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Backup and Recovery Snapshots

for VMware ESX Server With


Sun™ Storage 7000 Unified Storage System
Ryan Arneson
August 2009
Sun Microsystems, Inc.

This article was published by BigAdmin at:


http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/features/articles/7000_snapclone.jsp
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Copyright © 2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara, California 95054, U.S.A. All rights
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Backup and Recovery Snapshots for VMware ESX Server With Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System 3
Table of Contents
1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................5
2 Scope.......................................................................................................................................................6
2.1 Configuration Details......................................................................................................................6
2.2 Assumptions....................................................................................................................................6
3 Snapshot Overview.................................................................................................................................7
3.1 Types of Snapshots..........................................................................................................................7
3.1.1 Snapshot Use Cases ................................................................................................................8
3.2 Configuring VMware ESX for Snapshots.......................................................................................9
3.2.1 Centralized Swap.....................................................................................................................9
4 Creating Snapshots................................................................................................................................11
4.1 Cold Snapshots..............................................................................................................................11
4.2 Warm Snapshots............................................................................................................................11
4.3 Hot Snapshots................................................................................................................................12
5 Recovering From Snapshots..................................................................................................................14
5.1 Recovery With Rollback...............................................................................................................14
5.2 Manual File-Level Recovery.........................................................................................................15
5.3 Clone and Manual File-Level Recovery.......................................................................................16
5.3.1 Preparing the VMware ESX 3.5 Server.................................................................................16
5.3.2 Cloning a Volume or Share...................................................................................................16
5.3.3 Adding a Cloned iSCSI Volume to VMware ESX 4.0 (vSphere) ........................................17
5.3.4 Manual File-Level Recovery From a Clone..........................................................................18
6 Example Warm Snapshot Script...........................................................................................................19
7 For More Information............................................................................................................................20
8 Licensing Information...........................................................................................................................22

Backup and Recovery Snapshots for VMware ESX Server With Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System 4
1 Overview
The Sun™ Storage 7000 Unified Storage System series of products has comprehensive data protection
features that provide instant snapshots, cloning, rollback, and remote replication. These features can
make protecting VMware ESX 3.5 and VMware vSphere environments easier for Virtual Infrastructure
and storage administrators.

This implementation guide shows the methodologies to be followed for performing array-based backup
and recovery operations for VMware virtual machine environments using the snapshot, clone, rollback,
and replication features.

The intended audience is virtual environment administrators, system administrators, storage


administrators, and anyone who would like to understand or deploy VMware ESX or vSphere on the
Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System.

Backup and Recovery Snapshots for VMware ESX Server With Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System 5
2 Scope
The following topics are covered:

● Consistent cold backup point-in-time copy using the snapshot feature

● Warm backup point-in-time copy using the snapshot feature

● Hot backup point-in-time copy using the snapshot feature

● Recovery from snapshots

● Using the clone feature for backup, test, and rapid deployment

2.1 Configuration Details

The following items were tested for this guide:

● VMware version: VMware ESX 3.5 U4 and VMware vSphere 4

● Virtual machine guest OS: Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Enterprise, Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 5.3, and the Solaris™ 10 5/09 Operating System

● Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System software: 2009.Q2 (2009.04.10)

● NFSv3 and iSCSI volumes

2.2 Assumptions

● VMware ESX or VMware vSphere is already installed on the physical servers.

● User, roles, projects, and SSH are already configured as described in the BigAdmin article
"Using Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System with VMware ESX Server"
(http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/features/articles/storage_vmware.jsp).

Backup and Recovery Snapshots for VMware ESX Server With Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System 6
3 Snapshot Overview
A snapshot is a read-only copy of a file system or volume. Snapshots can be created almost instantly,
and initially they consume no additional disk space within the pool. However, as data within the active
dataset changes, the snapshot consumes disk space by continuing to reference the old data and so
prevents the space from being freed. Snapshots include the following features:

● They persist across system reboots.

● They use no separate backing store. Snapshots consume disk space directly from the same
storage pool as the file system from which they were created.

● Recursive snapshots are created quickly as one atomic operation. The snapshots are created
together (all at once) or not created at all. The benefit of atomic snapshots operations is that the
snapshot data is always taken at one consistent time, even across descendent file systems.

Snapshots of volumes cannot be accessed directly, but they can be cloned and rolled back to.

While the snapshots functionality is diverse and vast, the process of implementing and managing them
is simple. When a snapshot is requested by an authorized user or is automatically "taken," the time
required and performance overhead are negligible to both the network infrastructure and the live, active
file system.

3.1 Types of Snapshots

● Manual – This an on-demand snapshot. Users can initiate snapshots at any time, either at the
project or share level.

● Scheduled – At a pre-determined interval defined by the user (minute, hour, day, week, or
month), the snapshots are taken automatically without the need for user interaction. Users have
a choice to keep a defined number of snapshots in this method.

Backup and Recovery Snapshots for VMware ESX Server With Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System 7
For the purposes of integrating with VMware ESX, it is recommended that manual snapshots be the
preferred method. The snapshots can easily be scripted, integrated with other scripts to control various
application needs, and launched using a cron job or other scheduling process from a management
station.

3.1.1 Snapshot Use Cases

There are three use cases for snapshots with the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System and
VMware ESX:

● Cold Backup

In a cold backup, the virtual machines are completely powered down before initiating the
snapshot on the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System. This method should ensure
complete data integrity. This method should be used when absolute data integrity is needed in
the backup, when preparing virtual machines for mass cloning, or when snapshots might
otherwise be needed to clone or completely roll back a virtual machine to a point-in-time.
Because the snapshot can taken quickly, the amount of downtime needed should be
dramatically reduced compared to traditional cold backups.

● Warm Backup

In a warm backup, Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System snapshots are coordinated with
VMware ESX snapshots to put the virtual machines in a consistent state prior to taking the Sun
storage system snapshot. This method can be used to take snapshots for "crash-consistent"
backup purposes while the virtual machine is still running. A script to help coordinate the
snapshots is listed in Section 6 of this guide. Warm snapshots should be used when quick point-
in-time checkpoints of the data virtual disk files are needed. Recovering from warm snapshots
should be done manually on a file by file basis, rather than completely rolling back the snapshot.

● Hot Backup

In a hot backup, no coordination between the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System and
VMware ESX is used. A snapshot on the array is taken at any point when the virtual machine is

Backup and Recovery Snapshots for VMware ESX Server With Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System 8
powered on. There is no guarantee of data consistency, because there might be un-flushed
application or file system caches in the virtual machines. This method should be used only on
low-activity, seldom updated or changed virtual machines. On any virtual machine with
applications that require consistency, either a cold or warm backup should be used as an
alternative.

3.2 Configuring VMware ESX for Snapshots

3.2.1 Centralized Swap

VMware ESX creates a swap file (vswap) for every virtual machine that is powered on. These files
are usually 1 to 2 times the size of the configured memory on the virtual machine. This swap data is
temporary in nature and is not required for recovery. To save space in the snapshots, it is recommended
to store all the swap files in a central location on a separate data store that will not be part of any
snapshot policy.

To centrally store the swap files, a separate data store must first be created. It is recommended that this
data store be configured "sparse" or "thin-provisioned" if iSCSI LUNs are to be used. Follow the
normal procedures for attaching this NFS or ISCSI data store to the VMware ESX server.

To configure a central datastore to hold the swap files:

1. Log in to VMware Virtual Center.

2. Select a VMware ESX server.

3. Select the Configuration tab.

4. Select Virtual Machine Swapfile Location.

5. Select Edit.

6. Select the datastore that will be the central location.

Backup and Recovery Snapshots for VMware ESX Server With Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System 9
The previous process does not affect existing virtual machines. To change the swap file location for
existing virtual machines, do the following:

1. Log in to Virtual Center.

2. Select a virtual machine.

3. Right-click to select Edit Settings.

4. Select the Options tab.

5. Under Advanced, select Swapfile Location.

6. Choose Default.

7. To have settings take effect, use one of the following substeps:

- Migrate the virtual machine to a VMware ESX server that has the central swap datastore
configured

or

- Power cycle the virtual machine

Backup and Recovery Snapshots for VMware ESX Server With Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System 10
4 Creating Snapshots
The snapshot examples in this section are shown using the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System
Command Line Interface (CLI). Please see the Help section (integrated in the management interface)
for details on using the Browser User Interface (BUI).

4.1 Cold Snapshots

Cold snapshots should be used when the highest level of data consistency is needed to ensure a valid
backup or when the snapshot will ultimately be used for cloning.

To configure the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System for ssh password-less access, please refer
to "Using Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System with VMware ESX Server"
(http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/features/articles/storage_vmware.jsp).

To take a cold snapshot, do the following:

1. Power down the virtual machine.

2. Log in to the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System CLI using ssh.

3. Take a manual snapshot using this command: shares select <project> select
<share> snapshots snapshot mycoldsnap

Example:
isv-7410c-h1:> shares select linux_db select linux_db_1 snapshots snapshot mycoldsnap

4. Power on the virtual machine.

4.2 Warm Snapshots

Warm snapshots should be used when the virtual machine needs to stay powered on, but
crash-consistent backups are still needed. The warm snapshot process consists of first placing the
virtual machines into a quiesced state by taking a VMware snapshot in Virtual Center, then taking a
Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System snapshot, and finally removing the VMware snapshot and
returning the virtual machine to its normal state. While the VMware snapshot is active, the virtual

Backup and Recovery Snapshots for VMware ESX Server With Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System 11
machine is still active. The virtual disk files are placed into a consistent, read-only state but updates to
the virtual machine are being tracked by delta or redo files. When the VMware snapshot is removed,
the virtual disks are unlocked and the redo files are replayed to apply the changes to the virtual disks.

The following example demonstrates a manual procedure for taking a warm snapshot. The VMware
snapshot command is shown being run in the VMware ESX server Service Console.

To take a warm snapshot, do the following:

1. Place the virtual machine into quiesced mode by taking a VMware snapshot.

# vmware-cmd /vmfs/volumes/3d8a6ad3-437f8b89/rhel5-db1/rhel5-db1.vmx createsnapshot


WarmSnap "warm backup" 1 0

If there are multiple virtual machines in this datastore, each machine must be quiesced prior to
continuing on to the next step.

2. Log in to the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System using ssh.

3. Take a manual snapshot using this command: shares select <project> select
<share> snapshots snapshot mywarmsnap

Example:
isv-7410c-h1:> shares select linux_db select linux_db_1 snapshots snapshot mywarmsnap

4. Remove the VMware snapshot to return the virtual machine to normal operations.

# vmware-cmd /vmfs/volumes/3d8a6ad3-437f8b89/rhel5-db1/rhel5-db1.vmx removesnapshots

4.3 Hot Snapshots

Hot snapshots are recommended only for low-use virtual machines that do not have a large amount of
changes happening. Since hot snapshots do not take any precautions to ensure data consistency, they
should be avoided for virtual machines that have transactional applications, such as mail servers or
databases.

To take a hot snapshot, do the following:

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1. Log in to the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System using ssh.

2. Take a manual snapshot using this command: shares select <project> select
<share> snapshots snapshot myhotsnap

Example:
isv-7410c-h1:> shares select linux_db select linux_db_1 snapshots snapshot myhotsnap

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5 Recovering From Snapshots
Depending on the recovery objective and the type of snapshot taken, there are various ways to recover
from a snapshot backup.

● Rollback

● Manual file-level recovery

● Clone and manual file-level recovery

5.1 Recovery With Rollback

Recovery with rollback is a method that reverts a share back to the state it was in at the point in time of
the snapshot. Rollbacks happen at the granularity of the entire share, so rollbacks should not be used if
only a single virtual machine or file needs to be recovered on a share that might contain multiple virtual
machines. Rollbacks should also be used only on cold snapshots, because warm snapshots have
references to VMware snapshots as well. Rolling back to warm snapshots might result in the virtual
machine being in an undetermined state.

To roll back a snapshot, do the following:

1. Log in to Virtual Center.

2. Power down the virtual machines that are to be recovered.

3. Log in to the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System using ssh.

4. Roll back the snapshot using this command: shares select <project> select
<share> snapshots select <snapshot> rollback

Example:
isv-7410c-h1:> shares select linux_db select linux_db_1 snapshots select mycoldsnap
rollback

Rolling back will revert data to snapshot, destroying newer data. Active initiators
will be disconnected.

Backup and Recovery Snapshots for VMware ESX Server With Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System 14
Continue? (Y/N)

5. Power on the virtual machines.

After rolling back an iSCSI LUN snapshot, the storage should be re-scanned from Virtual Center to
ensure that the initiator logs back in to the targets.

5.2 Manual File-Level Recovery

Manual file-level recovery can be used on NFS shares that have been protected with any of the
snapshot methods. Manual file-level recovery is done through the VMware ESX server Service
Console command line. Unlike rollbacks, manual file-level recovery can be performed on a single
virtual machine or even a single virtual disk file, depending on the recovery objective. Manual file-
level recovery is the recommended method to use with warm snapshots.

To perform manual file-level recovery, do the following:

1. Log in to Virtual Center.

2. Power down the virtual machine.

3. Log in to the ESX Service Console CLI.

4. Change to the hidden .zfs snapshot directory of the share:

# cd /vmfs/volumes/solaris_vm/.zfs/snapshot/mycoldsnap/s10u7-infr1

5. Copy the required *vmdk file back to the virtual machine directory:

# cp s10u7-infr1*vmdk /vmfs/volumes/solaris_vm/s10u7-infr1/

cp: overwrite `/vmfs/volumes/solaris_vm/s10u7-infr1/s10u7-infr1-flat.vmdk'? y

cp: overwrite `/vmfs/volumes/solaris_vm/s10u7-infr1/s10u7-infr1.vmdk'? Y

6. Power on the virtual machine.

Backup and Recovery Snapshots for VMware ESX Server With Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System 15
5.3 Clone and Manual File-Level Recovery

A clone is a writable copy of a snapshot and it is treated as an independent share for administrative
purposes. Clone and manual file-level recovery can be used to recover files from iSCSI volume
snapshots as well as NFS shares. Clones can also be used as a basis for full virtual machine operations.

5.3.1 Preparing the VMware ESX 3.5 Server

When using clones with iSCSI LUNs with VMware ESX 3.5, perform the following steps prior to the
clone operation to allow the VMware ESX server to recognize a cloned or snapshot iSCSI LUN.

1. Log in to Virtual Center.

2. Select ESX Server.

3. Select Configuration.

4. Select Advanced Settings.

5. Select LVM.

6. For LVM.EnableResignature, enter a value of 1.

5.3.2 Cloning a Volume or Share

By default for NFS shares, the clone has a mountpoint that is based on the clone name. A clone named
mynewclone will have a default mountpoint of /export/mynewclone. This can be overridden
in the clone properties if needed. See the Help section in the Sun Storage System for more details.

To clone a snapshot, do the following:

1. Log in to the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System using ssh.

2. Clone a snapshot using this command: isv-7410c-h1:> shares select


<project> select <share/volume> snapshots select <volume> clone
<clonename>

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Example:
isv-7410c-h1:> shares select solaris_infrastructure select solaris1 snapshots select
mycoldsnap clone mynewclone

isv-7410c-h1:shares solaris_infrastructure/mynewclone (uncommitted clone)> commit

The clone can now be added to the VMware ESX server using the same methods as for a normal NFS
or iSCSI LUN. For iSCSI LUNs, ensure that the proper initiator masking on the Sun Storage 7000
Unified Storage System is set. After re-scanning, the iSCSI LUN will appear as a datastore with a
snap-******* label, indicating that the VMware ESX 3.5 server has resignatured the cloned LUN.
The datastore can be renamed if needed.

5.3.3 Adding a Cloned iSCSI Volume to VMware ESX 4.0 (vSphere)

There is a new method for adding cloned iSCSI volumes in VMware ESX 4.0. There are no
LVM.Resignature settings to change, and the volume must be added using similar methods to that of a
non-cloned volume.

1. Log in to Virtual Center.

2. Select ESX Server.

3. Select the Configuration Tab – Storage Adapters.

4. Select Rescan to add the cloned volume.

5. Select Configuration Tab - Storage

6. Select Add Storage -> Disk/LUN.

7. Choose the iSCSI LUN that is the clone.

8. Select Assign New Signature.

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The volume will appear with a snap-****** label in the Storage configuration. It can be renamed if
needed.

5.3.4 Manual File-Level Recovery From a Clone

To recover files from a cloned snapshot, do the following:

1. Log in to Virtual Center.

2. Power down the virtual machine.

3. Log in to the VMware ESX server Service Console CLI.

4. Change to the cloned datastore mountpoint:

# cd /vmfs/volumes/linux_db_clone/rhel5-db1/

5. Copy the needed *vmdk files from the clone mountpoint to the original mountpoint:

# cp *vmdk /vmfs/volumes/linux_db_vm/rhel5-db1/

cp: overwrite `/vmfs/volumes/linux_db_vm/rhel5-db1/rhel5-db1_1-flat.vmdk'? y

cp: overwrite `/vmfs/volumes/linux_db_vm/rhel5-db1/rhel5-db1_1.vmdk'? y

cp: overwrite `/vmfs/volumes/linux_db_vm/rhel5-db1/rhel5-db1-flat.vmdk'? y

cp: overwrite `/vmfs/volumes/linux_db_vm/rhel5-db1/rhel5-db1.vmdk'? Y

6. Power on the virtual machine.

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6 Example Warm Snapshot Script
The following script is an example of how to automate taking a warm snapshot. It was written to be run
on a VMware Virtual Management Appliance that has remote management capabilities and allows an
administrator to run VMware ESX server commands from a central location. The example shows a
single virtual machine being protected. If there are multiple virtual machines in the same share or
volume, all virtual machines should be quiesced prior to taking the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage
System snapshot. The script can be run without needing a password if the script owner is configured as
an administrative user on the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System and the SSH keys are correctly
configured. Please refer to "Using Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System with VMware ESX
Server" for further details.

The *vmx path for the virtual machines can be found by using the vmware-cmd -l command.

#!/bin/bash

# The following script is provided as-is with no implied warranty

# This script is an example warm-snapshot script for use with VMware ESX 3.5/4.0 and the
Sun Storage 7000 array.

vmware-cmd -H isv-6250c -U root -P password /vmfs/volumes/47397fbb-9e827097/w2k8-


sql1/w2k8-sql1.vmx createsnapshot warmsnap Sun7000 1 0

ssh isv-7410c-h1 -T << EOF

script

var d = new Date();

var ts = d.getTime();

run('shares select win_db');

run('select win_db_1');

run('snapshots snapshot warmbackup_' + ts);

run('commit');

EOF

vmware-cmd -H isv-6250c -U root -P password /vmfs/volumes/47397fbb-9e827097/w2k8-


sql1/w2k8-sql1.vmx removesnapshots

Backup and Recovery Snapshots for VMware ESX Server With Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System 19
7 For More Information
● Vmware web site: http://www.vmware.com/
● VMware ESX server documentation: http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs/
● VMware communities: http://communities.vmware.com/home.jspa
● Sun's VMware web page: http://www.sun.com/software/vmware/index.jsp

Storage resources:
● "Using Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System with VMware ESX Server":
http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/features/articles/storage_vmware.jsp

● Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System web site:


http://www.sun.com/storage/disk_systems/unified_storage

● Sun Storage Unified Storage System Administration Guide:


http://docs.sun.com/app/docs/doc/820-4167-10

● Fishworks Blogs: http://blogs.sun.com/fishworks


● Storage Stop Blog: http://blogs.sun.com/storage
● Storage training courses at http://www.sun.com/training/, for example, Sun Storage 7000
Unified Storage System Administration (NWS-6425)
● Discussions:
● Sun Storage forums: http://forum.java.sun.com/category.jspa?categoryID=66
● Sun Hardware - Servers forums: http://forums.sun.com/forum.jspa?forumID=830
● Sun Storage Administration: http://wikis.sun.com/display/StorageAdmin/Home
● BigAdmin Storage wiki (with articles on Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System):
http://wikis.sun.com/display/BigAdmin/Storage+Tech+Tips

● BigAdmin Storage resource collection (includes community submissions):


http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/collections/storage.jsp

General Sun resources:


● Sun download site: http://www.sun.com/download/
● Sun training courses web site: http://www.sun.com/training/
● Discussions, such as Sun forums (http://forums.sun.com/index.jspa) and the BigAdmin
Discussions collection (http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/discussions/)
● Product documentation at http://docs.sun.com and the Documentation Center at
http://www.sun.com/documentation/

Backup and Recovery Snapshots for VMware ESX Server With Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System 20
● Sun wikis, such as the Sun BluePrints™ wiki
(http://wikis.sun.com/display/BluePrints/Main)and the BigAdmin wiki
(http://wikis.sun.com/display/BigAdmin/Home)
● Support:
● Sun resources:
● Register your Sun gear: https://inventory.sun.com/inventory/
● Services: http://www.sun.com/service/index.jsp
● SunSolveSM: http://sunsolve.sun.com
● Community system administration experts:
http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/content/communityexperts/

Backup and Recovery Snapshots for VMware ESX Server With Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage System 21
8 Licensing Information
Unless otherwise specified, the use of this software is authorized pursuant to the terms of the license
found at http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/common/berkeley_license.html.

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