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EDID6505 – Mini Project

UOpen Academy

Database Training Workshop for the Travel and International Language School in Trinidad

and Tobago (SITAL)

Kevin Holder

Randall James

Avalon Kelly

Dauran McNeil

Shenelle Mohammed

In partial fulfillment of

EDID 6505 Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials

Dr. LeRoy St. Hill

March 25, 2018

The University of the West Indies, Open Campus


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Table of Contents

Executive Summary .............................................................................................................................................4


Background and Context of Instructional System ................................................................................................ 5
Needs Assessment ................................................................................................................................................5
Task Analysis .......................................................................................................................................................8
Prerequisite Analysis............................................................................................................................................8
Classifying Learning Outcomes ......................................................................................................................... 10
Unit 1 – Data Entry ............................................................................................................................................ 10
Performance Objectives and Task Analysis for Unit 1 ............................................................................... 10
Prerequisite Analysis for Unit 1 .................................................................................................................. 11
Procedural Analysis for Unit 1 .................................................................................................................... 12
Assessment of Unit 1 .................................................................................................................................. 13
Instructional Strategies and Lesson for Unit 1 ............................................................................................ 15
Unit 2 – Creating Queries .................................................................................................................................. 17
Performance Objectives and Task Analysis for Unit 2 ............................................................................... 17
Prerequisite Analysis for Unit 2 .................................................................................................................. 17
Procedural Analysis for Unit 2 .................................................................................................................... 18
Instructional Strategies, Lesson and Assessment for Unit 2 ....................................................................... 18
Unit 3 – Generating Reports .............................................................................................................................. 20
Performance Objectives and Task Analysis Unit 3 ..................................................................................... 20
Prerequisite Analysis for Unit 3 .................................................................................................................. 21
Procedural Analysis for Unit 3 .................................................................................................................... 21
Assessment of Unit 3 .................................................................................................................................. 30
Instructional Strategies and Lesson for Unit 3 ............................................................................................ 30
Review of the Process ........................................................................................................................................ 32
Justification for using Moodle Cloud .......................................................................................................... 32
Data and Feedback from Materials with Pilot Users ................................................................................... 34
Design Process ............................................................................................................................................ 35
Adjustments ................................................................................................................................................ 37
Limitations .................................................................................................................................................. 37
Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................. 38
Instructional Strategies Tables ........................................................................................................................... 38
Research and Information Resources ................................................................................................................. 38
Misconceptions and Prior Knowledge ............................................................................................................... 39
Prior Instruction in Database Operations ........................................................................................................... 39
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Reflective Writing .............................................................................................................................................. 41


References .......................................................................................................................................................... 48
Appendix A ........................................................................................................................................................ 51
Task Selection Worksheet ........................................................................................................................... 51
Appendix B ........................................................................................................................................................ 52
Learner and Contextual Analysis ................................................................................................................ 52
Appendix C ........................................................................................................................................................ 54
Instructional Strategies Table for Unit 1 ..................................................................................................... 54
Appendix D ........................................................................................................................................................ 55
PowerPoint presentation for Unit 1 ............................................................................................................. 55
Appendix E ........................................................................................................................................................ 58
Instructional Strategies Selected for Unit 2 ................................................................................................. 58
Appendix F......................................................................................................................................................... 60
Performance Rubric for Query #1 ............................................................................................................... 60
Appendix G ........................................................................................................................................................ 62
Graphic Organizers for Unit 2 ..................................................................................................................... 62
Appendix H ........................................................................................................................................................ 63
Sample Assessment for Unit 3 .................................................................................................................... 63
Appendix I ......................................................................................................................................................... 66
Instructional Strategies Selected for Unit 3 ................................................................................................. 66
Appendix J ......................................................................................................................................................... 71
Pre-Instructional Strategies for Unit 3......................................................................................................... 71
Appendix K ........................................................................................................................................................ 75
Instructional Lesson – Unit 3 ...................................................................................................................... 75
Appendix L ........................................................................................................................................................ 86
Pilot Users Sample Work ............................................................................................................................ 86
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Executive Summary

UOpen Academy Database Training Workshop is an online professional development

exercise for the Communications Unit staff at the Travel and International Language School in

Trinidad and Tobago (SITAL) to develop database competencies. A needs assessment and gap

analysis revealed a differential skill sets among staff members specifically as relates to database

operations data entry during new student registration, that is, data entry, querying information

from the database, and generating reports from the records. Instructional planning began with a

learner and contextual analysis and task analysis to determine the most important tasks for

instructing the particular audience. Online instruction is fundamentally different from face-to-

face instruction because the instructor is not in direct contact with students during instruction.

so instructional objectives and strategies were firmly grounded in effective pedagogical

philosophies and guided by Bloom’s Taxonomy so that learners are engaged in high level

cognitive activities which enhance cognitive, affective, and psychomotor behaviors, rather

than mechanical manipulations of data. It was decided that the best instructional model for

this particular instructional scenario would be a merger of direct instruction and social

constructivism Students would receive self-directed instruction and would apply skills and

extend knowledge within collaborative groups. Lessons are deliberately designed to

resemble face-to-face on site-instruction. For example, lessons involve a variety of pre-

instructional advance organizers and analogies, direct the learners to engage in active

learning during instruction and feature a series of post-instructional, collaborative and

metacognitive activities. At the end of the workshop, learners are expected to have mastered

all objectives and demonstrate learning outcomes with a high level of proficiency.
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Background and Context of Instructional System

The institution for Travel and International Language (SITAL) in Trinidad and Tobago

recently expanded its scope to encompass degree programmes in Business Management, Human

Resource Management, Marketing Management, Logistics and Supply Chain Management,

Tourism Management and Hospital Health Management. Students now have the option to enroll

in diploma, bachelor or master degree programmes. The availability of these academic options

caused a large influx in the student population. In order to manage the larger population and the

more complex academic programme, the institution was compelled to institute a new database

management system to record and track myriad registration details including contact

information, academic programmes, timetables, and payment status.

Needs Assessment

Altschuld (2004) cited in James (2018) describes a needs assessment as a “measured

discrepancy or gap between two conditions—the “what should be” or desired status of an entity

and the “what is” or its current status” (pg. 4). The following needs assessment assesses the

needs of SITAL staff members with regards to database operations.

Problem Statement

SITAL staff members have basic training in database operations, but some are unable to

effectively manage the new protocols database protocols. This workshop addresses this issue by

facilitating the development of specific database operation competencies in database operations.

Target Audience

The target audience is the SITAL Communications Unit which comprises student

recruitment officers, course advisors, recruitment specialists and academic administrators, a total

of 7 staff members; 2 males and 5 females. Members range in age from 26-58 years. Academic
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qualifications range from diplomas to master’s degrees. This particular audience was selected

because members interact with student data on a daily basis and require a thorough

understanding of database operations to execute their duties.

Topic of Instruction

The development of database operation competencies in data entry, creating queries, and

generating reports.

Delivery Format

The training will be delivered entirely in a virtual classroom. Instructional materials and

activities, summative and formative assessments are all available in digital format online.

Instruction is based on a pedagogical framework of self-directed learning and social

constructivism. Training incorporates a number of instructional strategies including direct

instructions with practical demonstrations, group collaboration, peer feedback, and problem

solving.

Optimals

1. Employees should know how to enter, edit and update data correctly and accurately

2. Employees should know how to run queries to filter results from the database

3. Employees should know how to create reports using given criteria

4. Employees should be competent in using the database to manage daily operations

5. Employees should exhibit maximum efficiency in executing database operations

Data collection includes the following convenient, accessible, efficient and cost-effective

methods.

1. Face-to-face interaction with Information Computer Technology specialist

2. Interview with trainers responsible for teaching new staff how to use the database
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3. Online interview utilizing zoom technology with the developer of the database

Actuals

1. Some employees are prone to errors or inefficiency in data entry, querying data, and creating

reports

2. Employees demonstrate varying levels of proficiency in database operations

3. Poor database protocols result in high volume of complaints and data inconsistencies

4. Reports are poorly formatted or underutilized

Data Collection will be based on employee observation, performance evaluation records, and

face-to-face interviews.

Feelings

1. Some employees may be daunted by the learning curve involved in using new protocols

2. A degree of frustration at lack of proficiency and knowledge

3. Negative experiences of students and staff requiring data related services

Data Collection will take the form of qualitative methodology to collect data would. This

would mainly involve interviews with employees to assess their thoughts, feelings, attitudes and

opinions.

Causes

1. Data entry errors due to multitasking and other distractions

2. Some employees do not use proper protocols for database operations

3. Some employees have misconceptions about the database

4. Employees lack proper training

5. It may be difficult for some staff members to adjust to the new system

Data Collection
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1. Student database records located in New Registrations & New Inquiries

2. reports from the Quality Assurance Department

3. student registration files from the Record Management Unit

4. DFT-Monitoring software to monitor database activities

Solutions

1. Authentic training so staff can learn how to use the database correctly

2. Instructional units to provide support and self-training for staff members

Learner and Contextual Analysis

Learner and Contextual Analysis (see Appendix A) was created to prepare the

instructional unit. The analysis analyzes factors that might affect the on the instructional

process. The results of the analysis guided the structure, content, and instructional strategies

implemented during the workshop.

Task Analysis

Task analysis is process of determining instructional objectives (Jonassen, Tessmer, &

Hannum, 1999). For this workshop, learners are required to perform data entry, run queries, and

generate database reports. See Task Selection Worksheet located in Appendix A. A prerequisite

analysis was conducted for the three database operations and separate procedural analysis were

conducted for all three operations.

Prerequisite Analysis

Prerequisite analysis determines the perquisite tasks that learners need to navigate before

they can successfully achieve a terminal objective (Jonassen, Tessmer, & Hannum, 1999). In

this case, the tasks related to a set of decisions that users had to consider during the process of

data entry, running queries, and generating a customized report.


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Figure 1: Prerequisite Analysis for Workshop


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Classifying Learning Outcomes

Cognitive

1. Assess scenarios to determine database operations required

2. Perform various database operations (i.e. data entry, queries, reports).

Affective

3. Explain the function and advantages of databases as a data management tool

4. Select appropriate presentation options to enhance the presentation of a report

Psychomotor

5. Launch and Exit the Microsoft Access programme

6. Manipulate the mouse to access relevant tabs and other database functions.

Unit 1 – Data Entry

Performance Objectives and Task Analysis for Unit 1

Terminal Objective

At the end of Unit 1, employees will be able to accurately enter information into the

appropriate fields on the database for the registration of a new student and new student inquiry.

Enabling Objectives

1. Demonstrate the ability to identify, select and input the correct date into appropriate fields

within 5 minutes of given sample information, with 100% accuracy (knowledge and

comprehension)

2. Edit records in a sample database with 90% accuracy

3. Produce and update a record within in 5 minutes given a sample database and scenario with

90% accuracy (application)


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Prerequisite Analysis for Unit 1

Figure 2: Prerequisite Analysis for Unit 1

4.

Save a New
Student Entry

Modify a New Query a New Delete a New


Student Entry Student Entry Student Entry

Build New Student


Information into
Database

Distinguish
Identify Tabs in
between Student
Student Entry and
Entry and Student
Student Enquiry
Enquiry

Locate Access
Database Tab
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Procedural Analysis for Unit 1

1. Create a new student registration entry

1.1. Locate student database icon on desktop

1.2. Double click the student database icon to open the file

1.3. Enter employee username and password in the log in window

2. Select student entry and enquiry tab for new registration

2.1. Locate Student Entry for New Registration

2.2. Double click the left mouse button to open

3. Enter student information in the respective fields for New Registrations and Inquiries

3.1. Locate Student ID

3.2. Double click in the field on the right to automatically generate a student number.

3.3. Locate Student Name

3.4. Click in the field on the right to position the cursor

3.5. Type information in the field.

3.6. Locate Student Address

3.7. Click in the field on the right to position the cursor

3.8. Type information in the field.

3.9. Locate Gender

3.10. Click in the dropdown box on the right to show gender options

3.11. Left-click to select a gender

3.12. Locate Date of Birth

3.13. Left-click in the dropdown box on the right to show calendar

3.14. Left-click to select date, month and year


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3.15. Locate Course

3.16. Click in the dropdown box on the right to show available courses

3.17. Left-click to select to select courses

3.18. Locate Student Phone

3.19. Left-click in the field on the right to position the cursor

3.20. Type information in the field.

3.21. Left-click to activate Image upload

3.22. Navigate to the directory where the image is located

3.23. Left-click photo to select

3.24. Click OK to upload the photo

3.25. When New Registrations and Enquiries appears click Submit to save the record

4. Erase and modify information in a record

4.1. Click and drag the cursor or double-click to highlight the information to be erased

4.2. Press the backspace or delete button on the keyboard

4.3. Enter new information in field

4.4. Click Submit to save the new information

Assessment of Unit 1

Assessment 1

For the first assessment, participants will be placed into groups to identify the most

important factors which must be considered to avoid errors during data entry. Each group will

then present the three most important factors. The following rubric will be used for the activity.
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Table 1: Assessment 1 Grading Rubric

Assessment Excellent (5) Good (3) Poor (1)


Criteria
Demonstrates prior Demonstrates an excellent Demonstrates a good Demonstrates a
knowledge and prior knowledge of the prior understanding of poor prior
critical thinking database by providing 3 the database by understanding
relevant factors providing 2 somewhat of the database
relevant factors by providing 1
factor

Assessment 2

The second assessment will be to list the procedure for entering information into the

student database to register students for courses using following graphic organizer.

Figure 3: Graphic organizer for Assessment 2

Table 2: Assessment 3 Grading Rubric

Criteria Excellent (5) Good (3) Poor (1)


Ability to Accurately lists all the Accurately lists some Accurately lists less
accurately list all steps in entering data steps in entering data than 3 steps in entering
the steps for on the database within on the database within data on the database
entering data 15 mins 15 mins within 15 mins
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Assessment 3

In the third assessment, participants will have the opportunity to demonstrate the

procedure for entering data into correct fields in the database to register a new student. Data from

the following data table will used for this purpose.

Table 3: Data Table for Assessment 3

Table 4: Assessment 3 Grading Rubric

Criteia Excellent (5) Good (4) Fair (3) Poor (2-0)

Commands Identifies all Identifies most Identifies some Cannot identify


and Tabs tabs accurately tabs tabs correct tabs

Identification Identifies Identifies most Identifies some Cannot identify


of correct fields correct fields for fields accurately fields accurately accurate fields for
entering for entering for entering entering information
information information information

Speed and Enters Enters Enters Enters information


Accuracy information into information into information into into database in over
database database database with 15 mins with major
accurately accurately few errors errors
within 8 mins within 12 mins within 15 mins
with no errors with no errors

Instructional Strategies and Lesson for Unit 1

The instructional strategies to be used for Unit 1will involve hands-on activities which

allow for learning by doing, graphic organizers to aid with memory, and problem-based learning.

Training participants will have the opportunity to perform authentic tasks using a computer in the
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computer lab, and using the actual database used by the school. The entire instructional process

will be guided by Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction as outlined below. The full set of

instructional practices employed is located in the Instructional Strategies Table in Appendix C

while the PowerPoint lesson used to deliver the content is located in Appendix D.

Table 5: Unit 1 Instructional Lesson using Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction

Instructional Event Instructional Strategy


Attention Understanding the importance of accurate data entry
Objective Employees will be able to accurately enter information into the
appropriate fields on the student database for the registration of a new
student and new student inquiry
Prior Knowledge For the first assessment, participants will be placed into groups to
discuss for 5 minutes, what are the most important factors, which can
be considered to avoid errors, when entering data. Each group will
then present one factor that was found to be most important
Content Content will be explained and demonstrated using live video and
PowerPoint presentations.
Guidance A graphic organizer (sequence organizer) will be used to aid teaching
before the practical application
Practice In the second assessment, participants will have the opportunity to
practice by solving a given scenario. The third assessment will be to
list in order the steps required to complete a new student registration
and new student enquiry.
Feedback Open and constant feedback will be encouraged during the session to
help solve any issues participants may be having with completing
required tasks
Assessment The three given assessments will be graded using specified grading
rubrics
Retention and Transfer Retention and learning will take place throughout the teaching of unit
one. Participants will have the opportunity to use the actual database
during an authentic scenario activity.
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Unit 2 – Creating Queries

Performance Objectives and Task Analysis for Unit 2

Terminal Objective 2

At the end of the unit, employees will be able to efficiently query the student database

given various scenarios.

Enabling Objectives

1. Explain at least 2 methods for querying data with 100% accuracy (knowledge and

comprehension)

2. Demonstrate at least 2 methods for querying data with a given database with 100% accuracy

using queries (application)

3. Demonstrate how to create a query with criteria given a sample database and a scenario with

100% accuracy (application)

4. Investigate and solve a query within 5 minutes of enquiry given a scenario with 90 %

accuracy (evaluation)

Prerequisite Analysis for Unit 2

Figure 4: Prerequisite Analysis for Unit 2

Create queries

demonsrate how demonstrate how use database tabs


list types of
to enter data in to manage and buttons
queries
the correct fields databse objects correctly

identify various
define "query" define "criteria" define "database"
database objects
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Procedural Analysis for Unit 2

1. Create a simple query

1.1. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon

1.2. Locate the Queries group and click the Query Design command.

1.3. Select the table to run a query on

1.4. Click Add the table to the query

1.5. Click Close

1.6. Select the field names to include in the query. They will be added to the design grid in

the bottom part of the screen

1.7. Click the Run command on the Design tab to view results

2. Create a query with a criterion

2.1. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon

2.2. Locate the Queries group and click the Query Design command

2.3. Select the table to run the query on

2.4. Click Add

2.5. Click Close

2.6. Select the field names to include in your query. They will be added to the design grid in

the bottom part of the screen.

2.7. Set the search criteria by clicking the cell in the criteria

2.8. Click the Run command on the Design tab to view results.

Instructional Strategies, Lesson and Assessment for Unit 2

The following lesson plan will be used to deliver instruction. The table of Instructional

Strategies in located in Appendix E.


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1. Introduction

Scenario/Case Study. You are a student account manager and need a list of all students

with outstanding balances. Do you know what feature of the database management system that

can be used to solve this problem? (Answer: Queries)

2. Teaching Activities

2.1. Demonstration. The following video will be played: https://tinyurl.com/Access-2016-

SimpleQuery. Learners will watch video and summarize the steps using a graphic

organizer.

2.2. Drill & Practice. Learners will practice creating the following queries with the aid of a

sample database

• Query 1: create a simple query

• Query 2: create a query with a criteria

2.3. Peer Collaboration. Learners will submit a completed query of from the drill and

practice session to a peer for assessment.

See Appendix F for peer evaluated performance rubrics for Query 1 and 2.

3. Formal Assessment

3.1. Learners will submit query and peer assessment to instructor for formative review and

assessment

3.2. Learners will use a sequence graphic organizer to write the steps to create a simple query

and a query with criteria. Graphic organizers are located in Appendix G

4. Conclusion

Strategy: Reflection. Learners will complete a 6 Thinking Hats reflection upon completion

of the unit about their learning and how they can apply skill taught to working environment.
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Unit 3 – Generating Reports

Performance Objectives and Task Analysis Unit 3

Terminal Objective

By the end of Unit 3 – Database Reports, employees at the School of International Travel

and Language will be able select and apply an appropriate report generation strategy to produce a

report (customized to reflect relevant data, groupings, and ordering) based on selected tables or

queries from the student database within forty minutes with 100% accuracy.

