Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12



Question 1: Answer the following:

a. Explain the following types of communication processes:

• Circular Process
• Two-way Process
Write your answer in 100-150 words.
b. Explain different types of communication methods. Write your answer in 200-250 words.
c. How can you choose the right method of communication for your organisation? Write your answer
in 50-100 words.

A. Explain the following types of communication processes

• Naturally, one person would not make any communication to the self. Communication is a
circular process. Its process starts with the sender of the message and travelling through various stages
completes with a feedback to communication from the recipient to the sender

• Two-way communication is when one person is the sender and they transmit a message to
another person, who is the receiver. When the receiver gets the message, they send back a response,
acknowledging the message was received

B. Explain different types of communication methods

Verbal Communication

Verbal communication can also be called as Oral communication. In very simple terms, any
communication that happens orally between people is known as verbal communication. The objective of
such communications is to ensure that people understand whatever you want to convey. Because of its
very nature, verbal communications is more quick and precise then email communication.

Written Communication

There are many many ways that written communications can be used. The number of ways is ever
increasing with the penetration of smartphones and the internet. One of the most common forms of
written communications used till date is Email. But slowly, written type of communications is becoming
more informal with Whatsapp and other online messaging apps being used regularly.

Interpersonal Communication

Interpersonal Communication is a type of face to face communication process by which people

exchange ideas, information, feelings by verbal or non-verbal way. are the forms of effective oral
communication. The use of oral communications is made in discussions as well as conversations that are
informal and causal. How effective the oral communication is will depend on the speed, volume, pitch,
voice modulation, clarity of speech and also the non-verbal communications like visual cues and body

Oral Communication

A communication which happens through word of mouth, spoken words, conversations and also any
messages or information are shared or exchanged between one another through speech or word of
mouth is called oral communication. Example: Public speech, News reading, Television, Radio, telephone
and mobile conversations.

Visual Communication

Visual communication is the third methods of communication which takes place through the help of
visual aids like colour, illustration, graphic design, drawing, typography, signs and other electronic

Visual communication comprising charts and graphs generally reinforces written methods of
communication and in majority of the situations replaces written communication completely. “A picture
is worth a thousand words” is an adage which shows that verbal communication can on several
occasions be more powerful than verbal as well as nonverbal communication. The developments in
technology have made expression of visual communication easier than what it was before.

C. How can you choose the right method of communication for your organization?

Some factors to consider when choosing a communication tool:

1. Consider the message

2. Think about the audience

3. Organisational culture

4. Consider feedback
Question 2: Answer the following questions:

a. Explain the following types of data collection methods:

i. Primary Data Collection Methods

ii. Secondary Data Collection Methods Write your answer in 150-200 words.

b. Explain the difference between qualitative data analysis and quantitative data analysis. Write your
answer in 50-100 words.

c. What are the different types of technology that can be used to collect data? Identify and document
any four (4).

a. Explain the following types of data collection methods:

i. Primary Data Collection Methods

ii. Secondary Data Collection Methods

Primary data is data that is collected by a researcher from first-hand sources, using methods like
surveys, interviews, or experiments. It is collected with the research project in mind, directly from
primary sources..

The data can be collected through various methods like surveys, observations, physical testing, mailed
questionnaires, questionnaire filled and sent by enumerators, personal interviews, telephonic
interviews, focus groups, case studies, etc.

Secondary data is data gathered from studies, surveys, or experiments that have been run by other
people or for other research.

Typically, a researcher will begin a project by working with secondary data. This allows time to formulate
questions and gain an understanding of the issues being dealt with before the more costly and time
consuming operation of collecting primary data.

B. Explain the difference between qualitative data analysis and quantitative data analysis.

Qualitative data analysis is based on classification of objects (participants) according to properties and
attributes whereas quantitative analysis is based on classification of data based on computable values.
Qualitative analysis is subjective whereas quantitative is objective
Key differences between qualitative and quantitative analysis

In a nutshell, quantitative research generates numerical data or information that can be converted into
numbers. Qualitative Research on the other hand generates non-numerical data.

