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Assignment One - Mini Project

Shenelle Mohammed

University of the West Indies Open Campus

EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials

ID: 311100389

Table of Contents

Executive Summary 3

Needs Assessment 4

Performance Objectives and Task Analysis 8

Procedural Analysis 10

Task Selection Worksheet 11

Prerequisite Analysis 12

Objectives for Units in the Workshop13

Assessment 15

Learner and Contextual Analysis 19

Instructional Strategies 21


References 30


The “SKILL” two day workshop is intended to provide training for lawn tennis coaches

in the Atlantic Primary School Tennis Programme in Point Fortin. The Atlantic Primary School

Tennis Programme in Point Fortin was formed in the year 2013 and aims to use the sport of

tennis as an avenue, for empowering youths in Point Fortin and to introduce children of primary

school ages to sporting experiences and opportunities that otherwise may not be available to

them. The programme consists of a coordinator, head coach, assistant coaches and trainee

coaches. It is the hope of the prime sponsor that as a fulfillment of their key performance

indicators, efforts are made during the school year to improve teaching and learning both for

students and coaches. The Play and Stay Method of teaching tennis has been an initiative of the

International Tennis Federation and is executed in countries all over the world. This workshop is

intended to use the play and stay method of teaching tennis to train and improve coaches’

performance in the Atlantic Primary School Tennis Programme.



Selected Audience

The targeted audience for this workshop are the coaches in the Atlantic Primary School

Tennis Programme whose qualifications vary. The head coach is qualified at the advanced level

two certificate, two of the assistant coaches at the level one certificate, two other assistant

coaches at the play and stay certificate level and there are an additional two coaches who are

trainees at the beginner level of the game and have not yet received any levels of qualification.

The aim of the workshop is to provide training for the trainee coaches and a refresher training for

the other levels of qualifications in an attempt to improve performance and effectiveness in the

running of the programme.


The name of the two day workshop will be called “SKILL (Students, Key Game,

Improved through, Leisurely, Learning)”. The aim of the workshop will be an attempt to improve

coaching performance and effectiveness and to increase the quality of the programme being


The format of the programme will consist of face to face interactions and a practical
application, where coaches will perform actual coaching sessions on court at the end of the

Information Sets


 Ability to play the game

 Ability to teach the basic stokes and technical aspects of the game

 Ability to teach the basic tactical aspects of the game


 Basic Hand and eye Coordination Skills

 Effective Verbal and Visual Communication Skills

 Basic Observation Skills

 Ability to structure a tennis lesson

 Ability to organize groups of players

 Adaptability to various situations using differentiations

 Willingness to learn and openness to new ideas and methods of coaching

The above Optimals describe the knowledge, skills and attitudes that coaches must have to get

the job done well. This information will assist in determining what the audience needs to know in

order to improve performance and will aid in developing the main objectives of the programme.

It will also aid in assessing the current abilities of the target audience which will assist in

identifying areas for improvement. This information will be sourced via research, interviews,

observation, experts in the field and brainstorming.


What are the current coaching methods used?

How are sessions organized/structured?

How do coaches communicate?

Do coaches possess the ability to teach the technical aspects of the game?

Do coaches possess the ability to teach the tactical aspects of the game?

What is the level of playing ability of the coaches?

What is the attitude of the coaches towards improvement?

Are students improving steadily?


The above actuals provides information on the current knowledge and practices of coaches in the

programme. This information will be sourced from the coaches themselves through observation

and interviews. The information obtained will be used to identify gaps in performance for

improvement and to determine the main areas of focus for the programme.


How do coaches feel about the programme?

Are coaches motivated?

How do coaches feel about their current level of competence/performance?

Do coaches experience any difficulties during sessions?

How do students feel about the programme/coaching sessions?

Are students enjoying learning?

The information obtained will provide feedback on the feelings of both the coaches and

participants in the programme. This information will assist in finding out what problems

currently exist and how do coaches and participants feel about those problems. This information

will aid in highlighting areas for improvement in the programme and to tailor a more relevant

workshop to meet the current needs of the programme.


Why are the coaches performing poorly?

Why are students dissatisfied?


Information on causes will assist in providing valuable information that will help in identifying

the target areas of the existing problems in the programme. Students and Coaches will be able to

provide this information as well as experts and coaches in the field. This information will then be

used to help tailor the workshop and aid in determining resolutions of existing problems.


Training on communication, learning styles, structuring lessons

Training on incorporating the technical and tactical aspects of the game

Training on how to make learning fun for starter players

Training on how to effectively use differentiation

Training on use of equipment and available resources

The information will be sought from experts in the field and via effective field research. The

solutions will help improve performance of the coaches and help provide a better structure for

the programme thereby aiding in increasing students’ performance.



Task Analysis for Improving Coaches Performance via the “SKILLS” Workshop

Topic Analysis

Unit 1: The Skills of the coach

 Why do people Play Tennis

 The Role of a coach

 Learning and Coaching

 Verbal and Visual Communication Skills

 Different Communication Styles

 Effective Questioning

 Organizing Groups of Players and odd Numbers

 Feeding when working with groups of players

Unit 2: Creating a Positive learning Environment

 Game Based Coaching

 Creating a stimulating environment

 Keys to Success with Starter players

 Optimal Challenge

 Adapting Equipment and the lesson to suit the player

 The basic game situations

 Basic tennis tactics for starter players

 Differentiation

Unit 3: Basic Techniques and Tactics

 Basic tactics to help players improve


 Basic Techniques to help Players Improve

o Serve

o Return

o Forehand

o Backhand

o Volley

Unit 4: Cooperative and Competitive Practices

 Cooperative and Competitive games and practices

 Competition Formats

Unit 5: Structuring a Lesson Plan

1. Effective Time Management

2. Organizing Main Content



Structuring a Lesson Plan

1. Identify length of the session

2. Determine number of persons in the group

3. Analyse ability of players

4. Determine Equipment Needed

5. Determine space or number of courts available

6. Plan Warm Up

7. Organize Main Content

a) Determine Game Situation for the session

b) Identify Tactical Objective for the Session

c) Identify the techniques to be taught

8. Select an appropriate competition

9. Select an appropriate fun and game

10. Warm Down Exercises


Criteria for Criticality Universality Frequency Standardization Difficulty Total Notes Priority
Task Selection
Worksheet 40 pts 10 pts 10 pts 10 pts 30 pts 100 pts

TASKS #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8
The Skills of 30 8 8 5 25 76 4
the Coach
Creating a 40 5 6 6 23 80 2
Basic 32 10 9 10 17 78 3
and Tactics
Cooperative 20 5 7 5 30 67 5
Structuring a 40 8 10 9 28 95 1
Lesson Plan

Tasks 1-4 depends on task 5 and therefore task 5 has been calculated as the most complex task.




Structuring a Lesson Plan

Decide Determine Analyze

Length of Organize Plan
Number of ability of
Session Main Content competition
Players players

Determine Determine Determine

Equipment Plan fun and
Availability of Game
Needed game
Courts Situation

Plan Warm Plan Warm
Up Down

Technique to
be taught


Unit 1: The Skills of the coach

The coaches will be able to:

1. Pass on instructions which are interesting, simple, of a high quality but easy to remember

2. Apply the open questioning method

3. Design coaching sessions where everyone is active and understands what they have to do

and how they are to do it quickly and effectively

4. Perform hand, single basket, rally, and live ball feeds

Unit 2: Creating a Positive learning Environment

The coaches will be able to:

1. Get players to serve, rally and score as soon as possible

2. Stimulate and motivate players

3. Simplify the Game

4. Ensure given tasks are not too easy or difficult

5. Adapt the court to suit the needs of the player

6. Teach the tactical aspects of the game

7. Adapt tasks to the ability of the player

Unit 3: Basic Techniques and Tactics

The coaches will be able to:

1. Make simple suggestions not technical corrections

2. Teach basic techniques

Unit 4: Cooperative and Competitive Practices

The coaches will be able to:


1. Deicide the best type of practise for each player

2. Design competitions for players of all abilities

3. Incorporate competition formats in all lessons

Unit 5: Structuring a Lesson Plan

The coaches should be able to:

1. Successfully complete a lesson plan

2. Effectively incorporate all the necessary components of a lesson plan

3. Effectively manage time in the execution of lessons

4. Achieve the main goals the lesson plan




Pre Course Evaluation Form

This pre evaluation form will access the attendee’s prior concepts, and state their current

thinking. Further this form will be administered upon arrival of each participant, and at the close

of the each day, this evaluation is designed to track participants learning over the course of this


Name of Participant.________________________________ Date:

What level are you coaching at?

What do you intend to gain from this workshop?
Which part of the training course do you think will

benefit you?
How would you rate your level of

knowledge/skill/ability as a coach, on a scale of 1

to 5, 5 being very good before you attended this

How do you see your role and function as a coach?
How effective would you say you are when

working in groups, rate on a scale of 1 to 5, 5 being

very good before you attended this course? And

state why.
What has been the most effective form of

communication for you on the tennis court and

How long would you say it takes for a new player

to begin to serve, rally and score?


What would you say are the motivating factors

employed for keeping the interest of starter

What are the basic techniques taught to players?
At what stage would you incorporate competitive

practise and competition formats in training

How do you incorporate time management into the

main content of your sessions?

The second type of assessment to be used in this workshop will be a practical assessment

where coaches will be placed in groups of two and will be given five students each to coach a

10min session on court. The coaches will be given 15 mins prior to prepare the lesson. The

execution of the lesson will then be graded based on the following rubric;

Assessment Rubric

Assessment Excellent Good Poor

4-5 3-4 0-2

Skills of the Easily adapts to diverse Adapts to diverse learning Struggles with adapting to
coach learning situations and situations and applies the diverse learning situations
effectively applies the concept of differentiation and does not apply the
concepts of differentiation concept of differentiation
Demonstrates an excellent Good verbal Poor communication skills,
range of verbal communication skills, unclear instructions, does not
communication skills, gives gives instructions, asks ask open questions
clear instructions, asks open open questions
Demonstrates clear and quick Shows ability to organize Struggles to organize small
organization of small group small group players group players
Performs regular simple feeds Performs inconsistent Performs poor feeds

Creating a Children show enthusiasm Children show little Children are not enthused
Positive and are having fun enthusiasm and are and are not having fun
Environment seldom having fun

Easily reorganizes activities Reorganizes activities to Fails to reorganize activities

to maintain optimal challenge maintain optimal to maintain optimal
challenge challenge
Shows comprehensive Shows knowledge of the Shows little knowledge of
Techniques knowledge of the tactical tactical aspects of the the tactical aspects of the
and Tactics aspects of the game game game

Shows comprehensive ability Shows ability to teach the Shows little knowledge of
to teach the basic techniques basic techniques of the teaching the basic techniques
of the game game of the game
Competition Competitions are very Competitions are Competitions are not
Formats applicable and incorporated somewhat applicable and incorporated into the sessions
into sessions incorporated into sessions
Sample plan is organized and Sample plan is organized Sample plan lacks
Structuring a complete and all areas of the and complete but all areas organization and
Lesson plan are in harmony with each are not in harmony with completeness and all areas
other each other are not in harmony with each
Excellent execution of session Good execution of session Poor execution of sample
plan, incorporated all areas of plan, some areas of the plan, some areas of plan
plan plan was left out were left out
Shows excellent time Shows good time Shows poor time
management skills management skills management skills


The selected audience are the coaches at the Atlantic Primary School Tennis Programme. The

coaches vary in age, qualification and experience but share the same work space. The learner

characteristics are extremely varied.

Age Range

18-25 – Six Persons

25-35 – One Person


50-60 – One Person

Academic Background

Advanced Level 2 Certificate – 1 Person

Level 1 Certificate – 2 Persons

Play and Stay Certificate – Three Persons

Not Certified – Two Persons


0-2 years – 4 Persons

3-5 years – 3 Persons

5 – 10 years – 1 Person

Orienting Context

The participants of the workshop are all tennis coaches that work in the same programme, same

environment and with the same students. All the coaches have some level of experience within

the field and the workshop is tailored to suit the needs of the programme. The only difficulty in

this context is that not all the coaches have the same attitudes of learning and the same abilities

to learn. Some are younger than some and some are more experienced in the game than some.

The last problem of context would be the varying learning styles of the coaches. However

despite the varying learning styles because of the nature of the sport and workshop, its design is

fixed in that regard.

Instructional Context

The workshop will be conducted in an indoor facility in an air-conditioned conference room with

multimedia facilities which will be utilised for the face to face session and mini courts will be

marked out on the basketball court for the practical application. The space is sufficient and

comfortable for the participants and will be ideal for facilitating such workshops.

Transfer Context

The tennis programme uses the same play and stay format for learning tennis at the starter level

where mini courts are used and students are organized into groups. Therefore the workshop is

applicable to the programme and therefore can be effectively transferred to the work



The instructional strategies used for this workshop included Merrill’s First Principles of

instruction, Constructivist problem based learning and Ausubel’s advanced organizers. Merrill’s

model of designing instruction describes four basic components of instruction which are

activating, demonstrating, applying and integrating. According to [CITATION Dav \l 1033 ]

Information only instructional strategies are very common in all educational environments

whether schools, industry, or government. Information- only instructional strategies are very

efficient for conveying large amounts of information but are subject to significant forgetting and

are ineffective in promoting performance on complex problems. According to [CITATION Dav \l

1033 ] learning is promoted when learners activate a mental model of their prior knowledge and

skill as a foundation for new skills, learning is promoted when learners observe a demonstration

of the knowledge and skill to be learned, learning is promoted when learners engage in a

problem centred instructional strategy and learning is promoted when learners integrate their new

knowledge into their everyday lives.

To add to Merrill’s strategy, constructivist problem based learning will also be applied to the

workshop. According to [ CITATION Rob97 \l 1033 ] “Educators who use problem based

learning recognize that in the world outside of school, adults build their knowledge and skills as

they solve a real problem or answer an important question.” Problem based learning can be

described as an ideal instruction strategy for memory and application as it concerns real life

practical applications.

The workshop will include two components, a face to face component and a practical

component. During the face to face component the course content will be very organized so as to

achieve the course main objective. In keeping the whole picture in mind, the course is designed

to apply key principles so that coaches are better equipped to execute effective sessions. The

most complex task includes structuring a lesson plan and being able to effectively execute that

plan. This will take place in the practical session. This task can be seen as the most complex task

because it involves coaches having to utilize all the concepts taught in the course and being able

to effectively apply it in the practical lesson. The practical lesson was selected and designed

based on Merrill’s First principles of instruction and based on Constructivist Problem Based


First coaches’ prior knowledge about the topic is activated. Coaches will be taught on structuring

a lesson plan and during this session coaches will be asked to describe how sessions conducted in

the programme was done previously.

Secondly coaches will be taught how to complete a lesson plan and a demonstration will be

given where coaches observe how a 10 minute session is run on court as per the lesson plan.

Third coaches will apply the concepts learnt. Coaches will be given an ill structured case

scenario and first asked to compete a lesson plan template provided by the course, given the case

scenario. Secondly coaches will be taken on court and asked to execute the lesson plan

previously devised and will be given critical feedback at the end.

Fourthly the concept of integration as according to Merrill’s first principles will be applied.

Coaches will be given the opportunity to apply the skills learned in different contexts similar to

the work environment they will go back to after the workshop. In the given case scenario

coaches will be given an odd number of students, an option of court size, equipment and

session’s objectives to choose from. Coaches will have the opportunity analyse their students,

create a lesson plan and determine the means by which the session will be administered.

Lastly the lesson plan template was created based on the advanced comparative organizers

instructional strategy. Coaches will be taught how to complete a lesson plan template and then

asked to complete such a template on their own given a case scenario. The use of a well-

structured template applies the concept of advanced organizers as the coaches are given an

illustration in an organized manner, of how to execute a well-organized and structured lesson.


According to [CITATION Wil10 \l 1033 ] “Advance organizers are brief chunks of information,

spoken, written or illustrated presented prior to new material to help facilitate learning and

understanding. They present the big picture prior to the details.” When teaching how to structure

a lesson plan the use of the template before it explanation aids instruction by giving the

participants a clear view of what is required. Lessons were organized using PowerPoint

presentations and via a lesson plan template.

The Skills of the Coach

Why do people Play Tennis:



Students, Key Game, Improved through, Leisurely, Learning(SKILL)
BY ShenelleM ohammed
Student # 31100389

The Skills of the Coach The Skills of the Coach

The role of the coach: Learning and coaching:

 Coaching players
 Designing, advertising, and promoting the program, courses and event  Coaches need to understand
 Organizing tournaments  How people learn
 Customer care- liaising with players or club members  How to communicate and create an environment where players can learn
 Budgeting- managing the clubs finances easily
 How to vary communication to suit the different players and their varied
learning styles

The Skills of the Coach The Skills of the Coach

Verbal and Visual Communication Skills: Different Communication Styles:

 Making sure everyone is paying attention, and ready to receive  Verbal
instruction.  Non verbal
 Varying volume and tone, to emphasise key words or phrases  Visual

 Coaches need to vary their method of communication according to the

 Speaking slowly and clearly, leaving occasional pauses
knowledge, understanding and maturity of the players.
 Asking questions which make audience thing about the information
being given.

The Skills of the Coach The Skills of the Coach

Effective Questioning: Organizing Groups of Players and odd Numbers:

 Technique of open questioning
 Ask what are your options when opponent approaches the net  Organise group activities such as warm up
 When can you play a lob
 Why did you miss the shot  Organise large groups into smaller groups
 How could you improve consistency .

 Rotating players so everyone fulfils different roles

 Organizing a group of players for a tournament

The Skills of the Coach Creating a Positive learning Environment

 Feeding when working with groups of players:  Game Based Coaching:

 Perform simple and appropriate feeds  Teach to serve rally and score as soon as possible.

 Feed ball with appropriate trajectory  Serving or returning

 Give time between each feed  Playing ground strokes

 Approaching or at the net or passing or lobbing the opponent

Creating a Positive learning Environment Creating a Positive learning Environment

 Creating a stimulating environment:  Keys to Success with Starter players:

 Understanding all players are different  Type of ball used

 The size of court
 Playing experience  The teaching approach which is used
 The rules, which can be adapted to provide the optimal challenge
 Age  Choosing a cooperative of competitive element to the practise

 Physical characteristics such as coordinating, movement, agility and strength

Creating a Positive learning Environment Creating a Positive learning

 Optimal Challenge:  Adapting Equipment and the lesson to suit the player:

 Increasing or reducing the court size  Changing:

 Changing to a faster or slower ball
 Changing the rules of the practise to require more of less movement  The ball to make the game slower or to reduce height and bounce
 Changing the scoring to make the practise more motivating
 Feeding more challenging of easier balls  The length or width of the court reduce area to be covered
 Making the practise a cooperative one rather than a competitive one.

 The rules in order to simplify the game or practise


Creating a Positive learning

 Basic tennis tactics for starter players:

 Consistency

 Moving the opponent

 Maintaining good court position

 Playing to strengths and exploiting opponents weaknesses

Creating a Positive learning Environment

 Differentiation:

 Everyone is working at a level of challenge that is appropriate for their level

of play.

 Everyone is participating in the same activity, but playing with different

levels of difficulty

Basic Techniques and Tactics Basic Techniques and Tactics

Basic tactics to help players improve:  Basic Techniques to help Players Improve:

Basic activity around a three game situation  Early preparation

 Consistent contact point
Setting up a range of rally based activities  Good balance
 Avoiding extreme grips
Using different court and racket size  Receiving skills which will help players anticipate and judge the flight of
the ball more effectively

Giving advise as player plays

Cooperative and Competitive Cooperative and Competitive

 Cooperative and Competitive games and practices:

 Competition Formats:
 Cooperative: practicing a particular game situation in a way that helps each
player.  No- ad scoring method
 Competitive: practicing a particular game situation trying to win points
against each other.  Short sets
 A combination of both
 Deciding tie break game (7pts)

 Deciding match tie break (10pts)


Structuring a Lesson Plan Structuring a Lesson Plan

 Effective Time Management:  Organizing Main Content:

 Allocating appropriate time for each aspect of the session e.g. time for warm-  Game Situation for the session
up, main content of session, competition, and fun and games, and warm –
 Tactical Objective for the Session
down exercises.

 Teaching Basic Techniques

Advanced Comparative Organizer: Lesson Plan Template

Date Venue
Time Length of session
Number in group Ability of players
Equipment needed:
Red / Orange / Green balls
Targets / throw down lines
Rackets of various sizes
Game situation for the session (tick Tactical objectives for the Basic technique
one of the following) session (tick one of the following  Reception skills
 Serving and returning  Consistency  Correct and consistent
 Rallying from the base line  Moving the opponent contact point
 Approaching and passing  Recovery and maintaining court  No extreme grips
position  Balanced when hitting the
 Using a strength ball
 Playing the opponents weakness  Appropriate action (throw
swing punch
Warm up / recap from last session
Time allocated:
Main content Player task/ differentiation of task Rotation and organization

Time allocated:
Cool down/summary

Time allocated:
Objective for next session Tactical objective for session (thick one of the following)
Game situation for the session(tick one of the  Consistency
following)  Moving the opponent
 Serving and returning  Recovery and maintaining court position
 Rallying from the baseline  Using a strength
 Approaching and passing  Exploiting the opponents weakness


The audience for the workshop included eight persons who are coaches at the Atlantic Primary

School Tennis Programme. The coaches despite small in number varied widely in knowledge and

experience and this presented a bit of difficulty in meeting the needs of all the participants. The

workshop then required the use of differentiation despite the principles being taught remained the

same, this in itself could provide challenges for actual execution of the workshop despite its

simplicity on paper.

There were no misconceptions anticipated related to the topic because of the knowledge of the

programme, its coaches, it participants and the game of tennis. Because of my experience in the

field of tennis and the completion of research via surveys and needs assessments, this eliminated

the problem of misconceptions for the topic.

Because the skill of playing tennis being taught is a psychomotor in nature the instructional

strategies chosen had to include practical application components to effectively teach the

audience. Therefore such strategies that included application components were intentionally

included. I especially liked Merrill’s First Principles of Learning and the use of advanced

organizers and problem based learning strategies together with Merrill’s strategy seemed to

complement each other . I believe that once information is presented in a clear, organized and

interesting manner that it makes learning easier based on how memory is stored. Also once the

information learnt is grasped, applying problem based learning scenarios helps ensure that

learning has taken place as the persons actually perform the tasks and performance can be


The design of the SKILLS workshop worked very well. The process of conducting, needs

assessments, task analysis, performance objectives, assessment rubrics and selecting instructional

strategies aided greatly in guiding and executing the workshop effectively. The planning of the

workshop aided in achieving specific set outcomes and this resulted in set outcomes.

If I were to facilitate the SKILLS workshop again I would narrow my target audience to

similarities in qualifications and experience. However because of the need of the organization to

tailor such a training for this particular audience, this presented the problem of differentiation.

Also I would include the use of more videos to keep the workshop interesting for the coaches to

reach a wider variety of learning styles. Learning styles were not taken into consideration into

developing the workshop and this is a great downfall only noticed at the end.

Peer and group feedback aided informative and helpful reviews. The peer and group feedback

also worked very well in providing formative feedback on what type of strategies could be

applied to the learning situations.. The peer and group feedback also aided in the development of

the workshop as it presented the opportunity where peers can discuss the requirements of the

project so that all the requirements could be met. Requirements and the rubric were sometimes

unclear and so discussion among peers aided in proving clarification.



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