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SME Annual Meeting

Feb. 24 - 27, 2018, Denver, CO

Preprint 19-011

ALASKA GOLD AND SOUTHWEST COPPER – HOW DANIEL JACKLING BROUGHT COPPER KNOW-HOW TO THE JUNEAU
GOLD BELT

T. Braun, SRK Consulting (U.S.), Inc., Denver, CO

ABSTRACT occur in a steeply dipping slate formation near its contact with
metamorphosed volcanic rock known as greenstone in the hanging-
In 1911, a young mining engineer named Bartlett Thane wall and meta-gabbro and schist in the foot-wall.
assembled a large claim block, 4 miles southeast of Juneau, Alaska.
Across the Gastineau Channel on Douglas Island, the Alaska
Treadwell Gold Mining Company had, by 1904, produced gold valued
at more than three times the purchase price of Alaska in 1867 (Kelly,
2010). Thane knew his deposit was lower grade than other mines or
prospects in the area; however, if the deposit was developed on a
large-scale, the trend and size of the deposit made the project
potentially economic. In 1911, Thane developed a business plan for
the project and successfully attracted investor interest.
In 1912, Daniel C Jackling visited the property at the request of an
east coast investment group. Upon inspection of 5 years of production
records for the Perseverance Mine, Jackling saw an opportunity to
apply the low-grade/high volume milling technology which was widely
adopted to the copper porphyry deposits of the southwestern U.S. With
a design capacity of 6,000 tons per day (5,454 tonnes/day), Jackling’s
innovative mill design would require high volume underground mining
methods and the power of two new hydroelectric projects.
By 1915, the Alaska Gastineau Mining Company was in full
production. Between 1915 and 1919, the mine and mill set production
records for haulage and throughput. The hydroelectric projects proved
to be successful engineering marvels. Operational difficulties related to
ore grade, refractory elements and labor shortages interrupted
production on an increasing basis. In 1921, the mining company
permanently shut down operations.
INTRODUCTION
The Juneau Gold Belt begins at Windham Bay near the southern
end of Stephens Passage and extends approximately 100 miles north
to Berners Bay (Figure 1). The first large-scale and sustained
underground mine, operated by the Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining
Company in the late 1880’s, established the Juneau-Douglas area as
the regional hub for transportation and development. In the mid-1890’s,
Figure 1. Juneau Gold Belt.
the combined population of Juneau and Douglas reached
approximately 3,000 residents, largely driven by employment and The number of active mines in the Juneau Gold Belt decreased
support demands of several small to mid-size underground gold mines as grades declined and/or the smaller miners lacked capital for
in the region. By 1904, the value of the cumulative gold production of continued mine development. By the early 1900’s, larger mining
the Alaska Treadwell was five times greater than the purchase price of companies with deeper pockets and/or nimble lawyers, consolidated
Alaska in 1867 (Kelly, 2010). various smaller operations under centralized management. The Alaska
Gastineau Mining Company (AGMC) followed this strategy and
By the turn of the 20th century, economic growth in the Juneau-
assembled a contiguous claim block that included the Perseverance
Douglas area relied on supplies delivered from the lower 48.
Mine in the Silver Bow Basin and a mill site claim block near tide water
Passenger and freight shipping lines required 3 to 4 days to make the
on the Gastineau Channel (Figure 3).
one-way trip from Seattle to Juneau. Established shipping routes
required experienced crews due to navigation hazards and adverse During this time, the ownership group funded by English investors
weather conditions. Even with precautions at the time, steam ships and struggled with various legal issues, including a lawsuit filed by the U.S.
freighter vessels experienced breakdowns or encounters with natural government because foreign control of land was illegal in American
hazards that resulted in damage or in some cases, sinking. Possessions at the time (Redman, 2011). To resolve this matter, the
Interestingly, with no roads or railroads connecting Juneau to other ownership group formed the Alaska Gastineau Mining Company under
communities in southeast Alaska, Juneau still relies on seaborn the laws of New York on January 14, 1911.
shipping in the 21st century.
While lawyers and the U.S. government argued about ownership
BACKGROUND of AGMC, commercial production from the Perseverance Mine started
in 1907 with completion of the Alexander Crosscut and construction of
Jackson (1919) described the geology of the Silver Bow Basin as
a 100-stamp mill.
shown in Figure 2. The gold belt consists of single band, several
hundred feet wide, in which stringers and veins of quartz, carrying gold,
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SME Annual Meeting
Feb. 24 - 27, 2018, Denver, CO