Data collection for qualitative and quantitative analysis

In qualitative analysis, the data is collected in small, unrepresentative samples in an unstructured way.
Typical data collected include color, race, religion, nationality, and many more. In quantitative analysis,
on the other hand, data is collected in large, representative samples that can generalize the entire

Data collection methods

Quantitative and qualitative data can be collected using various methods. It is important to use a data
collection method that will help answer your research question(s).
Quantitative data collection methods
 Surveys: List of closed or multiple choice questions that is distributed to a sample (online, in
person, or over the phone).
 Experiments: Situation in which variables are controlled and manipulated to establish cause-
and-effect relationships.
 Observations: Observing people in a natural environment where variables can’t be controlled.
 Content analysis: Systematically recording the presence of certain words or themes in a set of
texts to analyze communication patterns.
Qualitative data collection methods
 Interviews: Asking open-ended questions verbally to respondents.
 Focus groups: Discussion among a group of people about a topic to gather opinions that can be
used for further research.
 Case studies: In-depth study about a person, group, event or organization.
 Literature review: Survey of published works by other authors.

C. What are the different types of technology that can be used to collect data?

Types of technology that can be used to collect data

• Online or web-based surveys
• Hand-held devices such as clickers and PDAs
• Text messages
• Social networking sites such as Twitter, MySpace, and Facebook

Question 3: Answer the following questions related to “legal requirements, policies, procedures and
guidelines relating to research including handling and storing data, privacy and freedom of
a. Explain the Privacy Act and the Australian Privacy Principles guidelines (APP guidelines) applicable
to secure personal information. Write your answer in 200-250 words.
b. Explain the purpose of privacy policy. Write your answer in 20-30 words.
c. Document a checklist for best practice on workplace privacy. Write your answer in 100-150 words.
a. Explain the Privacy Act and the Australian Privacy Principles guidelines (APP guidelines) applicable
to secure personal information.

The Australian Privacy Principles (or APPs) are the cornerstone of the privacy protection framework in
the Privacy Act 1988 (Privacy Act). They apply to any organisation or agency the Privacy Act covers.

There are 13 Australian Privacy Principles and they govern standards, rights and obligations around:

• the collection, use and disclosure of personal information

• an organisation or agency’s governance and accountability
• integrity and correction of personal information
• the rights of individuals to access their personal information

b. Explain the purpose of privacy policy.

The Australian Privacy Principles are principles-based law. This gives an organisation or agency flexibility
to tailor their personal information handling practices to their business models and the diverse needs of
individuals. They are also technology neutral, which allows them to adapt to changing technologies.

A breach of an Australian Privacy Principle is an ‘interference with the privacy of an individual’ and can
lead to regulatory action and penalties.

c. Document a checklist for best practice on workplace privacy

General privacy principles

The Office of the Australian Information Commissioner's website contains further information on good
practice for organisations dealing with employees' personal information. The guides deal with:

 limiting the collection of information

 providing notice to individuals about the potential collection, use and disclosure of personal
 disclosing personal information
 keeping personal information accurate, complete and up-to-date
 keeping personal information secure
 providing access to personal information.
Question 4: Explain ten (10) effective presentation techniques that you can implement when
presenting your research findings. Write your answer in 250-300 words.

1. Show your Passion and Connect with your Audience

 It’s hard to be relaxed and be yourself when you’re nervous.

 But time and again, the great presenters say that the most important thing is to connect with
your audience, and the best way to do that is to let your passion for the subject shine through.
 Be honest with the audience about what is important to you and why it matters.
 Be enthusiastic and honest, and the audience will respond.

2. Focus on your Audience’s Needs

Your presentation needs to be built around what your audience is going to get out of the
As you prepare the presentation, you always need to bear in mind what the audience needs and
wants to know, not what you can tell them.
While you’re giving the presentation, you also need to remain focused on your audience’s
response, and react to that.
You need to make it easy for your audience to understand and respond.

3. Keep it Simple: Concentrate on your Core Message

 When planning your presentation, you should always keep in mind the question:
 What is the key message (or three key points) for my audience to take away?
 You should be able to communicate that key message very briefly.
 Some experts recommend a 30-second ‘elevator summary’, others that you can write it on the
back of a business card, or say it in no more than 15 words.
 Whichever rule you choose, the important thing is to keep your core message focused and brief.
 And if what you are planning to say doesn’t contribute to that core message, don’t say it.

4. Smile and Make Eye Contact with your Audience

This sounds very easy, but a surprisingly large number of presenters fail to do it.
If you smile and make eye contact, you are building rapport, which helps the audience to
connect with you and your subject. It also helps you to feel less nervous, because you are talking
to individuals, not to a great mass of unknown people.
To help you with this, make sure that you don’t turn down all the lights so that only the slide
screen is visible. Your audience needs to see you as well as your slides.