Enabling Objectives

1. Analyse scenarios to determine the most appropriate method for generating a report based on

a database within five minutes with 100% accuracy (application and evaluation).

2. Select relevant tables or queries in a sample database to create a report which contains

relevant data within ten minutes with 100% accuracy (application and evaluation).

3. Apply the correct procedure for creating and formatting a report using the report wizard

based on required information within ten minutes with 100% accuracy (comprehension and

application)

4. Apply the correct procedure for creating and formatting a custom report using design view

within ten minutes, with 100% accuracy (comprehension and application)

5. Generate a report with grouping based on the student database to display specific information

within the stipulated time frame of forty minutes, with 100% accuracy (analysis, application,

evaluation)
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Prerequisite Analysis for Unit 3

Figure 5: Prerequisite Analysis for Unit 3

Procedural Analysis for Unit 3

A procedural analysis outlines the steps or processes of completing a task (Jonassen,

Tessmer, & Hannum, 1999). The procedural analysis below outlines the process of creating a

report using the report wizard and design view.


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Create a Report Using the Report Wizard

1. Launch the Report Wizard.

1.1. Click Report Wizard on the Ribbon located in the Create tab.

2. Select data sources.

2.1. Select the tables and fields containing information relevant to the report via the drop-

down list.

2.2. Available fields are displayed in the left pane. Fields can be moved across to the

right pane by double clicking or using the >> button.

2.3. Repeat for each field that is to appear in the report.

2.4. Steps 2 and 3 should be repeated for each relevant table/query.

2.5. Once all fields have been selected, click Next >.

3. Select view options.

3.1. Select an organization options option from the list to preview it.

3.2. Once the desired option has been selected, click Next >.

4. Choose a Grouping Table/Field.

4.1. In the left pane, select the table or query that contains the field that the report needs to

be grouped by. The right pane will show a preview based on the selection.

4.2. Once the desired option has been selected, click Next >.

5. Specify the sort order.

5.1. Select a sort function to sorts the fields within each group

5.2. Select sorting in ascending or descending order.

5.3. Click Next >.

6. Choose layout and orientation.


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6.1. Select a preset layout and orientation for the report. The preview in the left pane will

update accordingly.

6.2. Once the desired layout and orientation has been selected, click Next >.

7. Name the report.

7.1. Name the report according to its contents or purpose.

7.2. Select modify or preview to modify or preview before it is generated.

8. Generate the report.

8.1. Click Finish to generate the report. The completed report is grouped and organized

according to specifications and stored in the specified location.

9. Format the report.

9.1. Remove borders

▪ Select the field/s from which to remove the border.

▪ Click Shape Outline from the Format tab on the Ribbon.

▪ Select Transparent from the contextual menu.

9.2. Delete alternating colors.

▪ Select the Report Detail section in Design View.

▪ Click Alternate Row Color from the Format tab on the Ribbon.

▪ Select No Color from the contextual menu.

9.3. Bold headlines

▪ Select the field.

▪ Click the bold icon in the Home tab.

10. Save the report.

10.1. Click the Save command on the Quick Access toolbar.


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10.2. Type a name for the report, then click OK

11. Edit the report.

11.1. Fields can be resized by selecting a field. Click and drag its edge until the field is the

desired size.

11.2. Reports can be sorted and filtered. Right-click the field sort or filter, then select the

desired option from the menu.

11.3. Fields can be deleted. Click any cell in the field to be deleted, then press

the Delete key on the keyboard.

11.4. Headers can be deleted. Click on the header to be deleted then press the Delete key

on the keyboard.

12. Save the report.

12.1. Click the Save command on the Quick Access toolbar.

12.2. Type a name for the report.

12.3. Click OK.

13. Export the report in a non-Access format.

13.1. Click the View command on the Home tab

13.2. Select Print Preview from the drop-down list.

13.3. Locate the Data group on the ribbon.

13.4. Select one of the file type options (Excel file, text file, PDF, HTML, Word, etc.)

13.5. Select the save location in the dialog box.

13.6. Enter a file name for the report.

13.7. Click Publish.

13.8. Some export options will cause the Export Wizard to appear. Select the file format
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and storage location. Then click OK.

14. Preview the report.

14.1. From the Home tab, click the View command.

14.2. Select Print Preview from the drop-down list. The report will be shown as it appears

on a printed page.

14.3. If necessary, modify the page size, margin width, and page orientation using the

related commands on the Ribbon.

15. Print the report.

15.1. Click the Print command. The Print dialog box will appear.

15.2. Set any desired print options.

15.3. Click OK.

Create a Report in Design View

1. Create a blank report in design view.

1.1. Select the Create tab in the toolbar.

1.2. Click on the Report Design button in the Reports group to open a blank report in

design view.

2. Add Properties.

Properties allow for configuration and customization of the report.

2.1. Select the Design tab in the toolbar at the top of the screen.

2.2. Then click on the Property Sheet button in the Tools group. This will display the

properties window for the Report objects.

3. Record Source property.

3.1. When the Show Table window appears, select the table (s) that will be used to
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populate the report.

3.2. Click the Add button.

3.3. Repeat to add more tables

3.4. Click the Close button.

3.5. When the Query Builder window appears, build the SQL statement to populate the

report.

3.6. Click on the X button on the top right of the window.

3.7. When prompted with the message box, click the Yes button.

3.8. Back in the Properties window for the Report object, the SQL appears in the Record

Source property showing the source of the data for the report.

4. Add objects to report.

4.1. Select the Design tab in the toolbar at the top of the screen.

4.2. Then click on the Add Existing Fields button in the Tools group.

4.3. A Field List window displays to the right of the report design window. This window

lists all of the fields that are available for your report to use based on the Record

Source property.

4.4. To add fields to the report, highlight the object in the window, and then drag it to the

desired location in the report.

5. Resize objects in the report.

5.1. Click the object to be resized.

5.2. Move the mouse pointer over the resizing box that appears on perimeter of the object.

5.3. When the mouse pointer displays a double-headed arrow, click and drag the object to

the desired size.


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6. Relocate objects in the report.

6.1. Click the object to be resized.

6.2. Move the mouse pointer over the resizing box that appears on perimeter of the object.

until it displays a hand icon.

6.3. Click and drag the object to the desired location.

7. Resize the Detail section in the report.

7.1. Locate the move your mouse pointer over the bottom of the detail section until the

pointer displays a double-headed arrow

7.2. Click and drag until the Detail section is the desired size.

8. Set up the page header.

8.1. Select the Design tab in the toolbar at the top of the screen.

8.2. Click on the Label button in the Controls group.

8.3. Click in the Page Header section of the report to activate text entry.

8.4. Enter the text.

8.5. The text displays at the top of each page in the report.

9. Resizing text

9.1. Select the Home tab in the toolbar.

9.2. Double or highlight click the text to be formatted.

9.3. Under the Text Formatting group select the formatting options (font, font size, bold,

italics, underline, etc.)

10. Add the date and time to a header or footer

10.1. Select the Design tab, locate the Header/Footer group

10.2. Click the Date and Time command.


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10.3. A dialog box will appear. Select the desired formatting options. A preview of the text

will appear.

10.4. When you are satisfied with the appearance of the date and time, click OK.

10.5. By default, the date and time appear in the header. To relocate to the footer, click and

drag the date and time boxes to the desired location.

11. Add page numbers to a header or footer

11.1. Select the Design tab.

11.2. Locate the Header/Footer group.

11.3. Click the Page Numbers command.

11.4. Under Format, choose Page N or Page N of M to display desired format.

11.5. Under Position, choose Top of Page or Bottom of Page to control where the page

numbers appear.

11.6. Click the drop-down arrow to select the alignment of the page numbers.

11.7. When satisfied with the settings, click OK.

12. Add an image

12.1. From the Design tab, click the View command.

12.2. Select Layout View from the drop-down list.

12.3. Locate the Header/Footer group.

12.4. Click the Logo command.

12.5. A dialog box will appear.

12.6. Locate and select the desired file.

12.7. Click OK to add it to your report.

12.8. A thumbnail of the image will appear in the header.


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12.9. Click and drag the image border to resize it if desired.

12.10. Click and drag the image to the desired location.

13. Change the theme

13.1. Select the Design tab in the Themes group.

13.2. Click the Themes command on the ribbon.

13.3. Select the desired theme from the drop-down menu to apply the selected colors and

fonts to the entire database including the report.

14. Change the theme fonts

14.1. Select the Design tab located in the Themes group.

14.2. Click the Fonts command on the ribbon.

14.3. Select a set of theme fonts from the drop-down menu to apply the fonts to the entire

database including the report.

15. Preview the report.

15.1. Select Views from the Design tab.

15.2. Select Print Preview from the drop-down list on the toolbar to display the report in

preview mode.

16. Save the report

16.1. Click the Save button in the File tab.

16.2. A ‘Save As’ window appears.

16.3. Type a name for the report.

16.4. Click save.


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Assessment of Unit 3

The assessment of the online workshop determines how well learners have mastered

instructional instruction and provides learners with self-assessment tools. Given the practical

nature of database reports, assessments will be practical exercises. Learners will produce reports

based on realistic scenarios. The reports will be assessed with a rubric to determine the

effectiveness of transfer. A sample assessment and rubric are located in Appendix G and H

respectively.

Instructional Strategies and Lesson for Unit 3

Eclecticism or an “approach founded in multiple perspectives”, as proposed by Reigeluth

and Carr-Chellman (2009) is based on functionalism, that is, the strategies employed must

function best for the learner and instructional situation. Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman (2009)

have purported that there is no one instructional theoretical perspective that could be prescribed

as an exact fit for all learning environments. It is believed, rather, that perspectives from

behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism could all be considered. As a result, bountiful

instructional strategies are afforded the instructional designer, who can choose the most

appropriate strategies to manage learning environments efficiently and effectively. In this case,

the context – employees of the School of International Travel and Languages (SITAL)

participating in a self and peer instruction workshop presented fully online - is a crucial

consideration when selecting the most relevant instructional strategies. With this in mind, a

number of instructional strategies were selected. The complete set of instructional strategies are

outlined in Appendix I.

Instructional Unit

Due to the nature of online instruction - that is asynchronous, self-directed instruction -


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the primary mode of delivery will be self-instruction using various digital media such as

PowerPoint presentations, instructional videos, and online guides. A number of instructional

strategies to facilitate the most effective transfer of learning will be employed in order to

familiarize learners with the content and create a practical understanding of the instructional

materials and activities.

1. The first step in the lesson is to outline the objectives of the lesson to direct learners’ focus

and attention and accentuate the significance of the content and skills with regards for

developing and improving professional capacities.

2. The next step in the lesson is to familiarize learners with the content of the lesson. In

keeping with Merills’s First Principle of Activation, instruction begins with a set induction.

A graphic organizer (KWL Chart) will be used to activate prior knowledge of databases, and

analogies and advance organizers will be used to embed the concept of database reports into

familiar ideas (see Appendix J).

3. The First Principle of demonstration will be delivered via direct instruction and guided

demonstration using an instructional PowerPoint presentation (see Appendix K) hosted on

the Moodle LMS. The presentation outlines the process of creating reports step by step. It

contains presentation contains instructional video, pictorial displays of each step of the

process.

4. Each step in the process is reinforced by supplementary formative assessment activities to

reinforce each step as it is presented. Participants can opt to pause the video, complete the

activity, and return to the video, or can watch the entire video before attempting the tasks.

5. A selection of supplementary material is available on the Moodle LMS as well as web links

to supplementary material to provide scaffolding and differentiated instruction for learners


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who experience difficulty learning from the video or are in need of reinforcement.

Communication forums with a synchronous chat application also facilitate communication

between participants.

6. After engagement with the instructional material, learners participate in a variety of practical

activities to practice the skills presented in the lesson. As per Merrill’s First Principle of

problem-centered instruction, students will be presented with realistic scenarios which

require analysis of the task and creation of reports with a specific format containing specific

content. The Moodle LMS allows for learner interaction in groups and forums, and students

will be required to engage in collaborative interaction to complete the assessments.

7. When groups have completed the reports, they will be required to post screenshots of results

for peer assessment and feedback. The Moodle LMS supports the posting of various media

for public viewing. The screenshots serve as public displays of learning which satisfies the

First Principle of integration. Peers will assess the reports using the rubric provided in the

LMS and offer feedback to peers.

8. The final step in the lesson is formative assessment. This assessment is conducted on an

individual basis and serves as an indicator of the skills and knowledge that the learner has

gained at the end of the instructional period. Learners will be assessed using a rubric which

indicates several critical areas for the creation of database reports. A sample assessment and

the associated rubric is located in Appendix H

Review of the Process

Justification for using Moodle Cloud as the Learning Management System

Moodle, a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) is an extremely flexible open source

platform which makes is easy to host online learning environments. Moodle is built for
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education. According to Moodle.com, the platform reflects a social constructionism pedagogy,

and includes many learner centric tools to facilitate learning in an online learning environment

and empower instructors to deliver effective instruction. Importantly Moodle also offers

badgification, competency frameworks, quizzes, assignments, reporting which makes it possible

to host certified courses directly within the platform.

Moodle is open source which means that users have myriad customization features and

can organize the platform to reflect the objectives of their organization. The platform also has

the capacity to integrate content from many systems so that users are not limited to a certain set

of systems or specialized tools. The interoperable design and modular setup can accommodate

plugins and external applications aimed at achieving specific functionalities. Instructors can

upload digital content in via drag-and-drop and users have easy access to content.

Learning via a Moodle platform is engaging and interactive. Students have access to

many collaborative tools such as forums and chat services. They can engage in synchronous

communication via live chat or in asynchronous communication via response forums. Students

can be assigned to groups to collaborate on group projects can form independent groups to

manage their activities.

The workshop is hosted on Moodle (https://gges.moodlecloud.com/login/index.php) as

part of UOpen Academy, an online academy grounded in a philosophy of social constructivism

and student-centered active learning which offers engaging and interactive courses. The course is

presented as a three-part online training workshop designed specifically for the staff of the

Communications Unit at the Travel and International Language School in Trinidad and Tobago

created hosted at the UOpen Academy to train them in correct database management. The

workshop is validated by school administration and counts towards employee evaluation.


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Figure 6: UOpen Academy login page

Data and Feedback from Materials with Pilot Users

The pilot users were four professionals including three females and one male. These

individuals were selected due to the nature of their working environment. They work in an

educational institution and are familiar with managing databases. Therefore, they would be able

to provide relevant and useful feedback.

The pilot users indicated that the online environment presented a model for learning that

differed from working conditions, as most of their training was on the job. It was noted the

Learning Management System, Moodle, was user-friendly and the units were easy to manage.

Most of the learners expressed they were able to accomplish most of the unit objectives. With

regards to the lessons, it was noted that the multimedia instructional videos were effective in

demonstration and teaching the lesson objectives. (Appendix L contains samples of the query

results generated by pilot users after completing Unit 2.) Most of the users indicated they were

not able to complete the peer collaboration assignment and would prefer to have a facilitator

assesses their completed assignment.


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Design Process

Evolution of Instructional Design Process

This process was very dynamic considering it involved a collaborative effort of each

group member. Each designer was able to contribute differently to the design process which

resulted in an array of different instructional strategies. Our design procedures evolved because

most of us had taught only on-site and were not familiar with extensive instruction in a virtual

classroom. We were compelled us to reconsider all aspects of the instructional design process.

Prerequisite requirements, designing instruction in which an instructor is not physically present,

and motivation in digital learning environments; all parts of the process required reformulation.

Backwards Design Model seemed the most appropriate framework to design the instruction.

Backward design is basically task analysis for instructional planning. Given the goals of

instruction, how can evidence of mastery be determined, and by what process will mystery be

achieved? First, desired learning outcome outcomes have to developed, appropriate assessments

created to demonstrate learning and then create the instructional activities to facilitate learning.

The initial step was to determine develop terminal learning objectives and enabling

objectives based on learners’ needs. This was relatively simple. The learner and contextual

analysis, task analysis, prerequisite analysis, procedural analysis served to guide the process of

developing an appropriate range of objectives distributed across in the cognitive, psychomotor

and affective domains of Bloom’s Taxonomy

The next task was to create formative and summative assessments. In backward design,

assessments are deliberately considered before instructional activities because assessments offer

evidence of mastery of learning goals; they are not merely a reflection of instructional activities.

Juxtaposing the two steps ensures that the focus remains on documenting and validating
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proficiency with summative assessment, and periodic checking for understanding and the

acquisition of learning objectives over an extended period of time with formative performance-

based tasks.

Once a terminal objective, enabling objectives and assessments had been determined,

instructional activities were designed. For this project, we considered how best to engage

learners in a manner that traversed the digital interface and made it seem that an instructor was

present in the instructional space with the learner. Two key considerations were taken into

account in the design: variability of instructional activities and branding. Clearly, direct

instruction was needed, but the instruction need not be presented in a dry pedantic manner. An

excess of one kind of media can compromise a learning situation, especially when it does not

cater to the varied learning styles of learners, so instructional activities were varied to ensure that

learners remained engaged for the duration of the instructional process. All three units show

evidence of this variability: the basic strategy, direct instruction, is augmented with collaborative

learning, scenarios, discussion, problem-based learning, and reflective inquiry.

Learning activities also needed to be appropriate. The nature of the tasks requires

physical manipulation of software, so the instructional videos and guides feature images

outlining each step. Technical jargon was kept to a minimum, as the tasks did not require an in-

depth knowledge of technical terms.

Branding was a new consideration and evidence of an evolving instructional practice.

Branding ensures that content has high production value and a consistent look and feel.

Instructional materials were all branded under UOpen Academy which strove for an aesthetically

pleasing format which complimented instructional delivery and enhanced the learning

experience.
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Adjustments

If we had to redo the project, we would maintain much of the procedure, but we would

adjust the prominence of assessment activities. Despite using the backwards design, the focus of

the instruction was still on the delivery of instruction with the result that there is a distinct

imbalance between the quality of the instructional activities and the quality of the assessments.

One example of this is that the process of database operations is very detailed. The learner is

guided step-by-step to perform data entry, queries and reports via videos, written and auditory

instructions, images . However, the formative assessments resemble scaled versions of the

summative assessment. Learners are required to complete the activities in groups but are provide

with no guidance on collaborative interaction. The assessment instructions simply direct them to

work in groups, seek feedback and submit the assignment by a specified deadline.

Limitations

Most of these decisions were due to time constraints and deficiencies of knowledge.

However, given unlimited time there would have been a greater focus on a producing a greater

range of formative and summative assessment methods. Terminal objectives are not acquired in

a single instructional session, and the fact that understanding and skill develop over time should

be reflected in checking for understanding over time, rather than testing for understanding at a

single point in the process. Moreover, the assessments in the workshop are traditional tests

which focus on mastery of essential skills and knowledge but do not encompass any kind of

alternative or non-traditional assessment. We definitely would have catered to a greater range of

learners, such as portfolios, quizzes, directed questioning and, especially, performance-based

authentic assessment. Such tasks demonstrate the ability to apply skills in context, which is a

more suitable measure of understanding.


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Conclusion

At the end of this process, all the designers have a greater appreciation for how to

properly prepare and implement instruction for professional development. We can move

forward confidently to our next instructional challenge with new competencies that have

significantly enhanced our ability to deliver effective instruction to any audience.

Instructional Strategies Tables

Instructional Strategies tables for Units 1, 2, and 3 are presented in Appendix C, E, and I

respectively.

Research and Information Resources

The Ministry of Planning and Development of Trinidad and Tobago, headed by the

Honorable Camille Robinson-Regis, has proffered Vision 2030 – The National Development

Strategy of Trinidad and Tobago (Ministry of Planning and Development, 2016). This document

outlines how the Government intends on advancing the twin-island Republic to developed-nation

status by the year 2030. Specific mention has been made of the importance of advancing

technology and technological competencies in all industries, as this would enhance the country’s

productivity, prosperity and capability to compete on a global level.

Additionally, the Government indicated its drive to develop core cultural factors of

development to help the nation progress towards its goal (Ministry of Planning and

Development, 2016). The values, attitudes and behaviors (VBAs) aim to adjust national

perspectives to focus on factors that offer a competitive advantage for the nation. Among the

VBAs priority is placed on the need for creation and awareness of the use of new technologies,

as well as the need for innovation, and further investment in education, promoting creativity and

autonomy.
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In keeping with the Government’s Vision 2030, the instructional design team were very

deliberate in the design of the workshop. The vision of the designers was to support the cultural

transition (VBAs) of the employees of the School of International Travel and Languages. The

workshop had to be created according to international and globally competitive standards. This

led to the implementation of an online learning platform via the popular learning management

system, Moodle.

Misconceptions and Prior Knowledge

The main misconception to learning how to create database reports is that is requires a

very steep learning curve. The software and its jargon were usually feared as they were

perceived as being ‘user unfriendly’ and required complicated steps. These perspectives acted

as a psychological hindrance for the majority of participants, preventing the complete

understanding and mastery of the fluidity of the process. This resulted in the gaps of knowledge

among employees, creating the need for a workshop and a new, relevant and effective mode of

delivery.

Prior Instruction in Database Operations

Previous methods of instruction involved face-to-face direct instruction, delivered in an

inflexible, short period of time. The instruction was conducted by one knowledgeable expert in

the field to a large cohort of employees. This strategic decision was based on vocational

considerations rather than instructional realities. A limited time frame for the face-to-face

instructional workshops for large trainee group means limited time spent away from the job.

This resulted in a minimal guided session which would have increased the likelihood of

participants practicing inaccurate procedural steps. The quality of the learning experience could

also have compromised if participants experienced cognitive overload when attempting to absorb
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the large volume of information in the short time frame. As a result, participants may also have

been too ashamed to ask for clarification or for extra time to practice, especially if there was the

perception that fellow colleagues were progressing.

Additionally, there were insufficient computer work stations for each employee during

previous training sessions. This required that a small group of employees share a station, also

compromising the ability of the individual learner to practice of all the required steps, and

limited the opportunities for repetition. Recalling and reproducing the procedures are a later date

was difficult, even when participants had notes.

This past experience further supports the need for a switch in training gears. The current

online training approach, through optimistically designed to be delivered over a specified period

of time, allows the participant to design his own learning plan and complete it at his or her own

pace. All sections of all units are available so the learner can initiate learning with unfamiliar

concepts or in an area where they desire reinforcement. Learners can pause and repeat sections

of the presentation for further clarification and there is accommodation for synchronous and

asynchronous collaboration, feedback and assessments. Course materials are available at no cost

and can be downloaded for offline access. Best of all the platform is mobile. Learners can

access the classroom on any connected device via a web browser or mobile app. Learning is not

restricted to single physical location and specified points in time. Overall, this design provides a

much more elegant, relevant, customizable and meaningful instruction experience that can be

well appreciated by adult learners in the information age.


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Reflective Writing

Kevin Holder

EDID6505 Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials has been a very

demanding course for me as I was totally out of my comfort zone. Regardless of the course being

as demanding as it was, the process of completing the group assignment was indeed rewarding as

I had the opportunity to work with professionals in the field of education. I was also elated that

my mini project was selected as the project of choice. This assignment allowed one to coherently

utilize Bloom's Taxonomy to encompass instructional objectives across the cognitive, affective

and psychomotor domains.

One of the misconceptions that was quickly erased when I started the group project is that

we would have been able to finish in a timely manner. Due to the many revisions required for

the needs assessment, procedural and prerequisite analysis, task analysis and other key areas, it

felt like we were starting and entirely new project from scratch.

The group showed great organizational skills. Each individual was required to complete

a large number of tasks. I admire the determination by my colleagues to ensure that we

completed the assignment on time. Unfortunately, time restrictions limited further development

of the project, but all in all, it was an incredible project.

Randall James

The group project, although tedious and exhausting and working at breakneck speed was

a very satisfying experience.

My fellow Stahlians certainly pulled together to create the final project. However,

deficiencies in forward planning made it difficult to manage the development of the assignment

in an organized manner. We met on Skype once and divided up tasks among members.
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However, myriad tasks were unaccounted for with the result that the task list was constantly

amended and seemed never to end. It was difficult to find time to meet. The Taiwan time zone

is 12 hours of EC time zone, which means that while I was at work, others were communicating

and meeting, and vice versa. This was particularly evident on the deadline: I was at work while

my fellow members were placing the finishing touches on the assignment. Updates were

irregular, and for the duration of the process, I felt like I was in the dark about the activities of

my group mates. Another difficulty with group assignments is that all members have distinct

styles of writing and presenting. The final product lacks the organic consistency of a single

author.

For my next group activity, I will request that the group make a greater effort to meet

more frequently and share developments more frequently as well. We will set up an action plan

with tasks, deadlines and persons responsible to manage the process.

That being said, the Stahlians worked well and professionally throughout the process. I

gained a new understanding and respect for Avalon Kelly with whom I was fortunate enough to

have been paired with. We worked well together because her detail orientation and cognitive

processes compliment mine. I also came to appreciate the contributions and strengths that the

others provided during this exercise despite evident struggles.

Finally, although I prefer to work alone for all the reasons cited above, I must admit,

however, that interacting with the others did broaden my horizon and prompted some ideas about

the project that I probably wouldn’t have considered otherwise. Kudos Stahlians!

Avalon Kelly

The course, EDID 6505 – Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials, has

moved me like no other. Though still early in the MSc programme in Instructional Design and
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Technology, the great value of this particular course and the depths required to achieve its

mastery has become increasingly obvious to me as time passes.

I am in complete awe of the magnitude of EDID 6505. Though demanding due to its

voluminous and rich content, my approach has always been that of a wide-eyed and bushy-tailed

student, lapping up all I could as it was revealed to me. At every step of the learning journey, I

was simply amazed at what was entailed in the process of designing instructional materials. It

has not been easy. Though eager, the learning curve was steep for me in a couple areas, in

particular for the individual assignment. The time frame to read, process, understand and exhibit

all that was needed was challenging in certain areas. However, because I was eager, I was

determined to learn and improve upon the understanding I would have displayed in this

individual assignment.

Before embarking on this course, I knew little to nothing of the designing of instructional

materials… that is to say, at least now I realize the extent to which I had been ignorant! This

field requires such keen preparation, attention to detail, and care in so many spheres, that it

should not and must not be undertaken by any individual or team who may not have the most

authentic of intentions and/or who may not possess the relevant qualifications and experience.

For the group project, my noble colleagues and I voted and decided upon the individual

project we would be developing. I say this sentence intentionally. The key word, ‘voted’, as

simple as it seems, actually represents the democracy practiced throughout our group and the

profound respect we had for one another. It was this respect for one another, I believe, that

carried us through with strength, even during stressful times (nearing deadline date).

Despite encouragement to maximize the three weeks afforded to us after submission of

the individual paper, and to start early by outlining the suggestion made by our course
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coordinator, Dr. Hill, for division of tasks, there was not much activity within the group for some

time. Though concerning at times, it was also understandable as, academically, there was much

on our plates with deadline demands from both courses, expected almost at the same time.

Additionally, adult learners are known to be very ambitious, yet this ambition is often

thwarted by the various responsibilities associated with our state in life. As adults, professionals,

parents (at least two of us), caregivers, etc., the expectations on time and on self are significant.

That pressure, coupled with the zeal to learn meaningfully and to earn results reflective of this

potential, could result, too, in the emotional and psychological immobilization of the

individual… a very real situation.

Nonetheless, tasks had been divided and once we started officially, there was no stopping

us. Communication has become more frequent, mainly via WhatsApp text messaging and voice

notes and this was the most convenient. A Skype session was held once which did not work out

for technical reasons for a couple members. For the next group project(s), I believe that I would

insist more emphatically – yet stressing on diplomacy and respect for my colleagues’ time – on

maximizing time by starting tasks sooner. This would help ensure efficiency of the overall

project, supporting meaningful learning for all involved. I would also insist on more frequent

meetings following a more structured format to help facilitate more purposeful, productive

collaboration. That is, for example, we could meet every Friday at 8 pm, where everyone could

prepare questions, concerns, and suggestions to bring to the discussion. These weekly sessions

would be ‘check-point meetings’, assessing what has been done so far and if anything needs to

be revised and/or clarified moving forward.

I have always loved working alone. However, my experience in this programme thus far

has slowly begun to shape me otherwise. My experience in this group, in particular, has further
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shown me significantly that collaboration and teamwork are invaluable strategies which shape

the individual beyond the academic. Personally, I have grown to respect on a much deeper level

what others have to offer. That is the approach I undertook in this project and, once again, it has

shown me that, as the saying goes, “one hand cannot clap”. It is with humility that I learned that

I do not know it all, nor will I ever, but as a team, each member, representing various strengths,

produces a final product representative of the unified strength.

On the group project, I had the pleasure of working closely with Mr. Randall James. I

have always respected his work ethic and unique perspectives, and working alongside him, I felt

duly challenged. I felt challenged, also, alongside every team member as each person, Mrs.

Shenelle Mohammed, Mr. Dauran McNeil, and Mr. Kevin Holder, exhibited qualities of

assiduous workers, with every effort aimed at their best.

It is incredible that the end has approach this quickly but I am grateful for the experience

to have learned alongside and from my teammates, the determined, steady Stahlians. May God

guide us all.

Dauran McNeil

I thought completing this assignment as a group was very complex on many levels and

presented some challenges as well as personal growth. Firstly, I thought the decision to develop

an existing project was astute given the time factor, topic and relevance. Another component of

the project I felt worked effectively was dividing the instructional strategies/mini lessons among

the group members. I believed this allowed our project to be diverse in the multiplicity of

strategies, instructional models and assessment tools used. The learning management system,

Moodle worked effectively as the platform for providing an online environment. Moreover, our

pilot users in their feedback noted the friendliness of the Moodle environment and its
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effectiveness to deliver content assessment and submission.

On the other hand, as a group I felt we were not able to capitalize on time and iteration of

peer feedback with aspects of the project. I felt if we had implemented deadlines for the various

components of the project it would have given us sufficient time to revise and development

aspect of the project to which we were responsible for.

Individually, I would have implemented deadlines for each group member to allow for a

greater level of development. Secondly, I would have increase the number of pilot users and

allocate more time for the implementation of the design to further examine and assess the

outcomes of the implementation. Thirdly, I would have created a new topic to allow for greater

collaboration, ideas and experience.

Working as a group I felt we were able to accomplish a substantial amount of work in

great detail in short period of time. Additionally, we were able to collaborate and contribute

different ideas and complete a diverse project. Unfortunately, working as a group did not help

me to fully develop my instructional design skills. For example, I was not allowed to fully apply

all of the skills to develop the project from its inception like we did in the first project.

Overall, this group project allowed me to further develop my teamwork skills. I was also

able to use my area of strength from the individual project to contribute to the development of

the needs analysis. Additionally, I was able to collaborate with peers to complete the objectives,

which was an area of weakness for me from my individual project. This was a learning moment

for me in the process. Finally, I am proud of what we have been able to produce as a group in

such short time and what potential we were able to achieve with a pilot implementation.
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Shenelle Mohammed

The first challenge encountered in completing the group project was selecting a group

member’s project for the group assignment. It was difficult to determine and come to a conclusion

which project will be best suited in meeting the project’s requirements. When deciding on the

selected project it seemed intimidating at first to familiarize oneself with the content. Usually one

would think that designing instruction would be easier if one is expert in the field of instruction or

at least familiar with the content. However, this project presented the challenge of applying the

skills and knowledge obtained in the course to enhancing a course design that was unfamiliar and

despite challenging this proved to be very rewarding. It was interesting to actually create an online

environment for the project and to learn how the lessons learnt in 6505 can be applied to designing

instruction.

I had the opportunity to learn about databases and work with some computer geniuses,

some diligent individuals and some meticulous workers, some who displayed more expertise in

the field of instruction than I. Nevertheless, I count this a great opportunity and experience that

has challenged me in instructional design, a field very new to me.

The team was a great group of individuals with different expertise who displayed patience

and understanding, and with whom I have gained friendships in the online environment. It was

very nice to meet and work with persons with different skills. The only downfall was the limited

time given to meet with peers given the heavy demands of the project. This was a great challenge

given the work load, nevertheless we paired off and we were still able to accomplish the task given

the many difficulties. Great job team.


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References

Altschuld, J. (2004). Emerging dimensions of needs assessment. Performance Improvement.

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Clarke, F., & Reichgelt, H. (2003). The importance of explicitly stating educational objectives in

computer science curricula. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 35(4), 47-50.

Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction. Boston: Pearson Allyn and Bacon.

Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (2013). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing

Critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement

Quarterly, 26(2), 43-71.

Giles, E., Pitre, S., & Womack, S. (2003). Multiple intelligences and learning styles. Emerging

perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology.

Gilmore, A. (2007). Authentic materials and authenticity in foreign language learning. Language

teaching, 40(2), 97-118.

Gokhale, A. A. (1995). Collaborative learning enhances critical thinking.

Harlen, W. (2006). On the relationship between assessment for formative and summative

purposes. Assessment and learning, 2, 95-110.

James, R. (2018). Computer Aided Language Learning (CALL) for English language teaching

(ELT) in Taiwan. Using TPACK to enhance instruction in English as a second language.

Unpublished manuscript.

Jonassen, D., Tessmer, M. & Hannum, W. (1999). Task Analysis Methods for Instructional

Design. Retrieved from https://goo.gl/7J8i6P

Kovalik, C. L., & Williams, M. A. (2011). Cartoons as advance organizers. Journal of Visual

Literacy, 30(2), 39-63.


Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 49

May, A. (2014). Using analogies and metaphors to enhance learning. Retrieved from

https://www.dashe.com/blog/learning/analogies-metaphors-enhance-learning/

Merrill, M. D. (2007). First Principles of Instruction. Retrieved from

http://mdavidmerrill.com/Papers/firstprinciplesbymerrill.pdf

Ministry of Planning and Development (2006). Vision 2030. Retrieved from:

http://www.planning.gov.tt/sites/default/files/Vision%202030-

%20The%20National%20Development%20Strategy%20of%20Trinidad%20and%20Tob

ago%202016-2030.pdf

MoodleNews. (2008). Philosophy guiding Moodle: Social Constructionist Pedagogy. Retrieved

from https://tinyurl.com/moodle-philosophy

Nicol, D. J., & Macfarlane‐Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self‐regulated learning:

A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in higher education,

31(2), 199-218.

Reigeluth, C. M., & Carr-Chellman, A. A. (Eds.). (2009). Instructional-design theories and

models: Building a common knowledge base (Vol. III). New York: Routledge.

Reigeluth, C. M. (Ed.). (2013). Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their

current status. Routledge.

Slavin, R. (2003). Educational psychology: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn &

Bacon

Slavin, R. E., Hurley, E. A., & Chamberlain, A. (2003). Cooperative learning and achievement:

Theory and research. Handbook of psychology.

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Strategies. Retrieved from https://cei.umn.edu/support-services/tutorials/basic-active-


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learning-strategies

Van Der Stuyf, R. R. (2002). Scaffolding as a teaching strategy. Adolescent learning and

development, 52(3), 5-18.Wise, S. E. (2017, January 26). The 4 main reasons to conduct

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In EdMedia: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology (pp. 2119-2126).

Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).


Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 51

Appendix A

Task Selection Worksheet

Universality (10 pts)

Frequency (10 pts)


Criticality (40 pts)

Difficulty (30 pts)


Standardization

Total (100 pts)

Priority
(10 pts)

Notes
Criteria for Task Selection

TASKS #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8
1. Accessing relevant tabs and commands. 5 10 10 8 4 38 9
2. Create an Auto Report 8 5 3 5 5 26 13
3. Enter data correctly for student records 40 5 5 10 20 80 1
4. Create a report 42 4 3 6 25 80 2
5. Create and save data tables 10 3 2 8 10 33 11
6. Create and save queries. 20 9 9 8 7 55 3
7. Specify or select a data sources 10 8 9 8 5 40 7
8. Organize data into groups. 20 9 9 8 5 51 5
9. Add a report title 5 8 8 9 5 35 10
10. Select field properties 25 7 5 5 10 52 4
11. Save a Report 10 9 9 9 2 39 8
12. Export a Report 10 4 4 7 3 28 12
13. Print a report 10 9 9 8 6 42 6
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 52

Appendix B

Learner and Contextual Analysis

-2 Greatly impedes -1 Slightly impedes +1 Slightly facilitates +2 Greatly facilitates

Orienting context
learner factors
learner profile
▪ communication department comprises of entry level and mid-career -2 -1 +1 +2
▪ professionals
only a few participants are trained in ELT instruction -2 -1 +1 +2
▪ participants access and use database on a daily basis -2 -1 +1 +2
goal setting
▪ there is a need for staff to develop greater proficiency and efficiency -2 -1 +1 +2
perceived utility
▪ staff is interested in improving database competencies -2 -1 +1 +2
▪ training will improve the ability to execute daily tasks
perceived accountability
▪ workshop attendance relates to job evaluation -2 -1 +1 +2
immediate environment factors
social support
▪ staff support each other’s attempts to develop professional competency -2 -1 +1 +2
organizational factors
▪ administrators place high importance on these types of workshops -2 -1 +1 +2

Instructional Context
learner factors
learner role perception
▪ learners are expected to be self-directed -2 -1 +1 +2
▪ learners are expected to work collaboratively -2 -1 +1 +2
▪ learners are expected to interact with peers and provide peer feedback -2 -1 +1 +2
learner task perception
▪ Databases operations can be difficult to learn -2 -1 +1 +2
▪ The workshop requires investment in time and effort -2 -1 +1 +2
immediate environmental factors
sensory conditions
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 53

▪ the online nature offers great flexibility to customize learning schedule -2 -1 +1 +2


▪ participants can secure comfortable locations to work
instructor role perception
▪ instructor is member of staff -2 -1 +1 +2
▪ workshop is based on instructors educational training -2 -1 +1 +2
schedules
▪ although online, the workshop is time–sensitive; it spans three days -2 -1 +1 +2
▪ course materials are available for download -2 -1 +1 +2
organizational factors
rewards and values
▪ workshop counts as professional development training -2 -1 +1 +2

Transfer context
learner factors
utility perceptions
▪ database competencies may involve a fairly steep learning curve -2 -1 +1 +2
▪ some operations, e.g. reports are complicated procedures -2 -1 +1 +2
perceived resources
▪ tasks requires technological resources already available at work -2 -1 +1 +2
transfer coping strategy
▪ skills learned are easily transferred to daily operations at work -2 -1 +1 +2
experiential background
▪ learners inexperienced with the new database may experience difficulty -2 -1 +1 +2
immediate environmental factors
transfer opportunities
▪ learners use database skills and knowledge on a daily basis at work -2 -1 +1 +2
▪ learners are required to implement skills learned -2 -1 +1 +2
social support
▪ staff is invested in enhancing office efficiency in database operations -2 -1 +1 +2
▪ staff will encourage each other to embrace the upgraded skills -2 -1 +1 +2
organizational factors
transfer culture
▪ staff is required to implement ideas from professional development -2 -1 +1 +2
incentives
▪ professional development credit contributes to job evaluations -2 -1 +1 +2
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 54

Appendix C

Instructional Strategies Table for Unit 1

Stage of
Strategy Citation in Readings Rationale for Use
Instruction
Problem At the end of According to (Delisle, 1997) Problem based learning is a very
Based teaching “Educators who use problem useful instructional strategy that
Learning based learning recognize that in allows for application of what
the world outside of school, was learnt. It provides a messy ill
adults build their knowledge and structured problem that allows
skills as they solve a real the learner to think critically to
problem or answer an important solve a problem and this helps
question.” Problem based with ensuring the user can apply
learning can be described as an the knowledge gained and it also
ideal instruction strategy for helps with ensuring that learning
memory and application as it has taken place.
concerns real life practical
applications.
Graphic At the end of According to (Lidwell, Holden, The use of a graphic organizer
Organizers Teaching & Butler, 2010) “Advance helps in providing schemata for
organizers are brief chunks of memory. Students are given a
information, spoken, written or visual outline or summary of
illustrated presented prior to new what is being learnt which helps
material to help facilitate with retaining the information
learning and understanding. that was learnt in the course
They present the big picture
prior to the details.”

Discussion/ Beginning of According to Uden (2006) When students interact with each
Peer lesson “Collaboration is essential other this combined effort
Collaboratio because students learn through provides students with the
n interaction with others”. opportunity to test and refine
their understanding in an
ongoing process. Also effective
peer collaboration engages
students, making learning fun
and allows students to share their
various expertise which make
learning more effective. Students
not only share what they have
learnt but also learn from others.
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 55

Appendix D

PowerPoint presentation for Unit 1

Slide 1 Slide 2

Access the student database


Locate student database icon on desktop
Double click the student database icon to
open the file
Enter employee username and password in
the log in window

Slide 3 Slide 4

Tab for new registration


Locate Student Entry for new registration
Double click the left mouse button to open

Slide 5 Slide 6
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 56

Locate Student ID Locate Gender


Double click in the textbox on the right to Click in the dropdown box on the right to show
automatically generate a student number. gender options
Locate Student Name Left click to select a gender
Click in the field on the right to position the Locate Date of Birth
cursor Click in the dropdown box on the right to show
Type information in the field. Calendar
Locate Student Address Left click to select date, month and year
Click in the field on the right to position the Locate Course
cursor Click in the dropdown box on the right to show
Type information in the field. available courses
Left click to select to select courses

Slide 7 Slide 8

Locate Student Phone


Click in the field on the right to position the

Type information in the field.


Left click mouse to activate Image upload
Navigate to appropriate directory to locate
photo
Left click photo to select
Click OK to upload the photo
Click Submit to save the student record

Slide 9 Slide 10

Upload a photo
Locate image upload
Left click mouse to activate Image upload
Navigate to appropriate directory to locate
photo
Left click photo to select
Click OK to upload the photo
Click Submit to save the student record

Slide 11 Slide 12
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 57

Click and drag the cursor or double-click to


highlight the information to be erased
Press the backspace or delete button on the
keyboard
Enter new information in field
Click Submit to save the new information

Slide 13 Slide 14

For the first assessment, in groups discuss the most


important factors which must be considered to
avoid errors during data entry. Each group will
then present the three most important factors.

2 3

Slide 15 Slide 16

Slide 17 Slide 18
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 58

Appendix E

Instructional Strategies Selected for Unit 2

Instructional Strategy Lesson Location Reading Citation Rationale

Scenario/Case Studies Introduction According to University of I thought this strategy would be ideal for
Sequence -1 Minnesota Center for engaging the audience and introducing the
Educational Innovation (2018) lesson.
states, “Provide students with a
"local" example of a
concept/theory/issue/topic being
covered in the discussion. They
discuss and analyze the
scenario/case, applying the
information covered in a
presentation to some situation
they may encounter outside of
the workshop.”

Demonstration Body Rymarz (2012) states, “a basic Provide learners with the steps methodically to
Sequence 2 component method in which an perform the tasks. Additionally, using a video
instructor demonstrates to demonstration will complement the dynamics of
learners how to do or make an online environment.
something.”

Drill & Practice Body According to Rymarz (2012) this This strategy will allow students the opportunity
Sequence - 3 strategy focuses on rote learning to learn and master skills.
and automatization through the
repeated presentation of prompts
or corrective responses.
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 59

Peer Collaboration Body According to Merrill (2007) To reinforce the skills and concepts learnt and
Sequence - 4 learning from an application is foster active learning and collaboration among
enhanced when learners peers.
collaborate with each on the
application. Collaboration
requires more active learning.

Graphic Organizer Body These are relevant and inclusive Make connections to prior learning and to make
Sequence - 5 introductory materials, provided the learning meaningful.
in advance of learning, materials
that serve to bridge the gap
between what the learner already
knows and what he needs to
know before he can
meaningfully learn the task.
(Driscoll, 2000)

Reflection Conclusion A metacognitive method that For learners to self-evaluate their learning,
helps a learner to derive deeper discuss and defend what they have learned when
and broader understanding of an challenged. To foster meaningful learning
experience or that promotes self- experiences and to make inferences to the real
evaluation. Rymarz, R. (2012) world.
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 60

Appendix F

Performance Rubric for Query #1

Task: Demonstrate how to create a simple query.


Student: ______________________________________ Peer Evaluator: ______________________________________

Expert Intermediate Incomplete Failure


Execute all the following Execute most (5-4) the Execute three (3) or less of the Execute one or less of the
steps: following steps following steps following steps with failure
create a simple query:
• Select the Create tab on the • Select the Create tab on the • Select the Create tab on the
Ribbon, and locate the Ribbon, and locate the Ribbon, and locate the • Select the Create tab on the
Queries group. Queries group. Queries group. Ribbon, and locate the
• Click the Query Design • Click the Query Design • Click the Query Design Queries group.
command. command. command. • Click the Query Design
• Select the table you want to • Select the table you want to • Select the table you want to command.
run a query on. run a query on. run a query on. • Select the table you want to
• Click Add, then click Close. • Click Add, then click Close. • Click Add, then click Close. run a query on.
• Select the field names you • Select the field names you • Select the field names you • Click Add, then click Close.
want to include in your want to include in your want to include in your • Select the field names you
query. They will be added to query. They will be added to query. They will be added to want to include in your
the design grid in the bottom the design grid in the bottom the design grid in the bottom query. They will be added to
part of the screen. part of the screen. part of the screen. the design grid in the bottom
• Click the Run command on • Click the Run command on • Click the Run command on part of the screen.
the Design tab. the Design tab. the Design tab. • Click the Run command on
the Design tab.
Comments/Observations
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 61

Performance Rubric for Query #3


Task: Demonstrate how to create a query with criteria.
Student: ______________________________________ Peer Evaluator: ______________________________________

Expert Intermediate Incomplete Failure


Execute all the following steps: Execute most (6 to 5) of the • Execute three (3) or less • Execute 3 or less of the
following steps to create a of the following steps to following steps with
• Select the Create tab on the Ribbon, query with criteria: create a query without failure to create a query
and locate the Queries group. criteria: with criteria.
• Click the Query Design command. • Select the Create tab on
• Select the table you want to run a the Ribbon, and locate the • Select the Create tab on • Select the Create tab on
query on. Queries group. the Ribbon, and locate the the Ribbon, and locate the
• Click Add, then click Close. • Click the Query Design Queries group. Queries group.
• Select the field names you want to command. • Click the Query Design • Click the Query Design
include in your query. They will be • Select the table you want command. command.
added to the design grid in the to run a query on. • Select the table you want • Select the table you want
bottom part of the screen. • Click Add, then click to run a query on. to run a query on.
• Set the search criteria by clicking Close. • Click Add, then click • Click Add, then click
the cell in the Criteria • Select the field names you Close. Close.
• Click the Run command on the want to include in your • Select the field names you • Select the field names you
Design tab. query. They will be added want to include in your want to include in your
to the design grid in the query. They will be added query. They will be added
bottom part of the screen. to the design grid in the to the design grid in the
• Set the search criteria by bottom part of the screen. bottom part of the screen.
clicking the cell in the • Set the search criteria by • Set the search criteria by
Criteria clicking the cell in the clicking the cell in the
• Click the Run command Criteria Criteria
on the Design tab. • Click the Run command • Click the Run command
on the Design tab. on the Design tab.
Comments/Observations
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 62

Appendix G

Graphic Organizers for Unit 2

Name: _______________________

Graphic Organizer
Creating a simple query
MATERIALS:
STEPS DETAILS
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Step 5:
Step 6:

Graphic Organizer
Creating a query with criteria
MATERIALS:
STEPS DETAILS
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Step 5:
Step 6:
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 63

Appendix H

Sample Assessment for Unit 3


Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 64

Performance Rubric for Assessing Report Production

Exemplary (4) Developing (3) Beginning (2) Novice


Participant organizes Participant organizes and Participant organizes and Student creates a poorly
and creates report, formats report appropriately, formats report with a number organized and unformatted
Format

appropriately formatted with a minimum of formatting of formatting issues, between report, with 39% accuracy and
for appearance and issues, between 60% and 89% 40 and 59% accuracy. below.
content, between 90% accuracy.
and 100% accuracy.

Student is able to locate Student is able to locate and Student has some difficulty Student has a great deal of
Navigation

and access relevant tabs access relevant tabs and select locating and accessing Difficulty locating and
and select relevant relevant commands with ease. relevant tabs and selecting accessing relevant tabs and
commands with ease. relevant commands. selecting relevant commands.

