÉš
(b) nfhË‹ nfhz cªj« k‰W« nfhË‹
o cŸsnghJ (nrŒikÃiy) FË®fhyK«
bkh¤j Ãiy M‰wš njh‹W»wJ vd gâš mË¡»wh®. khztÇ‹
(c) nfhË‹ bkh¤j M‰wš gâš rÇah? ïšiy vÅš nfhilí« FË®fhyK«
ab
(d) nfhË‹ Ãiy M‰wš njh‹W« fhuz¤ij És¡Ff.
ïJ jtwhd fU¤jhF«. c©ikÆš òÉahdJ
[Éil. (b) nfhË‹ nfhz cªj«
NÇaid 23.5° nfhz rhŒîl‹ R‰¿
 k‰W« nfhË‹ bkh¤j Ãiy M‰wš] tUtjhnyna gUt fhy§fŸ njh‹W»‹wd.
23.5° rhŒÉ‹ fhuzkhf òÉÆ‹ tlnfhz¥ gFâ
ur

2. Xuh©L fhy¤âš òÉÆ‹ ÛJ NÇa‹ brŒj


ntiyÆ‹ msî NÇaD¡F btF bjhiyÉš cŸsnghJ òÉÆ‹
bj‹nfhz¥ gFâ NÇaD¡F mU»š mikí«.
(a) RÊ
(b) RÊ mšy
vdnt, tlnfhz¥ gFâÆš FË®fhykhf
.s

(c) ne®F¿ kâ¥ò cilaJ cŸsnghJ bj‹nfhz¥ gFâÆš nfhil


(d) vâ®F¿ kâ¥ò cilaJ [Éil. (a) RÊ] fhykhf ïU¡F«.
3. F¿¥ã£l fhy msÉš NÇa‹ òÉ ÛJ brŒj 8. 2018 #dtÇ 31 njâ eilbg‰w rªâu »ufz¤â‹
w

ntiyÆ‹ msî v›thW ïU¡F«? bt›ntW Ãiyfis òif¥gl« fh£L»‹wJ.


(a) ne®F¿ahf, vâÇF¿ahf mšyJ RÊahf ï¥òif¥gl¤â‹ mo¥gilÆš òÉ nfhs
(b) v¥nghJ« ne®F¿ totKilaJ vd Ã%ã¡f Koíkh?
w

(c) v¥nghJ« vâ®F¿


(d) v¥bghGJ« RÊ
 [Éil. (d) v¥bghGJ« RÊ]
w

4. xU thšÛ‹ ÃyhÉ‹ ÛJ âObud nkhâ ÃyhÉ‹


bkh¤j M‰wiy Él mâf M‰wiy Ãyhî¡F
jªjhš v‹d ÃfG«? ïšiy. rªâu‹ xU ÚŸt£l¥ ghijÆš
xU thšÛ‹ mâfkhd Ãiw k‰W« mâf âir óÄia¢ R‰¿ tU»wJ. mjhtJ mj‹ bjhiyî
ntf¤Jl‹ ÃyhÉ‹ ÛJ nkhJ« nghJ mJ
KGtJkhf mÊ¡f¥gL« mšyJ ï¤jh¡f« e«ÄlÄUªJ bt›ntW ÃiyfËš khW»wJ.
ÃyhÉid R‰W¥ ghijÆÈUªJ btˤjŸS«.

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš 217

V. fz¡FfŸ ∴ F¿Šá, Kšiy, kUj«, beŒjš, ghiy


1. milahs« bjÇah nfhshdJ òÉÆ‹ miube£l¢R
nfhŸfË‹ miu be£l¢R¡F« R‰W¡fhy¤â‰F«
nghy ïU kl§F cila Mu¥ghijÆš NÇaid
ïilnaahd bjhl®ò bghJthf a α 2T2 vd
ty« tU»wJ. òÉÆ‹ RH‰áfhy« T1 vÅš
Ã%ã¡f¥g£LŸsJ.
m¡nfhË‹ RH‰á fhy« fh©f. 3. ïU ÃiwfS« k‰W« mªÃiwfS¡F ïilnaahd

m
bjhiyî« ïU kl§F M¡f¥g£lhš mt‰W¡F
Ô®î: òÉÆ‹ RH‰á¡ fhy« = T1
ïilna cŸs <®¥ò ÉirÆš V‰gL« kh‰w« ahJ?
òÉÆ‹ miu be£l¢á‹ Ús« = a1 GM1M 2
﨔: F1 =
milahs« bjÇah nfhË‹

co
r2
R‰W¡fhy« = T2 M1, M2 GM
= 2M M 22
,12M
G 21M 2M GM1M 2
milahs« bjÇah nfhË‹ bjhiyî r = 2r r 1 2 2 =
2

( 2r ) 4r 2
vÅš F2 = G 2 M1 2M 2 = GM1M 2
miube£l¢R Ús«, a2 =2a1 [ a2 = 2a1] ∴

Ús«

s.
= a2
( 2r ) 2 4r 2
bf¥sÇ‹ _‹wh« Éâ¥go T2 ∝ a3

∴ F2= F1s

T22 = 8a1 3 ∴ T12∝ a13
ÃiwfS«, mt‰¿‰»ilnaahd bjhiyî«

8T12 = T22 ïUkl§fhF« nghJ mt‰¿‰»ilna cŸs <®¥ò

ok
ÉirÆš kh‰w« ïšiy.
T12T12 a13 aT13 2 1 1a 3 1
∴ 2 =2 = 3 =13 == 1 = 4. Ãiw m k‰W« 4m cila ïU bghUŸfŸ r
T2 T2 8a18T a12 8 88a 3 8
2 1 bjhiyÉš mikªJŸsd. ïU bghUŸfisí«
2 T1T
∴ T2 2 =1 2 2TT1 ïiz¡F« nfh£oš xU òŸËÆš <®¥ò òy« RÊ

2.
1

òâajhf f©l¿a¥g£l xU NÇa FL«g¤âš


o v‹whš m¥òŸËÆš <®¥ò¤ j‹Åiy M‰wiy¡
f©l¿f.
cŸs nfhŸfŸ g‰¿a jftš ju¥g£LŸsjhf
ab
r
fUJf. m¡nfhŸfË‹ miu be£l¢R¡F« R‰W¡ Ô®î. m 4m
fhy¤â‰F« cŸs bjhl®ò ahJ?
x r–x
R‰W¡fhy« be£l¢R msî Gm G.4m
nfhŸ
(AU)
'm' š <®¥ò¥ òy« =
(M©LfËš) x 2 (r − x) 2
ur

F¿Šá Gm G.4m
2 8 '4m' š <®¥ò¥ òy« = 1 4
x 2 (r2 −=x) 2

Kšiy 3 18 x x) 2
(r −nfh£oš
ïU bghUŸfisí« ïiz¡F« xU
kUj« 4 32 1 4
=vÅš 1 2 r
.s

òŸËÆš <®¥ò¥òy« RÊ
beŒjš 5 50 Gm G . 4 m x 2 (r −= x) 2
GmGm
Gm2 GG 44m
.4..m
G m2 x r−x 3
ghiy 6 72
x ( r − x ) 1 Gm 2 G.4rm
=x 2 − (Gm 1 2−Gm G.4m
2 = 2
Gm x xxG2 .4(mr((rr−− −x)xx)) 2
2 2
Ô®î: (i) nfhŸ F¿Šá¡fhd R‰W¡fhy« T12 α a13 r − x ) =
x r − x 3
w

1 4 r r 2r
T1 = 2 ; a1 = 8 x 2 1(11r 2−==xGm ) 24 44 G2 .4m Gm 1 − 4
Gm G3. 4 m
x= (2r −x2x()r)22 − x) 2− =1
2 2 = 3
1 x xx 2 4(r((xrr−− 2=
a1 = 22. 2 = 2 T12
−x)x) x 2
r ( r −r x ) 2 r

ïnj ngh‹nw = 1 122 2 rr4 3
x 2 1(11r −
w

==x2)2 = r r 1 2 r 3
(ii) Kšiy T2 = 3, a2 = 18 =x= rxr−−xx (r33− x)
x
2 2
=
a2 = 32.2 ⇒ 2 T22 1 x x2 Gm r r−r−x x 3 3
Gm GG.4.4xmm r − x 3
= 1 −−Gm
= −xGm

x − r −Gm x 1r1113=−Gm
Gm −Gm 2 G =rG.4.m42m
(iii)
kUj« − r = =
= r Gm1 −Gm = G.4m
w

T3 = 4, a3 = 32
∴ r x r rr − 3x 32 2
r −
r
a3 = 42 . 2 ⇒ 2 T32
Gm1 r−rGm rG
<®¥ò¤ j‹Åiy
33 .4m 2r3 r
M‰wš = r 2r
− Gm = 3 − Gm 3 G . 4 m 3
rV(r) =r− 1 2r 33 3
(iv) beŒjš 3 r vÅš =
T4 = 5, a4 = 50 r
3 3 2 r
a4 = 52 . 2 ⇒ 2 T42
− 3 Gm 6Gm 3
V(r) = −
(v) ghiy T5 = 6, a5 = 72 r r
a5 = 62 . 2 ⇒ 2 T52
V(r) = −9Gm
r
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218 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
5. NÇaÅÈUªJ ïU nfhŸfŸ cŸs bjhiyîfË‹ dL d ∧ ∧ ∧
d E Gm τ = dt = dt ( 5t2 i - 6t j +3k )
jfî 1 = 2 1vÅš ïU nfhŸfŸ czU« <®¥ò òy
d2 E2 r 2 ∧ ∧
tÈikfË‹ jfî ahJ? τ = 10t i - 6 j
Gm Gm ïU d 22 d 22  d1 
NÇaÅÈUªJ
Ô®î.  nfhŸfŸ  = 2  cŸs 8. rk Ãiw M cila eh‹F ÃiwfŸ x›bth‹W«
2 2 2
d1 d 2 Gmd d1E  Gdm2 

m
bjhiyîfË‹ jfî 1 = 21  rk bjhiyÉš cŸsd. mt‰W¡»ilnaahd <®¥ò
2
ïU nfhŸfŸ  d1 
2
E
czU« d 2 <®¥ò E r
2 òy tÈikfË‹
Éir ft®¢áahš Mu« R cila t£l¥ghijÆš
  2
d E G m
d1 E11 2 Gm  m¤JfŸfŸ ïa§F»‹wd. x›bthU JfË‹
d1 E 1d 2 Gm E1 G m G m d 1 2
d  d1
d Ed 2 Er 22 2 r  = 2 ntf¤ij fz¡»Lf.

co
jfî =? 2 2 2
d2 E2 r 2 d12 d2 22 2G m d1  d 2 
d E G m 2   Ãfu òÉ <®¥ò Éir = ika neh¡F Éir
﨔:
d1G 2 E1 2Gm  2 Gdm GGm m Gdm2 d 22 
2 22
 d 2 d1 d1
Gdm1E d G 1 m
1E
m
1
=E d22 r 2 d∴ 2 Ed 2 = 12 E ; E222 =
= 2 = 2 GMM
d2 2 E 2 d 2 2r E 2 2
 r 1
1


 dd1 = 2 d 2 d 2
G
d1 2 G2m d1  1 d 2  rAD m2 
d 2  d2 = 2 R = rAB2 = rDC = rBC
d
d E1 1 Gm 2 d1 E1 21 dG2m d 22 G m d  2 2 E212d   2  (2 R)
d11 E d11 GE G Gm m G m GG m
m 2G d m 2 d 22 d  d  A ¡F« B ¡F Äilnaahd Éir

s.
d 2 E∴ mr2 G=m d×2 d 2 2 2 dd 1 2 d1E
1 2 2 1
=  21 E 2  2 GM 2
1 GM 2
d E r   = 2 A
d 222 dd1E2r22d12 dEr22 dd1222GmG 2 2 d 2    2= 2   GMM
1 2
d2 E 2m
d 2 d1 G1m  d
 dd d2 1 d2 E d2 E   × + GMM
F1 2= ( 2R2) 2 [ 2 rAB4R = 2 2 R] r2 R r 1

Gm G  dm2 1 d 22E221 G 2
d2d2m G
1 2  E d
2 1m1 Gd
 2 2  2 2  1
m2 d2 d1 1  ( 2 R ) R
Gm2 dG1Gmm m 2
E G
1 d2dm
2 G  d d
 dd221E 2 d d
2 E2 1
= d2   =2  (B2 R )
d12 d2 d G  2dd121222 E
21m=2E = 221 = d22  d
2d22d22 rGm
M2 vD2 ¡»ilnaahd
GM GMM R 2l D

ok
 2
d1 dd2 d12 22 E12dG m r
 G d d
 dm1E1 d 1 E 2 d 2     A 2 GM
k‰W« 1 GM Éir
× +R ( 2 2R ) 2 2GM × 1 + GM
F2  2
 d2 2  E
1 2
2 R
2
 d1 2 E2d22    GMM 2 4R
2 2
12G 2
m

2
2 Gm
1
d 2
d d ( 2 R ) RGMM
d1 d 2 E 22  d1 2  2   1 = 2 F22 =
2
 d1 G dm1 E  2Gm d [ rAD = ( 22R] ) 2 2 C 4R

 d   2 E 2E 2=  d 2 2 =d22 Gm  = 2d 2  d
2
R) GMM
Mv 2 (2 GM
2
 1   2 (2 R)
2
d 2 dd1 E 1 d 2 E Gmd 21d1 E2 1 d 2  2 
r2ACGM 2 2 M v GM GMM
R
= rBD =2R
R1 ( GM 2
GM 2 2
2 1 (+ GM
2 2 1 1 2
× + 2 R )

 d∴
 1 
 E2 E = 4E1d1 
2
2  
o
E2
A ( k‰W« 2
2 4R
2R ) C¡»ilnaahd
2
Éir
R R
×
( 2RF)32 2 4R
2R )22

6.  dÉahHÅ‹ 
  d 
 E x‹whd Io MdJ 2 GMM
2 E1 Jiz¡nfhŸfËš 2 1
FM32v = GM2 GMM
ab
ÉahHid 1.769 eh£fS¡F xUKiw R‰¿ Mv 2 GM GMM
R ( 2 R )
R ( 2R ) 2
tU»wJ. m¤Jiz¡nfhË‹ R‰W¥ ghijÆ‹
Mu¤â‹ 2 tÊnaahd 2 ÉirfŸ
R R ( 2R ) 2
Mu« 4,21,700 km vÅš ÉahH‹ nfhË‹ Ãiw
2GM 1 GM
× +
fh©f. R ) F22¡fhd
F( 1 2k‰W« 2
4R 2TWfŸ
ur

2
Ô®î: ÉahHÅ‹ Jiz¡nfhŸfËš x‹W FM1 vcos GMF2GMM
45°, cos 45°
Io (rªâu‹)‹ R‰W¡fhy« = 1.769 eh£fŸ R R 2
F ( 2R )
F1 =2F2=GMM
= 1.769 × 24 × 60 ×60 sec. (2 R)2 GMM
Ãfu Éir = 2F cos 45°2 +F3
.s

(2 R)2
Jiz¡nfhË‹ R‰W¥ ghijÆ‹ Mu«, 2GM 2 1 GM 2

GMM× + 2 2
2 R ) 2 22 4R22GM × 1 + GM
GMM =
r = 4,21,700 km (or) = 4.217 × 108 m
2
(
2 (2= Rikaneh¡F
) ( 2RÉir ) 2 2 4R
2
4π 2 r 3 4 × 3.14 × 3.14 × (4.217 × 108 )3(2 R ) Ãfu Éir
w

2
M
GMM v GM GMM
M =
GT 2 6.67 × 10 −11 × (1.769 × 24 × 60 × 602 ) 2 1 2 GMR 22GM 2 1 GM M 2v
2
2
GM GMM
2GM 2 R × ( +
GMM 2 R )
× + ( 2 R )
(2 2R )[2 22 2
+1] = 4 R 2
2R R ( 2R ) 2
4π 2 r 3 4 × 3.14 × 3.14 × (4.217 × 108 )3 ( 2R ) 2 2 4R 2 2( 2 R )
2GM GM GMM
M×v12 + GM
w

2 = GMM
GT 6.67 × 10 −11 × (1.769 × 24 × 60 × 60) 2 Mv 2 GM ( 2∴ GMM v = 2 GM 2 2
2 2 1 +1 GM 2 [ ]
R ) 2
4 R × 2 +
2R R (2 2R ) (2 R2) 2
27 2
M = 1.898 × 10 kg
R R ( 2 R ) ( 2R ) 2 4R -11 kâ¥ò¡F gâyhf
9. Mv <®¥ãaš
2
GM kh¿È GMM11G = 6.67×10
w

∧ 2GM 2
GM 2
→ ∧ ∧ G = 6.67×10 M v 2
2 GMvd jtwhf1 vGj¥g£lJ
GMM v‹W
7. xU nfhË‹ nfhz cªj« L = 5t2 i - 6tj +3k vÅš R it¤J R (bfhŸnth«.2R ) × + 2
nfhË‹ ÛJ brašgL« âU¥ò Éir ahJ? âU¥ò R ( 2(R )2R ) 22 4R
R
ï¤jtwhd 2 kâ¥ò bfh©L
bgW« <®¥ã‹ KL¡f«2 g′ kâ¥ò ahJ? ï¥òâa
Éir, nfhz cªj¤â‹ âirÆš brašgLkh? Mv GM GMM
<®¥ã‹ KL¡f¤â‹ mo¥gilÆš cdJ vil ahJ?
→ ∧ ∧ ∧ R R ( 2R ) 2
Ô®î: xU nfhË‹ nfhz cªj« = L = 5t2 i - 6tj +3k Ô®î: òÉÆ‹ Ãiw, M = 6.0245 × 1024kg
nfhË‹ ÛJ brašgL« âU¥òÉir = τ =? òÉÆ‹ Mu« R = 6.4 × 106m

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš −GM e M s 219
R
<®¥ãaš kh¿È = G = 6.67 × 10-11 6.67 × 10 −11 × 5.9 × 1024 × 1.9 × 1030
jtwhf vGj¥g£l kâ¥ò = G′ = 6.67 × 1011 =
1.5 × 1011
jtwhd kâ¥ò bfh©L bgW«, <®¥ã‹ KL¡f« = - 4.984 × 1032J
g′ = ? <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wš U = - 4.984 × 1032 #]š
G ′M 6.67 × 1011 × 6.024 × 1024
=

m
g′ = 12. NÇaid òÉ R‰W« ntf« 30kms-1 vÅš òÉÆ‹
R2 (6.4 × 106 ) 2 ïa¡f M‰wiy fz¡»Lf. Kªija fz¡»š
g′ = 9.8 × 1022m/s2 ; g = 9.8m/s2 òÉÆ‹ <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wiy fz¡»£lhŒ. mj‹go
∴ g′ = g × 1022 òÉÆ‹ bkh¤j M‰wš ahJ? bkh¤j M‰wš

co
vil W = mg ne®¡F¿ j‹ikíilajh? ïšiy vÅš fhuz«
W′ = mg′ = 1022 W TW.
W′ = 1022W Ô®î: NÇaid òÉ R‰W« GMM
2 ntf«
(2 R3 ) 2
10. gl¤âš fh£oíŸsgo ÃiwfŸ m1, m2, m3

s.
v = 30 kms-1 = 30 × 210 ms-1
mikªJŸsd. ï›tik¥ghš òŸË ‘O’ Éš V‰gL« 2GM 1 GM 2
<®¥ò òy¤ij fh©f. ÃiwfŸ m1= m2 vÅš òŸË òÉ ïa¡fGMM M‰wš K.E.2 = + × mv2 = 2?
2 ( 2R ) 2 4R
‘O’ Éš <®¥ò òy¤âš V‰gL« khWghL ahJ?
òÉÆ‹(2Ãiw R ) 2 = 5.9 2× 1024kg

ok
Mv GM GMM
22GMGMM
y 2 2
1 GM R
× 2 + 24R R ) 2×103 × 103
( ×230
m3 K.E. (22 R
= ) × 5.9 ×10
2 × 30
a
( 2R ) 2 4R
2GM 2 1 GM 2
o Mv 2 GM
×
= + ×GMM 24 × 900 × 106
m2 a a m1
x
o ( R2R ) 2 R 2 4R 2
5.9 ×10
( 2R )
2

Mv 2 GM
= 2655 GMM
×1030 or = 26.55 ×1032J
ab
R R −−GM
(GM2ReM
M)2 s
e s
P.E. =
Ô®î: ÃiwfŸ m1 k‰W« m2 M⥠òŸËÆÈUªJ RR
bjhiyî = a 10−−1111××55..99××10
67××10
66..67 102424 ××11..99××10
103030
P.E. =
101111
11..55××10
ur

→ GM ∧GM GM → GM ∧
E= 2 r ;2 E2 = 2 [(m1 - m2) i +m3 ∧j ]
r ra a P.E. = - 49.84 ×1032J
m1 = m2 vÅš ∴ bkh¤j M‰wš
.s

GM→ GM
E = 2 (m3∧j ) E = P.E. + K.E.
r2 a
= - 49.84 ×1032 + 26.55 ×1032
w

11. òÉ k‰W« NÇa‹ mik¥ã‹ <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wš


ahJ? (òÉÆ‹ Ãiw = 5.9×1024kg k‰W« NÇaÅ‹
= - 23.29 ×1032J
Ãiw 1.9 × 1030kg. òÉ¡F« NÇaD¡F« cŸs
bkh¤j M‰wš v⮡F¿ j‹ikíilaJ.
w

bjhiyî = 150 ÄšÈa‹ »nyh Û£l®(njhuhakhf)).


VbdÅš òÉ NÇaDl‹ ãiz¡f¥g£LŸsij
Ô®î: òÉÆ‹ Ãiw Me = 5.9×1024kg F¿¡»wJ.
NÇaÅ‹ Ãiw Ms = 1.9 × 1030kg.
w

13. òÉ¥ gu¥ãÈUªJ v¿a¥g£l bghUŸ x‹W RÊ mšyhj


òÉ¡F«, NÇaD¡F« cŸs bjhiyî
 1 2
= 150 ÄšÈa‹ »nyhÛ£l® = 150 × 1011m ïa¡f M‰wYl‹  K .E.(r = ∞) = Mv∞  <¿yh¤
 2 
<®¥ò Ãiy M‰wš U = ? bjhiyit mil»wJ vÅš òÉ gu¥ãÈUªJ
−GM e M s m¥bghUŸ v¿a¥g£l ntf« ahJ?
U(r) =
R  1 2
Ô®î:  K .E.((rr =
K.E. =∞ = Mv∞ 
∞)) =
−11 24
6.67 × 10 × 5.9 × 10 × 1.9 × 10 30
 2 
11
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h 2h 22h×XI
2RuhÉ‹ 1−  2×2200
 200  
× 200
220 1 −  M«1 − tF¥ò  - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
  6371
R e R e R 6371
e 6371 

2 2g g( R( R E + h) 2 g ( RE + ∞)
E + h) = 2 g ( RE + ∞ )
5971 5971 5971 d 1 − d d 
Ve = 1 −  1 −  
V2 2 + 2 g R

6371  6371
gd = g6371
R   R e R
e e
h =r V
2αg∞α(+R2E g+RhE) E 2 g ( RE + ∞)
=
 g =200   200   6171
200  
 6171
1 −  1 −1 − 6171
 
=  g   
2   6371
  6371   6371
 6371 
VE = Vα + 2 g R E 6371 6371

m
gd = 0.968g.
14. òÉ¥ gu¥ò¡F nkny 200km cau¤âY« k‰W« ÑnH ∴ gd < gh
200km MH¤âY« <®¥ã‹ KL¡f« g kâ¥ò ahJ?
15. c‹ kht£l jiyefu¤âš <®¥ã‹ KL¡f« kâ¥ò g
vªÃiyÆš g kâ¥ò Fiwthf ïU¡F«?

co
fh©f. (F¿¥ò - TFŸ njLjš _y« FW¡Fnfh£L
Ô®î: òÉ¥ gu¥ã‰F nkny cŸs = h = 200km kâ¥ò bgWf) g‹ kâ¥ò br‹idÆÈUªJ
gh = ? Re = 6371km f‹ÅahFkÇÆš v›thW khWgL»wJ?
2h  2 × 200  Ô®î: kht£l jiyefu« br‹id vÅš
2h  2 × 200  1 −
6371 

s.
] 1− R  gbr‹id = g-w2 Rcos2λ
R e  6371e 
gh = g [1-
2h  2 × 200  5971  d  = 9.8 - (3.4 ×10-2)
gh = g 1 −5971   = d  g 1 −
6371 1 − 6371  R e 

Re  gbr‹id = 9.7677ms-2
6371  R e 

ok

5971  d   200   6171
gk = f‹ÅahFkÇ
gh = 0.937g1 − (or)200
gh =0.94g
 1−   
6171
  6371

6371 1 −R e    6371
 6371  6371 = 9.8 - (3.4 ×10-2) ×(cos 0.1396)2

gk
òÉ  gu¥ã‰F¡
200  ÑnH 6171MH«
 d = 200km o gf‹ÅahFkÇ = 9.748ms-2
1 −
gd = ?6371
Re = 6371km

6371

Δg = 0.0331ms-2
ab
TLjš Édh¡fŸ
3. x¤j Ãiw 'm' bfh©l ïU JfŸfŸ R Mu«
ur

I. rÇahd Éilia nj®ªbjL¤J vGJf: bfh©l xU t£l¥ghijÆš gÇkh‰W òÉ<®¥ò


 1 kâ¥bg© braÈdhš R‰W»wJ. x›bthU JfË‹ ntf«
1 1 1Gm 11 Gm
Gm 41GmGm 4Gm
1. bf¥sÇ‹ ïu©lh« ÉâÆš KL¡f« rh®ªJ (a) 2 R Gm 2 R (b)2 R
.s

xU nfhË‹ Mubt¡l® rk fhy ïilbtËfËš 2 R Gm 2 R 2R R R


rkgu¥ãid flªJ brš»wJ 1
vÅš 1 Gm1 11 GmGm 4Gm1 Gm 4Gm
ã‹tUtdt‰¿š ÉâÆ‹ khwhÉisî 2 R Gm R Gm
2(c) 2 R 2 R R2 (d)R R  1 Gm
w

(a) ne®¡nfh£L cªj«  [Éil. (c) ]


(b) nfhz cªj« 2 R
(c) M‰wš 4. xU bghUshdJ òÉÆÈUªJ Ä‹ Ú£o¥ghf
(d) Ãô£lÅ‹ <®¥ãaš Éâ
w

(projected) milí« cau« òÉÆ‹ Mu¤â‰F


 [Éil. (b) nfhz cªj«] rkkhf cŸsJ. <®¥ò ÉirÆdhš c©lhd bgUk
M‰wš òÉia miltj‰F K‹dhš
2. xU Jiz¡nfhŸ MdJ Mu« R bfh©l t£l¢
w

(a) bghUË‹ ca®ÃiyÆš


R‰W¥ ghijÆš óÄia¢ R‰¿ bršYkhW
Vt¥gL»wJ. k‰bwhU Jiz¡nfhŸ Mu« 4R (b) bghUŸ x›bth‹iwí« jh¡Ftj‰F K‹ò
bfh©l t£l¥ ghijÆš Vt¥gL»wJ vÅš mj‹ cldoahf
R‰W¡ fhy§fË‹ É»j« (c) všyh ÃfœîfËY« kh¿È
(a) 4 : 1 (b) 1 : 8 (d) bghUË‹ btËÚ£l¤â‰F¥ ã‹ò cldoahf
(c) 8 : 1 (d) 1 : 4
 [Éil. (b) 1 : 8]  [Éil. (b) bghUŸ x›bth‹iwí«
 jh¡Ftj‰F K‹ò cldoahf]

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš 221

5. xU uh¡bf£ óÄÆÈUªJ Vt¥gL«nghJ mj‹ 11. ïu©L nfhŸfË‹ Mu§fË‹ É»j« k. <®¥ò
Ú£á ÃiyÆš óÄ¡F«, rªâuD¡F« ïilnaahd KL¡f§fS¡fhd É»j« s. ïj‹ ÉLgL
mj‹ bjhiyî r1 òÉÆ‹ Ãiw 8 kl§F ntf¤â‰fhd É»j«
rªâuÅ‹ ÃiwiaíilaJ. uh¡bf£ Ûjhd <®¥ò k s
Éir RÊ vÅš rªâuÅÈUªJ (a) k−s
k − s (b)k s
s k s k

m
r r r r r r r r
(a) (b)5 10 15 20 k s
5 10 15 20 (c) k − s (d) ks
r r r r r r r r r r s r  kr [Éil. (c) k − s ]
(c) (d) [Éil. (a) ]
5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20

co
6. xU bghUË‹ Ãiw 500g nkšneh¡» 12. òÉÆ‹ Mu« 1 rjåj« RU§Fkhdhš mj‹ Ûjhd
âirntf¤Jl‹ R‰W»wJ. 20s ¡F ãwF òÉp®¥ò KL¡f« (ÃiwÆš kh‰w« ïšiy)
òÉ¥gu¥ig âU«g mil»wJ. vÅš m¡nfhËš (a) Fiwí« (b) Tw ïayhJ
bghUË‹ Ûjhd vil (c) khwhjJ (d) mâfÇ¡F«

s.
(a) 2N (b) 4N  [Éil. (d) mâfÇ¡F«]
(c) 5N (d) 1N[Éil. (d) 1N]
13. òÉÆ‹ ika¥ gFâÆÈUªJ JUt¥ gFâ¡F

ok
7. xU bghUË‹ m Ãiw òÉÆ‹ gu¥ãÈUªJ efU«nghJ <®¥ò KL¡f¤â‹ kâ¥ò
ÉG«nghJ mj‹ cau« Mu¤â‹ (R) ïUkl§F¡F¢ (a) KjÈš mâfǤJ ã‹ Fiwí«
rkkhF«. vÅš Ãiy M‰wÈ‹ kh‰w« (b) Fiwí« (c) xnu khâÇ
(d) mâfÇ¡F« [Éil. (d) mâfÇ¡F«]
(a) 2mgR (b) 2 mgR
3
1
(c) 3mgR (d) 3 mgR
o 14. rªâuÅš xU mQF©L bto¡f¢ brŒa¥gL»wJ.
mj‹ xÈahdJ òÉia mila vL¤J¡ bfhŸS«
2
[Éil. (b) 3 mgR] fhy«.
ab

(a) 24 k neu« (b) òÉia milahJ
8. 2kg ÃiwíŸs _‹W bghUŸfŸ (c) 60 sec (d) 10 ÃÄl«
Mâ¥òŸËÆÈUªJ 1m, 2m, 4m bjhiyÉš  [Éil. (b) òÉia milahJ]
x m¢áš mikªJŸsd. ãÇ¡f¥g£l ï›tik¥ã‹
ur

_y¥ òŸËia¥ bghU¤J <®¥ò¤ j‹Åiy M‰wš 15. el¡F«nghJ xU egÇ‹ njhŸg£ilia M£LtJ
8 (a) ifÆš V‰gL« tÈÆdhš
(a) 2G (b) 3 G
(b) âirntf¤ij mâfÇ¡f
7 (c) âirntf¤ij rk‹ brŒa
(c) 43 G  (d)2 G 22G
.s

G 2G 
 −
 1 − − (d) 7 G]
[Éil.
(d) òÉÆ‹ <®¥ò ÉisÉid <Lf£l
2 4  2  [Éil. (d) òÉÆ‹ <®¥ò ÉisÉid <Lf£l]
F¿¥ò :  2G 2G 2G  = −2G 1 + 1 + 1  16. òÉ¥ gu¥ã‹ vªj MH¤âš g ‹ kâ¥ò cau« 5km¡F
w

 − 1 − 2 − 4   2 4  rk«?
(a) 10 km (b) 7.5 km
9. xU= bghUË‹  1 1  âirntf« rh®ªJŸs Ãiw
−2G 1 + ÉLgL
+ (c) 2.5 km (d) 5 km
w

(a) m°  2 4  (b) m  [Éil. (a) 10 km]


(c) m (d) m3[Éil. (a) m°]
2
17. xU Jiz¡nfhËš it¡f¥g£LŸs xU
w

10. óÄÆ‹ ika¤âš xU bghUË‹ vil RUŸÉšÈUªJ xU bghUŸ bjh§fÉl¥g£LŸsJ.