5. Start Strongly

The beginning of your presentation is crucial. You need to grab your audience’s attention and hold it.
They will give you a few minutes’ grace in which to entertain them, before they start to switch off if
you’re dull. So don’t waste that on explaining who you are. Start by entertaining them.
Try a story (see tip 7 below), or an attention-grabbing (but useful) image on a slide.
6. Remember the 10-20-30 Rule for Slideshows

This is a tip from Guy Kawasaki of Apple. He suggests that slideshows should:

Contain no more than 10 slides;

Last no more than 20 minutes; and
Use a font size of no less than 30 point.
This last is particularly important as it stops you trying to put too much information on any one slide.
This whole approach avoids the dreaded ‘Death by PowerPoint’.

As a general rule, slides should be the sideshow to you, the presenter. A good set of slides should be no
use without the presenter, and they should definitely contain less, rather than more, information,
expressed simply.

If you need to provide more information, create a bespoke handout and give it out after your

7. Tell Stories
Human beings are programmed to respond to stories.

Stories help us to pay attention, and also to remember things. If you can use stories in your
presentation, your audience is more likely to engage and to remember your points afterwards. It is a
good idea to start with a story, but there is a wider point too: you need your presentation to act like a

Think about what story you are trying to tell your audience, and create your presentation to tell it.

Finding The Story Behind Your Presentation

To effectively tell a story, focus on using at least one of the two most basic storytelling mechanics in
your presentation:

Focusing On Characters – People have stories; things, data, and objects do not. So ask yourself “who” is
directly involved in your topic that you can use as the focal point of your story.

For example, instead of talking about cars (your company’s products), you could focus on specific
characters like:

The drivers the car is intended for – people looking for speed and adventure
The engineers who went out of their way to design the most cost-effective car imaginable

A Changing Dynamic – A story needs something to change along the way. So ask yourself “What is not as
it should be?” and answer with what you are going to do about it (or what you did about it).

For example…

Did hazardous road conditions inspire you to build a rugged, all-terrain jeep that any family could
Did a complicated and confusing food labelling system lead you to establish a colour-coded nutritional
index so that anybody could easily understand it?
To see 15 more actionable storytelling tips, see Nuts & Bolts Speed Training’s post on Storytelling Tips.

8. Use your Voice Effectively

The spoken word is actually a pretty inefficient means of communication, because it uses only one of
your audience’s five senses. That’s why presenters tend to use visual aids, too. But you can help to make
the spoken word better by using your voice effectively.

Varying the speed at which you talk, and emphasising changes in pitch and tone all help to make your
voice more interesting and hold your audience’s attention.

For more about this, see our page on Effective Speaking.

9. Use your Body Too

It has been estimated that more than three quarters of communication is non-verbal.

That means that as well as your tone of voice, your body language is crucial to getting your message
across. Make sure that you are giving the right messages: body language to avoid includes crossed arms,
hands held behind your back or in your pockets, and pacing the stage.

Make your gestures open and confident, and move naturally around the stage, and among the audience
too, if possible.

10. Relax, Breathe and Enjoy

If you find presenting difficult, it can be hard to be calm and relaxed about doing it.

One option is to start by concentrating on your breathing. Slow it down, and make sure that you’re
breathing fully. Make sure that you continue to pause for breath occasionally during your presentation

For more ideas, see our page on Coping with Presentation Nerves.

If you can bring yourself to relax, you will almost certainly present better. If you can actually start to
enjoy yourself, your audience will respond to that, and engage better. Your presentations will improve
exponentially, and so will your confidence. It’s well worth a try.

Improve your Presentation Skills

Follow our guide to boost your presentation skills learning about preparation, delivery, questions and all
other aspects of giving effective presentations.
Question 5: Explain three (3) methods that can be used for reporting. Write your answer in 100-150

Reporting Method # 1. Written Reporting:

Written reporting is a report is a short, sharp, concise document which is written for a particular purpose
and audience. It generally sets outs and analyses a situation or problem, often making recommendations
for future action. It is a factual paper, and needs to be clear and well-structured.

Reporting Method # 2. Graphic Reporting:

The Graphic Reporting component adds easily configurable graphical visualization widgets to ENOVIA,
assisting users in making a more accurate project and product decisions on a daily basis. Working with
your data is just as important as storing it correctly, through the Graphical Reporting component, you
can identify trends, view unfinished tasks, identify project bottlenecks, visually search through
interactive data giving you the insights you need.