Bartlett L Thane arrived in southeast Alaska in 1897 and worked


at the Sumdum Chief Mine south of Juneau. After receiving his mining
engineering degree in 1898 from the University of California Berkeley,
he returned to the Sumdum Chief Mine until 1903 when he became the
superintendent of the Eagle River Mining Company (1903 to 1910).
Thirty-three years old in 1911, Thane managed a corporate takeover of
the Alaska Gastineau Mining Company. His financial backing included
the Boston-based Hayden, Stone and Company investment bank and
Daniel Jackling who in 1907 proved the economic feasibility of large-
scale, low grade mine and mill technology as applied to copper
porphyry deposits at Magna, Utah (LeCain, 2009).
Recognized by the investment team and Jackling for his
leadership talents, Thane became the General Manager of AGMC in
May 1912. Thane appointed James R Whipple (Berkeley Class of 1901
and collegiate football teammate of Thane) as Assistant General
Manager.
Jackling recognized the Perseverance ore would require milling
on a large scale to be economic and achieve the expectations of
investors who were accustomed to the stellar financial performance of
the Utah Copper Company and other successful copper operations in
Arizona, New Mexico and Montana. The success of the dry-ore mill
design developed in Utah inspired Jackling to propose this technology,
knowing this would be the first application of wholesale mining and
milling to process gold-bearing ore. Jackling declared the AGMC mill
would have a design capacity of 6,000 tons per day, approximately 1.5
times greater than the peak production achieved by the Alaska
Treadwell Gold Mining Company.
Prior to the organization of the Alaska Gold Mines Company,
holding company for the Alaska Gastineau Mining Company, the
Figure 2. Perseverance Ore Body (Jackson 1919). Perseverance Mines were “examined by competent mining engineers
who reported the existence of a very large tonnage of gold ore
averaging about $2.00 per ton [2.7 grams per tonne, g/t], according to
sampling and assaying done in the usual way.” (AGMC 1912). The
company floated on the New York Stock Exchange in August 1912.
Funds raised by the holding company included $4.5 million (~$110
million in 2018) for building the AGMC mine and the Gastineau Mill.
With funding in place, Thane and Jackling prepared to build the project
that would accomplish several “world-firsts” and draw attention from
around the globe.
DEVELOPMENT
The AGMC mill required mining infrastructure capable of
delivering the daily tonnage and a power supply capable of upwards of
6,000 horsepower. The engineering of the mill, mine and power
systems presented unique technical challenges, including
simultaneous construction and integration. In September 1913, the
project employed approximately 1,100 men (30% of the combined
population of Juneau and Douglas) with a monthly payroll of
approximately $3 million in 2018 dollars.
For the project development phase, Thane organized AGMC into
three divisions (Table 1). As evidenced by the project schedule, each
division featured a team with a combination of requisite technical skills
and a focus on project delivery.
Table 1. Operating Divisions of AGMC.
Division Responsibility
• Underground development for ore
delivery
Mine • 10,000 feet Sheep Creek Tunnel to
connect the mill site to the underground
Figure 3. AGMC Property. mine
• Experimental mill
Between 1907 and 1912, the Perseverance Mine produced Sheep Creek • Coarse Crushing Plant
approximately 400,000 tons (363,636 tonnes) of ore containing 31,000 • Fine Crushing and Concentrating Mill
ounces of gold (964,100 grams) and 29,000 ounces of silver. The • Salmon Creek Dam
maximum ore grade of the five-year period was $2.26 per ton Power Supply
• Annex Lake Project
(3.1 grams per tonne); the minimum ore grade for a year’s operation
was $1.45 per ton (2 g/tonne); and the average for the 5 years was
On July 1, 1912, the AGMC announced the target completion
around $1.75 per ton (2.4 g/tonne). These operating records formed
date of January 1, 1915 for commissioning of a portion of the entire
the principal basis for assessing the potential of the district.
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SME Annual Meeting
Feb. 24 - 27, 2018, Denver, CO