(a) KoÉÈ mJ R‰W¥ ghijÆ‹ Mu« Rš bršY«nghJ
(b) RÊ RUŸÉšÈ‹ msåL w1 k‰W« R‰W¥ghijÆ‹
Mu« 2R Mf cŸsnghJ msåL w2
(c) óÄÆ‹ gu¥ã‹ Ûjhd vil¡F rk«
(a) w1 > w2 (b) w1 ≠ w2
(d) 5 kl§F [Éil. (b) RÊ] (c) w1 = w2 (d) w1 < w2
 [Éil. (a) w1 > w2]

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222 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
18. xU Óuhd bkšÈa f«ãÆ‹ Ãiw m1 Ús« l jiu 22. òÉÆ‹ Mu« 6400 km k‰W« br›thÆ‹ Mu«
k£l¤âš mj‹ Ñœ Kid ïU¡FkhW br§F¤jhf 3200 km. òÉÆ‹ ÃiwahdJ br›thÆ‹
bjh§fÉl¥g£LŸsJ. mij ÑnH ÉH¢ brŒí«nghJ Ãiwia¥ nghš 10 kl§F. xU bghUË‹ vil
mj‹ nkš Kid v¤âirntf¤Jl‹ jh¡F«? 200 N óÄÆ‹ gu¥ãš cŸsnghJ, br›thÆ‹
gu¥ã‹ ÛJ.
(a) 7 gl
mgl 7 gl gl mgl
3 gl
(b) 3 gl gl (a) 40 N (b) 2 N

m
(c) 88 N (d) 80 N
7 gl mgl
(c) 3 gl7 gl
gl mgl (d)
3 gl gl 
 [Éil. (d) 80 N]
 [Éil.
7 gl mgl(c) 3 gl ] gl 2 2

co
Fm Fm MM m mR
  eR 
F¿¥ò : R
 H‰á ïa¡f M‰wÈ‹ V‰ò (gain) = =
F¿¥ò F:  M  R  
e

= Ãiy M‰wÈ‹ ïH¥ò (loss) 2 eF 2e


M  
e e  mR m 
Fm M mFm R eM m  R e  2
19. <®¥ò Éir ã‹tUtdt‰¿š = vj‰F  =    MMm m 6400  2 4 4 2 2
6400
Fe M eFe R mM  e  R=m =    = = = =
10M 3200
 3200  1010 5 5

s.
njit¥gL»wJ? 2 2
10M
m m
(a) bt¥g¡ fâ®årš (b) fl¤jš= M m = 6400
M m   6400 4  2 4 2
   = Fm == = ; Fe == × 200 = 80 N.
(c) bt¥g¢ryd« (d) VJÄšiy 10M 3200m 3200
 m 10M 10 5 10 5

ok
23. xU Vîfiz ÉLgLntf¤ij Él Fiwthd
 [Éil. (c) bt¥g¢ryd«] âir ntf¤Jl‹ Vt¥gL»wJ. mj‹ Ãiy M‰wš,
ïa¡f M‰wÈ‹ T£L¤ bjhif.
20. NÇaÅÈUªJ òÉÆ‹ Äf¥bgÇa k‰W« Äf¢á¿a
(a) x‹W (b) v⮡F¿
bjhiyîfŸ r1, r2. NÇaÅÈUªJ tiua¥g£l
(c) RÊ (d) ne®¡F¿
be£l¢R¡F¡ F¤jhf cŸsnghJ NÇaÅÈUªJ
mj‹ bjhiyî
o  [Éil. (b) v⮡F¿]
2r1r2 r1 + r2 2r1r1+r2r2 rr11 ++ rr22 r1 + r2 r1 + r224. bf¥sÇ‹ 2 « Éâ¥go nfhË‹ Mubt¡l® rkfhy
ab
(a) (b)
r1 + r2 4 r1 +3r2 r1 4− r2 3 r1 − r2 msÉš rk msî gu¥òfis flªJ brš»wJ.
2r1r2 r1 + r2 12r1r1+r2r12 rr111+ + rr21 r1 + r2 r1 + r2
2 1 (d)1 1 1
(a) ne®¡nfh£L cªj«
(c) + =
+
r112r+23r2Rr1r1+r+rr2−r42 r rr1r1++r+2r32 r1= r+r
4 22r1rR r+r+r− (b) nfhzkhwhÉâ cªj«
r1 + r2 11 22 R R 1 r112 2 2r2
r +r 44 33 rr1−−r2r2 (a) 2r1r2 ] r1 + r2 (c) r1 + rM‰wš r1 + khwhÉâ
r2
1 1 1  r11 1+12r2+2 1r1 =
ur

+ r12 + 1 2 r1 +r1 r1+2[Éil. r r + r


2
Ãô£lÅ‹ òÉ<®¥ò Éâ
+ = + 11 R 1= 1 R r11r r1 11 r2R = = 2
R = r1 + r2
1 2
4
(d)
3 r1 − r2
R RF¿¥ò r1 : r2 +R+ == 1 2++ r −
R 1 r12r2 r r1 − r2  [Éil. (b) nfhz khwh Éâ cªj«]
R R 2 RR r r+1r1r r2r2 r +r 1 1 1 1
2 r1 + r2 r=1 +1r2 2 R= 1 2 + = 25. + òÉgu¥ã‹ ÛJ òÉ <®¥ò KL¡f« ‘g’ , m ÃiwíŸs
= R = R R r r2 xU bghUis òÉ¥gu¥ãÈUªJ R cau¤â‰F
.s

R r1r2 2 2 R r r+ +rr r r2 rr++


r r r
− r r + r r + r r + r
== r111− r12222= RRR=== 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1

RR r1rr12r2 rr11r+ r
1−−r22r2
4 3 2 rr11−+rr22 r + r brŒa¥g£l ntiy [cau« R òÉÆ‹
ca®¤j
= R Mu¤J¡F
= 1 2 rk«]
1 1 1 1 R rr r1 − r2
21. ïu£il e£r¤âu mik¥ãš + = ïU + É©Û‹fŸ1 2
w

1
A k‰W« BÆ‹ R‰W¡fhy§fŸ R R r1 rT 2 k‰W« T , (a) mgR (b) 2mgR
A B 2
r +r r + r2 1
Mu§fŸ RA k‰W« RB2, ÃiwfŸ
= 1 2 MAR, M
= B1vÅš (c) mgR (d) mgR
4[Éil. (c) mgR]
w

(a) TA > TB vÅš MR r1r2


A > MB
r1 − r2 
(b) TA > TB vÅš RA > RB 26. xU Jiz¡nfhŸ òÉÆ‹ gu¥ã‰F mU»š
R‰W¥ ghijÆš cŸsJ. Jiz¡ nfhËÈUªJ
w

(c) TA = TB
v¿a¥glnt©oa xU JfŸ òÉÆÇUªJ
2 3
T  R  ÉLgL»wJ. òÉÆÈUªJ ÉLgL ntf« Ve vÅš,
(d)  A  =  A   [Éil. (c) TA = TB] Jiz¡ nfhis¥ bghU¤J mj‹ ntf«
 TB   RB  (a) Ve Él Fiwî (b) Ve Él mâf«
F¿¥ò : r kkhd nfhz âirntf«
(c) Ve Él rk«
2π 2π (d) v¿a¥gL« âiria¥ bghU¤jJ
W= = ∴TA = TB
TA TB [Éil. (d) v¿a¥gL« âiria¥ bghU¤jJ]

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš 223

27. nfhz ïa¡f¤âš ã‹tUtdt‰WŸ khwhjJ III. nfho£l ïl¤ij Ãu¥òf:


NÇaÅÈUªJ gh®¥gJ nghš -ÚŸt£l¥ R‰W¥ghij 1. òÉ<®¥ò Éir xU _________ Éir
vd¡ bfhŸ. (a) á¿a (b) bgÇa
(a) ntf« (b) nfhz cªj« (c) ika (d) mÇjhd
(c) ïa¡f M‰wš (d) nfhz ntf«  [Éil. (c) ika]

m
 [Éil. (b) nfhz cªj«] 2. _________ mâfÇ¡F« nghJ òÉ<®¥ò ÉirÆdhš
V‰gL« KL¡f« Fiwí«
II. bghU¤Jf: (a) cau« (b) »ilk£l«
(c) MH« (d) flš k£l«

co
1. M.I rk‹ghL
 [Éil. (a) cau«]
1) bf¥s® I Éâ (a) gu¥ò Éâ
3. Jiz¡nfhË‹ M‰wš
2) bf¥s® II « Éâ (b) òÉika¡ bfhŸif
(a) ne® kiw (b) vâ® kiw
3) bf¥s® III « Éâ (c) R‰W¥ (c) gFâ vâ® kiw (d) gFâ ne® kiw

s.
ghijfS¡fhd Éâ  [Éil. (b) vâ® kiw]
4) lhyÄ (d) R‰W¡
4. <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wš xU _________ msî
fhy§fË‹ Éâ
(a) °nfyh® (b) bt¡l®

ok
1 2 3 4
(c) c©ik (d) gÇkhzk‰wJ
(a) c a d b  [Éil. (a) °nfyh®]
(b) d a b c
5. Ãiw ‘m’ ÈUªJ r bjhiyÉš cŸs òŸËÆš
(c) b c d a 
c b a [Éil. (a) c a d b] <®¥ò¥òy¢ br¿î E v‹gJ XuyF ÃiwÆdhš
2.
(d) d
1) <®¥ãaš kh¿È (a) 
o 
czu¥gL« <®¥ò Éir vÅš E =
E Gm Gm
(b) + 2
ab
(a)
2) <®¥ò¥ òy« (b) V (r) r r
Gm
3) <®¥ò j‹Åiy M‰wš (c) U (r) (c) - Gm  r (d) -
r 2 r Gm
4) <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wš (d) G  [Éil. (c) r]
r2
ur

1 2 3 4 6. ÉLgLntf« xU bghUË‹ Ãiwia _________


(a) c b a d (a) rh®ªjJ (b) rh®ªjjšy
(b) d a b c (c) khW« (d) ne®¡nfhL
(c) b c d a  [Éil. (b) rh®ªjjšy]
.s

(d) b a d c [Éil. (b) d a b c]


7. _________ NÇaika¡ bfhŸifÆid K‹
3. 1) ánfhy° (a) òÉÆ‹ Mu« bkhʪjh®.
nfh¥g® áfš (âÇnfhz Éâ) (a) nfh¥g® áf° (b) lhyÄ
w

2) vu£nlh°jÜ° (b) nfhŸfË‹ (c) bf¥s® (d) fÈÈnah


ïa¡f«  [Éil. (a) nfh¥g® áf°]
3) Ï¥gh®¡f° (c) ã‹neh¡»
8.
w

òÉÆ‹ RH‰áÆ‹ fhuzkhf òÉ<®¥ò KL¡f«


ïa¡f«
_________ š bgUkkhf ïU¡F«
4) nk¡uh£rhfh (d) òÉ ika¡ (a) òÉika¤âš (b) JUt§fËš
bfhŸif
(c) flš k£l¤â‰F nkny
w

1 2 3 4 (d) flš k£l¤â‰F ÑnH


(a) c d a b  [Éil. (b) JUt§fËš]
(b) d c b a 9. KW¡F¤ juhir¡ bfh©L òÉÆ‹ kh¿ÈÆ‹
(c) b c d a G ‹ kâ¥ò nrhjid _y« f©l¿ªjt®.
(d) c a d b [Éil. (d) c a d b] (a) bA‹¿ nft‹oZ (b) Ãô£l‹
(c) bf¥s® (d) fÈÈnah
 [Éil. (a) bA‹¿ nft‹oZ]
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224 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
IV. bghUªjhjt‰iw nj®ªbjL¤J vGJf: VI. T‰WfS«, fhuz§fS« :
1. (a) fÈÈnah (b) Ãô£l‹ F¿¥òfŸ
(c) bf¥s® (d) ãns£nlh (a) T‰W fhuz« rÇ k‰W« T‰W¡fhd
 [Éil. (d) ãns£nlh] És¡f¡ fhuz« rÇ.
F¿¥ò : ãns£nlh xU j¤Jt PhÅ bgsâf® ïšiy. (b) T‰W k‰W« fhuz« bkŒ Mdhš T‰W¡fhd

m
2. (a) Jiz¡nfhŸ (b) nfhŸfŸ fhuz És¡f« bkŒašy.
(c) rªâu‹ (d) jilÆ‹¿ ÉGjš
(c) T‰W bkŒ Mdhš fhuz« bkŒašy.
 [Éil. (d) jilÆ‹W ÉGjš]
F¿¥ò : (a), (b), (c) M»ad thÅaš r«gªjkhd (d) T‰W bkŒašy Mdhš fhuz« bkŒ

co
bghUŸfŸ 1. T‰W : ‘m’ ÃiwíŸs VnjD« xU bghUË‹
3. (a) cau¤âš V‰gL« kh‰w« ÛJ òÉ mj‹ òy¤âDŸ brY¤J«
(b) MH¤âš V‰gL« kh‰w« òÉ <®¥ò Éir <®¥ò¥òy« vd¥gL«.
(c) mfy¤âš V‰gL« kh‰w«   
  
(d) FW¡nfh£L Éisî ïj‹ rk‹ghL E =  −G2m  r E = F .

s.
 r 
 [Éil. (c) mfy¤âš V‰gL« kh‰w«] m
F¿¥ò : (a), (b), (d) M»ad É©btË m¿Éaš fhuz« : 
òÉ <®¥ò¥òy¤â‹ tÈik,
r«gªj¥g£lit. òÉÆÈUªJ Éy»¢ bršy bršy

ok
V. rÇahd mšyJ jtwhd nrhofis¤ Fiwí« m~jhtJ [r mâfÇ¡F«
nj®ªbjL¤J vGJf: nghJ , E Fiwí«.]
1. (a) Ãô£l‹ - v⮤jfî ïUkoÉâ [Éil. (a) T‰W k‰W« fhuz« rÇ nkY«
T‰W¡fhd fhuz És¡fK« rÇ]
(b) mÇ°lh£uf° - thÅaÈ‹ g§fË¥ò
o
(c) jhyÄ - òÉ ika¡ bfhŸif 2. T‰W : <®¥ò j‹Åiy M‰wš xU °nfyh®
(d) bf¥s® - NÇa ika¡ bfhŸif msî mj‹ myF J/ kg.
ab
 d 
vJ jtwhd nrho? fhuz« : r k‹ghL g’ = g 1−  , òÉÆ‹
[Éil. (d) bf¥s® - NÇa ika¡ bfhŸif]  Re 
MH¤â‰F¢ bršY« nghJ òÉ<®¥ò
2. (a) ÉLgL ntf« - 2g R e Éir Fiwí«. ie d mâfÇ¡F«nghJ
ur

(b) <®¥ò¥òy¢ - Gm  g’ Fiwí«. òÉÆ‹ ika¤âš g’ = 0


br¿î - r [Éil. (b) T‰W k‰W« fhuz« bkŒ Mdhš
r2 T‰W¡fhd fhuz És¡f«
S  bkŒašy.]
.s

(c) òÉÆ‹ Mu« - R =


θ VII. rÇahd mšyJ rÇašyhj T‰Wfis
(d) ÃyÉ‹ M‰wš - GM E M m nj®ªbjL:
w

4R m
1. (I) òÉ<®¥ò Éir ftu¡ToaJ.
vJ jtwhd nrho?
GMEMm (II) òÉ <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wš °nfyh® msî
[Éil. (d) ÃyÉ‹ M‰wš ] vªj¡ T‰W rÇ?
w

4Rm (a) I k£L« (b) II k£L«


3. (a) r - R sinθ
(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy
 GM T 2 
 E   [Éil. (c) ïu©L« rÇ]
-
w

(b) RE + h  4π2 


2. (I)  nfh¥gšÃ¡f° k‰W« bf¥s® xU nfhŸ
(c) T - 2p R k‰W« NÇaD¡ »ilnaahd bjhiyÉid
E
toÉaš k‰W« âÇnfhzÉâ bfh©L
(d) U - GM E fz¡»£ld®.
(R E + h) (II) vunlh°jÅ° ÉahHÅ‹ Mu¤ij¡
fz¡»£lh®.
vJ rÇahd nrho? [Éil. (a) r = R sinq] vªj¡ T‰W rÇ?

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš 225

(a) I k£L« (b) II k£L« 3. òÉika¡ bfhŸifÆ‹ FiwghL ahJ?


(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy NÇa‹ k‰W« ÃyhÉ‹ ïa¡f¤ij Xusî rÇahf
 [Éil. (a) I k£L«] jhyÄÆ‹ bfhŸif És¡»a nghJ«. br›thŒ,
ÉahH‹ ngh‹w nfhŸfËd ã‹ndh¡F
3. (I) òÉ<®¥ò Éir xU ika Éir. ïa¡f¤ij (Retrograde motion) És¡f
(II) Jiz¡nfhË‹ M‰wš áyneu§fËš ïayÉšiy.

m
vâ®kiw MF«.
4. NÇa ika¡ bfhŸifia¡ f©l¿ªjt® ah®? mJ
vªj¡ T‰W rÇašy ? ahJ?
(a) I k£L« (b) II k£L«
(i) ánfhyh° nfh¥g®Å¡f°

co
(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy
(ii) NÇa FL«g¤â‹ ikakhf NÇa‹ cŸsJ.
 [Éil. (b) II k£L«]
NÇaid ikakhf bfh©L òÉ c£gl
4. (I)  bf¥sÇ‹ Éâ Ãô£lÅ‹ <®¥ò ÉâÆÈUªJ mid¤J nfhŸfS« t£l¥ ghijÆš
jUÉ¡f¥g£ljšy. R‰¿ tU»‹wd. mid¤J thÅaš

s.
(II) nfhŸfË‹ ïa¡f« nfhšg® áf[hš bghUŸfË‹ ïa¡f§fisí« ï¡bfhŸif
És¡f¥g£lJ. bt‰¿fufkhf És¡»aJ.
vªj¡ T‰W rÇ? 5. fÈÈnahÉ‹ f©Lão¥ò ahJ?

ok
(a) I k£L« (b) II k£L« òfœbg‰w ï¤jhÈa ïa‰ãaš m¿P® fÈÈnah
(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy òÉ¡F mU»š nkÈUªJ Ñœ ÉG« bghUŸfŸ
 [Éil. (d) VJÄšiy] mid¤J« òÉÆid neh¡» rk åj¤âš
KL¡fkil»‹wd vd f©l¿ªjh®.
5. (I)  nfh¥g®Ãf° khâÇ ã‹ndh¡F ïa¡f¤ij
És¡F»wJ.
o 6. bf¥sÇ‹ ÉâfS¡F mo¥gil ahJ?
(II) nfh¥g® Ãf°¡F K‹dnu lhyÄ ã‹ndh¡F ilnfh ãuhnA É©Û‹fŸ k‰W« nfhŸfŸ
ab
ïa¡f¤oj És¡»íŸsh®.. M»at‰¿‹ Ãiy k‰W« ïa¡f« F¿¤J
f©l¿ªj gâîfË‹ thÅaš juîfŸ bf¥sÇ‹
vªj¡ T‰W rÇašy? ÉâfS¡F mo¥gil.
(a) I k£L« (b) II k£L«
(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy 7. <®¥ãaš ÉirÆ‹ j‹ik ahJ?
<®¥ãaš Éir v¥bghGJ« <®¡F« j‹ik
ur

 [Éil. (b) II k£L«]


cilaJ v‹gij F¿¡»wJ. <®¥ãaš
FWÉdh¡fŸ  2 kâ¥bg©fŸ ÉirahdJ v¥nghJ« ïUÃiwfisí«
ïiz¡F« ne®¡nfh£o‹ tÊna brašgL«.
.s

1. Ãô£l‹ <®¥ãaš bfhŸifÆ‹ K¡»a¤Jt« 8. <®¥ãaš kh¿È v‹gJ ahJ? mj‹ kâ¥ò ahJ?
ahJ? ïj‹ _y« m¿tJ ahJ?
Ãô£l‹ cUth¡»a <®¥ãaš bfhŸifahdJ (i) <®¥ãaš kh¿È GÆ‹ kâ¥ò, <®¥ãaš
w

th‹ k‰W« òÉÆYŸs bghUŸfË‹ ïa¡f« ÉâÆš K¡»a g§fh‰W»wJ. NÇaD¡F«


g‰¿í«, mJ F¿¤J vGªj gy nfŸÉfS¡F« òÉ¡F« ïilna cŸs <®¥ò Éir Äf
Éilfis¤ jªjJ. mâfkhf ïU¥gJ«, Ãiw Fiwthd
Äf¢ á¿a bghUŸfS¡F (vL¤J¡fh£lhf
w

2. òÉika¡ bfhŸif v‹whš v‹d? ïU kÅj®fS¡»ilnaahd) Éir


ïu©lh« ü‰wh©il¢ nr®ªj »nu¡f nuhkhÅa òw¡f¡f¤j¡f msÉš Äf¡ Fiwthf
thÅaš m¿P® »shoa° jhyÄ (Claudius ïU¥gj‹ fhuz¤ij G‹ kâ¥ò És¡F»wJ.
w

Ptolemy) th‹ bghUŸfshd NÇa‹, Ãyh, (ii) G- <®¥ãaš kh¿È. ïj‹ kâ¥ò
br›thŒ, ÉahH‹ ngh‹wt‰¿‹ ïa¡f¤ij 6.626×10−11Nm2kg−2
És¡Ftj‰fhf xU bfhŸifia cUth¡»dh®.
ï«khâÇna òÉika¡ bfhŸif vd 9. vu£nlh°jÜ°, Ï¥gh®¡f° thdÉaÈš
miH¡f¥g£lJ. ït®fË‹ g§F ahJ? vij¡ bfh©L
fz¡»£ld®?
(i) vu£nlh°jÜ° - òÉÆ‹ Mu¤ij¡
f©l¿ªjh®.
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226 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
(ii) Ï¥gh®¡f° - òÉ¡F«, Ãyî¡F« ïilna 16. Ä‹ca®¤âÆš ÉF« kÅj® ÛJ brašgL« ïU
cŸs bjhiyit¡ f©l¿ªjh®. ÉirfŸ ahit?
(iii)
toÉaš k‰W« K¡nfhzÉaš (i) 
Ñœneh¡» brašgL« <®¥ò Éir. eh«
ga‹gL¤j¥g£lJ. br§F¤J âirÆid ne® y m¢R âir
10. mo¥gilÆš Éir v‹whš v‹d? mJ v¤jid
vd vL¤J¡bfh©lhš, mªj kÅj® ÛJ
→ ∧

m
tif¥gL«? brašgL« <®¥ãaš Éir F = - mgj
G
mo¥gilÆš ïU bghUŸfS¡F ïilaahd (ii) Ä‹ ca®¤âÆ‹ js¤âdhš kÅj® ÛJ
ïilÉidna Éir MF«. ïªj cwÉ‹ brY¤j¥gL« nkšneh¡»a br§F¤J Éir
j‹ikia¥ bghW¤J ÉirahdJ bjhLÉir, →

co

bjhlh Éir vd ïUtif¥gL«. N =Nj


17. ``nfhŸfË‹ ã‹ndh¡F ïa¡f«'' v‹whš v‹d?
11. <®¥ã‹ KL¡f¢ rk‹gh£oÈUªJ m¿td ahit?
(i) <®¥ã‹ KL¡fkhdJ KL¡fkilí« ïuÉš btW§f©fshš nfhŸfË‹
bghUË‹ Ãiwia¢ rh®ªjjšy. ïa¡f§fis c‰W neh¡»ndh« vÅš nfhŸfŸ

s.
»H¡F âirÆš ga¤J ã‹ò ã‹ndh¡»
(ii) g‹ kâ¥ò òÉÆ‹ Ãiwiaí«, Mu¤ijí«
rh®ªJŸsJ. nk‰F âirÆš ïa§» Û©L« »H¡F âirÆš
gaÂ¥gij fhzyh«. ïj‰F ``nfhŸfË‹

ok
(iii) òÉia neh¡» ÉG« mid¤J¥ ã‹ndh¡F ïa¡f«'' (Retro grade motion) v‹W
bghUŸfS« rkkhf KL¡fkil»wJ.
bga®.
(iv) ók¤âanuif¥ gFâÆš g = 9.8 ms-2.
12. òÉÆ‹ tËk©ly¤âš ie£u#D«, M¡á#D«
o áWÉdh¡fŸ  3 kâ¥bg©fŸ
mâf msÉš cŸsd. V‹?
ie£u#‹, M¡Ì#‹ ngh‹w fdkhd 1. nfhŸfË‹ ïa¡f¤â‰fhd bf¥s® ÉâÆid
_y¡TWfŸ j¥ã¢ bršy nghJkhd ntf«
ab
ÉtÇ.
cilait mšy. Mdhš iA£u#‹, ëÈa« R‰W¥ ghijfS¡fhd Éâ :
ngh‹w nyrhd _y¡TWfŸ òÉ¥gu¥ig NÇaid xU FÉa¥ òŸËÆš bfh©L x›bthU
É£L j¥ã bršYtj‰F nghJkhd ntf« nfhS« NÇaid ÚŸt£l¥ ghijÆš R‰¿
bfh©LŸsd. tU»wJ. NÇaD¡F Äf mU»š nfhŸ cŸs
ur

13. bf¥sÇ‹ ÉâfŸ bra‰if¤ Jiz¡ Ãiy (P) m©ikÃiy (Perihelion) vd¥gL«.
nfhŸfS¡F¥ bghUªJkh? V‹? NÇaD¡F bgUk¤ bjhiyÉš nfhŸ cŸs
NÇaid¡ nfhŸfŸ R‰WtJ nghy Ãiy (A) nrŒik Ãiy (aphelion) v‹f. nfhŸfŸ
Jiz¡nfhŸfŸ òÉia¢ R‰¿ tU»‹wd. vdnt ÚŸt£l¥ghijÆš ïa§F»‹wd v‹gij
.s

bf¥sÇ‹ ÉâfŸ kÅj‹ cUth¡»a bra‰if¤ bf¥s® f©l¿ªjh®.


Jiz¡nfhŸfS¡F« bghUªJ»‹wd. 2. nfhŸfË‹ gu¥ò ÉâÆid ÉtÇ.
14. eh« XŒîÃiyÆš ïU¥gjhf¤ njh‹Wtj‹ gu¥ò Éâ (Law of area):
w

fhuz« ahJ? (i) NÇaidí« xU nfhisí« ïiz¡F«


jiuÆ‹ nkš eh« ÉF«nghJ, e«ÛJ ïU Mu bt¡luhdJ rkfhy ïilbtËÆš rk
ÉirfŸ brašgL»‹wd. x‹W, Ñœneh¡» gu¥ò¡fis V‰gL¤J«.
w

brašgL« <®¥ò Éir, k‰bwh‹W jiuÆdhš (ii) nfhŸ x‹W NÇaid R‰¿ tU«nghJ
e«ÛJ brY¤j¥gL« nkšneh¡»a br§F¤J Δt v‹w á¿a neu msÉš Mubt¡l®
Éir. ï›Éirna e«ik XŒî ÃiyÆš V‰gL¤âa gu¥ò ΔA. ÚŸt£l¤â‹ ika¤âš
NÇa‹ ïšiy.
w

it¤âU¡»wJ.
(iii) vdnt nfhŸ NÇaD¡F mUnf bršY«nghJ
15. vilÆ‹ v©kâ¥ò v‹whš v‹d? Äf mâf ntf¤âY«, NÇaÅlÄUªJ
vilÆ‹ v© kâ¥ò, XŒî ÃiyÆš it¤âU¡f Ú©l bjhiyÉš bršY«nghJ Fiwªj
brY¤j nt©oa nkšneh¡»a ÉirÆ‹ v© âirntf¤âY« bršY«. ïj‹ _y«
kâ¥ò¡F¡ rk«. vilÆ‹ v©kâ¥ò w = N = mg rkfhy msÉš rkmsî gu¥òfis flªJ
vilí«, bghUË‹ ÛJ brašgL« <®¥ò Éirí« brš»wJ. nfhŸfË‹ ntf« khWgLtij
x‹wšy. juîfŸ _y« bf¥s® f©l¿ªjh®.

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš 227

3. bf¥sÇ‹ R‰W¡fhy§fË‹ ÉâÆid¡ TW. → →


R‰Wfhy§fË‹ Éâ : bt¡l® msîfshd F mšyJ E M»at‰iwÉl
(i) ÚŸt£l ghijÆš NÇaid R‰W« nfhË‹ °nfyh® msîfshd U(r) mšyJ V(r)
R‰W¡fhy¤â‹ ïUko, mªj ÚŸt£l¤â‹ M»at‰iw¥ ga‹gL¤â bghUŸfË‹
miube£l¢á‹ K«ko¡F ne®jfÉš ïa¡f¤ij vËjhf gF¥ghŒî brŒa Koí«.

m
ïU¡F«. mjid Ñœf©lthW vGjyh«.
eåd ïa‰ãaš nfh£ghLfËš (Modern theories
T2 ∝ a3
T2 = kh¿È of physics) <®¥ò j‹Åiy M‰wš (Potential)

a3 K¡»a g§»id t»¤J tU»wJ.

co
(ii) ï§F I v‹gJ R‰W¡fhy«, a v‹gJ miu
be£l¢á‹ Ús« MF«. 6. Jiz¡nfhË‹ R‰¿a¡f¤âid¤ jUÉ.
(iii) ï¢rk‹gh£oÈUªJ, eh« m¿ªJ
bfhŸtJ NÇaÅÈUªJ cŸs bjhiyî Ãiw M cila Jiz¡nfhŸ òÉia¢ R‰¿
mâfÇ¡F«nghJ, R‰WfhyK« mâfÇ¡F«; tUtj‰F¤ njitahd ikaneh¡F Éiria

s.
Mdhš mâfÇ¥ò åj« khWgL« vd
m¿ayh«. òÉÆ‹ <®¥ò Éir jU»wJ.
2
4. Mv 2 Mv GMMGMM
bjhLÉir, bjhlhÉirÆid ÉtÇ. = = E2 E

ok
2
(i) bjhLÉir : ïU bghUŸfŸ x‹Wl‹ x‹W (R E + (hR) E +(Rh)e + h(R
) e + h)

bjh£L¡ bfh©oU¡F« nghJ V‰gL« Éir GM GM E GM E GM E
2
bjhL Éir MF«. Éiria V‰gL¤J« Mvv2 == E GMM E
fhuÂí« bghUS« x‹W¡bfh‹W (R + (hR) + h()R + (hR) E + h)
(R E + h)E (REe + h) 2 E
bjhLtj‹ _y« V‰gL« bjhL Éirahš
o
bghUË‹ ïa¡fkhdJ V‰gL»wJ.

GM E
v =
GM E
(ii) bjhlhÉir : NÇaid òÉ R‰¿ tUtij ( R E + h) ( R E + h)
ab
fUJnth«. NÇaD« òÉí« x‹iw
x‹W bjhlÉšiy v‹whY« mit
x‹iwbah‹W ïilÉid òÇ»‹wd. cau« h mâfÇ¡F«nghJ, Jiz¡nfhË‹
mj‹ fhuzkhf òÉahdJ NÇaÅ‹ <®¥ò R‰¿a¡f ntf« Fiwí«.
Éiria cz®»wJ. ï›tif <®¥òÉir
ur

xU bjhlh Éir MF«.


7. <®¥ãaš kh¿ÈÆ‹ kâ¥ã‹¿ 'g' ‹ kâ¥ghš
5. F‹¿‹ c¢áÆÈUªJ mUÉÚ® Ñœneh¡» ghŒtJ Éiria fz¡»l Koí«. T‰¿id És¡F.
V‹? òÉ gu¥ãš cŸs Ãiw m czU« Éir
.s

F‹¿‹ c¢áÆš <®¥ò j‹Åiy M‰wyhdJ


òÉgu¥ãš <®¥ò j‹Åiy M‰wiy Él mâf«. GM E m GM E
F=-  2 ...(1)
mjhtJ VF‹W> Vjiu R E2 RE
ï§F ME òÉÆ‹ Ãiw, m- bghUË‹ Ãiw,
w

Vkiy
RE òÉÆ‹ Mu« MF«.
Ãô£l‹ ïu©lh« Éâ¥go, F = mg,
w

ïjid  cl‹ x¥ãl,


GM E m GM E
w

mg = -
R E2 R E2

g E=m- GM E 
GM ...(2)
Vjiu R E2 R E2

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228 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
Ãiw M beLÉdh¡fŸ  5 kâ¥bg©fŸ
r

Ãiw M 1. bjhlhÉirÆ‹ (<®¥ò¥ òy¤â‹) tÈikia


òÉ
v›thW fz¡»LthŒ?
òÉ
(i) 

m
RE RE
Ãiw 'm2' ÛJ Ãiw 'm1' V‰gL¤J« <®¥ãaš
Éir.

F 21 Gm1  Gm Gm1m2 ∧
F 21 2= Gm- 1 2 Gm r  Gm1...(1)
m2
m2 r2

co
(i) (ii) r 2 r 2 2
(i) òÉÆ‹ gu¥ãš m r r r
(ii) òÉgu¥ãÈUªJ F¿¥ã£l cau¤âš
ï§F ∧r v‹gJ2 Ãiw m1 k‰W« m2 it
Ãiw czU« Éir ïiz¡F« nfhL tÊna brašgL« myF
bt¡l® MF«.
(ii) Ãiw m1 ÈUªJ r bjhiyÉš cŸs

s.
òÉÆ‹ ika¤âÈUªJ r bjhiyÉš cŸs

Ãiw M czU« Éir òŸËÆš <®¥ò òy¢br¿î ( E1 ) v‹gJ ``XuyF
GM E M R E 2 ÃiwÆdhš czu¥gL« <®¥ò Éir'' vd
F=-

ok
r2 r2 tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ.

<®¥ò òy« br¿thdJ
š cŸs GME Æ‹ kâ¥ig nkny cŸs F 21 Gm1 Gm Gm1m2
rk‹gh£oš ãuâÆl, v‹w2É»j¤jhš F¿¡f¥gL»wJ.
m2 r r2 r2 
GM 2 (iii) ï§F Ãiw m2 ÛJ brašgL« Éir F 21 Gm1 G
F =E-MgMR E
r2 r2
o MF«.
 m2 r2
ïj‹ _y« ek¡F¤ bjÇtJ v‹dbt‹whš, → F 21 Gm1 Gm Gm1m2
vdnt E1 = it 2š ãuâÆl
ab
g ï‹ kâ¥ò bjǪjhny Éiria vËâš m2 r r2 r2
fz¡»lyh«. ïj‰F 'G' ï‹ kâ¥ò njit ïšiy. → F 21 Gm1 ∧ Gm Gm1m2
E1 = - 2 r  2 ...(2)
8. É©btË¡ fy¤âš vilÆ‹ik njh‹WtJ m2 r r r2
V‹? (iv) <®¥òy¢ br¿î (ïÅnkš <®¥ò òy« v‹W
ur

É©btË¡ fy¤âš vilÆ‹ik : miH¡f¥gL«) xU bt¡l® MF«. Ãiw


(i) òÉia R‰¿tU« É©btË¡fy¤âš M Mš r bjhiyÉš V‰gL« <®¥ò òy«
cŸs É©btË åu®fŸ ÛJ v›Éj ã‹tUkhW F¿¡f¥gL»wJ.
<®¥ãaš Éirí« brašglhJ v‹w xU
.s

jtwhd fU¤J Ãyî»wJ. c©ikÆš → GM ∧


E = 21 r  ...(3)
òÉÆ‹ gu¥ò¡F mUnf òÉÆid ty« r
tU« É©btËfy« òÉÆ‹ <®¥ò Éir¡F <®¥ò¥ òy« brašgL« gFâÆš cŸs
w

c£gL«. òŸË P Æš Ãiw 'm' it¡f¥gL»wJ. Ãiw



(ii) mnj <®¥ãaš Éiria É©btË fy¤âš 'm' MdJ <®¥ò¥ òy« E ia cz®tjhš
cŸs É©btË åu®fS« cz®th®fŸ. xU <®¥ò Éir V‰gL»wJ.
w

ïj‹ fhuzkhf mt®fŸ fy¤â‹ jiu ÛJ


v›Éj Éiriaí« brY¤JtJ ïšiy. Ãiw M Mš Ãiw m czU« <®¥ò Éir
vdnt fy¤â‹ jiuí« mt®fŸ ÛJ v›Éj ã‹tUkhW vGj¥gL»wJ
br§F¤J Éiriaí« brY¤JtJ ïšiy.
w

→ →
Fm = mE
(iii) Mfnt É©btË fy¤âš cŸs åu®fŸ
vilÆ‹ik ÃiyÆš cŸsd®. É©btË
(v) ïªj rk‹gh£il Ãô£lÅ‹ ïu©lh« Éâ
åu®fŸ k£Lkšy. É©fy¤âš cŸs
rk‹gh£nlhL x¥ãL«nghJ, ek¡F »il¥gJ
mid¤J bghUŸfS« vilÆ‹ik
→ →
ÃiyÆš cŸsd. ïjid jhdhf ÑnHÉG« ma = mE
Ãiyíl‹ x¥ãlyh«.
→ →
a =E
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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš 229

<®¥ò KL¡f¤â‹ v© kâ¥ò


P
E m GmM e GM e
│g│2= g = 2
Re Re
<®¥ã‹ KL¡fkhdJ KL¡fkilí«
r F=mE bghUË‹ Ãiwia rh®ªjjšy.
g‹ kâ¥ghdJ òÉÆ‹ Ãiwiaí«

m
Mu¤ijí« rh®ªJŸsJ. òÉÆid neh¡»
ÉG« mid¤J bghUŸfS« rkkhf
M
KL¡fkil»‹wJ'' òÉÆ‹ ók¤âa nuif
m ÃiwíŸs bghUshš <®¥ò òy« gFâÆš <®¥ã‹ KL¡f« g = 9.8ms-2 vd

co
msÉl¥gLjš
f©l¿a¥g£LŸsJ.
(vi) mjhtJxU òŸËÆš ïU¡F« <®¥ò
òykhdJ m¥òŸËÆš cŸs xU JfŸ
gƉá fz¡FfŸ

s.
czU« KL¡f¤â‰F rk« MF«. Mdhš 1. xU òÉÃiy¤ Jiz¡ nfhŸ 5R v‹w cau¤âš
v©kâ¥ò« âirí« x‹whf mikªjhY« òÉÆ‹ gu¥ã‰F nkny R‰¿tU»wJ. R v‹gJ
→ →
a k‰W« E M»a ïu©L« bt›ntW òÉÆ‹ Mu«. òÉÆ‹ gu¥ãÈUªJ 2R v‹w

ok
→ cau¤âš cŸs k‰bwhU Jiz¡nfhË‹ R‰W¡
ïa‰ãaš msîfŸ MF«. <®¥ò¥òy« E
v‹gJ _y ÃiwÆ‹ (source mass) fhuz¥ fhy¤ij¡ fh©.
→ →
g©ò. KL¡f« a v‹gJ <®¥ò òy« E -š Ô®î: bf¥sÇ‹ _‹wh« Éâ¥go = T2 ∝ a3
it¡f¥g£LŸs nrhjid Ãiw czU« dF T22
a2d3 F (3T
R )23
= 3 = = 02 3 = a23 (3R
Éisî¥ g©ghF«.
o
T12 ∝ a13 , T22 ∝ a23 ; F bgUk«
2 2 3 3 3 3
dm TvÅš
1
2
a1dm (6T R )2
1
=
a13 (6R
2. òÉÆ‹ <®¥ò KL¡f¤âid ÉtÇ. dFdF T2T2 a2a2 (3(R3)R ) T2 1 12 6
=
2 2 = 3 3 =
= T 1 12 6
a1 a1 (6(R6)R3 )3 ; T = 2 2 2 22 == 2
ab
(i) bghUŸfŸ òÉÆ‹ ÛJ ÉG«nghJ, dm
dm T T
1 1
=
mit òÉÆid neh¡» KL¡fkiltij 1 T1 2 2 2 2 2
T2T2 1 1 1212 6 6
fh©»nwh«. Ãô£l‹ ïu©lh« Éâ¥go T== = ==
òwÉir brašg£lhš k£Lnk xU bghUŸ T1T1 2 222 2 2 22 2 2 2
KL¡fkilí« vd m¿nth«. ï§F 2. òÉÆ‹ ika¤âÈUªJ 6.6 × 1010m bjhiyÉš
ur

òÉÆ‹ <®¥ò Éirahš bghUŸfŸ cŸs 67 kg ÃiwíŸs xU bghUË‹ Ãiy


KL¡fkil»‹wd. òÉÆ‹ mUnf M‰wš v‹dthf ïU¡F«? ï¤bjhiyÉš <®¥ò¤
ï›Éir mid¤J bghUŸfŸ ÛJ« j‹Åiy M‰wiy¡ fh©.
khwhj KL¡f¤ij V‰gL»wJ. nkY«
.s

ï«KL¡fkhdJ bghUŸfË‹ Ãiwfis Ô®î : òÉÆ‹ Ãiw M = 6.0 × 1024kg, m = 67kg


rh®ªjJ mšy. òÉ gu¥ò¡F mUnf cŸs G = 6.67 × 10-11 Nm2kg-2,
Ãiw m ÛJ òÉÆdhš V‰gL« <®¥ò Éir R = 6.6 × 1010
GM
w

→ GmM e ∧ GM e <®¥ò¤ j‹Åiy M‰wš −


F =- r R
Re2 Re2 GM
= − R = 6.67 × 10 × 6 × 10
−11 24
(ii) 
ïªj <®¥ò Éiria Ãô£lÅ‹ ïu©lh« V(r)
w

Éâíl‹ rk¥gL¤j −11 6.6 ×241010


6.67 × 10 × 6 × 10
→ GmM e ∧ GM e V(r) = - 6.1× 103 Jkg-1
ma = - r 6.6 × 1010
Re2 Re2 <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wš
w

GmM→ GM U(r) = <®¥ò¤ j‹Åiy M‰wš × Ãiw


vdnt KL¡f« a2 =e - 2 e GM
Re Re =−
R
×m  [ V(r) = − GM]

òÉ¥ gu¥ò¡F mUnf cŸs bghUS¡F R
−11 24
òÉÆ‹ <®¥ò òy¤jhš V‰gL« KL¡fkhdJ. U(r)
6.67 × 10 × 6 × 10 −11
= - 6.1× 103 × 67 = - 4.08× 105J6.67 × 10 × 6 × 1
<®¥ò KL¡f« vd¥gL»wJ. ïJ g v‹w 6.6 × 1010 6.6 × 1010
F¿p£lhš F¿¡f¥gL»wJ. U(r) = -4.08× 105 J

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2
230 RuhÉ‹  XI−M«
3  2π 
tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
2  T
3. xU t©oÆ‹ nk‰TiuÆÈUªJ bjh§fÉl¥ 4π 2 mr 4π 2 m 52
g£LŸs Ús« 'L' bfh©l jÅ CrÈ‹ miyî¡ 2 = . r
−3  22 π 
T = −3
k
fhy¤ij¡ f©Lão. ïJ ÑHhf xU rhŒjs   kr 2
2 T
cŸsik¥ò α ‹ ÛJ cuhŒÉ‹¿ miyîW»wJ.
5
Ô®î : òÉÆ‹ <®¥ò Éirahš V‰gL« KL¡f¤â‹ kâ¥ò 4π 2 mr 4π 2 m
−3 ∴= T2 ∝. r 2
k

m
g′ = g cos α kr 2
l l l l 6. òɤ Jiz¡nfhË‹ R‰W¡fhy« 5h. òÉ¡F«
T = 2π = 2π Jiz¡nfhS¡Fkhd ãÇî¤ bjhiyî
g ' g cos
' αcos α

co
K‹ãUªj kâ¥ig Él 2 eh‹F 3kl§F vÅš
4. xU nkirÆ‹ ÛJ x›bth‹¿‹ Ãiw 100kg  TÉâ¥go
 R 
bf¥sÇ‹ R‰W¡fhy 2
=  2 Jiz¡ nfhŸ
k‰W« 0.8m Mu« bfh©l ïU fzkhd nfhs§fŸ  Tòâa 
2
  T 
3
R 
KL¡f¤â‹ R

R‰W¡fhy«  ahJ?
1 Û£lÇš it¡f¥g£LŸsd. ïU nfhs§fË‹  T  3=  R  2
2 2 1 1

2 3
ika§fisí« ïiz¡F« ika¥ òŸËÆš  T2   R1 2   1T2   4R1 
Ô®î :  T  =  TR 2 ; 4R  3 = 
<®¥ò¥òy« k‰W« <®¥ò Ãiy M‰wiy¡ fh©.  R1 

s.
51
﨔 : 1 2
 
1 =  
2 5 3  R1 
64 × 25
100kg 100kg T
 2  4R 
=
T  5  =  64
1

 R1×25
O 2 = 40h

ok
A B
E1 E2
64 × 25

(i)
0.5 m 0.5 m
A, B v‹gd ïU bfhL¡f¥g£l nfhs§fŸ
áªjid Édh
k‰W« O v‹gJ ika¥òŸË 1. òÉ<®¥ò KL¡f¤jhš ã‹tUtdt‰Wl‹ V‰gL«
E1 k‰W« E2 <®¥ò¥òy§fŸ
o kh‰w¤âid tiugl« tiu. (i) òÉ¥ gu¥ã‹
cau¤â‹ ÛJ (ii) òÉ¥ gu¥ã‹ ÑHhd MH¤â‹
G × 100 G × 100
2G × 100 ÛJ.
ab
G × 100 G × 100 2G × 100
E1 = ; E2 = 2
(0.5) 2
(0.5) (0.5) 0.5 (0.5) 0.﨔:
5 (i) cau¤Jl‹ bjhl®òila g‹ khWgL«
−11
E1, −E200 2 × 6.67 × 10
ïit − 200
−11
rkkhfî« × 6 .67 × 10
vâ®âirÆY« kâ¥òfŸ
ïU¥gjhš ika¥òŸË O Éš 0Ãfu .5 <®¥ò òy«
RÊ MF«. 0.5 1 1 1 1
ur

gα 2 (or)22g α
(ii) A, B Ædhš ika¥òŸË 'O'-ïš V‰gL« <®¥ò (R + h()R + hr) r2
j‹Åiy M‰wš g ¡F« U¡F« ïilnaahd tiugl«
G × 100G ×GG ××100
100 100G ×2G ××100
100
G 100
2G 2×G 100
× 100 xU gu tisa«
.s

V(r) =
2
- 2
-
(0.5) (0.5((0)0..55)) (0.5()0.5 ) 0.5 0.5
2
g
G × 100 G × 100 2G × 100 −200 × 67−×
6−.200 ×10
200 −11
6.×676.×67 −11
10× 10 −11 A
= - =
w

(0.5) 2 (0.5) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 ge


−200 × 6.67 × 10 −11
V(r) = -2.7× 10-8 J/kg B
0.5.
5 –R o r
w

ïnyrhd nfhŸ x‹W, xU âushd É©Ûid


t£l¥ ghijÆš R‰¿ tUtjhf¡ bfh©lhš (ii) MH¤ij¥ bghW¤J khWgL« g‹ kâ¥ò
mj‹ Mu« r, R‰W¡fhy« T v‹f. nfhS¡F«,  d
g = g 1− ie g α (R - d)
ïilnaahd <®¥ò Éir r-3/2¡F
 R 
w

É©ÛD¡F« 2
3  2π 
−ne®É»j¤âš ïU¡Fkhdhš T k‰W« r¡F
  vdnt, g¡F« d¡F« ïilnaahd tiugl«
2  T  bjhl®ò ahJ?
ïilnaahd
ne®¡nfhL AC.
Ô®î : 4nfhË‹
π 2 mr Ûjhd
4π 2 m <®¥ò
5 Éir = ika Éy¡F Éir
= . r2 2
−3
k −3  2π 
krr
K 2
= mrw = mr  
2
2 T
4π 2 mr 4π 2 m 52
−3
= . r
k
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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 6 ➠ <®¥ãaš 231

2. <®¥ò Éir bjhiyÉ‹ n mL¡»š vâ®khwhf 4. xU òÉ Jiz bra‰if¡nfhŸ JfŸfŸ òÉia


kâ¥ò khWghL bfh©LŸsJ vd¡ bfh©lhš xU xU t£l¥ghijÆš R‰W«nghJ mj‹ Mu«
nfhshdJ NÇaid t£l¥ghijÆš R‰W«nghJ 36,000m vÅš xU üW »Û òÉ¥gu¥ã‹ Ûjhd
mjd Mu« 'r' vÅš nfhË‹ RH‰á¡ fhy¤â‰fhd R‰W¥ ghijÆš R‰W¡fhy« ahJ?
rk‹gh£oid¤ jUf. Ô®î :
Ô®î : T2 ∝ R3 ; Re = 6400km

m

nfhË‹ Ûjhd <®¥ò Éir (nth mL¡»š) T2  6400 
2

=
 3600 
;T = 1 .7h
GMm  2π  (24) 2
F=  

co
rn T csî bra‰if¡ nfhËš Re > R

ï›ÉirahdJ ika Éy¡F 2 2 Éir2 ( nmrw +1)
2I

vdnt Ts > T (or) Ts = 2h
v × 4π × v 4π r
nfhS¡F mË¡»wJ.
Gm GM 5. xU JfŸ òÉÆ‹ gu¥ãÈUªJ nkš neh¡»
GMm  GM 2π2 m  2π  v¿a¥gL»wJ. (Mu« R) mj‹ ïa¡f M‰wš
GM GMm m n2π22=ππmrw  (n =+mr 1)  
r

s.
r   GMT r nm  2 π
T  ÉLgLtj‰F¤ njitahd áWk kâ¥ãš
rn r
n
 T GM   n 2  
T
2 2r
v 2× 42 π2 × v2v (× 2  2T 
2 ( n + 1) ghâ¡F rkkhf ïU¡F«. òÉÆ‹ gu¥ã‰F nkny
2n +4 +1) r× v
1( n)π 4π 2 r ( n +1)
v × 42π
v × 4π × v 4π r× v 4 π r 2 ( n +1)
v›îau¤â‰F vG«ò«?
T2 = GM Gm m= v ×
 2 π4G π 2GM
m× v 4πGM
2
r
G m GM

ok
Gm GM
 
Ô®î : JfŸ ÉLgLtj‰fhd K.E = P.E
2rπn (n +2
T π1G) m (n + 1) GM
2π 2 π ( n
(rn + 1)r+ 1 ) r 1 GM m 1GMGMm mGMGM m m GMm
rGM 22GMπ ( n +2 1) mve2 =
GM GM 2
Tv × 42π = × v GM4π rr 2
2 2 ( n + 1)
2 2R 2R + 2hR RR + h R
1 GM 1 m 1 m
GM GMm
GM m GM
GM mGMmm mG
GM
Gm o GM Mdhš mË¡f¥g£l K.E = × mve22 = 2R
2 22R R R + hR + hRR+ hR
2π (n + 1) JfŸ h cau¤â‰F vG«òkhdhš
∴T∝ r 11 GM GM
1 mm m
GM GMm
GM m GM
GM mGMm m m
GM
GM 2 × mve2 =
ab
22 222RR 2R RR++hRh + h RR R
3. xU jÅ CrÈ‹ miyî¡fhy« T1 MdJ GMmm GM GMm m GMGMm m
òÉÆ‹ gu¥ãš cŸsnghJ MF«. òÉ¥gu¥ã‰F 11 GM
R = R++ hh R
22 22R R R
nkny ca®¤j¥gL«nghJ T2 , R v‹gJ òÉÆ‹ Mu«
T2 g g g h=R
ur

‹ kâ¥ò =ahJ? =
T1 1 + n   R  2  4 6. òÉiaÉl ïUkl§F Ãiwí«, É£lK« cila xU
Ô®î : R  1 +    nfhis¡ fUJf. ï¡nfhËš CrÈ‹ miyî
 R  R 
òÉÆ‹ gu¥ã‹ÛJ cau¤âš òÉ<®¥ò KL¡f§fŸ neu« v‹dthf ïU¡F«? òÉÆ‹ ÛJ xU Édho
.s

g k‰W«l g′ g g Crš v‹gJ ahJ?


2π T2 = gg g T2 gg gÔ®î : bjhl¡f¤âš
g GM l
g g′g=' = = = = g =
R 2 k‰W«
g
T1 1 + n4   R  2T1 4 n   R  2  4
1 +
w

T2 g gR 1 +g   R 1 +  R
= = R     TGM = 2π l = 2sg (2M ) [Édho g l
CrY¡fhdJ]
T1 1 + n   R  4 2
R 2 GM g l (2R ) 2 = 2 g
R 2π1 +l  R g = g l g g 2 GM
g 2l
lGM l
jÅ CrÈ‹miyî¡ fhy«  2π = 2MR) Rgïu£o¥ghdhš 2
w

Mg (k‰W«

g g' gT = 2π g g' g = R gR 2 g
l g g 4g (2R g) (2M2) g g2 l
2

2πT2 g = g 4
GM g′l = = g (22M ) gg(2M ) l g l
g= gn' = g = 2 2 = 2 ( 2 R ) 2
2 g= =
T1 1 +   R  4 R g
w

(2R ) 2 (22R ) g 2
2 2
g
 14+    2
R
  R  g ( 2M ) g l 2 2
= 2
l g g (2 R ) 2 T 2= 2π g = 2 T = 2 2 s.
2π = 2
g g' g
4 2

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232 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
7. #fÔZ xU ÛŸ u¥g® ng‹£Ll‹ f£l¥g£l fšiy (i) étfÅ‹ És¡f« v‹dthf ïU¡F«?
R‰W»wh‹. neu« bršy bršy RH‰áÆ‹ (ii) vilÆ‹ik v‹gJ ahJ?
ntf¤ij mâfǤjh‹. ntf« mâfÇ¡f¥g£lnghJ (i) étf‹ Ä‹ ca®¤âia¥ g‰¿ rk‹ghL
u¥g® tisa¤â‹ Ús« (Mu«) mâfǤjJ. jUɤJ És¡»dh‹. Ä‹ ca®¤âÆš xU
ïij¡f©l mtË‹ jªij $j® #fÔir mUnf kÅjÅ‹ Ñœneh¡»a KL¡f« ‘a’ vÅš
miH¤jh®. ïªÃfœî v¥go el¡»wJ v‹W nf£lh®?

m
rk‹ghL kÅj‹ Ûjhd Ãfu Ñœneh¡»a Éir
(i) bf¥gsÇ‹ _‹wh« Éâia¡ T¿ F = Ma. tiugl¤âÈUªJ.
rk‹gh£oid¤ jUf.
(ii) m©ik Ãiy (Perigee (or) Perihelion),
F = Mg –R

co
nrŒik Ãiy (Apogee (or) aphelion) v‹gJ Ma = Mg –R ; R = Mg–Ma
ahJ?
R = M (g – a)
#fÔZ jªij $j® bfhL¡f¥g£l Ãfœî bf¥sÇ‹
_‹wh« nfhŸfË‹ ïa¡fÉâ bjhl®òilaJ. R

s.
xU bghUË‹ RH‰áÆ‹ fhy msî, mj‹ âir
ntf¤ijí« k‰W« Mu¤ijí« rh®ªjjšy. vdnt, a
t£l¥ghijÆ‹ Mu« mšyJ bghUË‹ âirntf«

ok
v›thW ïU¥ãD« fhy msî khwhJ. 劉d«
fšÈ‹ RH‰áÆ‹ fhy msÉid bt›ntW
âirntf§fS¡F«, Mu¤â‰F« fhzyh«.
Mg
(i) bf¥sÇ‹ _‹wh« Éâ : ÚŸt£l¥ghijÆš
rk‹gh£oš kÅjÅ‹ njh‰w vil R, c©ikahd
o
NÇaid R‰W« nfhË‹ R‰W¡ fhy¤â‹
ïUko, mªj ÚŸ t£l¤â‹ miu be£l¢á‹ vilia Él Fiwî. kÅjÅ‹ Ûjhd Ñœneh¡»a
K«ko¡F ne®¤jfÉš ïU¡F«. KL¡f« òÉ <®¥ò¡F rk« vÅš m~jhtJ a = g
ab
2
vÅš
T2 µ a3, T = kh¿È
R = M (g – g) = 0
a3
(ii) NÇaD¡F Äf mU»š nfhŸ cŸs Ãiy (P) ∴ R RÊahthjhš vilÆ‹ik njh‹W»wJ.
m©ik Ãiy (Perihelion - Perigee) vd¥gL«.
ur

(ii) xU É©btË åu® xU R‰W¥ghijÆš


NÇaD¡F bgUk¤ bjhiyÉš nfhŸ cŸs cŸs Jiz¡nfhËš cŸs nghJ,
Ãiy (A) nrŒik Ãiy (aphelion - apogee). òÉÆ‹ ika¤ij neh¡» ïUtU¡F« rk
8. trª¤ k‰W« étf‹ Ä‹ ca®¤âÆš cŸns KL¡f« ïU¡F«. vdnt, É©btË åu®
.s

ïUªjd®. étf‹ Äfî« ò¤ârhÈahf Jiz¡nfhË‹ jiuÆš Éir brY¤j


ïUªjjhš Ä‹ ca®¤â ntiy brŒí« nt©oaâšiy. jiuÆdhY« v›Éj
Éj¤ij trªâ‰F És¡»dhŸ. Ä‹ ca®¤â vâ®Éidí« brY¤Jtâšiy. vâ®Éid
w

Ñœneh¡» KL¡fkil»wJ. âObud ïUtU«


ïšyhjjhš vilÆ‹ikia cz®»wh®.
vilÆ‹ikia cz®ªjd®. trª¤ ïij¥ g‰¿
étfÅl« ÉdÉdh‹.
w


w

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07 gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ

m
co
s.
o ok
ab
ur
.s
w
w
w

[233]

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234 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II

ÃidÉš bfhŸs nt©oait



Éir F
1. XuyF gu¥ãš brašgL« Éir jifî s = =
gu¥ò A

m
myF: Nm–2 (m) gh°fš (pa) gÇkhz« ML–1T–2, xU bl‹r®
Fn
2. ڣᤠjifî mšyJ br§F¤J jifî sn =
∆A

co
(tiffŸ: ïGÉir¤ jifî, mK¡f¤ jifî)
Ft
3. bjhLtiu jfî mšyJ rW¡F¥ bga®¢á¤jifî st =
∆A
F
4. gUk¤ jifî: sv = A = mG¤j«

s.
gÇkhz kh‰w«
5. âÇò: (strain) e =
c©ikahd gÇkhz«

= ∆l
f«ãÆš mâfÇ¡F« Ús«
ڣᤠâÇò: el =

ok
f«ãÆš c©ikahd Ús« l
tiffŸ: ïG Éir¤ âÇò, mK¡f¤ âÇò
6. rW¡F¥ bga®¢á¤ âÇò: es = tan q
x
es = = q = rW¡F¥ bga®¢á¡ nfhz«
h
∆V
o
7. gUk¤ âÇò: eV =
ab
V
8. Û£á všiy: s ∝ e
jifthdJ âÇò¡F ne®É»j¤âš cŸsJ - A]¡ Éâ
9. ۣᡠFzf§fŸ:
σt
ur

ïG Éir¤jifî mK¡f¤ jifî σ


i) a§ Fzf«: y = = = = c
ïG Éir¤ âÇò εt mK¡f¤ âÇò εc
myF : jifÉ‹ myF, âÇò¡F ïšiy. \ Nm–2 (m) gh°fš
F ∆L
.s

= y ×
A L
F = mg
br§F¤J¤ jifî (m) mG¤j« − σ n − ∆P
= ∆V
w

ii) gUk¡ Fzf« K = =


gUk¤ âÇò εV V
Fn
br§F¤J jifî mšyJ mG¤j« = sn = = DP
∆A
w

∆V
gUk¤ âÇò: eV =
V
myF: mG¤j¤â‹ myF. Nm–2 (m) gh°fš
w

1 ε ∆V
10. mK¡f¤ j‹ik: C = = − V = − V
K σn ∆P
gUk¡ Fzf¤â‹ jiyÑÊ.
F¿¥ò: thí¡fŸ - gUk¡ Fzf« Fiwî
\ mK¡f¤j‹ik Äf mâf«.
11. Éiw¥ò¡ Fzf« mšyJ rW¡F¥ bga®¢á Fzf«:

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 235

rW¡F¥ bga®¢á jifî σ 1 F


hR = rW¡F¥ bga®¢á¡ nfhz« = − = − ∆A
S

εS θ
(m) rW¡F¥ bga®¢á âÇò
âU¥ò Éir t ∝ q
myF: Nm–2 (m) gh°fš

m
1
XuyF gUkÅš f«ãÆš nrÄ¡f¥g£l Û£á Ãiy M‰wš V = × Y × âÇò ;
2
1

co
= × jifî × âÇò
2
g¡fth£L¤ âÇò
12. ghŒ[‹ É»j« µ = Ústh£L¤ âÇò
L d
µ = − ×
l D

s.
vâ® F¿ahdJ Ústh£oš Ú£á, g¡fth£oš FW¡f« cŸsij¡ F¿¡»wJ.
rk gÇkhz§fis¡ bfh©l É»j«. vdnt myF ïšiy. gÇkhzk‰wJ. (gÇkhzk‰w v©)

ok
13 ghŒk§fŸ:
F
mG¤j« P =
A
°nfyh® msî, gÇkhz« ML–1T–2
myF : gh°fš (m) Nm–2 ; 1 atm = 1.013×105 Pa or Nm–2 [fh‰wG¤j«]
o
14. ghŒk¤â‹ ml®¤â r = m
v
ab
gÇkhz« = ML–3 myF = kgm–3
ne®¡F¿ °nfyh® msî
1atm š r = kh¿È
15. x¥gl®¤â : R.D (or) S = bghUË‹ ml®¤â
ur

4°C š ÚÇ‹ ml®¤â


gÇkhz¤â‹ ml®¤â : 13.6× 103 Kgm–3

gÇkhzk‰w ne®F¿ °nfyh® msî
.s

13.6 × 103 kg m −3
x¥gl®¤â =
1.0 × 103 kg m −3
XŒÉš cŸs ghŒk¤j«g¤âdhš mG¤j« P = rgh;
w

16.
mG¤j¤ij îza« brŒa ghŒk¤j«g caunk K¡»a«.
F2– F1 = mg = FG (òÉp®¥ò Éir)
w

m = rV = rA (h2 – h1)
FG = rA (h2 – h1)g
h MH¤âš bkh¤j mG¤jkhdJ P = PA + rgh [Pa - fh‰wG¤j«; kâ¥ò - 1.013 ×105 Pa]
w

F1 A2
17. gh°fš Éâ (ÚÇaš ö¡») F2 = P × A2 = × A2 = × F1
A1 A1
A2
fhu = ÚÇaš ö¡»Æ‹ ïaªâu ïyhg«.
A1
18. Äj¡F« j‹ik
M®¡»Äo° bfhŸif
cªJ Éir (m) Äj¥ò Éir = ïl« bga®ªj âut¤â‹ vil
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236 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
19. ghFÃiy  u¥ò ïGÉir¡F«, khW Ãiy bt¥gÃiy¡Fkhd
g
ïy£áa âut« i) mK¡f ïayhJ bjhl®ò
ii) gUk¡ Fzf« KoÉÈ 27. gu¥ò M‰wš =
iii) r W¡F¥ bga®¢á ÉirfŸ nk‰gu¥ig mâfÇ¡f¢ brŒa¥gL« ntiy

ïU¡fhJ. nk‰gu¥ã‹ mâfÇ¥ò

m
W
\ gh»aš v© RÊ. =
∆A
20. gh»aš v© = h
dV myF : Jm–2 (m) Nm–1
F=–hA

co
dx 28. gu¥ò ïG Éir T =
F
gÇkhz« : ML–1T–1 l
vâ®F¿ F¿¥gJ : Éir cuhŒî¤ j‹ik bfh©lJ, gÇkhz« : MT–2 ; myF : Nm–1
rh®ò ïa¡f¤ij v⮡»wJ. T −T
29. Tsa = Tla cos q + Tsl ⇒ cos q = sa sl
Tla

s.
cUis to¡FHhÆ‹ tÊna bršY« ghŒk«. 2T
21. budhšL v© = tÇ¢Ó® X£l« (m) RH‰á X£l« 30. FÄÊÆDŸ ÄifaG¤j« : DP = P2 – P1 =
R
ρVD nrh¥ò¡ FÄÊÆDŸ ÄifaG¤j« : DP = P2 – P1

ok
RC = =K 4T
η = = rgh
R
gÇkhzk‰w v© 31. gu¥ò ïGÉirahš E©òiH V‰w«
22. nfhs¤â‹ ÛJ brašgL« òÉp®¥ò Éir rρgh 2T cosθ
T= ;h=
2 cosθ rρg

4
Fa = mg = pr3rg (Ñœneh¡»a Éir)
3
o h∝
1
4 3 r
ab
U = pr sg (nkšneh¡»a Éir)
3 32. bjhl® kh¿È¢ rk‹ghL :
Vt = K‰W¤ âir ntf¤âš gh»aš Éir
a1V1 Dtr = a2V2Dtr
F = 6phr Vt
2 a1V1 = a2V2 ⇒ aV = kh¿È
23. Vt = 2 × r (ρ − σ) g ⇒ Vt ∝ r2
ur

1 2
9 η 33. i) XuyF Ãiw¡fhd ïa¡f M‰wš = V
2
24. °nlh¡° Éâ: 1
ii) XuyF gUkD¡fhd ïa¡f M‰wš = rV2
F ∝ hx ry vz ⇒ F = K hx ry vz 2
.s

K - gÇkhzk‰wJ. iii) XuyF Ãiw¡fhd Ãiy M‰wš = PE = mgh


iv) XuyF gUkD¡fhd Ãiy M‰wš = rgh
[MLT–2] = K[ML–1 T–1]x× [L]y × [LT–1]z
P
w

K = 6p v) XuyF Ãiw¡fhd mG¤j M‰wš =


ρ
F = 6p hr V vi) XuyF gUkD¡fhd
E
25. g
 hŒbrhŒ rk‹ghL : FW»a FHhŒ (m) E©FHhŒ mG¤j M‰wš = P = P
w

gUk‹
tÊna bršY« Ú®k X£l«
P 1
πr 4ρ  π 34. bg®bdsÈÆ‹ rk‹ghL : + V2 + gh = kh¿È
ρ 2
V=
8 ηl
 K= 8 
w

ghFÃiya‰w Ú®k§fŸ
26. th©l®thš° T‰W:
3
35. by‹RÇkhÅ: xU ÉdhoÆš mK¡f ïayhj
  2
Tt = T0 1 − t
Ú®k« ghí« åj«
 t  âut¤â‹ gUk‹
c

2(∆P)a 2 = Aa 2(∆P)

V = AV1 = A
ρ(A 2 − a 2 ) ρ(A 2 − a 2 )

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 237

gƉá Édh¡fŸ
I. rÇahd Éilia nj®ªbjL¤J vGJf: 6. xnu gUkid¡ bfh©l ïU f«ãfŸ xnu bghUshš
MdJ. Kjš k‰W« ïu©lh« f«ãfË‹ FW¡F
1. x k‰W« y v‹w ïU f«ãfis¡ fUJf. x f«ãÆ‹ bt£L¥òu¥òfŸ Kiwna A k‰W« 2A MF«. F

m
MukhdJ y f«ãÆ‹ Mu¤ij¥ nghy 3 kl§F v‹w Éir brašg£L Kjš f«ãÆ‹ Ús« Δl
cŸsJ. mit rkkhd gSthš Ú£l¥g£lhš y ï‹ mâfÇ¡f¥g£lhš ïu©lhtJ f«ãia mnj msî
Ûjhd jifî Ú£l njit¥gL« Éir ahJ?  (NEET khâÇ 2018)

co
(a) x-ï‹ jifî¡F rk« (a) 2 (b) 4
(b) x-ï‹ jifit¥ nghš 3 kl§F (c) 8 (d) 16 [Éil. (b) 4]
(c) x-ï‹ jifit¥nghš 9 kl§F 7. bt¥gÃiy caU«nghJ âut« k‰W« thíÉ‹
(d) x-ï‹ jifÉš ghâ ghFÃiy Kiwna

s.
[Éil. (c) x-ï‹ jifit¥nghš 9 kl§F] (a) mâfÇ¡F« k‰W« mâÇ¡F«
(b) mâfÇ¡F« k‰W« Fiwí«
2. xU f«ãahdJ mj‹ bjhl¡f Ús¤ij¥ nghy ïU
(c) Fiwí« k‰W« mâfÇ¡F«

ok
kl§F Ú£l¥g£lhš f«ãÆš V‰g£l âÇò 
(d) Fiwí« k‰W« Fiwí«
(a) 1 (b) 2
 [Éil. (c) Fiwí« k‰W« mâfÇ¡F«]
(c) 3 (d) 4 [Éil. (a) 1]
8. xU KG â©k¥ bghUËš a§Fzf«,
3. xnu bghUshš Md
_‹W f«ãfË‹ gS 1
o 2
(a) 0
(b) 1
Ú£o tiugl« gl¤âš 3
(c) 0.5 (d) KoÉÈ
ab
fh£l¥g£LŸsJ.  [Éil. (d) KoÉÈ]
Ñœ¡f©lt‰WŸ
jokdhd f«ã vJ? 9. Ñœ¡f©lt‰WŸ vJ °nfy® mšy?
(a) f«ã 1 O
(a) ghFÃiy (b) gu¥ò ïGÉir
(b) f«ã 2 (c) mG¤j« (d) jifî
ur

(c) f«ã 3  [Éil. (d) jifî]


(d) mid¤J« xnu jok‹ bfh©lit
10. f«ãÆ‹ bt¥gÃiy ca®¤j¥g£lhš, mj‹ a§
 [Éil. (a) f«ã 1] Fzf«
.s

4. bfhL¡f¥g£l xU bghUS¡F Éiw¥ò¡ (a) khwhJ

FzfkhdJ a§ Fzf¤âš  1  g§F cŸsJ.


(b) Fiwí«
w

mj‹ ghŒbrhŒ É»j«.  3 [HY-2018]


(c) mâf msî caU«
(d) Äf¡ Fiwthd msî caU«
(a) 0 (b) 0.25
 [Éil. (b) Fiwí«]
(c) 0.3 (d) 0.5
w

 [Éil. (d) 0.5] 11. khwh gUk‹ V bfh©l jhÄu« l ÚsKŸs f«ãahf
Ú£l¥gL»wJ. ïªj f«ã F v‹w khwh Éir¡F
5. 2cm MuKŸs xU á¿a nfhs« gh»aš j‹ik c£gL¤j¥g£lhš cUthd Ú£á Δl. Y MdJ
w

bfh©l âut¤âš ÉG»wJ. gh»aš Éirahš a§Fz¤ij¡ F¿¤jhš ã‹tU« tiugl§fËš


bt¥g« cUth»wJ. nfhs« mj‹ K‰W¤ vJ ne®nfhlhF«?  (NEET khâÇ 2014)
âirntf¤ij milí«nghJ bt¥g« cUthF« åj«
vj‰F ne®¤jfÉš mikí«? (NEET khâÇ 2018) (a) Δl vâuhf V
(b) Δl vâuhf Y
(a) 22 (b) 23
(c) 2 (d) 25
4 (c) Δl vâuhf F
 [Éil. (d) 25] (d) Δl vâuhf V [Éil. (c) Δl vâuhf F]

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238 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
12. xU âut¤â‹ R MuKŸs F¿¥ã£l jifÉ‹ SI myF Nm-2 mšyJ gh°fš (Pa)
v©Â¡ifÆyhd nfhs¤ JËfŸ x‹W nruªJ k‰W« mj‹ gÇkhz« [ML-1 T-2] MF«. jifî
R MuK« gUkd« V bfh©l xnu âut¤JËahf xU bl‹r® (Tensor) MF«.
khW»wJ. âut¤â‹ gu¥ò ïGÉir T vÅš
âÇò : âÇò v‹gJ Éir brašgL¤j¥g£lhš
1 1 1 1
(a) M‰wš = 4 V T  −  btË¥g£lJ + xU bghUŸ Ú£l¥gL« mšyJ cU¡Fiyí«
 r R   r R 

m
msthF«. bghUË‹ msÉš á¿a kh‰w«
1 1 1 1 V‰gLtij âÇî ifahŸ»wJ.
 =−3 V T  +  c£ftu¥g£lJ
(b) M‰wš r R r R gÇkhz kh‰w«
âÇò ε = c©ikahd gÇkhz« = Δl

co
l
1 1 1 1 ïJ gÇkhzk‰w k‰W« myF m‰w msî MF«.
(c) M‰wš = 3 V T  −  btË¥g£lJ
 + 
 r R  r R
(d) M‰wš btË¥glî« ïšiy c£futu¥glî« 2. ۣᥠg©ã‹ A]¡ Éâia¡ TWf.  [HY-2018]
ïšiy A]¡ Éâ : á¿a msÉyhd cU¡FiyɉF,
1 1 1 1

s.
[Éil. (c) M‰wš = 3 V T  r − R  btË¥g£lJ
 +  ]
r R
jifî k‰W« âÇò x‹W¡bfh‹W ne®É»j¤âš
ïU¡F«.
13. Ñœ¡f©l eh‹F f«ãfS« xnu bghUshš
Mdit. xnu ïGÉir brY¤j¥g£lhš ït‰WŸ 3. ghŒbrhŒ É»j¤ij tiuaW.

ok
vJ mâf Ú£áia¥ bgW«? ghŒbrhŒ É»j« : x¥òik¡ FW¡f¤â‰F«
(a) Ús« = 200 cm É£l« = 0.5 mm (g¡fth£L¤âÇò) x¥òik ÉÇth¡f¤â‰F«
(b) Ús« = 200 cm É£l« = 1 mm (Ústh£L¤âÇò) ïilna cŸs É»j« ghŒbrhŒ
(c) Ús« = 200 cm É£l« = 2 mm É»j« vd tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ. mj‹ F¿pL μ
(d) Ús« = 200 cm É£l« = 3 mm
o MF«.
 [Éil. (a) Ús« = 200 cm É£l« = 0.5 mm] ghŒbrhŒ É»j« μ = g¡fth£L¤ âÇò
ab
Ústh£L¤ âÇò
14. xU gu¥ig xU âut¤jhš <ukh¡F« msî 4. _y¡TWfËilna ÉirfË‹ _y« Û£á¥g©ig
Kj‹ikahf rh®ªJŸsJ ÉtÇ.
(a) ghFÃiy (b) gu¥ò ïGÉir (i) xU â©k¥ bghUËš mQ¡fS¡»ilna
(c) ml®¤â
ur

cŸs ÉirÆdhš mQ¡fŸ x‹Wl‹


(d) gu¥ò¡F« âut¤â‰F« ïilna cŸs
x‹W beU¡fkhf ãiz¡f¥g£L cWâ¢
nr®nfhz«
 [Éil. (d) gu¥ò¡F« âut¤â‰F« ïilna rkÃiyÆš ïU¡F«.
cŸs nr®nfhz«]
.s

 (ii) bghUË‹ÛJ cU¡FiyÉ¡F« Éir


15. khWg£l FW¡F bt£L¥ gu¥ò bfh©l xU
brašgL« nghJ, mQ¡fŸ beU¡filí«
»ilk£l¡ FHhÆš, ÚuhdJ 20 cm FHhÆ‹ mšyJ Éy¡fkilí«.
w

É£lKŸs xU òŸËÆš 1 ms-1 âirntf¤âš (iii) cU¡FiyÉ¡F«Éiria Ú¡»dhš,


brš»wJ. 1.5 ms -1 âirntf¤âš bršY« mQ¡fS¡F ïilna brašgL« ft®¢á
òŸËÆš FHhÆ‹ É£lkhdJ. mšyJ Éy¡F ÉirahdJ mQ¡fis
w

(a) 8 (b) 16 mj‹ rkÃiy¡F Ûs¡ bfh©L tU«.


(c) 24 (d) 32 [Éil. (b) 16] (iv) ïJnt bghUË‹ Û£á g©ò vd¥gL«.

áW Édh¡fŸ
w

II. 5. v~F mšyJ ïu¥g®, ït‰¿š vJ mâf Û£á¥


g©òŸsJ? V‹?
1. jifî k‰W« âÇò - tiuaW. (i) c©ikÆš v~Fjh‹ mâf ۣᥠg©ò
jifî : XuyF gu¥ãš brašgL« Éir jifî cilaJ. v~F k‰W« ïu¥g® ïu©o‹ ÛJ«
rkkhd mG¤j¤ij (stress) bfhL¤jhš
vd¥gL«. v~F Fiwthd âÇigna milí«. vdnt
Éir F
jifî, σ = gu¥ò = A a§ Û£á¡Fzf« v~F¡F¤jh‹ mâf«.

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 239

(ii) a§ Û£á¡Fzf« vªj¥ bghUS¡F 9. ghŒk§fËš gh°fš Éâia¡ TWf.


mâfnkh mJnt mâf Û£á¥g©ò (elastic) gh°fš ÉâÆ‹ T‰whdJ ``xU âut¤âš
cilaJ. cŸs xU òŸËÆš mG¤j« kh¿dhš mªj
6. xU RUŸÉš juhR Ú©l fhykhf¥ ga‹gL¤âa khWghL kâ¥ò Fiwahkš âut« KGtj‰F«
ãwF jtwhd msåLfis¡ fh£L»wJ. V‹? gu¥g¥gL»wJ.''

m
(i) xU RUŸÉš juhir Ú©l fhy« 10. M®¡»Äo° j¤Jt¤ij¡ TWf.
bjhl®¢áahf ga‹gL¤âdhš, mâš cŸs
RUŸÉš f«ãahdJ Û£á nrh®î milªJ, (i) bghUbsh‹W xU ghŒk¤âš gFâahfnth
mšyJ KGtJkhfnth _œ»ÆUªjhš

co
j‹ Û£á¥g©ig ïH¡f¤ Jt§F«.
(ii) vdnt mJ j‹ bjhl¡f gÇkhz¤ij mJ ïl« bgau¢ brŒj ghŒk¤â‹ vil¡F
(Ús¤ij) miltâš Rz¡f« V‰gL«. rkkhd nkšneh¡»a cªJ Éiria
ïjdhš mJ jtwhd msåLfis fh£L«. mJ cz®»wJ k‰W« cªJ ÉirahdJ
ïl« bga®ªj âut <®¥ò ika« tÊahf

s.
7. ۣᥠg©ã‹ ÛJ bt¥gÃiyÆ‹ Éisî ahJ?
brašgL»wJ.
bgU«ghyhd ÃfœîfËŸ ۣᥠg©òila
bghUËš bt¥gÃiy ca®¤j¥gL« nghJ (ii) cªJ Éir mšyJ Äâ¥ò Éir =

ok
mj‹ Û£á Éir Fiw»wJ. Mdhš `ï‹th®' ïl«bga®ªj âut¤â‹ vil.
cnyhf¤âš vªj kh‰w« ïuhJ.
11. nkšneh¡»a cªJ Éir mšyJ Äj¡F« j‹ik
8. Ú£l¥g£l f«ãÆ‹ Û£á Ãiy M‰wY¡fhd v‹whš v‹d?
nfhitia vGJf. xU ghŒk¤âš _œ»íŸs xU bghUË‹
F v‹w ÉirÆdhš f«ãahdJ dl msî
o vilia v⮡F« ghŒk¤âdhš cUth¡f¥gL«
Ú£áailí«nghJ, brŒa¥gL« ntiy nkšneh¡»a Éir Äj¥òÉir vd¥gL«
ab
dW = F dl ïªÃfœî Äj¡F« j‹ik vd¥gL«.
0 Kjš 1 tiu f«ã Ú£áaila brŒa¥g£l ntiy
l F L YAl 12. Äj¤jš Éâia¡ TWf.
W= ∫
0 F dlA × l ⇒ F = L...(1) ``bghUË‹ _œ»a gFâ ïl«bgau¢ brŒj
ur

l
YAl'  l  YAl
a§ Fz¤âÈUªJ '2 2
 YAl  1 âut¤â‹ vil, bghUË‹ vil¡F rkkhdhš
F L   YAl 2   mªj¥ bghUŸ m¤âut¤âš Äj¡F«'' v‹gJ
l
L 
∫0 Y = A ×L l ⇒ F2 = 0 L L ...(2)
2
Äj¤jš ÉâahF«.
.s

l
YAl'  l' (2)
rk‹ghL (1) I rk‹ghL 2
 ïšYAl 2  YAl  1
ãuâÆl 13. xU Ú®k¤â‹ gh»aš v© - tiuaW.
F L L lYA l F L L2  YA l
l
2 L 2
∫0 A × l ⇒WF==∫0 L 0A dl× l ⇒ F = L Ãô£lÅ‹ Kjš ÉâÆ‹ _y« m¿a¥gL«
bjhifÆlÈš l v‹gJ bt‰W kh¿ (dummy ghFÃiy ÉirahdJ (i) âut¤â‹ gu¥ò
w

'2 l '2 l
YAl '  l 
F llL YA
L eh« YAl
l 2
'  YA 
YALll YAl l  1 YA lYA l 2
 YA l  1
llFv‹gjhš LF l F YA lLLv‹gij
l
variable) FF×=lF YA YA (všiyfËš
l2 l  dv

2lA∫0∫0×0 l∫0⇒

mšy) ∫0 Lvd 
∫00A kh‰w
×  ⇒ × F
A l AAL Al l L

=
L FL×= ×L
2 ⇒ 

L 2F⇒F 
=
 =F2= L
l 0 LL L
 L  2 A k‰W« (ii) âirntf¢ rÇî dx M»at‰¿‰F
ne®É»j¤âš cŸsJ.
L YAl l ' 2 ll 2 ' 2 2l l
w

⇒F= YAl
YAll ' YAl Fl'''2  L llYAl
YAl YAl
' 2YA' ' l YAYA l'2llYA
'lYA 2ll' 2 lYA
l
YAYA
YA 1l2ll2 l 2YA
lYA 11YAlYA
l l11 1
l L ∫0 LL A2 dl' × ⇒ F = 
 l=2LL2  2L2L L=LL
2  22   2=    dv
W =L
0 2L  00 L  L2 0 02  0 LL2 L  22LL L 22 2 F ∝ A k‰W« F ∝ dx
l 2YAl
L ⇒YA F =l  YAl  1YAl'  l' 2  YAl 2  YAl  1
l
 l = Fl
w

l L2 L
L 2  

0 L 
 2 0  L 2
L 2 ⇒ F = - η A
dv
2 l
 YAl  YAl  1
2 dx
 
2  0 L2  L W = 2 Fl = Û£á Ãiy M‰wš. ï§F É»j kh¿È η âut¤â‹ gh»aš v©
vd¥gL«.

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240 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
14. tÇ¢Ó® X£l« k‰W« RH‰á X£l« - ntWgL¤Jf. 19. bg®bdsÈÆ‹ nj‰w¤ij¡ TWf.
 [HY-2018] bg®bdsÈÆ‹ bg®bssÈÆ‹
nj‰w« :
t. nj‰w¤â‹go tÇ¢Ó® X£l¤âš cŸs mK¡f
tÇ¢ Ó® X£l« RH‰á X£l«
v© ïayhj, ghFÃiya‰w, XuyF ÃiwíŸs
1. xU âut X£l¤âš ïa§F« ghŒk¤â‹ Ú®k¤â‹ mG¤j M‰wš, ïa¡f M‰wš k‰W«
l F L YAl
xU òŸËÆ‹ ∫
ntf« khWÃiy¤× ⇒F=

m
Ãiyah‰wš M»at‰¿‹ T£L¤bjhif
tÊna bršY« 0
âirntf¤ij A l(V ) L kh¿ÈahF«. fÂjKiw¥go
l
c
x›bthU Él YAl
mâfkhdhš
'  l  YAl  YAlp 1
' 2 2

âut¤JfS« ïa¡fkhdJ
L  2  L2
 L ρ + 2 v2 + gh = kh¿È

co
0
mj‰F K‹d® RH‰á X£lkhF«.
br‹w JfŸfË‹ ïªne®Éš ïJnt bg®bsÈÆ‹ rk‹ghlhF«.
ghijÆnyna x›bthU JfËY« 20. xU Ú®k« bg‰WŸs M‰wšfŸ ahit? mt‰¿‹
mnj âirntfkhdJ rk‹ghLfis vGJf.
âirntf¤âš v©kâ¥ãY«,

s.
Óuhf ghí« Ú®k¤â‰F _tifahd M‰wšfŸ
ïa§»dhš mªj âirÆY« c©L. mit 1. ïa¡f M‰wš, 2. Ãiy M‰wš,
âut X£lkhdJ khWtjhš jÅ¥g£l 3. mG¤j M‰wš
tÇ¢Ó® X£l« JfŸfŸ tÇ¢Ó®

ok
vd¥gL«. X£l¤âš ïa§fhJ. t. M‰wÈ‹ XuyF Ãiw XuyF gUk‹
2. vL¤J¡fh£L : vL¤J¡fh£L : v© tiffŸ
xU M‰¿š xU gl»‹ 1. ïa¡f M‰wš 2 1 1KE 2
l F L YAl KE = mv mv
gUk‹  m p
mikâahf¢ mšyJ f¥gÈ‹ ∫0 × ⇒F= 2 2
A l L m 1 2  1  2m
m
bršY« ÚÇ‹
o
ã‹òwKŸs ÚÇ‹ l l F L
YAl'  l' 2  ∫ YAl 2 × YA
YAl
⇒l F = 1 2 =
Vmv V mv
2 2  m
v  
X£l«. X£l«.   0
2 A l  = L v  V
L  2 0 L  L 1 22 1 2 m V
2P
ab
'2 l mv mv
16. budhšL v© v‹whš v‹d? mj‹ K¡»a¤Jt« YAl
l ' F l L 2YAl YAl YA 2 l  = 1  m  v2 p
ahJ? ∫0 L A ×2 l 0⇒ Fm = 
L2 ρL  L V 2P  V  m
l
(i) M°ngh®‹ budhšL (1842 – 1912) v‹gt® YAl'  l' 2  YAl 2  YAl  1ρ 2 v
ghŒk x£l¤â‹ j‹ikia mJ tÇ¢Ó®     = ρv
L  2 0 P L 2
L 2
ur

mšyJ RH‰á X£lkh vd m¿ªJ bfhŸs 2. Ãiy M‰wš PEρ mgh


xU rk‹gh£il totik¤jh®. m = P
m E
ρvD = gh gUk‹
Rc = η mgh
.s

=
(ii) Rc v‹gJ budhšL v© vd¥gL«. ïJ xU 1 2 1 2 V
mv mv
gÇkhzk‰w v© MF«. 2 2  m p
=   gh
17. K‰W¤ âirntf« - tiuaW. m 1 V 2 1V  2 m
mv mv
w

xU ghFÃiy Clf¤â‹ tÊna jhnd ÉG« xU 2 = ρgh


2 v  m p
  m
3. mG¤j M‰wš PEp PV m p V PV V 
bghUshdJ milí« bgUk khwh âirntf« E
1 2 1 2 =
K‰W¤âirntf« (VT) vd¥gL«. mv mv m
=
ρm p m gUk‹ V v
 
w

2 2 =p
18. °nlh¡ Éir¡fhd rk‹gh£il vGJf. mâš   m P
m V V
= = ρ
cŸs F¿pLfis És¡Ff. v
w

°nlh¡ ÉâÆ‹ go, ghŒk¤âš nfhs« x‹W P


ïa§F« nghJ mj‹ ÛJ brašgL« ghFÃiy 22. ïU tÇ¢Ó® X£l§fŸ xnu ïl¤âš FW¡»l
ρ ïayhJ. V‹?
ÉirahdJ, F = 6 π η r v
ï§F, Óuhd tÇ¢Ó® X£l¤âš ïU tÇ¢Ó® X£l§fŸ
(i) r → nfhs¤â‹ Mu«
F¿¡»l ïayhJ. m¥goÆU¡Fkhdhš Ú®k¤âš
rªâ¡F« òŸËÆYŸs JfŸfŸ mj‹ X£l¤âš
(ii) v → ghŒk¤â‹ âirntf«
ïUntW âirfis¡ bfh©oU¡F«. ïJ
(iii) η → ghŒk¤â‹ gh»aš v© X£l¤â‹ Ãiy¤ j‹ikia mÊ¡F«.

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 241

23. Ú®k« x‹¿‹ gu¥ò ïGÉiria tiuaW. mj‹ 28. Ú®k¤â‹ gu¥ò ïGÉiria¥ ghâ¡F« fhuÂfŸ
SI myF k‰W« gÇkhz¤ij¡ TWf. ahit?
(i) âut¤â‹ XuyF gu¥ã‰fhd M‰wš gu¥ò (i) khR¥bghUŸfŸ fyªâU¥gJ mšyJ
ïGÉir vd tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ. fy¥gl« nr®ªâU¡F« msit¥ bghW¤J
gu¥ò ïGÉiria¥ ghâ¡»wJ.
F (ii) fiu bghUŸfŸ fyªâU¥gJ« gu¥ò

m
T= l
ïGÉirÆ‹ kâ¥ig¥ ghâ¡»wJ.
(ii) T ï‹ SI myF k‰W« gÇkhz« Kiwna (ii) Ä‹}£lkhdJ gu¥ò ïGÉiria ghâ¡F«.
Nm-1 k‰W« MT-2 MF«. (iv) bt¥gÃiyahdJ Ú®k¤â‹ gu¥ò

co
24. gu¥ò ïGÉirahdJ gu¥ò M‰wY¡F v›thW ïGÉiria kh‰Wtâš K¡»a
bjhl®òilaJ? g§fh‰W»wJ.
gu¥ò ïGÉir¡F vâuhf âut¤â‹ XuyF gu¥ã‹ 29. xU nrh¥ò¡ FÄÊÆDŸ fh‰W Cj¥g£lhš
nk‰gu¥ig mâfÇ¡f¢ brŒa¥gL« ntiy mjDŸns cŸs mG¤j« v‹dthF«?

s.
âut¤â‹ gu¥ò M‰wš vd miH¡f¥gL»wJ. xU nrh¥ò¡ FÄÊÆDŸ fh‰W Cj¥g£lhš
gu¥ò M‰wš mj‰F fh‰Wl‹ bjhL« gu¥òfŸ ïu©L cŸsd.
nk‰gu¥ig mâfÇ¡f¢ brŒa¥gL« ntiy W
vdnt gu¥ò ïGÉirahš V‰gL« Éir 2 ×2πRT

ok
= nk‰gu¥ã‹ mâfÇ¥ò
= ΔA MF«. mjDŸ ÄifaG¤j¤jhš FÄÊÆ‹ gu¥ò
mâfÇ¡F«. ïjdhš Mu« mâfÇ¡F«.
ïJ Jm-2 mšyJ Nm-1 v‹w myfhš
F¿¡f¥gL»wJ. 30. E©òiH EiHî mšyJ E©òiH¢ brašghL
v‹whš v‹d?
25. â©k« k‰W« âut nrho x‹¿‹ nr®nfhz«
tiuaW.
o xU ne®¡F¤jhd FHhÆš Ú®k« nknyWtJ
mšyJ ÑÊw§FtJ E©òiH EiHî mšyJ
(i) bjhLnfh£o‰F« âl¥ bghUË‹ gu¥ã‰F« E©òiH¢ brašghL vd¥gL«. E©òiH¡
ab
ïil¥g£l nfhzkhdJ nr®nfhz« FHhÆ‹ É£l¤ij¥ bghW¤J ïJ mikí«.
θ vd¥gL«. ïjid »nu¡f vG¤âš ``Ô£lh''
v‹g®. 31. ÚÇ‹ gu¥ãš it¡f¥gL« v©bzŒ JËahdJ
guî»wJ. Mdhš v©bzÆš it¡f¥gL«
(ii) ï«kâ¥ghdJ x›bthU âl k‰W« âut Ú®¤JË nfhs toÉš RU¡»wJ. V‹?
ur

nrhofË‹ ïil¥gFâia¥ bghW¤J


khWgL»wJ. xU âutkhdJ âl¥bghUË‹ (i) ÚÇ‹ gu¥ãš v©bzŒ C‰w¥gL«nghJ
nkš gl®tJ« mšyJ JËfshf cUthtJ« ÚÇ‹ gu¥ò ïGÉir Fiw¡f¥gL»wJ.
ï«kâ¥ig¥ bghU¤nj mik»wJ. Ú® _y¡TW k‰W« v©bzŒ
_y¡TWfS¡»ilnaahd XÇd¡
.s

26. xÇd k‰W« nt¿d¡ ft®¢á Éirfis ft®¢áahdJ v©bzŒ _y¡TWfËš


ntWgL¤Jf. nt¿d¡ ft®¢áia ã‹D¡F¤ jŸStjhš
ÚÇ‹ nk‰gu¥ãš v©bzŒ gl®»wJ.
w

t. xÇd ft®¢á nt¿d ft®¢á Éir


(ii) v©bzÆ‹ ÛJ ÚÇ‹ JËia ÉG«nghJ
v© Éir
ÚÇ‹ _y¡TWfË‹ nt¿d Éir ÚU¡F«,
1. xU âut¤âš xU Ú®k bghUŸ v©bzŒ¡Fkhd XÇd Éiria ã‹D¡F¤
cŸs xnu âl¥bghUis
w

jŸS»wJ. vdnt Ú®¤JË nfhztoÉš


tifahd Ú®k bjhL«nghJ âut RU§F»wJ.
_y¡TWfS¡F k‰W« âl¥ bghUË‹
ïilnaahd _y¡TWfS¡F 32. bt‹RÇkhÅÆ‹ j¤Jt« k‰W« ga‹gh£il¡
w

Éir XÇd ïilna brašgL« TWf.


ft®¢á Éir Éir nt¿d Éir (i) bt‹RÇkhÅ bg®bdsÈÆ‹ nj‰w¥go
vd¥gL«. vd¥gL«. brašgL»wJ. mj‹go tÇ¢Ó® X£l¤âš
2. (v.fh) Ú® (v.fh) ÚÇš cŸs mK¡f ïayhj ghFÃiya‰w, XuyF
_y¡TWfS¡F it¡f¥g£l f©zho ÃiwíŸs Ú®k¤â‹ mG¤j M‰wš, ïa¡f
ïilna M‰wš k‰W« Ãiyah‰wš M»at‰¿‹
brašgL« Éir T£L¤ bjhif kh¿ÈahF«.

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242 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
(ii) ï¡fUÉahdJ xU FHhÆ‹ tÊna bršY«
Y
mK¡f ïayhj Ú®k« ghí« åj¤ij mšyJ
ghí« ntf¤ij msÉl cjî»wJ. A

( L)
2( ∆p )
V = aA C
ρ(A 2 − a 2 )

m
B
III. beL Édh¡fŸ 0 (F) X
1. A]¡ Éâia¡ TWf. xU nrhjid cjÉíl‹
F I¥ bghW¤J ΔL ï‹ khWghL

co
mjid rÇgh®¡fî«.
(vii) tiugl¤âÈUªJ rhŒî m MdJ,
A]¡ Éâ á¿a msÉyhd
tiuaiw :
AB ∆L ∆L . AL
cU¡FiyɉF, jifî k‰W« âÇò m= = (or)
BC F F AL
x‹W¡bfh‹W ne® É»j¤âš cŸsJ.
F  L  ∆L

s.
= 
 Am  L
A]¡ Éâ - rÇgh®¤jš : (or)
A
(i) bkšÈa RUŸÉš x‹¿‹ xU Kid F ∆L
(or) =k
jh§»Æš Ãiyahf bjh§fÉl¥g£LŸsJ. A L

ok
F ∆L
(or) ∝
A L
(viii) mjhtJ, jifî ∝ âÇî
(ix) vdnt Û£á všiyÆš, jifthdJ âÇò¡F
0

5
o ne®jfÉš ïU¡F«. ïJnt A]¡ ÉâahF«.
10
m
2. ۣᡠFzf¤â‹ tiffis És¡Ff.
ab
15

20 vil
25 Û£á¡Fzf« :
30

(i) á¿a cU¡FiyÉ‹ nghJ, jifî¡F«


âÇî¡F« cŸs É»j« xU kh¿È
A]¡ Éâia nrhjid MF«. mªj kh¿È Û£á Fzf« vd
ur

_ykhf rÇgh®¤jš tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ.


jifî
Y = kh¿È = Û£áFzf«
(ii) kW KidÆš F¿KŸ bghU¤j¥g£l vil¤ âÇò
j£L ïiz¡f¥g£LŸsJ.. (ii) Û£á Fzf¤â‹ myF Nm-2 (mšyJ) gh°fš
.s
( L)

(iii) RUŸÉšÈ‹ Ú£áia msÉl xU bt®Åa® (iii) Û£á Fzf§fŸ _‹W tif¥gL« mitfŸ,
msî nfhš mik¥ò cŸsJ. 1) a§ Fzf« (Y)
2) gUk¡ Fzf« (K)
w

(iv) vil¤j£oš go¥goahf gS nr®¡f¥g£L,


0
3) Éiw¥ò Fzf« mšyJ rW¡F bga®¢á
RUŸÉšÈ‹ Ú£á msÉl¥gL»wJ.
(F) X Fzf« (ηR)
(v) RUŸÉšÈ‹ bjhl¡f Ús« = L 1)  a§Fzf« (Y) :
w

FW¡F bt£L gu¥ò = A (i) ïGÉir jifî mšyJ mK¡f


jifî¡F«, ïGÉir âÇò mšyJ
gUk‹ = V = AL mK¡f âÇò¡F« ïilnaahd É»j«
w

F - gSɉF cUthF« Ú£á = ΔL a§ Fzf« vd tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ.


(ii) ïGÉir jifî mšyJ mK¡f jifî,
(vi) FI X-m¢áY«, ΔLI Y- m¢áY« bfh©L
F
bgw¥gL« tiugl« Mâ¥òŸË tÊna σ t = σt =
A
bršY« xU ne®nfhlhf mik»wJ. (iii) ïGÉir âÇò mšyJ mK¡f âÇò,
∆L
et = et =
L

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 243

(iv) tiuaiwgo a§ FzfkhdJ, (iii) f«ã dl msî Ú£áailí« nghJ brŒa¥gL«


F
ntiy,
σt (or ) σ c  A  FL dW = F dl
Y = = =
εt (or ) ε c  ∆L  A ∆L (iv) vdnt l msî Ú£á mila brŒa¥gl
 L  nt©oa bkh¤j ntiy,
gUk¡ Fzf« (K) :
2) 

m
l l
(i) gUk¤ jifî¡F« (mG¤j«), W = ∫ dW = ∫ F dl ...(1)
gUk¤âÇò¡F« ïilnaahd É»j« 0 0
(v) a§ Fzf¤â‹ tiuaiwgo,
gUk¡ Fzf« vd tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ.

co
(ii) gUk¤ jifî, F 
 A = F L
F W=  ...(2)
σn = n =Δp l  A l
∆A  L
(iii) gUk âÇò, YAl

s.
(or) F = ...(3)
∆V L
εn = (vi) rk‹ghL (3)-I rk‹ghL (1)-š ãuâÆl,
V
(iv) tiuaiwgo gUk¡FzfkhdJ

ok
i i
σc ∆P Y Al  YA
W= ∫
L ∫0
=  dl = l dl
K = ε c  ∆V  0
 L 
 V 
YA l 2
l
YA  l 2  Y A 2
Éiw¥ò¡ Fzf« (ηR) :
(iii) 
W=   = l − 0 =
L  2  0 2L 2L

o
(i) rW¡F bga®¢á jifî¡F«, rW¡F 1  YA l  1
l = Fl
bga®¢á âÇò¡F« ïilnaahd W= 
2 L   2
ab
É»j« Éiw¥ò Fzf« vd
tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ. (vii) ï›thW brŒa¥g£l ntiyahdJ
f«ãÆDŸ Û£á Ãiy M‰wyhf (U)
F
σs = t nrÄ¡f¥gL»wJ. vdnt,
∆A 1
Ft
(ii) rW¡F bga®¢á âÇò Ft
ur

U= Fl
x ∆A ∆A σs 2
εs = =xθ = (viii) f«ãÆ‹ XuyF gUkÅš cŸs M‰wyhdJ
h θ εs
h
(iii) tiuaiwgo Éiw¥ò FzfkhdJ, M‰wš ml®¤â (u) vd¥gL«. mjhtJ,
1
.s

Fl
 Ft   Ft  U 2
=
σ s  ∆A   ∆A  u=
AL AL
ηR = = =
εs  x θ
w

 h  1  F l 
u=
2  A   L 
3. f«ã x‹¿š XuyF gUkÅš nrÄ¡f¥g£l Û£á 1
M‰wY¡fhd nfhitia¤ jUÉ. M‰wš ml®¤â (u) = (jifî × âÇò)
w

2
(i) f«ãia Ú£áaila¢ brŒa ÛŸ Éir¡F 4. Ú®k¥ gu¥ã‰F¡ ÑnH h MH¤âš cŸs bkh¤j
vâuhf ntiy brŒa¥gl nt©L«. ï›thw mG¤j¤â‰fhd rk‹gh£il¤ jUÉ.
brŒa¥g£l ntiyna f«ãÆDŸ Û£á
w

M‰wyhf nrÄ¡f¥gL»wJ. Ú®k gu¥ãÈUªJ ÑnH h-MH¤âš bkh¤j mG¤j« :


(ii) f«ãÆ‹ bjhl¡f Ús« = L
(i) Ãiyahd Ú®k¤âš A- FW¡Fbt£L gu¥ò
FW¡F bt£L gu¥ò = A bfh©l cUis tot Ú® khâÇia¡
f«ãÆ‹ gUk‹ = AL fUJnth«.
brašgL« Ú£á Éir = F (ii) Ú®k¤â‹ nk‰gu¥ãÈUªJ Ú®khâÇÆ‹
f«ã milí« Ú£á = l nkšk£l« h1 MH¤âY« Ñœk£l« h2
f«ãÆ‹ a§ Fzf« = Y MH¤âY« cŸsJ v‹f.
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244 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
(iii) h1 k‰W« h2 MH¤âš mG¤j§fŸ Kiwna (xiii) bfhL¡f¥g£l âut¤â‰F, ρ k‰W« g kh¿È.
P 1 k‰W« P 2 v‹f. vdnt mG¤jkhdJ Ú®k¤j«g¤â‹ cau«
mšyJ br§F¤J bjhiyî¡F ne®jfÉš
(iv) Ú® khâÇÆ‹ nkšk£l¤âš nkšneh¡»
ïU¡F«. mjhtJ mG¤jkhdJ FW¡F
brašgL« Éir F 1 k‰W« Ñœk£l¤âš
gu¥ò mšyJ mo¥gu¥ò mšyJ tot¤ij
Ñœneh¡» brašgL« Éir F 2 v‹f.
rh®ªjjšy.

m
F2
5. ghŒk§fËš gh°fš Éâia¡ T¿ mjid Ã%ã.
h1 A P1
1
gh°fš ÉâÆ‹ T‰whdJ xU âut¤âš cŸs xU

co
h2
2
FG=mg òŸËÆš mG¤j« kh¿dhš mªj khWghL kâ¥ò
A P1 F1
Fiwahkš âut« KGtj‰F« gu¥g¥gL»wJ

(v) vdnt,

s.
F1 = P1 A F1
A2
F2 = P2 A
Pa 1 A A1 B

ok
(vi) Ú®khâÇÆ‹ Ãiw m - vÅš Ñœneh¡»
F2
brašgL« mj‹ vil Fg= mg
h
(vii) vdnt rkÃiyÆš, o ÚÇaš ö¡»
PF2 = F1 + Fg
Ã%gz« :

P 2 A = P 1 A + mg...(1) (i) gh°fš ÉâÆ‹ xU brašKiw ga‹ghL,
ab
(viii) ÚÇ‹ ml®¤â ρ - vÅš Fiwthd Éiria¡ bfh©L mâf
gSit¤ ö¡f ga‹gL« ÚÇaš ö¡»
m = ρV = ρ A (h2– h1)
(Hydraulic lift) MF«. ïJ xU Éir¥
(ix) ïjid rk‹ghL (1)-š ãuâÆl, bgU¡». ïJ A k‰W« B v‹w x‹Wl‹
x‹W »ilk£l¡ FHhahš ïiz¡f¥g£L
ur

P 2 A = P 1 A + ρ A (h2– h1) g
âut¤jhš Ãu¥g¥g£l ïU cUisfis¡
(or) P 2 = P 1 + ρ (h2– h1) g ...(2) bfh©LŸsJ.
(x) Ú® khâÇÆ‹ nkšk£l« Ú®k¤â‹ (ii) mt‰¿DŸ A1 k‰W« A2 (A2 > A1)
.s

nk‰gu¥ãY«, Ñœk£l« h MH¤âY« FW¡Fbt£L¥gu¥òfŸ bfh©l cuhŒt‰w


fUâdhš, h1= 0 k‰W« h2= h MF«. ã°l‹fŸ bghU¤j¥g£LŸsd. á¿a
ã°lÅ‹ ÛJ Ñœ neh¡»a Éir
(xi) nkY« P 1 = P a (fh‰wG¤j«) k‰W« P 2 = P F brY¤j¥gLtjh¡ bfh©lhš ïªj
w

(v‹f). vdnt rk‹ghL (2) MdJ ã°lD¡F Ñœ cŸs âut¤â‹ mG¤j«


P = Pa + ρ (0 – h)g  F  F1 A 2
 where, p = 1 
ï§F
w

P = Pa + ρ h g ...(3)
P A1 A1
A1  v‹w kâ¥ã‰F

ï§F,Pa = 1.013 × 105 → fh‰wG¤j« mâfÇ¡»wJ.


(iii) Mdhš gh°fš Éâ¥go, ïªj mâfÇ¡f¥g£l
w

(xii) vdnt, h MH¤âš cŸs mG¤j«, ÚÇ‹


mG¤j« P mid¤J âirfËY« kâ¥ò
gu¥ãš cŸs mG¤j¤ijÉl (mjhtJ Fiwahkš gu¥g¥gL»wJ. vdnt ã°l‹
fh‰wG¤j¤ij Él) mâfkhF«. B - ï‹ ÛJ xU mG¤j« brY¤j¥gL»wJ.
fh‰wG¤j¤ij òw¡f¤jhš, ã°l‹ B - ï‹ ÛJ nkšneh¡»a Éir
P = ρ g h ...(4)   F1  F1 AF21  F1 A 2
where, =p P=×where
 F A = , p =× A ⇒ F =
A1 2 A1 AA112 A21 A1
2
× F1

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 245

(iv) vdnt á¿a ã°l‹ A-ï‹ ÛJ cŸs bghUË‹ Ñœòw¤âš brašgL« nkš gu¥ò Éir
Éiria kh‰Wtj‹ _y« ã°l‹ B-ï‹ (Thrust) (nkšneh¡»a br§F¤J ÃiyÆš)
 F1  F1 A 2
 where, p=
ÛJŸs ÉirahdJ v‹w fhuÂÆ‹ F2 = P2a = a(x + h)ρg
A1  A1 A1 F2 > F1 ïU¥gjhš Ãfu gu¥ò Éir nkšneh¡»a
msî¡F ca®¤j¥g£LŸsJ. ïªj fhu âirÆš brašgL«. ïJ nkšneh¡F gu¥ò Éir

m
ÚÇaš ö¡»Æ‹ ïaªâu ïyhg« vd¥gL«. vd¥gL« U v‹W F¿¥ãl¥gL«.
6. M®¡»Äo° j¤Jt¤ij¡ T¿ mjid Ã%ã. ∴ U = F2 - F1 = a (x + h) ρg - axρg
bghUbsh‹W xU ghŒk¤âš gFâahfnth U = ahρg

co
mšyJ KGtJkhfnth _œ»ÆUªjhš mJ ïl« ah = V  (bghUË‹ gUk‹)
bgau¢ brŒj ghŒk¤â‹ vil¡F rkkhd nkš
∴ U = Vρg
neh¡»a cªJ Éiria mJ cz®»wJ k‰W«
cªJ ÉirahdJ ïl« bga®ªj âut <®¥ò ika« bghUË‹ br§F¤J¥ g¡f§fËš brašgL«
ÉirfŸ x‹iwbah‹W <Lf£o¡bfhŸS«.

s.
tÊahf brašgL»wJ.
∴ bghUË‹ ÛJ ïUÉirfŸ k£L« brašgL«.
cªJ Éir (m) Äj¥ò Éir = ïl« bga®ªj
âut¤â‹ vil. (i) vil w1 = mg Ñœ neh¡» F¤jhf brašgL«.

ok
xU bghUË‹ vilÆš njh‰w ïH¥ò = w1- w2= Ú®k¤jhš nkšneh¡F¥ gu¥òÉir Vρg
(ii) 
bghUshš ïl«bgau¢ brŒj Ú®k¤â‹ vil nkšneh¡» F¤jhf brašgL«.
u = vpg ∴ bghUË‹ njh‰w vil w2- Vρg = w1- Vρg
u = vpg w1- w2 = Vρg
o U bghUË‹ gUk‹ mjhtJ ïl« bga®¤j
Ú®k¤â‹ gUk‹.
ab
Vp v‹gJ Ãiw g v‹gJ ïl« bga®ªj Ú®k¤â‹
vil.
vdnt, xU Ú®k¤âš xU bghUŸ _œ»ÆU¡F«
nghJ mj‹ vil ïl«bga®ªj Ú®k¤â‹
ur

vil¡F« rkkhf¤ njh‹W«.


mg
Ã%gz«: ï¡bfhŸifia Ã%ã¡f xU bghUË‹ 7. °nlh¡ Éâia¥ ga‹gL¤â mâf ghFÃiy
cau« h, mJ s ml®¤âíŸs Ú®k¤â‹ gu¥ã‰F bfh©l âut¤âš ïa§F« nfhs¤â‹
.s

ÑnH x MH¤âš cŸsJ. 'a' v‹gJ bghUË‹ K‰W¤âirntf¤â‰fhd rk‹gh£il¤ jUÉ.


Kf¥ gu¥ò ïil k£l¤J¡F ïizahf cŸsJ. K‰W¤âirntf¤â‰fhd rk‹ghL:
vil (i) 
nfhs« x‹W mâf ghFÃiy âut« jhdhf
w

ÉGtjhf bfhŸnth«.
(ii)  nfhs¤â‹ Mu« =r
F1 nfhs¤â‹ ml®¤â = ρ
w

rx gu¥ò =a âut¤â‹ ml®¤â =σ


âut¤â‹ gh»aš v© = η
h
K‰W âirntf« = vt
w

F2 (iii) nfhs¤â‹ ÛJ Ñœneh¡» brašgL«


òÉÆ®¥ò Éir,
bghUË‹ nk‰g¡f¤âš mG¤j« p1= xρg Fg = mg = ρ V g = ρ 4 πr3 g
bghUË‹ Ñœg¡f¤âš mG¤j« p2= (x + h)ρg 3
(iv) nfhs¤jhš ïl¥bga®¢á brŒa¥g£l
bghUË‹ nk‰òw¤âš nkš gu¥ò Éir (Thrust) âut¤jhš nkšneh¡» brašgL« cªJÉir,
(Ñœneh¡»a br§F¤J ÃiyÆš)
F1 = P1a = axρg U = m′g = σ V g = σ 4 πr3 g
3

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246 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
(v) K‰W âirntf¤âš nkšneh¡»a ghFÃiy (iv) FHhÆ‹ vªj FW¡F¥gu¥ãY« mG¤j«
Éir, Óuhf ïU¡f nt©L«.
F = 6 π η r vt »ilk£lkhf cŸs E©FHhÆ‹ tÊna xU
âut« Óuhf ghŒtjhf¡ fUJf. E©FHhÆÈUªJ
xU behoÆš btËnaW« âut¤â‹ gUk‹

m
c
V   P  P
v =   vd¡
 t   l   l 
U F bfhŸf. mJ (m) âut¤â‹ gh»aš
v© dP (η), (M) FHhÆ‹ 1 4Mu« (r), k‰W« (ï)
   P  π πrc P

co
 dx V   l P  8  P 8ηl
mG¤j¢rÇî    M»at‰iw¢   rh®ªjJ. ï§F
W
t l l
k v‹gJ xU gÇkhzk‰w 1 kh¿È.
4
vdnt
xU ghFÃiy âut¤âš ÉG«  dP   P  π πr Pc
nfhs¤â‹ ÛJ brašgL« Éir  dx   V l   P8a b 8Pηl

s.
 v ∝ ηr  
(vi) vdnt rkÃiyÆš, t l l
1 c
Fg = U + F VdP   PP   P π  πr 4 P
  v = kη r   a b

ok
...(1)
(or) Fg – U = F  tdx  cl l  8l 8 ηl
 V   gUk‹ P  P 1 4
ρ 4 πr3 g – σ 4 πr3 g = 6 π η r vt  [v] =  dP  3TP-1 ], π πr P
 = [L
t lneu« l
 dx   l  8
3 3 8 ηl
4 πr3 (ρ – σ) g = 6 π η r v 1 4
t  dP  mG¤j«P  π πr P-2 -2
3
vt =
o
3
4 πr (ρ − s ) g

 dx  =bjhiyî
l 8
= [ML T ], [η] = [ML-1T-1]
8 ηl

3 6π η r k‰W« [r] = [L]
ab
2 r 2 (ρ − s ) g
v = rk‹ghL ïš ãuâÆl
t
9 η
(vii) vdnt, vt ∝ r2 [L3T-1] = [ML-1T-1]a [L]b [ML-2T-2]c
(viii) ï§F ρ > σ v‹gjhš (ρ – σ) kâ¥ò ne®F¿ M0L3T-1 = M a+cL−a+b−2c T−a−2c
ur

kâ¥ghf mikí«. vdnt K‰W âirntf«


vdnt M, L k‰W« T ï‹ mL¡Ffis ïUòwK«
ne®F¿ah»wJ. ïjdhš, nfhs« âut¤â‹ rk¥gL¤j
tÊna Ñœneh¡» ïa§F«.
a + b = 0, −a + b −2c =3, k‰W« −a −2c = −1
(ix) khwhf ρ > σ vÅš (ρ – σ) kâ¥ò vâ®F¿
.s

a, b, k‰W« c M»a bjÇahj kâ¥òfŸ cŸsd.


kâ¥ghf mikí«. vdnt K‰W âirntf« _‹W rk‹ghLfis¤ Ô®î fhz eh« cbgWtJ
vâ®F¿ahF«. ïjdhšjh‹ âut¤âš cŸs V   P  P
a = −1, b = 4, k‰W«  c = 1 vdnt
  
fh‰W FÄœfŸ nkšneh¡» vG»wJ. t l   lrk‹ghL (1)
w

MdJ. 1c
8. xU FHhÆ‹ tÊna tÇ¢Ó® x£l¤âš xU  V   dP P PP π πr 4 P
 v=kη -1  4  
ÉdhoÆš ghí« âut¤â‹ gUkD¡fhd ghŒbrhŒ t  dxl r  ll  8 8 ηl
rk‹gh£il¤ jUÉ.
w

c
ghŒbrhŒ E©FHhŒ tÊahf xU behoÆš ghí« V P P
    dP  P  π πr P 1 4
   _y«   ï‹ 
nrhjid l  kdxl  kâ¥ò  vd fhz¥g£lJ.

âut¤â‹ gUkD¡fhd rk‹gh£il¤ jUÉ¡f t l 8 8 ηl
Ñœ¡fhQ« Ãgªjidfis¡ fU¤âš bfhŸs vdnt, 1 4
 dP   P  π πr P
w

nt©L«.
(i) FHhÆ‹ tÊna âut¤â‹ X£l« tÇ¢Ó®
  l  8v = 8ηl 
 dx ...(2)
X£lkhf ïU¡f nt©L«. nk‰f©l rk‹ghL FW»a FHhŒ mšyJ
(ii) FHhŒ »ilk£lkhf òÉ<®¥òÉir Ú®k E©FHhŒ tÊna bršY« Ú®k X£l¤â‰nf
X£l¤ij¥ ghâ¡fhjthW ïU¡f nt©L«. bghUªJ«. ï¢rk‹ghL ghŒbrhŒ rk‹ghL
(iii) FHhÆ‹ Rtiu¤ bjhL« Ú®k VL XŒÉš vd¥gL«.
ïU¡f nt©L«.

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P1
RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 247

9. 1. âut¤JË 2. âut¡FÄÊ 3. fh‰W¡FÄÊ 2. âut FÄÊÆDŸP2ÄifaG¤j«:


A

M»at‰¿‹ cŸns ÄifaG¤j¤â‰fhd


nfhitia¤ jUÉ. (i) R - MuK« T - gu¥ò ïGÉirí« bfh©l
P2
xU nrh¥ò FÄÊia fUJnth«.
JË k‰W« FÄÊÆDŸ ÄifaG¤j«: (ii) nrh¥ò FÄÊ¡F c£òw« k‰W«
(i) Ú®k¤JËfS«, áW FÄÊfS« gu¥ò btË¥òw« vd fh‰Wl‹ bjhL« ïU

m
ïGÉirÆ‹ fhuzkhfnt nfhs toit gu¥òfŸ cŸsd.
bgW»‹wd. (iii) vdnt gu¥ò ïGÉirahš ïu©L
(ii) JËfS«, FÄÊfS« Fɪj nk‰gu¥ig gu¥òfËY« Éir brašgL«.

co
bg‰WŸsjhš, mt‰¿DŸ mG¤j« btË (iv) miu nfhs tot nrh¥ò FÄÊÆš
mG¤j¤ij Él mâfkhF«. brašgL« ÉirfŸ,
P1
1. âut JËÆDŸ ÄifaG¤j«: (2 R)

(i) R - MuK« PT2A - gu¥ò ïGÉirí«

s.
bfh©l xU âut JËia fUJnth«.
( R2 ) P
(ii) miunfhs tot
P2 âut JËÆš brašgL«
ÉirfŸ.

ok
(iii) gu¥ò ïGÉirahš ty¥òwkhf
brašgL« Éir FT = 2πRT. Ú®k¤JË
(iv) btË¥òw mG¤j« P1 -Mš ty¥òwkhf
brašgL« Éir F P = P 1 πR 2
o (v)
gu¥ò ïGÉirahš ty¥òwkhf
1 brašgL« Éir FT = 2(2πRT)
(v) c£òw mG¤j« P2 Mš ïl¥òwkhf
brašgL« Éir F P = P 2 πR 2 (iv) btË¥òw mG¤j« P1 -Mš ty¥òwkhf
ab
2 brašgL« Éir F P = P 1 πR 2
(2 R) 1
(v) c£òw mG¤j« P2 Mš ïl¥òwkhf
brašgL« Éir F P = P 2 πR 2
2

( R2 ) P

(vi) âut¤JË rkÃiyÆš cŸsjhš,
ur

F T + FP = F P
1 2
2(2πRT) +P1 πR2 = P2πR2
(or) P2πR2 – P1πR2 = 4πRT
.s

Ú®k¤JË
(vi) âut¤JË rkÃiyÆš cŸsjhš, (or) (P2 – P1 ) πR2 = 4πRT
F T + FP = F P 4πRT
w

1 2 (or) (P2 – P1 ) =
πR 2
2πRT +P1πR2 = P2πR2
4T
(or) (P2 – P1 ) =
(or) P2πR2 – P1πR2 = 2πRT R
w

(or) (P2 – P1 ) πR2 = 2πRT (vii) ï§F (P2 – P1 ) = ΔP v‹gJ ÄifaG¤j«


MF«. vdnt,
2πRT
(or) (P2 – P1 ) = 4T
πR 2 ΔP =
w

R
2T 3. fh‰W FÄÊÆDŸ ÄifaG¤j«:
(or) (P2 – P1 ) =
R (i) R - Mu« bfh©l fh‰W¡ FÄÊ x‹W
(vii) ï§F (P2 – P1 ) = ΔP v‹gJ ÄifaG¤j« T - gu¥ò ïGÉir bfh©l Ú®k¤âš
MF«. vdnt, cŸsjhf fUnjnth«.
2T (ii) miunfhs tot fh‰W¡ FÄÊÆš
ΔP = brašgL« ÉirfŸ.
R

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248 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
(iii)
gu¥ò ïGÉirahš ty¥òwkhf (ii) E©òiH na‰w¤â‰F« gu¥ò ïGÉir¡F«
brašgL« Éir FT = 2 πRT (T) cŸs bjhl®ig¥ bgw E©òiH¡ FHhŒ
(iv) btË¥òw mG¤j« P1 -Mš ty¥òwkhf x‹W bfhŸfyÅYŸs ÚÇš mÄœ¤â
brašgL« Éir F P = P 1 πR 2 it¤âU¥gjh¡ fUJf. E©òiH¡ FHhÆš
1
(v) c£òw mG¤j« P2 Mš ïl¥òwkhf ÚuhdJ gu¥ò ïGÉirÆ‹ fhuzkhf

m
brašgL« Éir F P = P 2 πR 2 h cau¤â‰F nknyW»wJ.
2
(iii) gu¥ò ïGÉirÆ‹ fhuzkhf V‰gL«
(2 R)
Éir FT MdJ bjhL«òŸËÆš

co
bjhLnfh£o‹ tÊna Ñœneh¡»í«, mj‹
vâ®Éir nkšneh¡»í« brašgL»‹wd.
fh‰W¡ gu¥ò ïGÉir T MdJ ïUTWfshf¥
FÄÊ ( R2 ) P
P2
ãÇ¡f¥gL»wJ.

s.
1. »il¤js¡ TW T sinθ¸ k‰W«
2. br§F¤J¡TW T cosθ¸ ãiw¤js¤â‹

ok
(vi) âut¤JË rkÃiyÆš cŸsjhš, R‰wsî KGtJ« nkšneh¡»
FT + FP = FP
brašgL»wJ.
1 2
2 πRT +P1πR2 = P2πR2 bkh¤j nkšneh¡»a Éir

(or) P2πR2 – P1πR2 = 2πRT


o = (T cosθ) (2πr) = 2πrT cosθ
(or) (P2 – P1 ) πR2 = 2πRT
(iv) ï§F ¸ θ v‹gJ nr®nfhz«, r v‹gJ
ab
2πRT
(or) (P2 – P1 ) = FHhÆ‹ MukhF«. ρ v‹gJ ÚÇ‹ ml®¤â
πR 2 k‰W« h v‹gJ FHhÆš Ú® nknyW« cau«
2T vÅš
(or) (P2 – P1 ) = c c
c r MuK« ch cauK«
R
P  P  V   VP
FHhÆš Ú®k¤
P  V P  P  P  V  P 
ur


    t    l l  t l l  l  t  l 
(vii) ï§F (P2 – P1 ) = ΔP v‹gJ ÄifaG¤j« j«g¤â‹ = cila Ú®k¤ j«g¤â‹
MF«. vdnt,
2T
l l
fdmsî v t
fd msî

ΔP = c c
P 4 rπPP V P P V
Pd π
1
   
1 1h cauK«
 PπÚ®k¤   
1
P dP dPπP j«g¤â‹ P
π rP 4
P πr
.s

R 4 r MuK«
10. E©òiH EiHî v‹whš v‹d? E©òiHna‰w P rπ π  dcila
     
  dx  fdmsî
 +
l8 dx

-
  8η
l
 
KiwÆš Ú®k« x‹¿‹ gu¥ò ïGÉir¡fhd
nfhitia¤ jUÉ. lη 8 8 l lη8xdlmiu¡nfhs¤â‹
t  ll  fdmsî
8
r lMuKila
 tld  8
xl 8η
w

E©òiH EiHî : xU ne®F¤jhd FHhÆš


4 1 1
P rπ πdP  P P   Pπd  πr P
4
Ú®k« nknyWtJ mšyJ ÑÊw§FtJ E©òiH T cos T cos

EiHî mšyJ E©òiH¢ brašghL vd¥gL«.


w

8dx  l l   x8d  8ηl


N=T N=T
E©òiH¡ FHhÆ‹ É£l¤ij¥ bghW¤J
Ú®k« khWg£l cau§fS¡F nknyW« mšyJ
ÑÊw§F«.
lη 8 T sin
A
r
B
T sin
w

C
T T
E©òiHna‰w KiwÆš gu¥ò ïGÉiria¡ h

fhzš :
(i) âutK«, fh‰W« rªâ¡FÄl¤âš cŸs
tisªj gu¥ã‹ ÛJ V‰gL« mG¤j
ntWghnl âutkhdJ E©òiH¡ FHhÆš
gu¥ò ïGÉirÆdhš E©òiHna‰w«
nknyWtj‰F¡ fhuzkhf mik»wJ.

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 249

 2  1
V = πr2h +  πr 2 × r − πr 3  ⇒ V a2

 3  3 V1 V2

 2 2 3 1 1 
 π r × r − = πr πr2h+ πr3 
r  h + r  ρg
a1
 3 1
A B
3    2 3 3  1 rρgh
h +  πrr2 × rÚÇ‹
Óu‰w FW¡Fbt£L¥ gu¥òila xU FHhÆ‹
(v) nkšneh¡»aÉirahdJ − nk‰gu¥ã‰F
π r
1  tÊna bršY« ghŒk¤â‹ tÇ¢Ó® X£l«
nkny r FHhÆš 

m
h +  r  ρ3V¿íŸs
g cos θ 3 2 cos θ
23Ú®k¤j«g¤â‹
 1vilia¢
  rk‹ 32TbrŒ»wJ.
cos θ 1rρvdnt, gh (ii) Δt v‹w fhy msÉš A v‹w gFâÆ‹
 h + r   1 
3 2 cos2θrρg 2 cos θr  h + r  ρg tÊna bršY« Ú®k¤â‹ Ãiw m1 vÅš
 2
π r × r − π r 3  11r   3  rρgh
h + r

co
2 T cos2πrTθ 1cosθ = πr 
3   33  ρg 2 cos θ
2
2 cos θ
m1 = (a1v1Δt) ρ
rρg r Δt v‹w fhy msÉš B v‹w gFâÆ‹
2T cos 1 θ 1
r h + r ρg tÊna bršY« Ú®k¤â‹ Ãiw m2 vÅš,
⇒ 1 =  rρ3g  r rρgh
 h + r  2 = (a 2v 2Δt) ρ
T m
3 2 cos θ 2 cos θ

s.
mK¡f ïayhj Ú®k¤âš Ãiw khwhJ
(vi) E©òiH¡ 2T cos θ FiHahdJ
1 Äf E©Âajhf
 2 2 r 3Mu« r1ρgbfh©oU¥ã‹ (Äf¡ Fiwthd m1= m2
r
 πr × r − πMu«) r  cau« h cl‹ x¥ãl r MdJ (a1v1Δt) ρ = (a2v2Δt) ρ

ok
3  3 3 1
òw¡f¡f¤j¡fJ.πrvdnt  2  2 32 3 1 a1v1= a2v2 ⇒ av = kh¿È
1   πrr− ×3 rπr−  πr3 
× 2
 
r  h + r  ρg 3 3
 1   3  rρgh (iii) ïJnt bjhl®kh¿È¢ rk‹ghL vd¥gL«.
 h + r  T=  1  1  ïJ, ghí« ghŒk§fË‹ ÃiwahdJ
3 2 cos θ 2 cos θ r  h +r  hr +ρgr  ρg
2T cos θ 1 h cau¤âW¡ nknyW«nghJ

o 1  1 
 h +  hr + r 
3  3  rρgh rρghkhwhkš ïU¥gij¡ fh£L»wJ. bghJthf av
3 3  2 cos θ2 cos θ 2 cos θ2 cos θ= kh¿È, ïj‹ bghUŸ FW¡F bt£L¥ gu¥ò
rρg r
ab
Fiwthf ïU¥ã‹ ghŒk¤â‹ âirntf«
2T cos2Tθ cos 1θ 1
h= ⇒h∝ mâfkhf ïU¡F«.
rρg rρgr r
12. mK¡f ïayhj, ghFÃiya‰w ghŒk« x‹W
(vii) E©òiH V‰wkhdJ (h) FHhÆ‹ tÇ¢Ó® X£l¤âš brštj‰fhd bg®bdsÈÆ‹
Mu¤â‰F (r) v⮤jfÉš cŸsJ v‹gij nj‰w¤ij¡ T¿ mjid Ã%ã. 
ur

[HY-2018]
ïJ F¿¡»wJ. FHhÆ‹ Mu« Fiwa bg®bdsÈÆ‹ nj‰w« : bg®bssÈÆ‹
E©òiHna‰w« mâfkhF«. nj‰w¤â‹go tÇ¢Ó® X£l¤âš cŸs mK¡f
ïayhj, ghFÃiya‰w, XuyF ÃiwíŸs
.s

11. Ãiw khwh ÃiyÆ‹ mo¥gilÆš ghŒk« x‹¿‹


l F LjUÉ. YAl Ú®k¤â‹ mG¤j M‰wš, ïa¡f M‰wš k‰W«
∫0 A × ltÊna
X£l¤â‰fhd bjhl® kh¿È¢ rk‹gh£il¤ ⇒F=
L Ãiyah‰wš M»at‰¿‹ T£L¤bjhif
bjhl®kh¿È¢ rk‹ghL : xU FHhÆ‹
l kh¿ÈahF«. fÂjKiw¥go
w

bršY« Ú®k ÃiwÆ‹ åj¤ij YAl'm¿a l' 2  Ú®k«


YAl 2  YAlP 1
ghŒtJ Óuhf ïU¥gjh¡ fUjnt©L«.
L  2  Ú®k«L2  L ρ + 2 v2 + gh = kh¿È
0
ghŒtJ Óuhf ïU¡f nt©LbkÅš ghí« ïJnt bg®bdsÈÆ‹ rk‹ghlhF«.
w

Ú®k¤â‹ x›bthU òŸËÆY« âirntfkhdJ Ã%ã¤jš : AB v‹w FHhÆ‹ tÊahf Ú®k«


neu¤ij¥ bghW¤J kh¿Èahf mika nt©L«. ghŒtjh¡ bfhŸnth«. ï§F V v‹gJ Kid
ïªj ÃgªjidÆš Ú®k¤â‹ X£lkhdJ tÇ¢Ó®
A tÊahf t fhy¤âš EiHí« Ú®k¤â‹
w

X£lkhf mikí«.
gUk‹ vÅš, Kid B tÊahf mnj fhy¤âš
(i) Óu‰w FW¡F bt£L¥gu¥ò a1 k‰W« a2 btËnaW« Ú®k¤â‹ gUkD« V MF«.
mjhtJ a1 > a2 bfh©l AB v‹w FHhia¡
fUJf. ghFÃiya‰w mK¡f ïayhj aA, vA k‰W« PA v‹git Aš Kiwna FHhÆ‹
Ú®k« Óuhf v1 k‰W« v2 v‹w âirntf¤âš FW¡Fbt£L¥gu¥ò, Ú®k âirntf« k‰W« Ú®k
Kiwna a1 k‰W« a2 gu¥òfŸ tÊna mG¤j« vd¡ bfhŸf.
ghŒªJ brš»wJ.

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250 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
PPAVABV PP ïš AV P
V P P
AA =PAA FW¡Fbt£L¥ gu¥ò, Ú®k
FHhƋ
A A
=
m ρρÚ®k mG¤jk v‹f.
aA VVâirntf« mm mk‰W«
B ïš bkh¤j VV M‰wš
 mm  11 mv2 2 PP B B 1 mv
1 22
h1
B
 
  m  2B A
E mv = A
m + mvB B + mg hB
aB
m P2V P Vρρ P22 P

m
h2 A
P 22
v
A A
= A
11 vM‰wš P v m
vA2 A V m ρ
2 khwh ÉâÆÈUªJ
2 2 ρ ρg g g g V
AB v‹w FHhÆ‹ tÊna ghí« Ú®k« PP AVAV PP AVAV PP AAE= PPA
A =A EB
=
V Pm mm  ρρ1 2 PB 1 2
mP
A ïš cŸs Ú®k« brašgL¤J« Éir PAV VPAV m

co
A
m A +
=  mvA + mghA mvB
V m mP V P VVV
ρm PP P V
VP V V2P P V
PPVV P PAρPP 2P PAP
A A PAAAA PAAAA== AA
A A A
FA = PAaA
m 1
A A
P
A
1 = = =
 
 m  1 mv V V 1PBV 2BVm
V 1P m m
mm m
v2 ρmρ ρρρ
2
m
  PAVmvV=PA2P AVV v m
2 2
mv mv
t fhy msÉš Ú®k« flªj bjhiyî  AP P+AV2 PA B B +Pmgh
m 2 m A 1ρ
m  1
  m 22 B 2 ρ 2ρ P A A
2=gV Vg = V VVA
B
  mv V V m mv m
m m
ρ ρ

s.
  112 2 PP m A
v2Am 21m
B
1 2 1121mv P2 2 P P1BP 111 mv22 2
PAVm P Vv2 PA  vρP m
d = vA t 2
mV PmvB 2B 1 B B 2 2 mv
Av
+   
mv mv
A+
V mv mv mv mvB B
= P
vρρ2gg m AV
gm  mm AV
P PAAρA= Pρ ρ B+22B2 B + ghB= kh¿È.
A A
vdnt brŒa¥g£l ntiy
V1 v 2 2m
A
2PA m gρ 2 m 2 22A2ghρ = 2 ρ
2
A
 m   1mV 21 m PB 2 m 1PB2 2 2 1 2
mv mv 2P vmv v2 B ρ mvBï›thW« vGjyh«.
A
W = FAd = PAaAvA t 2 ρg Vg 1nkny  1 1 2P
1 1 P vP v

ok
2 2 PcŸs v
A
m v2m v 2
v 2 vAvAA ρg V g 2
2 2 2 ρ A
2 ρ
rk‹gh£il
 m  1 2 PB2 2A1 Aρ
Mdhš aAvA t = aAd = V, A ïš EiHí« Ú®k¤â‹ 2v2g2ρ2 g gρ2g ρgg gg
gUkdhF«. vdnt brŒa¥g£l ntiyahdJ   mvA1 2 1Pm mv
2  P B1 v 2 P 1 2
m 2 vAρ v2A + mvA+ hB= kh¿È mvB
Aïš mG¤j M‰wyhf ïU¡F«. 2 2ρ g m  g ρ g2 g ρ 2
1 2 P v 2 nkny
vA 1 2 PcŸs v 2 rk‹ghlhdJ M‰wš khwh
W = FAd = PAV
2
o
ρg g ÉâÆ‹
2
vA ÉisthF«. Ú®k¤â‹ VLfŸ bt›ntW
ρg g
A ïš XuyF gUkD¡fhd mG¤j M‰wš âirntf§fËš brštjhš mt‰¿‰»ilna
ab
mG¤j M‰wš PAV PAV PA PA V‰gL«PAV PcuhŒî
P VV P PAAVÉirÆdhš
PA PA M‰wš ïH¥ò
A= gUk‹ = V = PmA m = ρ cUth»wJ. vdnt= bg®bdsÈ
A A
= bjhl®ghdJ,
V V m mm m
ρ ρ
A ïš XuyF Ãiw¡fhd mG¤j M‰wš = V RÊ ghFÃiyíŸs mšyJ ghFÃiya‰w

PAV k£LnkVP V VP bghUªJ«. P
mG¤j M‰wš PAPVAV P mAPV AV 1PAPA 2=PAPPAB 1 2 Ú®k§fS¡F m 1
A
P 1
A
= 2 1A FHhŒ
F¿¥ghf
=    m  1 P
Ãiw V V  mmm 2mmv mvB
ur

A= m A ρρ Ú®kkhdJ »il¤js¡
mB 2 mmv tÊna
   Vmv ρ 2
= = 2
A mvA B mvB
B
ρ 2 
m  2m  2 ρ V
btËna¿dhš 2ρ 2
PAV PAV PVAV 2PA
ï§F m v‹gJ bfhL¡f¥g£l 1 neu¤âš P =vA ïš 1 2 1Pm v2 2
PB 1 2
 Vmm   1vmA21 2 m2 PBPBρ1 1 2 2 2  P1 v 2
EiHí« Ú®k¤â‹ Ãiw.vdnt   2 Amv mv
ïšρ g g
Ú®k¤â‹ mvB v
⇒ v A + mv A = kh¿È.mvB
mv h =
2
o A
2ρgm  gρg2 g ρ 2
.s

 2 2 AV ρ ρ 2 2 B
A
mG¤j M‰wš  mm
PAV P1Am V12 2PA1Pmv 22v PB 1 2 13. bt‹RÇkhÅÆ‹ 1 2 P mik¥ò v2
PP 2 k‰W« brašgh£il

EPA = PAV = PAV ×  mv vA =2 m  = vA
A mv B ÉtÇ. FHhÆ‹ v mfykhd EiHî¥ gFâÆš
2A mρgρg ρg g ρ 2
A
V m
2 2 ρgghí«g Ú®k¤â‹ gUkD¡fhd
w

xU ÉdhoÆš
A ïš Ú®k¤â‹ Ãiyah‰wš
1 2 VP v 2 nfhitia¤ jUÉ.
P V P V P P vA
A  mA  12A 2 ρP gB g1 2 bt‹RÇkhÅ :
 m = ρmvA
PEA A = mgh A mvB
V m m fhuzkhf
2 ρ 2
w

A ïš Ú®k X£l¤â‹ Ú®k¤â‹ ïa¡f (i) ï¡fUÉahdJ, xU FHhÆ‹ tÊna bršY«


M‰wš V 2 mK¡f ïayhj Ú®k«ghí« åj¤ij (mšyJ
1 2 P v
 m  1 2vA PB 1 2 ghí« ntf«) msÉl cjî»wJ. ïJ
 A =
KE mv2A ρg mv g B bg®bdsÈÆ‹ nj‰w¤â‹ mo¥gilÆš
w

m 2P V P ρV P2 PA brašgL»wJ.
2X£l¤âdhš=bkh¤j M‰wš
A A A
vdnt1A ïš PÚ®k v m
vA2 V m ρ
E2A = EPρAg+ KE g A + PEAV (ii) ïJ A k‰W« A' v‹w ïU mf‹w FHhŒfis¡
bfh©LŸsJ. (FW¡F bt£L¥ gu¥ò A) mit
PAV EPAV PA= m PAm + 1 mv 2 +Pmg B 1 2
hAmvB B v‹w FWfyhd (FW¡F bt£L¥gu¥ò a)
=   A
V m
A
m m
ρ 2 ρ 2 FHhŒ _y« ïiz¡f¥g£LŸsd. U tot
ïnjnghš V aB1, v2 Bk‰W« P v PB v‹git Kiwna
2 mG¤jkhÅahdJ ï›ÉU mf‹w k‰W«
v
 m  1 2 PB 2 1A ρ2 g g
mv
 orders@surabooks.com
A mvB PH: 9600175757 / 8124201000 / 8124301000
m 2 ρ 2
2
This is only for Sample Materials A v12 v22 1  A 
2

 v1
for Full Book order online and available at all Leading Bookstores
a 2 2 2 a 
RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ (A 2 − a2 2 ) 2 2( ∆P)a 2 251 2
A 2v1 v2 12  A 2 
a ρ(A − a v)1 
FWfyhd FHhŒfS¡»ilna cŸsthW a 2 2 2 a 
2
ïiz¡f¥g£LŸsJ. mG¤jkhÅÆš V = Av1 −2Pa)2a) 2 2( ∆P)a 2
= A (A22( ∆
cŸsâut¤â‹ ml®¤â 'ρm'. ρ(A a 2 − a )ρ(A 2 − a 2 )

A A'
2( ∆P )a 2
= aA
ρ(A 2 − a 2 )

m
B
A
a 2

IV. gƉᡠfz¡FfŸ


1

1. d mm É£l« bfh©l xU E©òiH¡FHhŒ

co
h
ÚuhdJ 30mm cau¤â‰F nknyWkhW ÚÇDŸ
mÄœ¤j¥g£LŸsJ. òâa E©FHhÆ‹ Mu«
M PM 1 h1r1 ïUªjhš
Kªija kâ¥ãš  2  g§fhf d 2  d òâa
   
3 r r2 2 3  2

s.
bt‹RÇkhÅÆ‹ És¡f¥gl«
E©FHhÆš Ú® nknyW« dcau¤ij¡ fz¡»Lf.
(iii) A ïš cŸs mfykhd gFâÆYŸs 30 ×
ghŒk¤â‹ mG¤j« P1 v‹f. `ρ' ml®  2  1 h1r1 d 2  d  2
Ô®î:  h ∞ ⇒ hr = xU kh¿È
 3  r r2 2 3 2 2d 

ok
¤âíl‹ `v1' âirntf¤âš ghŒk«  
FHhÆDŸns ghŒtjhš FWfyhd gFâÆš
h1 r1d= h2 r2 3  2
= kh¿È
30 ×
mj‹ ntf« `v2' vd mâfÇ¡»wJ vd¡
2 h 2  1= h1r1 d 2  d 
fUJf. bg®bdsÈÆ‹ nj‰w¥go ïªj ntf 2d 23  r r2 2 3  2 
  ca®î h1 = 30mm
mâfÇ¥ghdJ B ïš cŸs FW»a gFâÆš
o 3Ú®k£l
2
30 ×
d
 2  1 h1r1 d 2  d 
ghŒk¤â‹ mG¤jkhd P2 it¡ Fiw¡»wJ. 2  Mu«
E©òiH¡FHhÆ‹
  r1 = mm 
ab
vdnt A¡F«, B¡F« ïilna cŸs mG¤j 2d 3 r r 2 3 2
 2  1 2 h1r1 d 2  d 
ntWghlhdJ (ΔP = P1-P2) mG¤jkhÅÆš   2  1 dh1r1 d 2  d   
E©òiHÆ‹ 3  2òâa
 30 Mu«  3 r r =r  2 mm
3  2
cŸs âut¤â‹ cau ntWgh£lhš
3 r× 2 r2 2 2 23  2 
d
msÉl¥gL»wJ. 2d d30 ×
30 ×   2
ur

bjhl®kh¿È¢ rk‹gh£o‹go Av1 = av2 h2 3=2 22 d = 45mm


A v12 v22 1  A 
2  
2d  
mjhtJ v2 = v1  v1    3  2
a 2 2 2 a  3  2
h2
= 45mm
.s

2
bg®bdsÈÆ‹ − a 2 ) 2( ∆ga‹gL¤j
(Ark‹gh£il¥ P)a 2
A v12 A v22 v 2 A
2
1a vA
2
2v ρv( A 1
2 2 2 2
− a2 A) 
2 2. 15.2m ÚsK«, 4cm É£lK« bfh©l xU cUis
2 v1  A 
= P + ρ  =12P2 + ρv1  v1 
1 2
P1 + ρ 1 xU KidÆš bghU¤j¥g£LŸsJ. 4×105N
a 2 a 22 2 22a( ∆2P a2)a2 2a 2 a
w

2 2 bjhLtiu Éir kWKidÆš brY¤j¥gL»wJ.


2 2 2
2a(A
(A − a(A) −rk‹gh£oÈUªJ
ρ ∆ 2 A 2 2v1
2 P )−aa ) 2v2(22∆P1)a2A  cUisÆ‹ Éiw¥ò¡Fzf« 6×1010 Nm-2 vÅš
nk‰f©l ) 2( ∆P)a mG¤j v1
a2a 2 ) 22 ρ(2A 2 2 2 a  cUis KW¡f¥g£l nfhz¤ij¡ fz¡»Lf.
a2
ntWghlhdJ ρ2( A 2 − a 2 2 − a2 )
a 2 ρ2(2A A−2 a v)1 2v2 12  A  2
A v1 (A v2 −1a )A 2( ∆P)a  vÔ®î:
w

1
Éiw¥ò Fzf«
ΔP = P ∆P2)=a22(ρ∆P )a22( ∆P )2aa2 2v1  22 22  a 
21(-P
a 2 2 2
2 a 2 2 ρ( A
a −a )  Ft   Ft 
2
ρ(Amf‹w ρ(A
− a 2 ) 22FHhÆ‹ − a KidÆš
) 2
âut 2
A v12 v22 1  Aρ((AA2 −−aa2 )) 2((∆AP)−2a2 2a ) 2( ∆2P)a 2
vdnt 2
ηR =  A   π r 2l 
X£l¤â‹ ntf«  v1  2( ∆P )aa =
w

a 2 2 2  a a 2 2 2 ρ(A − a ) θ θ
ρ(ρA(A 2
− −a 2a) ) 2 Ft
(AA2 − av22 ) v22 ( ∆1P)aA2 2( ∆ 2 2( ∆P )a θ=
2 1= 2 2 P)a 2 =
⇒ v
π r 2l ηR
2 v ρ ( A 2
− a 2
)
  4 ×105
aa 2 ρ2(A 2− aaρ)(A2 − a 2 )
1
1
θ=
22 3.14 × 2 × 10 −2 × 2 ×10 −2 ×15.2 × 6 ×1010
(2A( ∆−
k‰W« 2
P)aa ) xU P)a
2( ∆ÉdhoÆš 2
A‹ tÊahf¥ ghŒªJ
2bršY«2 âut¤â‹ 2 gUk‹,
10 −1
ρ(Aa − a ) ρ(A − a )
2 2
θ = = 3.538 × 10–2 rad
3.14 ×1.5 × 6
2( ∆P )a 2
orders@surabooks.com
ρ(A 2 − a 2 ) PH: 9600175757 / 8124201000 / 8124301000
This is only for Sample Materials
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252 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
3. 2.3 cm Mu« bfh©l nrh¥ò¡FÄÊ A MdJ m
m = ρâut« × Vg  [ρ = ]
k‰bwhU 4 cm MuKŸs B v‹w nrh¥òfFÄÊÆDŸ V
cUth»wJ. á¿a nrh¥ò¡ FÄÊ¡F cŸnsí«, = 0.72 × Vg

bgÇa nrh¥òFÄÊ¡F btËnaí« cŸs mG¤j
ntWgh£il¡ bfh©LŸs jÅ xU nrh¥òFÄÊÆ‹ W = ρAg Vg= 10Vg
MukhdJ A k‰W« B M»a ïU nrh¥ò¡ FÄÊfË‹

m
Mu¤ijÉl Fiwthf ïU¡F« v‹gij Ã%ã? Wapp = 10 Vg- 0.72 Vg = 9.28Vg
Ô®î: nrh¥ò FÄÊÆDŸ ÄifaG¤j«, 37.12
Vp =
9.28

co
4T
ΔP =
R Mass x = 4 kg
R = 4 cm vÅš, ÄifaG¤j«, 5. xU _oa FHhíl‹ ïiz¡f¥g£LŸs mG¤jkhÅ
4T 5×105 Nm-2 v‹w mså£il¡ fh£L»wJ.
ΔPb = = 100 T

s.
4 ×10 −2 FHhÆ‹ âw¥ghid âwªjhš mG¤jkhÅÆš
R = 2 cm vÅš, ÄifaG¤j«, 4.5×105 Nm-2 v‹w msåL cŸsJ. FHhÆš ghí«
ÚÇ‹ ntf¤ij¡ fz¡»Lf.
4T
ΔPa = Ô®î. _oa ÃiyÆš ÚÇ‹ âirntf« v1 = 0

ok
= 200 T
2 ×10 −2
âwªj ÃiyÆš ÚÇ‹ âirntf« v1 = v

vdnt á¿a k‰W« bgÇa nrh¥ò FÄÊÆDŸ ÚÇ‹ ml®¤â ρ = 1000 kg m–3
bkh¤j ÄifaG¤j«, bg®bdsÈ nj‰w¤â‹go, »il¤js FHhÆš
ΔP = ΔPa + ΔPb= 200 + 100 = 300 T P1 1 P2 1 2

o + v1
ρ 2 =
2
+ v2
ρ 2
ïJ á¿a nrh¥ò FÄÊ‹ c£òw« k‰W« bgÇa
P1 P2 1 2 1 2
ab
nrh¥ò FÄÊ‹ btË¥òw« cŸs mG¤j§fË‹ − = v2 − v1
ntWgh£L¡F (ΔP) rkkhF«. ïªj ÄifaG¤j¤ij ρ ρ 2 2
bfh©LŸs jÅ nrh¥ò FÄÊÆ‹ MukhdJ P −P 1
rk‹ghL (1)-‹ go
1 2 = v22 − v12
ρ 2
( )
ur

4T 2
ΔP = 300 T =
R ( ρ
)
v22 − v12 = ( P1 − P2 )
4 4 kâ¥òfis¥ ãuâÆl,
∴R = = × 10–2 = 1.333 × 10–2 m
300 3 2
.s

(or) R = 1.33 cm. v2 – 0 = (5 × 105 – 4.5 × 105)


1000
vdnt ïªj jÅ nrh¥ò FÄÊÆ‹ MukhdJ, A 2
v2 = (5 – 4.5) × 105
1000
w

k‰W« B-Æ‹ Mu¤ij Él FiwthdJ MF«.


2 105
4. x kg ÃiwíŸs xU btŸË¡f£o f«ãÆš v2 = × 0.5 × 105 = 3 = 102
1000 10
bjh§fÉl¥g£L 0.72 x¥gl®¤â bfh©l âut¤âš
v2 = 10 ms–1
w

_œ»íŸsJ. Ag-ï‹ x¥gl®¤â 10 k‰W« f«ãÆš


ïGÉir 37.12N vÅš btŸË¡f£oÆ‹
Ãiwia¡ fz¡»Lf.
V. fU¤JU Édh¡fŸ
1.
w

xU r®¡fiu¡ f£oÆ‹ xU Kid fh¥ãÆš


Ô®î. âut¤â‹ x¥gl®¤â 0.72 = ρâut« it¡f¥g£lhš r®¡fiu¡ f£oÆDŸ fh¥ã
Ag-ï‹ x¥gl®¤â 10 = ρAg nknyW»wJ. V‹?

btŸË¡ f£oÆ‹ Ãiw = x kg xU r®¡fiu¡ f£oahdJ. E©Âa Jisfis¡

bfh©oU¡F«. ïit fh¥ã¡F E©òiH¡
f«ãÆš Ú£á T = 37.12N
FHhŒfshf brašg£L r®¡fiu¡f£oÆš fh¥ã
njh‰w vil Wapp =W-B nknyW»wJ. ïJ xU E©òiH V‰w Ãfœî.

orders@surabooks.com PH: 9600175757 / 8124201000 / 8124301000


This is only for Sample Materials
for Full Book order online and available at all Leading Bookstores
RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 253

2. v©bzŒ bfhŸfyid (tin) fhÈ brŒa ïU 4. Ékhd¤âš bršY« gaÂfŸ nknyW«nghJ


JisfŸ V‹ ïl¥gL»wJ? j§fŸ ngdhÉš cŸs ikia bfh£oÉLkhW V‹
xU JisÆ‹ tÊna v©bzŒ btËnaW« m¿îW¤j¥gL»wh®fŸ?
nghJ v©bzŒ bfhŸfyÅ‹ cŸns cŸs cau¤â‰F V‰g tËk©ly mG¤j« Fiw»wJ.
mG¤j« tË mG¤j¤ijÉl Fiwthf ïU¡F«. óÄÆ‹ gu¥ã‹ Ûjhd mG¤j¤â‰F V‰wthW
ngdhÉš `ik' MdJ cŸns Ãu¥g¥g£oU¡F«.

m
ïjdhš v©bzŒ Óuhf btËnawhJ. Mdhš
Ékhd¤âš canu bršY«nghJ ngdhÉš
ïU Jis ïL«nghJ xU JisÆ‹ tÊna fh‰W
V‰gL« mG¤j khWgh£lhš, mJ rk‹ brŒa
cŸns EiHªJ mG¤j¤ij rk‹ brŒí«. K‰gL«nghJ ik ÑnH tÊa neÇL«. vdnt,

co
gaÂfŸ ngdh ikia fhÈ brŒíkhW
3. kG§»a f¤âia x¥ãl Tuhd f¤âahš
m¿îW¤jgL»wh®fŸ.
fhŒf¿fis vËjhf eW¡fyh«. V‹?
Tuhd f¤âÆ‹ gu¥ò kG§»a f¤âÆ‹ gu¥ig 5. bk‹ghd§fis¡ Fo¥gj‰F eh« c¿ŠR FHhia¥
Él Fiwthf ïU¡F«. Mdhš bkh¤j Éir (straw) ga‹gL¤J»nwh« V‹?

s.
rkkhF«. XuyF gu¥ã‹ Ûjhd gaDW Éir c¿ŠR FHhia ga‹gL¤J«nghJ mj‹ cŸns
TÇa KidÆš mâfkhf ïU¡F«. vdnt, mG¤j« tË mG¤j¤ij Él Fiwthf ïU¡F«.
kG§»a f¤âia x¥ãl Tuhd f¤âahš vËjhf ï«khWgh£lhš âut« nkny vG¥ò« vdnt

ok
bt£l Ko»wJ. vËjhf Fo¡f Ko»wJ.

o TLjš Édh¡fŸ

I. rÇahd Éilia nj®ªbjL¤J vGJf


ab
 1 kâ¥bg©
4. xU E©òiH FHhŒ tÊna xU cau¤â‰F ÚuhdJ
1. _y¡T¿il ÉirfŸ brašgL« ft®¢á¥òy¤â‹ ca®»wJ. mjhtJ gu¥ò ïGÉirahš âut¥
ur

gÇkhz« [HY-2018]
òa¤â‹ vilÆ‹ fhuzkhf nkšneh¡F Éir
(a) 1 A (b) 10 Aº 62.84 × 10-5N Éirahš rk‹ brŒa¥gL»wJ.
(c) 100 A (d) 0.1 A ÚÇ‹ gu¥ò ïGÉir 70 × 10-3Nm vÅš E©òiH¡
.s

[Éil. (b) 10 Aº] FHhÆ‹ Mu«.


(a) 1.43 ×10-3m
2. xU nfhs gªJ Óuhd mG¤j¤âš 200 tËÆš
gUkÅš FW¡f« mil»wbjÅš gªJ brŒa¥g£l (b) 2.835 ×10-3m
w

cnyhf¤â‹ mK¤j« (1 atmosphere = 105 Nm-2 ). (c) 1.43 ×10-2m


(a) 20 ×10-10 N-1m-2 (b) 5 ×10-10 N-1m-2 (d) 2.83 ×10-3m
(c) 10-10 N-1m-2 (d) 2 ×10-10 N-1m-2
w

 [Éil. (a) 1.43 ×10-3m]


 [Éil. (b) 5 ×10-10 N-1m-2]
5. xU nrh¥ò¡ FÄÊid CJtj‹ _y« (mj‹ Mu«
w

3. xU fiurÈ‹ ml®¤â 1500kg23


tÊna 30cm-1 5c ÈUªJ 15cm¡F) mj‹ gu¥ò ïGÉir¡bfâuhf
É»j¤âš É£lKila xU fh‰W¡FÄœ Ãiyahf brŒa¥g£l ntiy nrh¥ò¡ fiurÈ‹ gu¥ò ïGÉir
ca®»wJ. m¡fiurÈ‹ ghŒk¡ Fzf«. 30 × 10-3Nm-1
(a) 3.3 ×10-3 ghŒ° (b) 2.2 ×10-3 ghŒ° (a) 2.4 πmJ (b) 4.8 πmJ
(c) 5.5 ×10-3 ghŒ° (d) 4.4 ×10-3 ghŒ° (c) 2.4 πmJ (d) 4.8 πmJ

 [Éil. (d) 4.4 ×10-3 ghŒ°]  [Éil. (a) 2.4 πmJ]

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254 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
6. xU ku¤j¡ifia VÇÆš cŸs ÚÇ‹ moÆš 12. xU Ú®¤bjh£oÆ‹ âw¥ã‹ tÊna Ú® ghí« Éj«
MH¤âš mÄœ¤j¥g£L Él¥gL«nghJ mJ ïjDl‹ ã‹tUtdt‰¿š vij rh®ªâuhJ
caU« (a) âw¥ã‹ cUt« mik¥ò
(a) Ãiyahd KL¡f¤Jl‹ (b) Ú®k¤â‹ ml®¤â
(b) Fiw KL¡f¤Jl‹ (c) Ú®k¤j«g¤â‹ cau«
(c) Ãiyahd âirntf¤Jl‹

m
(d) òÉp®¥ò KL¡f«
(d) Fiwthd âirntf¤âš  [Éil. (d) òÉp®¥ò KL¡f«]
 [Éil. (a) Ãiyahd KL¡f¤Jl‹]
13. xU br›tf tot gh¤âu¤âš ÉË«ò tiu

co
7. <®¥ò Éir ïšiy vÅš ã‹tUtdt‰¿š
Ãu¥g¥g£l Úiu moÆYŸs xU âw¥ã‹ tÊna fhÈ
ghŒk¤â‰F vJ ïU¡fhJ?
brŒa 10min vL¤J¡ bfhŸ»wJ. vÅš miu¥
(a) ghŒk¥ g©ò (b) gu¥ò ïGÉir gh¤âu« Úuhš Ãu¥g¥g£lhš mjid fhÈah¡f
(c) mG¤j« v›tsî neukhF«?
(d) M®¡»ÄoÌ‹ nkšneh¡F mG¤jÉir

s.
(a) 9 min (b) 7 min
[Éil. (d) M®¡»ÄoÌ‹ nkšneh¡F mG¤j Éir] (c) 5 min (d) 3 min
8. Mu« V Ús« l bfh©l xU FHhÆš mj‹  [Éil. (b) 7 min]

ok
πθpr 4 14. xU bgÇa nrh¥ò FÄÊ‹ É£l« D 27 FÄÊfshf
KidfËš mG¤j ntWghL p v‹gJ V =
η v‹gJ gh»aš Fzf«, θ v‹gJ
ηl cil»wJ. mj‹ gu¥ò ïGÉir T vÅš gu¥ò
M‰wÈš kh‰w«
(a) 8 (b) 1 (a) 2πTD2 (b) 4πTD2
8
(c) 16
1
o 1
(d) 16 [Éil. (b) 8 ]
(c) πTD (d) 8πTD2
2

 [Éil. (b) 4πTD2]


ab
9. ghŒk¤â‹ khWÃiy¤ âirntf« 15. ghÆš Éâ TWtJ
(a) Mu« Fiwí«nghJ âirntf« Fiwí«
(a) P × V = kh¿È
(b) caU« Mus« caU«nghJ
(b) P = kh¿È
(c) Fiwí« ml®¤â caU«nghJ V
ur

(d) caU« ml®¤â caU«nghJ (c) P × V2 = kh¿È


 [Éil. (c) Fiwí« ml®¤â caU«nghJ]
(d) P 2 = kh¿È [Éil. (a) P × V = kh¿È]
10. xU v~F gªJ v©bzÆš ÉG«nghJ V
.s

(a) á¿J neu¤â‰F ãwF Ãiyahd 16. ïGÉir âÇò ïj‰F rk«
âirntf¤ij milí«. (a) Éir/XuyF gu¥ò
(b) gªJ rhí« (b) Éir/xuyF gUk‹
w

(c) gªâ‹ ntf« mâfǤJ ÉLgL« (c) Ú£á/XuyF Ús«


(d) VJÄšiy (d) Éir/XuyF Ús«
 [Éil. (a) á¿J neu¤â‰F ãwF Ãiyahd  [Éil. (c) Ú£á/XuyF Ús«]
w

 âirntf¤ij milí«.]
17. xU öa bghUŸ ciwí« mšyJ â©kkhtJ
11. Ékhd« nkny cau¤ ö¡» gw¥gJ ïªÃfœÉid mj‹
w

És¡f¡ fhuzkhd bfhŸif (a) bfhâÃiy òŸËÆš


(a) M®¡»Äo° bfhŸif
(b) gojš Ãiy òŸËÆš
(b) bg®bdsÈ bfhŸif
(c) Äj¥ò (c) cUFÃiy òŸËÆš
(d) gh°fš Éâ (d) ôÇj MÉ ÃiyÆš
 [Éil. (b) bg®bdsÈ bfhŸif]  [Éil. (c) cUFÃiy òŸËÆš]

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 255

18. th©l®thš° ``mG¤j¡ FiwghL''¡fhd 25. xU f«ã¡ T©o‹ js¤âš xU »Ë c£fh®ªJ


rk‹gh£oid jUÉ¡F«nghJ fh£á¥gL¤j¥g£l bfh©oU¡»wJ. xU áWt‹ mij RkªJ bršY«
mG¤j« P, gUk‹ V, thí mG¤j thí gUkÅš nghJ gw¡f¤ bjhl§F»wJ. m¢áWtD¡F m¥bg£o
a a (a) fdkhf ïU¡F«
(a) P + (b) P + 2
v v (b) ïnyrhf ïU¡F«
(c) P + (a × v) (d) P + (a × v2)

m
(c) vilÆš kh‰w« ïšiy
 [Éil. (b) P + a2 ] (d) KjÈš ïnyrhfî«, ã‹d® fdkhfî«
v
ïU¡F«
19. xU ghŒk« ïa¡f¤âš cŸsnghJ mj‹ ghFÃiy  [Éil. (b) ïnyrhf ïU¡F«]

co
1 ghŒ° (poise) mJ XŒî ÃiyÆš cŸsnghJ
mj‹ ghFÃiy (ghŒ°) š F¿¥ãL. 26. ã‹tU« tiugl« xU ghŒk¤â‹ rW¡F¤ jifî
(a) 0 (b) 0.5 k‰W« âirntf rhŒî¡FÄilna tiua¥gL»wJ.
(c) 1 (d) 2 [Éil. (c) 1] ghŒk¤â‹ tif ahJ?

s. rW¡F¤ jifî
20. xU ghŒk« ïa¡f¤âš cŸsnghJ mj‹ mL¤jL¤j
mL¡FfS¡»ilnaahd rh®ò ïa¡f« ghFÉir.
(a) v⮡F« (b) ghâ¡fhJ

ok
(c) K‹ndh¡» ef®¤J« âirntf rÇî
(d) áy ÃiyfËš ghâ¡F« (a) Ãô£nlhÅaÅ‹ ghšk«
 [Éil. (a) v⮡F«] (b) ïU cŸSiw ghŒk«
21. fÂrkhf bghUŸfŸ Ú£áailí«nghJ ciltj‰F
o (c) Ãô£nlhÅaÅ‹ ghŒkk‰wJ
K‹ Û£áa‰w FW¡f¤ij miltJ (d) ešÈašò ghŒk«
(a) cilí« bghUŸfŸ  [Éil. (c) Ãô£nlhÅaÅ‹ ghŒkk‰wJ]
ab
(b) Û£áíŸs bghUŸfŸ
27. xU âut« f©zhoÆš x£lhJ vÅš mj‹ nr®
(c) cil¡f¡Toa bghUŸfŸ
nfhz«.
(d) ÚS« j‹ikíila bghU£fŸ
(a) RÊ (b) FW§nfhz«
 [Éil. (d) ÚS« j‹ikíila bghU£fŸ]
(c) ÉÇnfhz« (d) br§nfhz«
ur

22. khW« ghFÃiy  [Éil. (b) FW§nfhz«]


(a) [M1L1T-1] (b) [M1L-1T-1]
28. xU ghjur¤ JÂia v£L TWfshf¥ãÇ¡F«
(c) [M1L-2T-2] (d) [M1L-2T-2] nghJ mj‹ bkh¤j M‰wš
.s

 [Éil. (a) [M1L1T-1]] (a) khwhJ (b) 3 kl§F mâf«


23. jifÉ‹ cGg myF (c) ghâahF« (d) 4 kl§F mâf«
(a) N/m2 (b) J/m2  [Éil. (b) 3 kl§F mâf«]
w

(c) dynl/cm2 (d) N/cm2 


 [Éil. (c) dynl/cm2] 29. xU bgÇa nrh¥ò¡FÄÊÆ‹ É£l« D cilªJ T
gu¥ò ïGÉir bfh©l 27 FÄÊfshf M»wbjÅš
w

24. xU FHhÆ‹ É£l« 1.25cm ïâÈUªJ ÚuhdJ mj‹ gu¥ò M‰wš


5 × 10-5m3s-1 v‹w É»j¤âš 103kgm-3 (a) 2πTD2 (b) 4πTD2
ml®¤âí«, gh»aš Fzf« 10-3 gh°fY« (c) πTD2 (d) 8πTD2
w

bfh©lJ vÅš ÚÇ‹ ÉG« j‹ik.  [Éil. (b) 4pTD2]


(a) budhšL v© 5100 cl‹ Óuhf ïU¡F«
(b) budhšL v© 5100 cl‹ RH‰áahf ïU¡F 30. òÉ¥gu¥ãš flš k£l¤âš fh‰wG¤j¤â‹ kâ¥ò
(c) budhšL v© 3900 cl‹ Óuhf ïU¡F (a) 10 A (b) 10 atm
(d) budhšL v© 3900 cl‹ RH‰áahf ïU¡F (c) 1 atm (d) 100 atm

[Éil. (b) budhšL v© 5100 cl‹ RH‰áahf  [Éil. (c) 1 atm]
 ïU¡F]

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256 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
31. âut¤â‹ K‰W âirntf« III. nfho£l ïl¤ij Ãu¥òf :
(a) Mu« Fiwí« nghJ, Fiwí«
1. v©bzÆš ïl¥g£l xU v~F F©L á¿J neu«
(b) Mu« mâfÇ¡F« nghJ mâfÇ¡F«
fʤJ ________ mil»wJ.
(c) ml®¤â mâfÇ¡F« nghJ Fiwí«
(a) Ãiyahd Éir (b) khwh âirntf«
(d) ml®¤â caU« nghJ caU«
(c) khW« Éir (d) khW« âirntf«
[Éil. (c) ml®¤â mâfÇ¡F« nghJ Fiwí«]

m
 [Éil. (b) khwh âirntf«]
II. bghU¤Jf: 2. jifÉ‹ CGS myF
1. (a) N m2 (b) N / cm2

co
1) mQ¡fS¡F (a) gu¥ò ïGÉir
»ilnaahd Éir (c) il‹ / m
2 (d) il‹ / brÛ2
2) _y¡TWfS¡F (b) mQ¡fS¡F  [Éil. (d) il‹ / brÛ2]
»ilnaahd Éir ïilnaahd Éir 3. gUk¡Fzf¤â‹ jiyÑÊ
3) âut mL¡FfS¡F (c) _y¡TWfS¡F (a) mK¡f¤j‹ik (b) K¿î¤jifî

s.
»ilnaahd ïilnaahd (c) Éiw¥ò Fzf« (d) a§Fzf«
cuhŒî Éir Éir  [Éil. (a) mK¡f¤j‹ik]
4) â u t ¥ g u ¥ ã ‹ (d) gh»aš Éir 4. jifÉ‹ SI myF

ok
Ús¤â‹ tÊna (a) N m2 (b) N /m2
brašgL« Éir
(c) J / kg (d) J / k
1 2 3 4
 [Éil. (b) N / m2]
(a) b c d a
(b) c d a b o 5. ghjur¤â‹ bfhâ Ãiy ________
(c) d a b c (a) 157°c (b) 167°c
(d) b d a c [Éil. (a) b c d a] (c) 735°c (d) 357°c
[Éil. (d) 357°c]
ab
2. 1) XÇd¡ ft®¢á Éir (a) br§f‰fŸ 
2) XÇd¡ft®¢á Éir (b) f‰óu¥glF 6. °nlh¡° thŒgho‹ rk‹ghL ________
3) gu¥ò ïGÉir (c) ghjur« 6πα
(a) 8aηv (b)
4) E©òiH EiHî (d) bgÉfhš ηv
ur

6παη
1 2 3 4 (c) 6πaηv (d)
(a) d b a c v
(b) b a c d  [Éil. (c) 6paηv]
.s

(c) b d a c 7. bg®bdhÈ nj‰w¤â‹ mo¥gil ________


(d) c d b a [Éil. (d) c d b a] (a) cªj khwhtâ (b) Ãiw
3. xU nrh®ò FÊÆDŸ (c) M‰wš khwhÉâ
1) (a) 2T
(d) nfhz cªj khwhÉâ
w

ÄifaG¤j«
R  [Éil. (c) M‰wš khwhÉâ]
2) âut¤JËÆDŸ (b) 1 8. Ú®¤JËfŸ ïizªJ xU bgÇa Ú®¡nfhs« MF«
ÄifaG¤j« Fl
2
w

nghJ M‰wš
XŒî ghŒk¤j«g¤â‹ (c) (a) btËna‰w¥gL»wJ
3) 4T
Ûjhd mG¤j« (b) c¿Šr¥gL»wJ
R (c) ïu©L« el¡»wJ
w

4) Û£á Ãiy M‰wš (d) hpg (d) ïu©L« el¥gâšiy


1 2 3 4
 [Éil. (a) btËna‰w¥gL»wJ]
(a) d b a c 9. gh»aš v©Â‹ gÇkhz« ________
(b) c a d b (a) ML–1T –1 (b) MLT –1
(c) d b c a (c) ML2 T –1 (d) ML2 T2
(d) b c d a [Éil. (b) c a d b]  [Éil. (a) ML–1 T–1]

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 257

10. ïGÉir¤ âÇò v‹gJ .................. (d) gu¥ò M‰wš - ïG Éir


(a) Éir / XuyF gu¥ò
(b) Éir / XuyF gUk‹ vJ jtwhd nrho?
(c) Ú£á / XuyF Ús« [Éil. (d) gu¥ò M‰wš - ïG Éir]
(d) Éir / XuyF Ús«
[Éil. (c) Ú£á / XuyF Ús«] 3. (a) °nlh¡° Éâ - nkf§fŸ Äj¤jš

m

IV. bghUªjhjt‰iw nj®ªbjL¤J vGJf: (b) A&¡° Éâ - Óuhd mšyJ mL¡F
Kiw X£l«
1. btŸs«
(a) (Laminar flow)

co
nk‰Tiu fh‰¿dhš ö¡» v¿jš
(b) (c) budhšL v© - jifî - âÇò bjhl®ò
ò‹r‹ (g®d®) vÇÉs¡F
(c) (d) K‰W¤ - khW« âirntf«
Ékhd« canu vG«òjš
(d) âirntf«
 [Éil. (a) btŸs«] vJ rÇahd nrho?

s.
F¿¥ò : (b), (c), (d) M»ad bg®bdsÈ nj‰w« [Éil. (a) °nlh¡° Éâ - nkf§fŸ Äj¤jš]
ga‹ghLfŸ bjhl®òilait.
2. ngdhik c¿Šr¥gLjš
(a) 4. (a) Äj¥ò Éir - âut¤â‹ gUkÅš

ok
gU¤â Mil
(b) ïl«bga®î
És¡F¤ âÇÆš v©bzŒ ca®tJ
(c) (b) Ú®Kœ»¡ f¥gš - vâ®kiw Äjit
_œFtJ
c¿ŠR FHhŒ (Straw)
(d)
 [Éil. (d) c¿ŠR FHhŒ (Straw)] (c) gh°fš Éâ - âl¥bghUS¡F
bghUªJ«
F¿¥ò : (d) E©òiH vL¤J¡fh£L ïšiy k‰w
_‹¿id¥nghy.
o (d) mG¤j« - gh
vJ rÇahd nrho?
ab
3. (a) mG¤j M‰wš (b) ïa¡f M‰wš [Éil. (b) Ú®_œ»¡f¥gš _œFjš -
(c) Ãiy M‰wš (d) ÛŸ Ãiy M‰wš  vâ®kiw Äjit]
 [Éil. (d) ÛŸ Ãiy M‰wš] VI. T‰WfS«, fhuz§fS« :
V. rÇahd mšyJ jtwhd nrhofis¤
ur

F¿¥òfŸ
nj®ªbjL¤J vGJ: (a) T‰W fhuz« rÇ k‰W« T‰W¡fhd
És¡f¡ fhuz« rÇ.
1. 2T (b) T‰W k‰W« fhuz« bkŒ Mdhš T‰W¡fhd
(a) mG¤j« -
R fhuz És¡f« bkŒašy.
.s

(c) T‰W bkŒ Mdhš fhuz« bkŒašy.


E (d) T‰W bkŒašy Mdhš fhuz« bkŒ
(b) gu¥ò ïGÉir -
A
1. ghŒk¤â‹ X£l« tÇ¢Ó® X£lkh mšyJ
T‰W : 
w

bjhl® kh¿È a RHš X£lkh vd budhšL v©iz¥


(c) - ga‹gL¤j fhzyh«.
rk‹ghL v
rk‹ghL R c = PνD
w

(d) mG¤j M‰wš - PV


η
vJ jtwhd nrho? fhuz« : 
fhßa F©LfŸ »Ërß‹ (ca®ªj
 [Éil. (c) bjhl® rk‹ghL - a ] ghF¤j‹ik) Ãu«ãa xU caukhd
w

V rhoÆš nghl¥gL«nghJ bt›ntW


2. (a) ghŒk Éir - âut mL¡FfS¡ òŸËfËš fhßa F©LfŸ xU
»ilnaahd Éir khwhâir ntf¤Jl‹ ïa§F»‹wd.
ïJ K‰W¤ âirntf« vd¥gL«.
(b) nt¿d Éir - x£L Éir
ν µ r2 [r - fhßa F©o‹ Mu«]
(c) XÇd Éir - jhkiu ïiy [Éil. (b) T‰W k‰W« fhuz« bkŒ Mdhš
ÛJ j©Ù® T‰W¡fhd fhuz És¡f«
 bkŒašy.]
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258 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
2. xU
T‰W :  bghUŸ ghâahf mšyJ vªj¡ T‰W rÇašy?
KGtJkhf xU âut¤âš _œ»ÆU¡F« (a) I k£L« (b) II k£L«
nghJ mj‹ ÛJ xU nkš neh¡F (c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy
Éir brašgL»wJ. vdnt bghUË‹  [Éil. (a) I k£L«]
vilia v⮡»wJ.
fhuz« : Äj¥ò Éâ v‹gJ xU âut¤âš FWÉdh¡fŸ  2 kâ¥bg©fŸ

m
_œ»ÆU¡F« bghUË‹ gFâahš
ïl¥bga®¢á brŒa¥g£l âut¤â‹
1. gU¥bghUŸfËš âl, âut, thí Ãiy jÉu ntW
vilahdJ bghUË‹ vil¡F rkkhf
ÃiyfS¡F thŒ¥ò cŸsjh?

co
ïU¡Fkhdhš xU bghUŸ Äj¡F«.
ïj‹ fhuzkhfnt glFfŸ, f¥gšfŸ M«. mÔj NœÃiyfËš ãw Ãiyfis ãsh°kh,
flÈš Äj¡»‹wd. ngh° - #‹°O‹ thí¥ g©ò M»a ÃiyfËY«
[Éil. (a) T‰W fhuz« rÇ k‰W« T‰W¡fhd cŸsJ. Fth®¡ - FSth‹ ãsh°kh k‰W«
 És¡f¡ fhuz« rÇ.] m©l¤âš bt¥g ãsh°khthfî« cŸsJ.

s.
VII. rÇahd mšyJ rÇÆšyhj T‰Wfis 2. Û£áa‰w g©ò v‹whš v‹d? vL¤J¡fh£L jUf.
nj®ªbjL: xU bghUshdJ cU¡FiyÉ¡F« Éir

ok
Ú¡f¥g£lîl‹ jdJ bjhl¡f tot« k‰W«
1. (I)  ghŒr‹ É»j« v‹gJ rh®ò FW¡f¤â‰F«
rh®ò ÉÇɉF« ïilnaahd É»j¤ij¡ msit Ûs¥ bgwÉšiy vÅš m¥bghUŸ
F¿¡»wJ. Û£áa‰w bghUŸ MF«. ï¥g©ò Û£áa‰w g©ò
(II) âÇò¡F myF ïšiy o vd¥gL«.
vªj¡ T‰W rÇ? vL¤J¡fh£L : f©zho
(a) I k£L« (b) II k£L« 3. ïGÉir¤ jifî v‹gJ ahJ?
ab
(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy ïGÉir¤ jifî : ΔA ï‹ ïU g¡f§fËY«
 [Éil. (c) ïu©L« rÇ] mfÉirfŸ x‹iwbah‹W ïG¡fyh«.
2. (I)  Û£áa‰w j‹ik v‹gJ xU bghUshdJ mjhtJ mJ rkkhd vâbuâuhd Éirfshš
cU¡FÉ¡F« Éir Ú¡f¥g£lîl‹ jdJ ïG¡f¥gL»wJ. ïªj ڣᤠjifî ïGÉir¤
ur

bjhl¡f tot« k‰W« msit Ûs¥ bgwÉšiy jifî vd miH¡f¥gL»wJ.


vÅš m¥bghUŸ Û£áa‰w bghUŸ vd¥gL«.
ï¥g©ò Û£áa‰w g©ò vd¥gL«. 4. mK¡f¤jifî v‹gJ ahJ?
(II) Û£áa‰w g©ã‰F vL¤J¡fh£L ku¤J©L. mK¡f¤ jifî : ΔA ï‹ ïU g¡f§fËY«
brašgL« ÉirfŸ x‹iwbah‹W jŸËdhš,
.s

vªj¡ T‰W rÇ?


mjhtJ mj‹ ïU KidfËY« rkkhd
(a) I k£L« (b) II k£L«
vâbuâuhd Éirfshš jŸs¥gL»wJ
(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy v‹whš ΔA mJ mK¡f¤â‰F c£gL»wJ.
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 [Éil. (a) I k£L«] j‰nghJ Ú£á¤jifthdJ mK¡f¤jifî vd


3. (I)  Û£á¥g©ò¡F cjhuz« cnyhf«. miH¡f¥gL»wJ.
(II) âut¤â‰F ۣᥠg©ò c©L. 5. gUk¤ jifî tiuaW.
w

vªj¡ T‰W rÇašy ? (i) xU bghUË‹ ÛJ mj‹ gu¥ãš cŸs


(a) I k£L« (b) II k£L« mid¤J¥ gFâfËY« gu¥ã‰F¡ F¤jhf
(c) ïu©L« rÇ (d) VJÄšiy ÉirfŸ brašg£lhš nk‰gu¥ãš ÉirÆ‹
w

msthdJ gu¥ã‰F ne®jfÉš mik»wJ.


 [Éil. (b) II k£L«]
cjhuzkhf, xU â©k¥ bghUshdJ
4. (I)  RH‰á X£l¤â‰F Rc < 2000. xU ghŒk¤âš _œ»dhš, bghUË‹ ÛJ
(II) áy ó¢áfŸ ÚÇ‹ ÛJ el¡F« VbdÅš gu¥ò brašgL« mG¤j« P vÅš vªj xU gu¥ò
ïGÉir fhuz«. ΔA ïš brašgL« Éir
F = PΔA

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 259

(ii) ï§F F MdJ gu¥ã‰F br§F¤jhf cŸsJ. (ii) gÅ¡f£o ÚÇš Äj¡»wJ.
vdnt, XuyF gu¥ãš brašgL« Éir (iii) f¥gš v~»dhš cUth¡f¥gL»wJ. Mdhš
gUk¤jifî vd¥gL»wJ. mj‹ c£gFâÆš FÊî V‰gL¤j¥gLtjhš
σv = F ïJ mG¤j¤â‰F rkkhF«. Äj¡f¢ brŒa¥gL»wJ.
A
6. Û£á všiy v‹whš v‹d? 12. °nlh¡ ÉâÆ‹ braš Kiw¥ ga‹ghLfŸ ahit?

m
cU¡FiyÉ¡F« ÉirfŸ Ú¡f¥g£l ãwF kiH¤JËfŸ msÉš á¿ajhfî«, mj‹
bghUshdJ mj‹ bjhl¡f msî k‰W« K‰W¤âirntf§fŸ Fiwthfî« cŸsjhš
tot¤ij Ûs¥ bgw¡Toa jifÉ‹ bgUkkâ¥ò mit nkf toÉš fh‰¿š Äj¡»‹wd.

co
Û£á všiy vd¥gL«. mit msÉš bgÇjhF«nghJ mt‰¿‹
7. mK¡f¤j‹ik - És¡Ff. K‰W¤âirntf§fŸ mâfǤJ kiHahf ÑnH
(i) gUk¡ Fzf¤â‹ jiyÑÊ `mK¡f¤j‹ik' ÉG»‹wd.
vd¥gL«. mJ XuyF mG¤j ca®î¡F
ïªj Éâ Ñœ¡fh©gt‰iw És¡F»wJ:

s.
gUkÅš V‰gL« á¿a kh‰w« vd
tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ. (i) nkf§fË‹ Äj¤jš.
∆V

ok
1 εv (ii) á¿a kiH¤JËfis Él bgÇa
C= =− = V kiH¤JËfŸ e«ik mâfkhf jh¡F»‹wd.
K σ n ∆P
(ii) thí¡fŸ â©k§fis Él Fiwthd gUk¡ (iii) ghuhN£ cjÉíl‹ ÑÊw§F« xUt® khwh
Fzf¤ij¡ bfh©oU¥gjhš thí¡fË‹
o K‰W¤ âirntf¤ij bgW»‹wh®.
mK¡f¤j‹ik Äf mâf«.
8. ghŒk¤â‹ ml®¤â tiuaW. 13. E©òiH EiHÈ‹ brašKiw¥ ga‹ghLfŸ
ab
(i) xU ghŒk¤â‹ ml®¤â v‹gJ mj‹ XuyF ahit?
gUkD¡fhd Ãiw vd tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ. (i) E©òiHna‰w¤â‹ fhuzkhf k©
‘V’ gUkid¡ bfh©L m ÃiwíŸs És¡»YŸs v©bzahdJ âÇÆš nkny
ghŒk¤â‹ ml®¤â ρ = m/V. ïj‹ SI myF VW»wJ. ïnjnghš jhtu¤âš ïiyfS¡F«
k‰W« gÇkhz« Kiwna kg m-3 k‰W« »isfS¡F« ntÇÈUªJ cÆ®rhW (sap)
ur

[ML-3]MF«. nknyW»wJ.
(ii) ïJ ne®¡F¿ kâ¥òŸs °nfy® msthF«. (ii) c¿ŠR jhshdJ ikia c¿ŠR»wJ.
9. x¥gl®¤â tiuaW. (iii) f©fËÈUªJ f©Ù® bjhl®ªJ toa
.s

xU bghUË‹ x¥gl®¤â v‹gJ mªj¥ bghUË‹ E©òiH¢ brašghL njitahdjhF«.


ml®¤â¡F« 4ºC š ÚÇ‹ ml®¤â¡F« ïilna (iv) nfhil¡fhy§fËšgU¤â MilfŸ
cŸs É»j« vd tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ. ïJ
w

ÉU«ã mÂa¥gL»‹wd. VbdÅš gU¤â


xU gÇkhzk‰w ne®¡F¿ kâ¥òŸs °nfy®
msthF«. MilfËYŸs E©Âa Jthu§fŸ
Éa®it¡F E©òiH¡ FHhŒfshf
10. ghFÃiy tiuaW.
w

brašgL»‹wd. 
ïa§F« ghŒk VLfS¡F ïilna njh‹W« mf
cuhŒî ghFÃiy MF«. vdnt ghFÃiyahdJ 14. gu¥ò ïGÉirÆ‹ ga‹ghLfŸ ahit?
xU ghŒk¤â‹ VLfS¡»ilna cŸs rh®ò (i) bfhR¡fŸ ÚÇ‹ nk‰gu¥ãš K£ilfis
w

ïa¡f¤ij v⮡F« ghŒk¤â‹ g©ò ghFÃiy


vd tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ. ïL»‹wd. ÚÇ‹ gu¥ò ïGÉiria¡
Fiw¡f á¿J v©bzŒ C‰w¥gL»wJ.
11. Äj¡F« bghUŸfS¡F vL¤J¡fh£L jUf. ïJ ÚÇ‹ nk‰gu¥ãYŸs Û£á¥gly¤ij
Äj¡F« bghUŸfS¡F vL¤J¡fh£LfŸ : cil¤J ÉLtjhš bfhR K£ilfŸ ÚÇDŸ
(i) xUt® M‰WÚiuÉl flš ÚÇš Äf vËjhf _œf¢brŒJ mÊ¡f¥gL»‹wd.
Úªjyh«.

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260 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
(ii) gu¥òïGÉiria E£gkhd msî¡F (iii) ïJngh‹nwgu¥ã‹ tÊna bjhLtiu
rÇ brŒJ jhÅa§» thfd§fŸ k‰W« jifî mšyJ rW¡F¥ bga®¢á¤ jifî (σt)
my§fhu¥ bghUŸfS¡F t®z« ór¥
Fn Ft
ga‹gL»wJ. σt =
∆A ∆A
(iii) JÂfis¤ Jit¡F«nghJ btªÚÇš vd tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ. ڣᤠjifÉid

m
ryit¤öis nr®¥gjhš ÚÇ‹ gu¥ò ïGÉir¤ jifî k‰W« mK¡f¤ jifî
ïGÉir Fiw¡f¥g£L mG¡F¤JfŸfŸ vd ïU tifahf¥ ãÇ¡fyh«.
vËâš Ú¡f¥gL»‹wd.

co
2. ڣᤠâÇò v‹gJ ahJ? mj‹ tiffSl‹
(iv) Ú® x£lhj JÂfŸ jahÇ¡F«nghJ Ú® És¡Ff.
x£lhj bghUshdJ (bkGF) JÂíl‹ Ú£á¤âÇò: l v‹w Ús« bfh©l xU f«ãahdJ
nr®¡f¥gL»wJ. ïJ nr®nfhz¤ij rkkhd, vâbuâ® âirfËš brašgL«
mâfÇ¡»wJ.

s.
Éirfshš ïG¡f¥gL«nghJ, mj‹ Ú£á¤âÇò
áWÉdh¡fŸ  3 kâ¥bg©fŸ f«ãÆš mâfÇ¡F« Ús« Δl
ε1 = f«ãÆ‹ c©ikahd Ús« =
l

ok
1. ڣᤠjifî k‰W« rW¡F¥ bga®¢á¤ jifÉid Ú£á¤âÇò ïU tif¥gL»wJ.
És¡F. (i) ïGÉirâÇò : ïašghd msÉÈUªJ
ڣᤠjifî k‰W« rW¡F¥ bga®¢á¤ jifî : Ús« mâfÇ¡f¥g£lhš mJ ïGÉir¤ âÇò
vd¥gL«.
(i) xU bghUis¡ fUJnth«. gy ÉirfŸ
o
mik¥ãš (bghUËš) brašg£lhš ÃiwÆ‹
(ii) mK¡f¤âÇò : ïašghd msÉÈUªJ Ús«
Fiw¡f¥g£lhš mJ mK¡f¤âÇò vd¥gL«.
ika« khwhkš ïU¡F«. vÅD« ïªj
ab
Éirfshš bghUŸ cU¡FiyªJ mjdhš 3. rW¡F¥ bga®¢á¤âÇò, gUk¤ âÇò ït‰iw
mfÉirfŸ njh‹W»‹wd. És¡Ff.
(i) rW¡F¥ bga®¢á¤âÇò: xU fd rJu¤âš
Ft
bghUshdJ ïl¥bga®¢á k‰W« RH‰á
F
rkÃiyÆš cŸsjh¡ fUJnth«.
ur

F Fn fdrJu« cU¡FiyíkhW AD tÊna F


A v‹w bjhLÉaš Éiria brY¤Jnth«.
F
vdnt rW¡F¥bga®¢á¤âÇò mšyJ
rW¡F¥bga®¢á (εs)
.s

a x a' d x d'
F
A
(ii) bghUË‹ FW¡Fbt£L¥gu¥ò ΔA v‹f.
w

A' D D'

cU¡FiyÉ‹ fhuzkhf ΔA ï‹ ïU h h
g¡f§fËY« cŸs bghUË‹ gFâ → F k‰W« θ θ

-→
w

F v‹w mfÉirfis x‹W¡bfh‹W b c

brY¤J»‹wd. Éiria ΔA gu¥ã‰F B C


rW¡F¥ bga®¢á¤âÇò
br§F¤jhf Fn k‰W« ΔA gu¥ã‹ bjhLtiu
w

âirÆš Ft v‹w ïU TWfshf¥ gF¡fyh«. AA ' x ∆V


gu¥ã‹ tÊna br§F¤J¤jifî mšyJ εs =
= = tanθ
BA h V
Ú£á¤jifî (σn) MdJ. á¿a nfhz kâ¥ã‰F tanθ ≈ θ vdnt rW¡F¥
Fn Ft bga®¢á¤ âÇò mšyJ rW¡F¥ bga®¢á
σn =
∆A ∆A AA ' x ∆V
vd tiuaW¡f¥gL»wJ. εs == = θ = rW¡F¥ bga®¢á nfhz«

BA h V

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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 261

(ii) gUk¤âÇò: xU bghUshdJ gUk¤jifî¡F 6. »il¤jsk£l§fËš Ú®k¤â‹ X£l¤âid


c£gL¤j¥g£lhš mj‹ gUk‹ khW«. gl¤Jl‹ ÉtÇ.
bghUË‹ bjhl¡f gUk‹ jifî¡F
A
VK‹ vdî« jifÉdhš ïWâ gUk‹ v + dx
V + ΔV vdî« bfhŸf. gUkÅš V‰gL« dx F
v
á¿a khWgh£il msÉL« gUk¤ âÇig B

m
Ñœ¡f©lthW F¿¥ãlyh«. x
AA ' x ∆V
gUk¤BA = ε =
âÇò, hv V

co
»il¤js k£l§fËš Ú®k¤â‹ X£l«
4. ۣᥠg©ã‹ ga‹ghLfŸ ahit?
ۣᥠg©ã‹ ga‹ghLfŸ : xU Ãiyahd »ilk£l V£od ÛJ xU âut« Óuhf¥
ghŒtjhf¡ bfhŸf. xU Ãiyahd V£oš ïUªJ
(i) Û£á¥g©ò f£ol§fË‹ ö©fŸ k‰W« bjhiythf br‹whš VLfËd ntf§fŸ Óuhf
É£l§fË‹ f£Lkhd totik¥ig Koî mâfÇ¡»wJ. A k‰W« B vdw ïU ïizahd

s.
brŒ»wJ. VLfis¡ fUJf. Ãiyahd V£oÈUªJ x k‰W«
(ii) f£Lkhd¥ bgh¿Æaiy¥ bghU¤j tiu x +dx bjhiyÉš mUfhikÆš cŸs VLfË‹
xU totik¥ò jh§f¡Toa jifÉ‹ âirntf§fŸ Kiwna v k‰W« v +dv vd¡

ok
msthdJ Kj‹ikahd ghJfh¥ò¡ bfhŸf.
fhuÂahF«. xU ghykhdJ mj‹ÛJ 7. RH‰á X£l¤âid vL¤J¡fh£Ll‹ ÉtÇ.
bršY« ngh¡Ftu¤â‹ gS, fh‰¿‹ Éir (i) ïa§F« ghŒk¤â‹ ntf« khWÃiy¤
k‰W« ghy¤â‹ vil M»at‰iw jh§F« âirntf¤ij (vc) Él mâfkhdhš
tifÆš totik¡f¥gl nt©L«. ïa¡fkhdJ RH‰á X£lkh»wJ.
o
(iii) Û£á¥g©ò mšyJ É£l§fË‹ tisî (ii) xU gl»‹ mšyJ f¥gÈ‹ ã‹òwKŸs
v‹gJ f£ol§fŸ k‰W« ghy§fË‹ ÚÇ‹ X£l« k‰W« ïa§F« ngUªâ‹
ab
cWâ¤j‹ikÆš K¡»a g§fh‰W»wJ. ã‹òwKŸs fh‰W X£l« M»ait RH‰á
(iv) v~»‹ a§ Fzf« mYÄÅa« mšyJ X£l¤â‰F¢ áy vL¤J¡fh£LfŸ MF«.
jhÄu¤ijÉl mâfkhF« vd¤ bjËth»wJ. (iii) ïU tifahd ïa¡f¤â‹ ntWgh£oid
ïU«ò, v~F¡F mL¤jgoahf cŸsJ. xU mf‹w FHhÆš ghí« ÚÇDŸ mj‹
ur

v~F fduf ïaªâu§fis totik¡fî«, m¢á‹ tÊna xU Jis _y« ikia


ïU«ò¡f«ãfŸ f£ol§fŸ f£Ltj‰F« brY¤Jtj‹ _y« vËjhf És¡fyh«.
mâfkhf ga‹gL¤j¥gLtj‰F ïJnt (iv) ghŒk¤â‹ âirntf« Fiwthf cŸs
fhuzkhF«. nghJ ik ne®¡nfh£L¥ ghijÆš bršY«.
.s

khwhf âirntfkhdJ xU F¿¥ã£l


5. Ú® _œ»¡ f¥gšfŸ vj‹ mo¥gilÆš kâ¥ig Él mâkhdhš ikahdJ guÉ
ïa§F»‹wd? v›thW? xG§f‰w ïa¡f¤ij¡ fh£L«. vdnt
(i) Ú®_œ»¡ f¥gšfŸ Ú® mšyJ fh‰¿dhš ïa¡fkhdJ RH‰á X£lkhf khW»wJ.
w

Ãu¥g¡Toa Ãiy¥gL¤J« bjh£ofis¡ tisªJ be˪J bršY« ïa¡f¤âdhš


bfh©LŸsd. RHš X£l« cUth» mj‹ Éisthf mâf
M‰wš mÊ¡f¥gL»wJ.
(ii) Ãiy¥gL¤J«
w

bjh£ofŸ fh‰¿dhš
Ãu¥g¥g£lhš R‰W¥òw ÚiuÉl 8. budhšL v© Rc ‹ K¡»a¤Jt« ahJ? mj‹
Ú®_œ»¡f¥gÈ‹ bkh¤j ml®¤âahdJ _y« x‰Wik Éâ v‹gij És¡F.
FiwªJ mJ nk‰gu¥ã‰F tU« (ne® âut¤â‹ X£l¤ij òǪJ bfhŸs budhšL
w

Äj¡F« j‹ik). Rc kâ¥ig Ñœ¡f©lthW f©l¿ªjh®.