Reporting Method # 3. Oral Reporting:

The standard oral report consists of an introduction ("tell the audience what you are going to tell
them"), a main body ("tell them"), and a conclusion ("tell them what you have told them"). The
introduction should include an overview of the rest of the talk to help the listener understand what you
are going to say.

Question 6: Answer the following:

a. What is research ethics? What are its principles? Write your answer in 100–150 words for each.

b. What are the general principles of responsible research? Write your answer in 50-100 words. c.
What are different codes of conduct in research? Document any six (6).

A. What is research ethics? What are its principles?

Research Ethics is a world-wide set of principles governing the way any research involving interaction
between the researcher and other humans or human tissue or data relating to humans, is designed,
managed and conducted.

1. Discuss intellectual property frankly

Academe's competitive "publish-or-perish" mindset can be a recipe for trouble when it comes to who
gets credit for authorship. The best way to avoid disagreements about who should get credit and in
what order is to talk about these issues at the beginning of a working relationship, even though many
people often feel uncomfortable about such topics. The term autonomous means that a person can
make his or her own decisions about what to do and what to agree to.

2. Be conscious of multiple roles

APA's Ethics Code says psychologists should avoid relationships that could reasonably impair their
professional performance or could exploit or harm others. But it also notes that many kinds of multiple
relationships aren't unethical--as long as they're not reasonably expected to have adverse effects.

3. Follow informed-consent rules

When done properly, the consent process ensures that individuals are voluntarily participating in the
research with full knowledge of relevant risks and benefits.

4. Respect confidentiality and privacy

Upholding individuals' rights to confidentiality and privacy is a central tenet of every psychologist's work.
However, many privacy issues are idiosyncratic to the research population, writes Susan Folkman, PhD,
in "Ethics in Research with Human Participants" (APA, 2000). For instance, researchers need to devise
ways to ask whether participants are willing to talk about sensitive topics without putting them in
awkward situations, say experts. That could mean they provide a set of increasingly detailed interview
questions so that participants can stop if they feel uncomfortable.

5. Tap into ethics resources

One of the best ways researchers can avoid and resolve ethical dilemmas is to know both what their
ethical obligations are and what resources are available to them.

B. What are the general principles of responsible research?

PRINCIPLE ONE: Minimising the risk of harm.

PRINCIPLE TWO: Obtaining informed consent.

PRINCIPLE THREE: Protecting anonymity and confidentiality.

PRINCIPLE FOUR: Avoiding deceptive practices.

PRINCIPLE FIVE: Providing the right to withdraw.

C. What are different codes of conduct in research?

 Honesty: Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status
 Objectivity
 Integrity
 Carefulness
 Openness
 Respect for Intellectual Property
 Confidentiality
 Responsible Publication

Question 7: Answer the following:

a. Explain differences between Applied Research and Fundamental (Basic) Research. Write your answer
in 150-200 words.

b. Give three (3) examples of quantitative and qualitative tools and methods. Explain their application.
Write your answer in 300-350 words.

A. Explain differences between Applied Research and Fundamental (Basic) Research

Basic research is curiosity driven. It is motivated by a desire to expand knowledge and involves the
acquisition of knowledge for knowledge's sake. It is intended to answer why, what or how questions and
increase understanding of fundamental principles. Basic research does not have immediate commercial
objectives and although it certainly could, it may not necessarily result in an invention or a solution to a
practical problem.

Applied research is designed to answer specific questions aimed at solving practical problems. New
knowledge acquired from applied research has specific commercial objectives in the form of products,
procedures or services.

B. Give three (3) examples of quantitative and qualitative tools and methods


 Surveys, whether conducted online, by phone or in person. These rely on the same questions
being asked in the same way to a large number of people;
 Observations, which may either involve counting the number of times that a particular
phenomenon occurs, such as how often a particular word is used in interviews, or coding
observational data to translate it into numbers; and
 Secondary data, such as company accounts.

Read more at:


 Interviews, which may be structured, semi-structured or unstructured;

 Focus groups, which involve multiple participants discussing an issue;
 ‘Postcards’, or small-scale written questionnaires that ask, for example, three or four focused
questions of participants but allow them space to write in their own words;
 Secondary data, including diaries, written accounts of past events, and company reports; and
 Observations, which may be on site, or under ‘laboratory conditions’, for example, where
participants are asked to role-play a situation to show what they might do.

Read more at: