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Introduction and Fundamentals

• The concept of a Fluid


• Continuum Approximations
• Dimensions and Units
• Thermodynamic properties of a fluid
• Viscosity and other properties

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


The concept of a Fluid

• For a fluid the molecules


not fixed to a lattice
structure
• Solid can resist a shear
stress by a static
deformation; a fluid
cannot
• A fluid at rest must be in
a state of zero shear
stress

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


The concept of a Fluid, 2

• Liquids - Closely
packed molecules
Strong cohesive forces
Tend to retain its volume

Forms a free surface in


gravitational field at
unsupported surface

• Gases - Widely spaced


molecules
Negligable cohesive force
Cannot for a free surface

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Continuum Approximations

Fluid Properties vary smoothly or continuously in space


lim δm
• Density of Fluid defined ρ=
as: δV → 0 δV
• Too large volume gives
noticable variations in
particles
• Too small volume get to
molecular variations
• Limiting volume ~10e-09
mm3 - Most engineering
problems

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Dimensions and Units

• Dimensions - measure of a physical variable


• Unit - value of the quantitative dimension

Mass {M} Kilogram (kg) Slug


Length {L} Meter (m) Foot (ft)
Time {T} Second (s) Second (s)
Θ}
Temperature {Θ Kelvin (K) Rankine (oR)

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Dimensions and Units (2
(2)

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Dimensions and Units (3
(3)

• Equations should be dimensionally consistent


1
Po = P+ ρV 2 + ρgZ
2
Po = Stagnation Pressure = {ML−1T − 2 }
P = Static Pressure = {ML−1T − 2 }
1
ρV 2 = f( density and Velocity) = {ML−3 }{L2T − 2 } = {ML−1T − 2 }
2
ρgZ = f(density, gravity, altitude) = {ML−3 }{LT − 2 }{L} = {ML−1T −2 }

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids - 1
A quantity which describes a fluid's

• Current state
Pressure - P
Density - ρ
Temperature - T
• Capacity to do work or the availability to do
work
Internal Energy - e
Enthalpy - h = u + P/ ρ
Entropy - s
Specific Heats - Cp and Cv
• Diffusion of momentum or energy (Transport
Properties)
Dynamic or Absolute Viscosity - µ
Thermal Conductivity - k

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids - 2
• Pressure - p
Scalar Property
Seen as a compression stress ( force per unit area )
Gradients in Pressure drive fluid flow
• Density - ρ
A fluids mass per unit volume

• Temperature - T
Measure of internal energy
Absolute Temperature Scales
o
R = oF + 459.69
K = oC + 273.16

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids - 3
1 2
e = û + V + gz
2
• Energy
Internal - stored energy from molecular activity and
bonding forces

Kinetic - the work to change the speed of a mass from


zero to a velocity V (give mathematical definition)

Potential - the work to move a mass against a gravity


field

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids - 4
• State Relations for a Gas
Perfect or Ideal Gas - P = ρ RT
Gas Constant - R = Cp - Cv
Universal Gas Constant - Rgas= Λ / Mgas
Specific Heats
Cv = du/dT at constant density -> du = Cv(T)dT
Cp = du/dT at constant pressure -> dh = Cp(T)dT
Ratio of Specific Heat
κ = Cv /Cp
• Air Considered A perfect gas
R = 287 J/kg-K
κ = 1.4
Cv = 718 m2 / (s2-K)
Cp = 1,004 J/kg-K

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids - 5

• Equation of State for a Liquid


ρ = constant
Cp ~ Cv ~ const
dh = Cp dT
See Tables for Thermodynamic Properties

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Viscosity and other properties

• When a fluid is sheared, it moves at a strain


rate inversely proportional to the coefficient
of Viscosity - µ
δθ
τ∝
δt
δ uδ t
tan(δθ ) =
δy

dθ du
= ; assuming small angles
dt dy
dθ du
τ =µ =µ
dt dy

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Shear Velocity Profiles

• Example of a velocity
profile near a wall

• Velocity changes with y

• Gradient at wall causes


friction

• Shear stress varies


linearly with strain rate =
Newtonian Fluid

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Non--Newtonian Fluids
Non

• Shear stress is not


proportional to strain rate
• Bingham - linear after a yield
stress
• Dilatant - strain harding
• pseudoplastic - shear
thinning

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Temperature Variation of Viscosity
• Gas

 T 
n

  Air :
µ 
Power law
≈  To  n ≈ 0.7
µ o (T To )3 / 2 (To + S )
Sutherlands Law S ≈ 110 K or 199o R
 T +S

• Liquid
Water :
µ  To   To 
2 To = 273.16 K
ln ≈ a + b  + c 
µo T  T  µ o = 0.001792 kg/(m - s)
a = -1.94 , b = -4.8, c = 6.74

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


The Reynolds Number
Re = 15,000
ρVL VL Time to Diffuse
Re = = =
µ ν Time to Convect
• A dimensionless
quantity
• Use dimensionless
quantities to
characterize a flow.
• By stating the Reynolds Re = 30,000
number we have some
idea on flow’s behavior

µ
ν = = Kinematic Viscosity
ρ

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Example Problem

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Surface Tension
• Liquids that expand freely will form interface
with 2nd liquid or Gas
• At interface a Mechanical tension occurs
• ϒϒ- Coefficient of Surface Tension
{Force/Length}

∆P dA
r
ϒ ∑F = 0 ϒ

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Force Balance on Idealized Shapes

ϒ= 0.0050 lbf/ft = 0.073 N/m (air-water)


ϒ= 0.033 lbf/ft = 0.48 N/m (air-mercury)

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Contact Surface
• Contact Angle - Angle at which interface
intersects a surface

• Depends on the physical-chemical conditions


of solid-liquid interface

Finish on a Newly waxed car vs. dirty old car


• Clean Hg- glass Θ=130o
ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque
Surface Tension Example

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Flow Types
Compressible and Incompressible

• For static fluids


Incompressible if density undergoes small changes
• For dynamic fluids (flowing)
Fluid velocity approaches or exceeds Speed of Sound

Defn: Mach Number = Ma = Fluid velocity / Speed of Sound

Speed of Sound = aideal gas = κRT

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Flow Types
Inviscid vs Viscous
• For high Reynolds number can be considered
inviscid flow

• Viscosity important in certain regions of the


flow

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Flow Types
Steady and Unsteady Flow

• Steady - the flow field


does not change in time

• Unsteady - the flow field


changes in time

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


In-
In-Class Problem

• Couete flow related

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque


Summary

• The Concept of Fluid


• Continuum Approximations
• Dimensions and Units
• Thermodynamic properties of a fluid
• Viscosity and other properties
• Couet Flow
• Surface Tension
• Flow types
Compressible, Incompressible
Viscous, Inviscid

ME395 Lecture2 Fluid Mechanics EPN Duque