(iii) fh‰iw btËna‰¿ bjh£ofËš Úiu t.


budhšL v© X£l«

Ãu¥ãdhš Ú®_œ»¡f¥gÈ‹ bkh¤j ml®¤â
1. Rc < 1000 tÇ¢Ó® X£l«
R‰W¥òw ÚiuÉl mâfkh» f¥gš _œF«
(vâ® Äj¡F« j‹ik). 2. 1000 <Rc < 2000 Óu‰w X£l«
3. Rc >2000 RH‰á X£l«

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262 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
RH‰á X£l« bjhl§F« Rc ï‹ khWÃiy kâ¥ò (i) Tsa > Tsl k‰W« Tsa - Tsl > 0 vÅš (Ú® -
toÉayhf xnu khâÇíŸs X£l§fS¡F rkkhd ãsh°o¡ ïil¥gFâ) nr®nfhz« MdJ
kâ¥ig¡ bfh©LŸsJ. cjhuzkhf khWg£l FW§nfhz« (¸θ¸kâ¥ò 90° I Él¡ Fiwî)
ml®¤âfŸ k‰W« gh»aš v©fŸ kâ¥òŸs k‰W« cosθ¸ ne®¡F¿ kâ¥òilaJ.
ïU âut§fŸ (v©bzŒ k‰W« Ú®) rk tot«
k‰W« msîfis¡ bfh©l ïU FHhŒfŸ (ii) Tsa < Tsl k‰W« Tsa - Tsl < 0 vÅš (Ú® - ïiy

m
tÊna br‹whš, xnu Rc kâ¥ãš RH‰á X£l« ïil¥gFâ) nr®nfhz« ÉÇnfhzkhF«.
bjhl§F»wJ. nk‰f©l fU¤âÈUªJ x‰Wik (¸θ¸kâ¥ò 180° I Él¡ Fiwî) k‰W« cosθ¸
Éâia¥ bgwyh«. mj‹ T‰whdJ, ïU toÉaš v⮡F¿ kâ¥òilaJ.

co
ßâahf xnu khâÇahd ghŒk X£l§fŸ ïUªjhš
mit ïu©L« xnu budhšL v©iz¡ (iii) Tsa> Tla + Tsl vÅš m§nf rkÃiy ïšyhkš
bfh©oU¡F« tiu mo¥gilÆš x‹W¡bfh‹W Ú®kkhdJ âl¥bghUË‹ nkš guî«.
rkkhdjhF«. vdnt âl - âut ïil¥gFâfS¡F ïilna cŸs
9. nr®nfhzkhdJ e« m‹whl thœÉš K¡»a¥

s.
ghFÃiyÆ‹ K¡»a¤Jt« ahJ? (mšyJ)
ghFÃiyÆ‹ ga‹ghLfŸ ahit? ga‹ghLfis¡ bfh©LŸsJ. vL¤J¡fh£lhf,
ghFÃiyÆ‹ K¡»a¤Jt¤ij Ñœ¡fhQ« nrh¥ò«, ryit¤öS« <ukh¡F« fhuÂfŸ.
cjhuz§fËš ïUªJ òǪJ bfhŸsyh«.

ok
mit xU Ú®k¡fiurÈš nr®¡f¥g£lhš mit
(i) fduf ïaªâu§fË‹ ghf§fËš nr®nfhz¤ij Fiw¡f KaY«. mjdhš
caÉahf¥ ga‹gL« v©bzŒ mâf JÂfËš e‹whf CLUÉ mG¡if mf‰W«.
gh»aš v©iz¡ bfh©oU¡f nt©L«. k‰bwhU tifÆš Ú® òfh t®z§fŸ f£ol¤â‹
bghU¤jkhd caÉia¤ nj®î brŒa btË¥òw« ór¥gL»‹wd. mit kiH bgŒ
o
mj‹ ghFÃiyiaí«, bt¥gÃiyia¥ í«nghJ ÚU¡F« t®z« ór¥g£l gu¥ã‰F«
bghW¤J v›thW khWghL»wJ v‹gijí« ïilna cŸs nr®nfhz¤ij mâfÇ¡F«.
ab
m¿ªâU¡f nt©L«.
(ii) áy fUÉfË‹ ïa¡f¤â‰F <u¥gj¤ij¡
bfhL¡f mâf ghFÃiy bfh©l âut« beLÉdh¡fŸ  5 kâ¥bg©fŸ
ga‹gL¤j¥gL»wJ k‰W« mJ ÚÇaš
jL¥ãfËš (hydraulic brakes) jL¥ã 1. jifî - âÇò Étu¥ gl¤âid tiuªJ ÉtÇ.
ur

v©bzŒahf ga‹gL»wJ. jifî - âÇò Étu¥gl« v‹gJ x›bthU gS


(iii) jkÅfŸ k‰W« ïu¤j¡ FHhŒfŸ tÊna kâ¥ã‰F« jifî k‰W« âÇò msÉl¥g£L
ïu¤j X£l« Ú®k¤â‹ ghFÃiyia¢ âÇig X- m¢áY«, jifit Y- m¢áY« bfh©L
.s

rh®ªjJ. tiua¥g£l xU tiugl« MF«. bghUŸfË‹


(iv) xU vy¡£uhÅ‹ Ä‹}£l¤ij¡ fhz
Û£á¥g©òfis jifî - âÇò Étu¥gl¤âÈUªJ
ÄšÈf‹ v©bzŒ¤ JË MŒit gF¥ghŒî brŒayh«.
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nk‰bfh©lh®. mt® ghFÃiy g‰¿a


m¿it Ä‹}£l¤ij¡ fz¡»l Y D
C E
ga‹gL¤âdh®. B
OA :
w

10. xU âut¤â‹ nr® nfhz¤â‹ rk‹ghL ahJ? A B:


mâÈUªJ ÚÉ® m¿í« ne®îfŸ ahit? m‹whl D:
thœÉš ga‹ghL ahJ? E:
w

Ú®kkhdJ rkÃiyia¥ bghW¤J Ãiyahf


ïU¥ã‹ ï«_‹W ïil¥gFâfS¡F ïilna o X
cŸs gu¥ò ïGÉirfS« rkÃiyÆnyna jifî-âÇò Étu¥gl«
ïU¡F«. vdnt, Tsa − Tsl gFâ OA : ïªj¥ gFâÆš jifthdJ
(i) 
Tsa = Tla cosθ + Tsl ⇒ cosθ = âÇò¡F ne®¤jfÉš ïU¡F« tifÆš
Tla
nk‰f©l rk‹gh£oÈUªJ _tifahd ne®îfŸ jifthdJ Äfî« Fiwthf cŸsJ;
ÑnH Éthâ¡f¥g£LŸsd. mjhtJ A]¡ Éâ¡F c£gL»wJ. òŸË
A MdJ É»j všiy vd¥gL«. Vbd‹whš

orders@surabooks.com PH: 9600175757 / 8124201000 / 8124301000


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RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 263

ïªjòŸË¡F nkš A]¡ Éâ bghUªjhJ. vªj xU òŸËÆY« mj‹ bjhLnfhlhdJ


OA nfh£o‹ rhŒî f«ãÆ‹ a§ Fzf« mªj¥ òŸËÆš ghŒk X£l¤â‹ âiria¡
MF«. bfhL¡»wJ. ïjid ï›thW miH¥gj‰F¡
(ii) gFâ AB : jifthdJ Äf Fiwthd fhuz« ïJ xU Ú® Xil mšyJ ïy£áa
msî mâfÇ¡f¥g£lhš ïªj¥ gFâ ÃiyÆš cŸs M‰iw¥ ngh‹W cŸsnj

m
mila¥gL»wJ. ïªj¥ gFâÆš jifthdJ MF«.
âÇò¡F ne®¤jfÉš ïšiy. Mdhš, Ú£á
Éir Ú¡f¥g£lhš f«ãahdJ mj‹ bjhl¡f
Ús¤â‰F¤ âU«ò«. ïªj¥ g©ò B òŸËÆš

co
Kotil»wJ. vdnt B òŸË Éisî¥òŸË
(Û£á všiy) vd¥gL«. jifî-âÇò
tiugl¤âš OAB MdJ bghUË‹ (ï§F
f«ã) Û£á¥g©ig¡ F¿¡»wJ.
v
(iii) gFâ BC : f«ãahdJ òŸË (B)¡F (Û£á

s.
všiy) nkš Ú£l¥gLkhdhš, jifî
mâfÇ¡»wJ k‰W« f«ãahdJ Ú£á Éir Óuhd X£l« - Ú®k¤â‹ vªj¥ òŸËÆY«
Ú¡f¥gL« nghJ jdJ Mu«g Ús¤ij

ok
âirntf« kh¿È
Û©L« bgwhJ.
(iv) gFâ CD : jifthdJ C¡F m¥ghš (iv) Ú®k X£l¤â‹ âir¡F br§F¤jhd vªj xU
mâfÇ¡f¥g£lhš, âÇò Äf Éiuthf FW¡Fbt£L gu¥ãY« xnu âirntf¤ij¡
mâfǤJ òŸË D I milí«. D ¡F m¥ghš bfh©l Óuhd tÇ¡ f‰iwia¡ fUâdhš
mªj f‰iw FHhŒ tot X£l« (tube of flow)
o
f«ãahdJ vªj gSî« nr®¡f¥glhknyna
Ú©L bfh©nl br‹W òŸË E ïš Ko»wJ. vd¥gL«. FHhŒ tot X£l¤âš cŸs vªj
xU Ú®k¤JfS« mj‹ ïa¡f« KGtj‰F«
ab
vªj bgUk¤jifɉF (ï§F D) m¥ghš f«ã
K¿til»wnjh mªj jifî K¿î¤jifî FHhÆDŸnsna v¥nghJ« ïU¡F« k‰W«
mšyJ Ú£á tÈik (tensile strength) k‰w FHhŒ âut¤Jl‹ fy¡fhJ v‹gij
vd¥gL«. mj‰FÇa òŸË (D) K¿î¥òŸË K¡»akhf ftÅ¡f nt©L«.
vd¥gL«. BCDE gFâf«ã¥ bghUË‹ (v) FHhŒ tot X£l¤â‹ m¢R v¥nghJ«
ur

Û£áa‰w¤ j‹ikia¡ F¿¡»wJ. tÇ¢Ó® X£l¤ij¤ jU«. tÇ¢Ó® X£l§fŸ


v¥nghJ« ghŒk¤JfŸfË‹ ïa¡f¥
2. tÇ¢Ó® X£l¤âid vL¤J¡fh£Ll‹ ÉtÇ.
ghijfis¡ F¿¡»‹wd. ghŒk¤â‹
(i) M‰¿š eL¥gFâÆš JfË‹ âirntf« X£l« khWÃiy¤ âirntf« vd¥gL« xU
.s

Édho¡F 4 Û£l® ïU¥gjh¡ fUJf. vdnt F¿¥ã£l âirntf« tiu tÇ¢Óuhf cŸsJ.
ïªj¥ òŸËia¡ fl¡F« mid¤J¤ ïj‹ bghUŸ, khWÃiy¤ âirntf¤â‰F¡
JfŸfË‹ âirntf§fS« mnj kâ¥ig¥ Fiwthd ntf¤âš ghí«nghJ tÇ¢Ó®
bgW«. ïJngh‹nw, fiunahu¤âš ghí«
w

X£l¤ij¥ bgwyh«.
Ú®k¤JfË‹ âirntf« Édho¡F 0.5 Û£l®
vÅš mjid¥ ã‹ bjhlU« mid¤J 3. âut¤â‹ bt›ntW k£l§fËš cŸs
Ú®k¤JfŸfË‹ âirntf§fS« mnj _y¡TWfS¡»ilnaahd ÉirfŸ g‰¿ ÉtÇ.
w

kâ¥ig¥ bgW«. (i) ml®¤â, gu¥ò ïGÉir ngh‹w ïaw


(ii) xU âut X£l¤âš, xU òŸËÆ‹ tÊna g©òfŸ fhuzkhf bt›ntW âut§fŸ
bršY« x›bthU âut¤JfS« mj‰F x‹wh¡ fy¥gâšiy. vL¤J¡fh£lhf ÚU«,
w

K‹d® br‹w JfŸfË‹ ghijÆnyna k©bz©izí« x‹whf fy¥gâšiy.


mnj âirntf¤âš ïa§»dhš mªj âut ghjur« f©zhoÆš x£Ltâšiy.
X£lkhdJ tÇ¢Ó® X£l« vd¥gL«. Mdhš ÚuhdJ f©zhoÆš x£L«.
(iii) ïjidÓuhd X£l« mšyJ mL¡FKiw ÚuhdJ j©LfŸ tÊahf ïiyfŸ tiu
X£l« (Laminar flow) vdî« F¿¥ãlyh«. nknyW«. mit bgU«ghY« âut§fË‹
ïa§F« ghŒk¤JfŸ nk‰bfhŸS« nk‰gu¥òfSl‹ bjhl®ò bfh©litahf
tisthd ghij tÇ¢Ó® vd¥gL»wJ. ïU¡»‹wd.
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264 RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
(ii) âut§fS¡F tiuaW¡f¥g£l totÄšiy. ÑœgFâÆš mâf _y¡TWfŸ ïU¥gjhš mJ
Mdhš tiuaW¡f¥g£l gUk‹ c©L. Ñœ neh¡»a bjhFga‹ Éiria¥ bgW»wJ.
vdnt mt‰iw bfhŸfyÅš C‰W«nghJ (vii) ïnjnghš C v‹w _y¡TW âut¤â‹
mit jift‰w nk‰gu¥ig¥ bgW»‹wd. nk‰gu¥ãš cŸsjhš (mjhtJ nk‰ghâ
vdnt nk‰gu¥ghdJ TLjyhf M‰wiy¥ fh‰¿Y«, Ñœghâ âut¤âY«) mâfg£r Ñœ

m
bgW»wJ. mJ nk‰gu¥ò M‰wš neh¡F Éiria¥ bgW»wJ. VbdÅš
vd¥gL»wJ. mâfkhd âut _y¡TWfŸ Ñœg gFâÆš
(iii) nk‰f©l Ãfœî¡F fhuz« gu¥ò ïGÉir cŸsd. vdnt _y¡TW všiy¡FŸ cŸs
âut _y¡ TWfŸ mid¤J« C_y¡TWl‹

co
v‹w g©ghF«. yh¥y° k‰W« fh° v‹w
m¿P®fŸ gu¥ò ïGÉir k‰W« bt›ntW ïilÉid òǪJ Ñœ neh¡»a Éiria
NœÃiyfËš âut¤â‹ ïa¡f« g‰¿a cz®»wJ v‹gJ bjËth»wJ. c£gFâÆDŸ
nfh£ghLfis cUth¡»d®. Ú®k _y¡ ïU¡F« vªj _y¡Tiwí« âut¤â‹
TWfŸ âl¥bghUËš cŸsJ nghš ïWf¥ nk‰gu¥ò¡F¡ bfh©Ltu XÇd¡ ft®¢á

s.
Éir¡F vâuhf ntiy brŒa nt©oíŸsJ.
ãiz¡f¥g£oU¥gâšiy. vdnt mit
ï›ntiyahdJ _Y¡TWfËš
vËjhf efU»‹wd. Ãiyah‰wyhf nrÄ¡f¥gL»wJ. vdnt,
âut nk‰gu¥ãš cŸs _y¡TWfŸ

ok
C B
c£gFâÆDŸ cŸs _y¡TWfis Él mâf
Ãiyah‰wiy¥ bg‰WŸsd.
(viii) Mdhš xU mik¥ò rkÃiyÆš ïU¡f
nt©LkhÆ‹ mj‹ Ãiyah‰wš (gu¥ò
A
o M‰wš) áWkkhf ïU¡f nt©L«. vdnt
cWâ¢rkÃiyÆš ïU¡f âutkhdJ áWk
ab
âut¤â‹ bt›ntW k£l§fËš
cŸs _yTWfŸ v©Â¡ifÆyhd _y¡TWfis¥ bgw
KaY«. ntW tifÆš Twnt©LkhÆ‹
(iv) xU âut¤âš cŸs xnu tifahd Ú®k
_y¡ TWfS¡»ilna V‰gL« ÉirahdJ âutkhdJ áWk nk‰gu¥ãid¥ bgw
XÇd¡ft®¢á Éir (Cohesive force) KaY«. âut¤â‹ ïªj g©ghdJ gu¥ò
ur

vd¥gL»wJ. xU Ú®kkhdJ âl¥bghUis¤ ïGÉiria c©lh¡F»‹wJ.


bjhL«nghJ âut k‰W« âl¥bghUŸ _y¡
TWfŸ nt¿d¡ ft®¢á Éir (adhesive 4.
Ú®k§fË‹ mG¤j, ïa¡f k‰W« Ãiy
force) v‹w ft®¢á Éiria¥ bgW»‹wd. M‰wY¡fhd nfhitia¤ jUÉ.

Óuhf¥ ghí« Ú®k¤â‰F _tifahd M‰wšfŸ
.s

ï›tifahd _y¡TWfS¡F ïil¥g£l


ÉirahdJ 10-9 (mjhtJ 10 ) v‹w c©L. P Vmit PAV(i) ïa¡f
PA PM‰wš (ii) Ãiy M‰wš
FWªbjhiyî¡F k£Lnk brašgL«. k‰W«A (iii) mG¤j = A MF«.
M‰wš
V m m ρ
(v) mid¤J âirfËY« ï›tifahd _y¡ (i) ïa¡f M‰wš : m Ãiwí« v âirntfK«
w

T¿il ÉirfŸ brašgL« bjhiythdJ bfh©l Ú®k¤â‹ V ïa¡f M‰wyhdJ


ft®¢á¥òy« (sphere of influence)  m  1 2 PB 1 2
KE= mv mvP V P V mv P P
vd¥gL»wJ. ï¥òy¤â‰F m¥ghYŸs  m  2 A ρ A 2 AB = A
m
w

ÉirfŸ òw¡f¡f¥gL»‹wd. V
XuyF Ãiw¡fhd m
ïa¡f M‰wš ρ =
2
1 2 P v V
(vi) xU âut¤âš A, B k‰W« C v‹w _‹W vA 1 2 1 mv 2
ntWg£l _y¡TWfis¡ fUJf. A vD« 2KE ρg2 mvgm  1 v2 2 1PB m 1 2
=  = 2 mv A=   mvB
w

_y¡TwhdJ mid¤J âirfËY« cŸs m m m  2V 2ρ V 2


všyh _Y¡TWfSlD« ïilÉid PA
òÇtjhš A czU« bjhFga‹ Éir PE mgh
ïnjnghš 1 XuyF P E
2 mgh
2
PV PAVP ïa¡f
vgUkD¡fhd
p
PPAV PA
=
M‰wš= v = =V = m m ρ
RÊahF«. B v‹w _y¡TwhdJ, eh‹»š m m2 A
Vρg m g m m ρ
_‹W ghf« âut¤â‹ nk‰gu¥ò¡F¡ ÑnHí«, 1 2 1 2 V V
eh‹»š xU ghf« fh‰¿Y« cŸsd. B¡F KE KE mv mv 1  m
PV 2 2 =   = m  1 22 PB 1
m= =gUk‹ m = V v2 = mv
2  V   m  2 ρv A ρ
m
V 2
PE mgh mgh E p PV 1P 2 PP v 2
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m / 8124201000
m V m/ 8124301000
m 2m ρρg g
V
This is only for Sample Materials
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P1
RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš ➠ myF 7 ➠ gU¥bghUË‹ g©òfŸ 265

(ii) Ãiy M‰wš : jiu k£l¤âÈUªJ h Tiu¡F ÑnHíŸs P2 v‹w mG¤j«


cau¤âYŸs m Ãiw bfh©l Ú®k¤â‹ mâfkhF«.
P2 vdntP2ïªj
> P1 mG¤j ntWghL
Ãiyah‰wš 1 2 1 2 (P2-P1) nkšneh¡»a cªJ Éiria
KE mv mv 1 m
PE ==mgh 2 2   cUth¡» Tiu nkbyG«ã fh‰Wl‹ nr®ªJ
=  
XuyF Ãiw¡fhd m Ãiyah‰wš
m V 2V  ö¡» v¿a¥gL»wJ.

m
1 PE 2 1 mgh mgh E p PV P P (ii) Ékhd ïw¡if ca®¤jš (Aerofoil lift):
KE 2 mv m = mv 2 =1 ghm = = =
= 2 m = V  m m m ρ
 
m1
ïnjnghš mXuyF V
1 gUkD¡fhd 2  V Ãiyah‰wš V

co
2 2
KE PE2 mv mgh PV
PE
mv
2 mgh= 1Ep m PV P P fh‰¿dhš njh‹¿a mG¤
= =  =  gh == ρgh= khd j«
=
m m gUk‹
= =
m m VV V 2m V  m m ρ ntf
(iii)
PEmG¤j mghM‰wš E p PVÛJ mG¤j¤ij¢
mgh: Ú®k¤â‹ P VP
=
brY¤Jtjhš = = =
m PV m VÉir m m m ρ

s.
mG¤j«
V = ⇒ Éir =V mG¤j« ×
gu¥ò
gu¥ò
PV ntfkhd fh‰¿dhš njh‹¿a mG¤j«

ok
F × d = (PA) × d = P(A × d)
V th}®â ïa§F«nghJ ïw¡ifÆ‹ ÑGŸs
1 2 1⇒ F 2× d = W = PV = mG¤j M‰wš fh‰iw Él ïw¡ifÆ‹ nkšgFâÆš
KE 2 mv mv 1 m M‰wš E = PV
2vdnt=mG¤j   ntfkhf efU»wJ. bg®bdsÈÆ‹
=   1
p
m m V 2 V
XuyF Ãiw¡fhd mG¤j 2 1 2
M‰wš j¤Jt¥go ïw¡ifÆ‹ ÑœgFâÆš cŸs
KE 2 mv 2 mv 1  m  mG¤jkhdJ, nkšgFâia Él mâfkhf
PE mgh mgh E p PV = P P
= = m = m=
o V
=  
2V 
ïU¥gjhš r¡â thŒªj ca®¤jš vd¥gL«
m m V m m m ρ nkšneh¡»a cªJÉir brašg£L mJ
ab
PE mgh mgh E p PV P P th}®âia nkšneh¡» cau¢ brŒ»wJ.
=V = = =
PV ïnjnghš mXuyFm gUkD¡fhd V m mG¤j m m ρ (iii) ò‹r‹ RluL¥ò: ò‹r‹ RluL¥ãš vÇthí
M‰wš V E©JisÆ‹
V tÊahf mâf
= PV = P
Ep
âirntf¤Jl‹
ur

gUk‹ V P1 btËtU»wJ.
5. bg®bdsÈ nj‰w¤â‹ ga‹ghLfŸ _‹¿id ïjdhš FHhÆš
ÉtÇ. cŸs mG¤j«
(i) Niw¡fh‰¿š TiufŸ ö¡» v¿a¥gLjš : Fiw»wJ. vdnt
.s

P2
b tP2Ë> ¡P1f h ‰ w h d J
ntfkhf mL¥ãDŸ
P1 fh‰W¤ âw¥ã‹ ò‹r‹ RluL¥ò
w

tÊna EiHªJ
vÇthíîl‹ fyªJ cŸsthW Úy Ãw¢
Rliu¤ jU»wJ.
w

P2 P2 > P 1
gƉá fz¡FfŸ
1. 0.5.
w

FoirfŸ mšyJ åLfË‹ nk‰TiufŸ xU cnyhf¤â‹ ghŒr‹ É»j«


ï›cnyhf¤jhš brŒa¥g£l f«ãÆ‹ ÛJ
òašfh‰W åR«nghJ k‰w gFâfS¡F
brY¤j¥gL«nghJ 4% mj‹ FW¡F¥ gu¥ãš
nrj« V‰glh t©z« FoirfË‹ TiufŸ
Fiwî V‰gL»wJ. Ús¤âš V‰gL« rjåj ca®î
ö¡» v¿a¥gL«. bg®bdsÈÆ‹ nj‰w¥go
ahJ?
mântfkhf åR« fh‰whdJ Tiu¡F nkny
∆A ∆r 4
P1 v‹w Fiwªj mG¤j¤ij V‰gL¤J»wJ. =2
Ô®î: A = πr2 vdnt =
A r 100
∆r
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r 1 ∆l
∆l 2 l
This is only for Sample Materials
for Full Book order online and available at all Leading Bookstores
∆∆AA ∆∆ r r 44
266 ==2 2 == RuhÉ‹  XI M« tF¥ò - ïa‰ãaš➠ bjhFâ II
AA r r 100 100
∆∆rr 5. ïªâa¥ bgU§flÈ‹ ruhrÇ MH« bgU§flÈ‹
∆A ∆r 4 1 1 ∆∆ ll mona cŸs ÚÇ‹ gFâ¡ FW¡f« ahJ? (ÚÇ‹
= 2 σ == r r = gUk¡ Fzf« = 2.2 × 109 Nm-2/g = 10ms-2)
A ∆ l
r 100∆l 2 2 l l
∆r l l ∆A = 2 ∆r = 4 Ô®î : mG¤j« = hρs = 3000 × 1000 × 10
r 1 ∆∆A l ∆r A 4 r 100 = 3 × 107 Nm-2
= 2 ∆=r
=

m
∆l 2 A l r 100 ∆V ρ 3 × 107 Nm −2
∆r% Ús¤âšrca®î 1 ∆A ∆l ∆r 4 = =
l ∴ =×2100 == × 100 = 4%

V β 2.2 × 109 Nm −2
∆l 2 A l r 100
r 1 ∆l

= 1.36 × 10-2 = 1.36%

co
∆l 2 l l
2. bfhL¡f¥g£LŸs r
∆cnyhf¤â‹ a§ Fzf«
l
Éiw¥ò¡ Fzf¤ij¥ 1 ∆ l
r nghš 2-4 jlitfŸ vÅš 6. fh‰¿š xU âl¥ bghUŸ J©o‹ vil 120g
ïj‹ ghŒr‹ É»j«∆lahJ? 2 l ÚÇš 80g k‰W« âut¤âš 60g âl, âut¤â‹
Ô®î : Y = 2G (1 + σ) l x¥gl®¤âia¡ fh©.
fh‰¿š vil

s.
2 - 4G = 2G(1 + σ) Ô®î : âl¥ bghUË‹ x¥gl®¤â = fh‰¿š vil - Úßš vil
σ = 1.2 - 1 = 0.2 120 120 − 60 3
= =3 =
120 − 80 120 − 80 2
f«ãÆ‹ nkš KidÆ‹ Mu« 4mm mj‹

ok
3. fh‰¿š vil - âut¤âš vil
âut¤â‹ x¥gl®¤â = fh‰¿š vil - Úßš vil
Ús« 100cm ïJ bghU¤j¥g£LŸsJ. kWKid
rW¡F¡nfhz« 30° Æ‹ _y« âU¥g¥gL»wJ. 120 120 − 60 3
= =
Ô®î : bghU¤j¥glhj jilÆ‹¿ âU«ò« KidÆ‹120 − 80 120 − 80 2
7. xU bghUŸ 40% mj‹ gUk‹ ÚU¡F btËna ÚÇš
nfhz«
o
30 π 302πr π π 2×π0r.4 π × 0.4
Äj¡»wJ. ïnj bghUŸ v©bzÆš Äj¡F«nghJ
30° = × π rad = rad 60% gUk‹ v©bzŒ¡F btËna Äj¡»wJ.
180 6 1802π 6 26π 6
ab
v©bzÆ‹ x¥gl®¤â ahJ?
bfhL¡f¥glhj 0.4 π180
π ×gu¥ã‹ ×ïl¥bga®¢á
0.4∆L180 ∆L Ô®î : V v‹gJ bghUË‹ bkh¤j gUk‹
30 3030π π6230 2π2rππr6××π02100
π×r100 .π×4r×030
.L
4 π
0.4 π× π
0 . 4L2 πr π × 0. 4 bghUŸ ÚÇš Äj¡F«nghJ
ΔL 180 = 6 2× π = 6
180 180 6 180 26π 2π 6 6 2π 180 6 66 2π 6 VρbghUŸ g = 0.6 VρÚ® g
30 π
π 2 ππ π
π ×
× 0. 4
ur

π × 0. 4 180
.4π × 180
π × 0.π4× 0180 0∆.L
4 ∆∆30
L
180L= ∆L π × 02. 4rr 180 0
∆ .
L 4 ρbghUŸ
rW¡F¡nfhz« = 180 6 2 π rad
6
6 ×
6 × 100 100
6 × 100 π
π6 × 100π 180
L
L Lπ 6L× 100 π L 6 2 π 6 ρ Ú® =
0.6
ππ ×× 00..44 180 180 ∆∆LL
= × degree = 0.12° bghUŸ v©bzÆš Äj¡F«nghJ
66××100
100 ππ LL
.s

bghUŸ Vρ g = 0.4 Vρ
v©bzŒ g
4. xU f«ãÆ‹ Ús« L k‰W« FW¡F¥ gu¥ò A. ρbghUŸ
ï¡f«ã brŒa¥g£l cnyhf¤â‹ a§ Fzf« y v‹w ρv©bzŒ =
0.4
w

x msî¡F Ú£áail»wJ. brŒa¥g£l ntiy ahJ?


ρv©bzŒ
Ô®î : xU bghUis Ú£áail¢ brŒjhš ÛŸÉir¡F v©bzÆ‹
x¥gl®¤â =
vâuhf ntiy brŒa¥gL»wJ. ρ bghUŸ
ρÚ®
∴f«ãahdJ x msî Ú£áailí« nghJ brŒa¥
w

= ρ
0.4
= 6 = 1.5
gL« ntiy dw = Fdx bghUŸ 4
0 Kjš x tiu f«ã Ú£áaila brŒa¥g£l ntiy 0.6
8. bt‰¿l¤âš xU nrh¥ò¡ FÄÊ‹ Mu« 3cm.
w

x
F L yAx
w = ∫ Fdx ; y