plant. The company achieved this milestone on February 12, 1915. months of 1913, the crew averaged 583 feet per month and in
AGMC attributed the 6-week schedule delay to the loss of electrical November 1913, the crew achieved 661 feet. The daily and monthly
equipment lost in sea transportation through sinking of the steamship production of the O’Neal’s crew set new world records for tunnel
with this freight. construction.
Mine Division At 2 a.m. on April 1, 1914, the Sheep Creek crew broke through
The Mine Division was responsible for development of the into the Perseverance Mine. Jackling and Thane were among the first
Perseverance Mine underground and surface infrastructure. In addition, to pass through the Sheep Creek Tunnel and into the mine.
the Mine Division managed construction of the 10,000-foot-long Sheep
Creek Tunnel which would connect the underground mine with the mill Beyond the state-of-the-art technology, Thane attributed the
operation located at tide water on the Gastineau Channel. successful completion of the Sheep Creek Tunnel as follows: “System
is responsible for about twenty-five per cent of the results obtained and
Perseverance Mine: Figure 4 shows the extent of the the credit for the other seventy-five percent of success belongs to that
Perseverance Mine in December 1921. The Alexander Level is the Irishman, Paddy O’Neal.” (Alaska Daily Dispatch 1914a).
main level and extends for a length of 2,500 feet. AGMC enlarged the
working shaft that connects the Alexander Level to surface and sank Sheep Creek Division
the same shaft approximately 700 feet to the level of the Sheep Creek Jackling based the design of the Gastineau Mill on the pattern set
Tunnel. by the new copper mills in Utah, Nevada and Arizona. Redman (2011)
quotes Jackling in 1913: “When I was here before I stated that I
Surface operations at the Perseverance Mine included expected to see the largest quartz mill in the world on Gastineau
construction of accommodations for 500 men and installation of utilities Channel, and I see no reason why I should retract that statement now.”
needed for underground operations. Superintendent H. J. Jackson
managed this aspect of the Mine Division. Jackson’s mine To oversee the mill design, Jackling appointed George O. Bradley,
development work and surface operations ran smoothly and on consulting engineer to Jackling’s Utah Copper Corporation in Bingham,
schedule. Utah. Prior to his appointment to AGMC, Bradley designed and built
the 500-ton experimental mill at Copperton, Utah followed by large-
scale reduction works at the Ray Consolidated Copper Company in
Arizona and Chino Copper Company in New Mexico.
Under the guidance of Jackling and his colleagues, the Sheep
Creek Division converted the existing 100-stamp Perseverance Mill
into an experimental mill for elements of the Jackling mill design. The
gold in the Perseverance ore occurred as coarse free gold and in a
finer state, associated with iron. Silver occurred with lead or alloyed
with gold (Daveler, 1918). The predominant minerals were zinc-blende,
galena, arsenopyrite, pyrite and pyrrhotite, named in order of their
importance as gold carriers (Jackson, 1919). Of note, the early
experimental work indicated that slimes from the process were of
negligible value. Based on the experimental mill test work for the
Perseverance ore, Jackling and Bradley eliminated slimes treatment
from the mill design.
In December 1912, after several months of test work, the
experimental mill near the Perseverance portal burned to the ground.
With further test work planned, AGMC refurbished the former mill of
the Nowell Gold Mining Company (acquired previously by AGMC) in
Figure 4. Plan and Section View of the Perseverance Mine. the Sheep Creek Basin and test work re-started in June 1913. The
refurbished experimental mill had a 75 ton per day capacity.
Sheep Creek Tunnel: As designed, the nearly 2-mile-long, 8 foot
by 10-foot Sheep Creek Tunnel transports a minimum of 6,000 tons of AGMC ran both experimental mills with ore produced from the
ore per day to the mill facility via rail. In November 1912, Foreman existing Perseverance Mine. Ore arrived at the experimental mill in
Paddy O’Neal started development work for the Tunnel at the Sheep sacks from the mine. The experimental mill test work continued until
Creek Portal. Thane worked with Foreman O’Neal at the Eagle River March 1914. The test work indicated the mill concentration ratio would
Mine prior to 1906. exceed 400 to 1 and later operational records confirmed the ratio
exceed 1000 to 1. Figure 5 shows the final process flow sheet (Daveler
Most of the rock encountered was a greenstone and a hard meta- 1918).
gabbro. No timber was required beyond the entry portal.
O’Neal’s crews worked westward from the Sheep Creek portal
while Perseverance miners advanced from the mine site. Each shift
consisted of one shift boss, eight machine men, six muckers, one
carman, one motorman and one brakeman. Three other men
advanced and maintained ventilation.
Well equipped with robust utilities (e.g., compressed air, water
and ventilation), each drill crew used four “E 44-inch 3 ¼ piston drills”
with access to four extra drills in case a repair was required. Mucking
cars were 1 ½ ton side dump, roller-bearing and propelled by a storage
battery locomotive. A short track (e.g., 25 feet long) was used at the
end of the rails so that the car to be loaded could be kept at the muck
pile (Alaska Daily Dispatch 1914a). Support crews sharpened up to
one thousand drills per day.
In January 1913, O’Neal’s crews averaged approximately 20 feet
per day. Over the course of 1913, the crews advanced the Sheep
Creek Tunnel at an average rate of 536 feet per month. Over the last 6 Figure 5. Process Flow Diagram for Coarse Crushing and
Concentration Plant.
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SME Annual Meeting
Feb. 24 - 27, 2018, Denver, CO

AGMC cleared timber from the tide-water site and broke ground At completion, the Salmon Creek Power Division had a total
on October 31, 1913. Five months later, construction crews finished generation capacity of 6,000 kW (8,000 hp). In April of 1915, this
concrete work for the Coarse Crushing Department. In April 1913, proved to be insufficient to satisfy the demand of the mill as the actual
construction work shifted to steel erection. Jackling moved Charles throughput increased from 6,000 tons per day to close to 10,000 tons
Bruff from the newly-built Chino Copper Company in Hurley, New per day.
Mexico to Juneau to assist Thane with construction of the Gastineau
Mill. According to Jackling, “He [Mr. Bruff] is familiar with all the detail Annex Lake: To satisfy the increased power demands of the mill,
connected with this style of mill that has been adopted for the Sheep Chief Engineer Wollenberg and 180 men turned their attention to the
Creek reduction works and his services will on this account be Annex Lake Project. Located approximately 12 miles northeast of
invaluable.” (Alaska Daily Empire, 1913). In May 1913, Jackling Thane, Upper Annex Lake offered additional hydroelectric power for
assigned J. H. Collins who was the chief draftsman for the Chino the mill. In May 1915, the construction camp at the outlet of Annex
operation to lead development of the design plans for the AGMC mill. Creek housed the crews needed to build a dam to raise the level of
Upper Annex Lake, build the hydroelectric power plant, install the
AGMC estimated the cost of the steel required to build the transmission line and advance a 1,500-foot tunnel under Upper Annex
Gastineau Mill as $2 million USD ($51 million in 2018). The Kansas Lake.
City Structure Steel Company produced the steel for the mill facilities.
Jackling retained the same company for the Ray Consolidated Copper The tunnel was the key part of the Thane and Wollenberg plan to
Plant in Hayden, Arizona. The company shipped the steel by rail to tap the lake at a depth of 150 feet below the lake surface and, in doing
Seattle and by steamship to the newly-appointed Thane, Alaska. By so, keep Upper Annex Lake “intact” and drain into a 36-inch penstock
April of 1914, the steel company relocated a Kansas City-based that delivered water to the powerhouse (Shaw, 2009; Redman, 2011).
superintendent and nine assistants for the steel erection phase of In April 1915, Wollenberg asked the F. G. Baum and Company - the
construction. San Francisco-based design firm for the Salmon Creek Dam - for
examples of lake taps that did not drain the lake. The answer was “no”
On February 22, 1915, AGMC started commissioning with first ore and the consulting engineer’s recommendation was not to try.
through the roll mill. The Gastineau Mill included a Coarse Crushing
Plant and the 8000 Ton Fine Crushing and Concentrating Mill (Figure Less than a year later, on February 14, 1916, Wollenberg’s crew
6). triggered the final blast that removed the last rock between the tunnel
and the lake bottom. 750 pounds of 40% dynamite shook snow from
trees several hundred feet away (Shaw, 2009). According to Redman
(2011), water filled the tunnel and the pipeline in a few minutes. When
the water reached the power plant, engineers diverted the initial
discharge to avoid damaging the intake of the hydroelectric power plan
due to blast debris in the tunnel. Within minutes of the final blast in the
tunnel, 3,000 kW (4,000 hp) of electricity was on its way to the
Gastineau mill. Thane and Jackling now had the power needed to run
the mill at 10,000 tons per day.
OPERATIONS
AGMC designed the Gastineau Mill to receive an average ore
grade of $1.50 per ton (2 g/tonne) and an average, “all-in” production
cost of $0.75 ($18.75) per ton. AGMC based the average ore grade
calculation on the old mill records for the Perseverance Mine and
exploration work conducted in 1913 (Stone, 1980). Plan operating
costs were derived from the new mills designed by Jackling and
Figure 6. General Cross Section of Mill and Crusher Plant (Stone operating in Utah, Arizona and New Mexico.
1980).
AGMC began commissioning the Gastineau Mill in February 1915.
Power Supply Division Table 2 summarizes the mill operating data for 1915 to 1920. Daily
During the design phase, AGMC determined full scale mill tonnage ramped up to November 1915 when the mill averaged the
operations would require an estimated 6,000 horsepower. Between name plate design capacity of 6,000 tons per day. By the end of 1915,
1913 and 1916, the Power Supply Division developed two the Gastineau Mill processed more than 1 million tons of ore at an
hydroelectric projects and power-related infrastructure for the average grade of $1.15 per ton (1.57 g/tonne) and an average mill
Gastineau Mill. recovery of 81%. The 1915 operating profit totaled $280,000 ($7
Salmon Creek: The Salmon Creek basin is approximately 6 million) (AGMC, 1915).
miles northwest of the mill site. Thane secured control of the water Table 2. Summary of AGMC Operations.
rights in the basin and the land position needed to construct the Average Assay Value Recovered
Salmon Creek dam and to power the mill. Thane’s chief engineer for Year Tons of Ore Milled
($/ton) ($/ton)
the Salmon Creek Dam project was Harry Woellenberg, a fellow 1915 1,115,294 1.15 0.93
graduate from the Berkeley School of Engineering.
1916 1,892,788 1.19 0.97
Wollenberg retained a San Francisco-based engineering firm 1917 2,240,346 1.10 0.90
named F. G. Baum and Company. The firm designed what became the 1918 1,285,445 1.11 0.88
first constant angle arch dam in the world. The concrete structure 1919 2,251,658 0.83 0.66
required no reinforcing steel. 1920 2,133,458 0.88 0.70
Stone, 1980
Construction started in April 1913 and the first batch of concrete
was placed on the dam on July 14, 1913. AGMC completed the dam Redman (2011) describes rumors in November 1915 that the
on August 13, 1914. The 167-foot-tall dam retains approximately average gold values produced by the Perseverance Mine were lower
19,000 acre-feet of water. than expected. In response, Jackling made a public statement
regarding an unexpected intrusion of low grade schist that would take
The dam consists of 54,000 cubic yards of concrete. AGMC
up to four months to remove. Jackling added “I might mention that
imported approximately 240,000 bags of cement from Seattle,
never before in the history of mining has ore been mined from
Washington. Cement deliveries averaged between 300 and 1000 tons
underground workings, hauled underground a distance of two miles,
per steamship. Local sand and gravel sources provided the aggregate.

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SME Annual Meeting
Feb. 24 - 27, 2018, Denver, CO

hauled again to the mill, a distance of two miles more and put through Following the shutdown of AGMC, Thane worked to re-develop
a concentrator for a total cost of only 60 cents a ton.” the property as a pulp mill. Japanese investors showed interest;
however, the transaction did not take place. Today, the remains of the
In 1916, the Gastineau Mill processed 1.9 million tons of ore with Gastineau Mill consist of massive concrete foundations that are largely
an average grade of $1.19 per ton (1.62 g/tonne) reflecting a mill overgrown.
recovery of 81.33%. The estimated profit in 1916 totaled $451,000
($10.4 million) (AGMC 1916). Jackling, with his financial backers Hayden and Stone, sold off the
equipment and salvaged the buildings in the mid 1920’s. In the mid-
In January 1917, avalanche activity in the area destroyed about 1930’s, the AJGMC purchased the former AGMC property, including
3,000 feet of the railroad that connected the Sheep Creek Portal to the the hydroelectric facilities at Salmon Creek and Annex Lake.
Gastineau Mill. Redman (2011) indicates this production interruption
extended through the end of February 1917. AGMC restored While Jackling moved on to his diverse and far more successful
production during the second calendar quarter and sustained daily business interests in the lower 48, Thane found little support for his
production rates of 8,000 tpd in June. proposals to develop other properties in Alaska. In November of 1927,
Thane died of pneumonia while on a business trip in New York City.
The U.S. entered World War I in April 1917 and by July 1917, the He is buried near his family home in Niles, California.
available work force reduced by approximately 25% due to the military
and higher paying jobs elsewhere. By December 1917, the Gastineau REFERENCES
Mill processed 2.2 million tons of ore with an average grade of $1.1 per
ton (1.5 g/tonne). 1. Alaska Daily Empire (1913), July 22.

Operating costs for the Gastineau Mill averaged $0.28 per ore ton 2. Alaska Daily Dispatch (1914), March 31.
through 1920 which were within Jackling’s original cost estimate. After 3. Alaska Daily Empire (1915a), March 23.
1918, ore grades delivered to the mill averaged less than $1.00 per ton
(1.35 g/t) with mill recoveries averaging Jackling’s original estimate of 4. Alaska Daily Empire (1915b), October 13.
80%. Profit margins could not service the debt facility or return
dividends to shareholders. 5. Alaska Gold Mines Company (1912), “Second Annual Report for
the Year Ended December 31st, 1912”
According to Redman (2011), the big problem in the mine was
that early development work had begun in the upper stopes and that 6. Alaska Gold Mines Company (1915), “Fourth Annual Report for
development work had been done so rapidly that 3 million tons of “ore” the Year Ended December 31st, 1915”
lay broken in the stopes before AGMC realized there was a problem. In 7. AGMC (1916), “Fifth Annual Report for the Year Ended December
addition, water entering through the caved areas resulted in wet ore 31st, 1916”
feed to a mill designed for dry ore.
8. Bradley, P. R. (1929), “Selection of Stoping Method at the Alaska
On May 5, 1921, AGMC announced the shutdown of the mine Juneau, Details of a Method by Which Ore is Mines Underground
and mill. The facility would not re-open. In 1919, the capital assets at a Total Cost of Less than Thirty Cents per Ton,” Mining and
owned by AGMC carried a value of approximately $23 million. The Metallurgy, Volume 10, December.
equivalent write-down in 2018 would total more than $350 million.
9. Daveler, Erle (1918), “Metallurgical Investigations and Operations
EPILOGUE of the Alaska Gastineau Mining Company, Juneau, Alaska,”
Between 1913 and 1920, the AGMC accomplished several Thesis for Degree of Metallurgical Engineer, University of
impressive milestones in terms of mine and process engineering: California, May.
10. Jackson, G. T. (1919), “Mining Methods of Alaska Gastineau
• World records for daily and monthly productivity for
Mining Co”, Chicago Meeting, September.
underground construction of the Sheep Creek Tunnel;
• Construction of the world’s first constant angle arch dam; 11. Kelly, Sheila (2010), “Treadwell Gold, An Alaskan Saga of Riches
• Successful construction of a “lake tap” that preserved the and Ruin,” University of Alaska Press.
lake and produced approximately 4,000 hp of electrical power; and
• Underground ore haulage for two miles, aboveground 12. LeCain, Timothy (2009), “Mass Destruction, The Men and Giant
haulage for two more miles and processing by a concentrator for a Mines that Wired America and Scarred the Planet,” Rutgers
total cost of 60 cents a ton. University Press.

Perhaps most remarkable, the Salmon Creek Dam and Annex 13. Redman, Earl (2011), “The Juneau Gold Belt, A History of the
Lake Project continue to provide hydroelectric power and drinking Mines and Miners,” published by The Gastineau Channel
water to the City and Borough of Juneau, more than 100 years later. Historical Society, Juneau.

In April 1915, George O Bradley moved next door to the Alaska 14. Shaw, Albert (2009), “Lake Taps of the Juneau Area, Gastineau
Juneau Gold Mining Company to design their new 8,000 tpd mill Heritage News,” published by The Gastineau Channel Historical
(Alaska Daily Empire, 1915a). Later that same year, the AJ Gold Society, Juneau.
Mining Company (AJGMC) hired Charles Bruff from AGMC to build the 15. Stone, David and Brenda (1980), “Hard Rock Gold, The Story of
new mill (Alaska Daily Empire, 1915b). the Great Mines that were the Heartbeat of Juneau,” published by
Several years later, P. R. Bradley (1929) of the Alaska Juneau the Juneau Centennial Committee.
company stated the primary lesson from the failure of the AGMC mill 16. Early 1900’s currency converted to 2018 using
was reducing the “…waste rock submitted to the process of fine https://www.usinflationcalculator.com/
grinding at an excessive ball-mill cost.” The AJ mill accomplished this
by “…sorting the ore from the waste at advantageous points in the mill;
53% of the rock trammed is rejected, and the remaining 47 percent is
fine-milled.” The AJ Mill ran from 1930 to 1944 and produced more
than 21 million ounces of gold (Stone, 1980). This success is attributed
to the experienced management team of AJGMC and the lessons
learned from the Jackling technology demonstrated at the Gastineau
Mill.

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