Student is able to Student is able to select and Student is unable able to Student is unable able to
select and justify justify appropriate strategy justify appropriate strategy justify appropriate strategy
appropriate strategy for creating a report (i.e. for creating a report (i.e. for creating a report (i.e.
Strategy

for creating a report Auto Report, report wizard, Auto Report, report wizard, Auto Report, report wizard,
(i.e. Auto Report, Design View). Design View). Design View).
report wizard, Design
View).
Student can correctly Student can correctly create, Student experiences some Student is unable to correctly
source
Data

create, specify or specify or select data sources. difficulty creating, specifying create, specify or select data
select data sources. or selecting data sources. sources.

Student selects and Student selects and applies Student fails to select and Student fails to select and
Field Properties

applies correct field correct field properties. apply correct field properties apply correct field properties
properties. or uses inappropriate field or uses inappropriate field
properties. properties.
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 65

Data operations Information is Information is appropriately Report contains some Report contains irrelevant
appropriately grouped grouped and relevant to the irrelevant information. Information is
and relevant to the report. information. Information is poorly grouped or not
report. grouped. grouped.

Report is saved and Report is saved and exported Report is saved and exported Report is saved and exported
Publishing

exported in an in an appropriate format. in an appropriate format. in an inappropriate format.


appropriate format.

Student is able to Student is unable to produce Student is able to produce the Student is unable to produce
Expedience

produce the report the report within a 10-minute report within a 10-minute time the report within a 10-minute
within a 10-minute time frame but has completed frame and has completed 50- time frame and has completed
time frame. at least 75% of the process. 60% of the process. . less than 50% of the process.
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 66

Appendix I

Instructional Strategies Selected for Unit 3

STAGE OF
STRATEGY CITATION IN READINGS RATIONALE FOR USE
INSTRUCTION
Set Induction Beginning No longer than two minutes in length, this is Learners’ attention is secured
the first segment introducing the topic in a and interest is piqued,
Slides: 2, 3 meaningful, relevant context to grasp enhancing motivation to want
learners’ attention and motivation to learn to learn the topic.
the content ahead in the session (Gilmore,
2007).

Stating Objectives Beginning Objectives clearly stated/easily identifiable Learners know from the start
(Clarke & Reichgelt, 2003). what is expected of them to
Slide: 5 learn and they are more
prepared and driven.

Activation of Prior Beginning This is crucial for learning as “past Recalling knowledge and
Knowledge / Middle experiences or prior learning will impact on skills already known that are
Advance Organizers End perception” (Driscoll, 2005). relevant to the new topic,
learners will be more
Slides: 10, 12, 26, 44, An advance organizer is a cognitive confident and motivated to
46, 52, 64 instructional strategy used to present build on the foundation.
information prior to learning and which
allows learners to organize and interpret the This aids in more effective
new material to be taught (Mayer, 2003). retention of information.

Graphic Organizers Beginning Ideas are organized visually using a variety This strategy is key in helping
Middle of tables, charts, graphs or diagrams, learners make relevant
End helping learners to classify ideas and connections between previous
information and recall prior knowledge. knowledge and what is to be
(Giles, Pitre & Womack, 2003) learnt or has been learnt; also
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 67

STAGE OF
STRATEGY CITATION IN READINGS RATIONALE FOR USE
INSTRUCTION
Slides: 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, useful in piquing students’
12, 26, 30, 44, 46, 52, interest in what will be taught
64, 65 in the session. Students are
more engaged.

Graphic organizers promote


learner autonomy and develop
higher-order thinking skills,
while benefitting differentiated
learners.

Analogy Beginning A comparison between new subject to be Learner gains a clearer


Middle learnt with a more familiar, relatable understanding of the complex,
(sometimes simpler) subject, in order to new task and is able to relate
Slides: 7, 8 facilitate better understanding of the topic at to this connection. Learner is
hand and learning tasks ahead (Ertmer, then more confident and
2013; Reigeluth, 2013). motivated to continue
learning.

Cartoon Advance Beginning Suitable for online learning environments, In an online course, this
Organizer Middle this contributes to learners’ more effective facilitates online discussions
End understanding of course content and and greater understanding of
facilitates increased motivation and purpose the instructional content of the
Slide: 8 in learning (Kovalik & Williams, 2011). session.
Humour used in the cross reference aids to
effect further this goal (Weitl, Kammerl &
Göstl, 2004).

Direct Instruction Beginning Addresses “factual, procedural and Strong positive effects are
Middle conceptual knowledge in all content areas borne out of a feeling of
and grade levels” (Kilbane & Milman, 2013, familiarity and validity among:
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 68

STAGE OF
STRATEGY CITATION IN READINGS RATIONALE FOR USE
INSTRUCTION
Slides: 11, 29 p. 87). It is instructor-led, instructor- teachers by integrating hard-
centered, the ‘sage on the stage’. wired methods into new
topics; and adult learners who
have more confidence in this
method as a result (Slavin,
2003).

Problem-based Middle A learner-centred approach, problem-based Encourage active student


instruction (online) End learning (PBL) requires learner to solve engagement
real-world problem which facilitates Develop learning skills of the
Slides: 12-26, 30-44, development of self-directed, critical Digital Age
46-52, 64-64 thinking and problem solving skills, through
the process of solving an open-ended
problem to learn about a particular subject
or concept (Uden, 2006).

PBL online refers to the different ways in


which PBL is conducted in synchronous and
asynchronous online learning environments
(Savin-Baden & Wilki, 2006). Online
materials that support the implementation of
PBL on this platform include videos and
demonstrations, simulations, text, images
via advance organizers. Resources include
message forums, chatrooms, and other
resources which were created to enhance
PBL (Savin-Baden & Wilki, 2006).

Scaffolding/ Beginning Scaffolding is performed via teacher Due to the scaffolding


Demonstration Middle demonstration, multimedia presentations or strategy, the learner is able to
any other resources (manual). This draw from and build upon
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 69

STAGE OF
STRATEGY CITATION IN READINGS RATIONALE FOR USE
INSTRUCTION
Slides: 11, 29, 55 originates from Lev Vygotsky’s previous knowledge more
sociocultural theory and his concept of the confidently, as new
zone of proximal development (Van Der information is processed.
Stuyf, 2002) and refers to the distance
between what the learner can accomplish
alone and the next level of learning,
accommodated and achieved by the
competent assistance of the instructor.

Collaboration – Beginning Learners work together in small groups or in Increases learner interest and
Discussions, Group/Pair Middle pairs; learners are responsible for one will facilitate higher order
Work End another’s learning (Gokhale, 1995); learner skills and critical thinking.
may need the aid of others who could better
Slides: 2, 3, 12, 26, facilitate understanding (Slavin, Hurley &
30, 44, 46, 52, 54, 64, Chamberlain, 2003).
65
Independent Practice; Beginning Learner develops feelings of self-efficacy Learner gains confidence to
Peer and Self-Assessment Middle (Driscoll, 2005). press on with activities or is
End able to assess how much is
understood.
Slides: 12-26, 30-44,
46-52, 64-64
(Independent practice)
Rewards Beginning Rewards (intrinsic and extrinsic) are Learner’s self-confidence is
Middle inherently beneficial but must be boosted and there is increased
End meaningful to be effective (Cameron & motivation to succeed.
Pierce, 2002).
Slides: 65 and
throughout
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 70

STAGE OF
STRATEGY CITATION IN READINGS RATIONALE FOR USE
INSTRUCTION
Formative and Formative: Beginning Assessments/evaluations give corrective Formative Assessments:
Summative Middle feedback. Instructor will know how/if to
Assessments/Evaluations proceed with lesson or if to
Summative: Formative provides opportunity for ongoing review, extend practice. The
End ‘checks’ to assess the extent of learner will have an idea of
comprehension and learning (Nichol & extent of understanding.
Macfarlane-Dick, 2006).
Summative Assessments:
Summative tests learner’s knowledge and Learner and instructor will
abilities at the end of the unit, course of know the full extent of
study (Harlen, 2006). comprehension and learning of
entire unit or programme and
if any revision is necessary.

Feedback Beginning Received from teacher, students take more Aid in enhanced student
Middle responsibility in learning as a regulated learning, achievement and
End learner and has more control in developing application of new skills.
skills of such (Nichol & Macfarlane-Dick,
Slide: 65 2006).

Closure End Closure allows learners not only to organize Pedagogical approach to help
mentally what has been learned but to finalize purpose to content
Slides: 64, 65 understand the newly acquired information learned and strategy to help
more clearly, and retain in long-term as learners remember the new
learners remember best what is presented information in the long term.
last (Webster & Connolly, 2009).
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 71

Appendix J

Pre-Instructional Strategies for Unit 3

According to Giles, Pitre and Womack (2003), the graphic organizer is an instructional

tool which facilitates the organization of information using tables, charts, graphs or diagrams to

aid recall of previously learned information and is also useful in reinforcing learning and

promoting memory by presenting data that has been learned at the end of the lesson. However,

graphic organizer could be used at any point of instruction, at the beginning, middle or end.

KWL Chart

The KWL Chart (What I Know, What I Want to know, What I have Learned), is a

graphic organizer that could be used at the beginning and end of instruction to aid in the

learning process. The first two columns of the KWL table serve to help learners activate

prior knowledge of what they already know about databases and database reports and to

make a relevant connection with what they want to learn and will eventually learn (Giles,

Pitre & Womack, 2003). The third column is completed at the end of the instructional

session to help learners identify what they have learned. The closure strategy helps

reinforce learning and facilitates long-term memory retention of the new information

(Webster & Connolly, 2009).

Figure X: KWL Chart

Database Reports
I know I want to know I learned
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 72

Flowchart

Using the flowchart, learners list the procedural steps presented during the

demonstration to summarize the process of generating a database report. This chart can

also inform the KWL chart. The use of color as a cognitive variable in this strategy is to

enhance memory performance of the learner, as research has shown that color aids adult

learners in recalling of sequential information when learners associate steps with

particular colors (Olurinola & Tayo, 2015). Color also helps to secure the attention of the

learner while aiding in maintaining focus on the task at hand and attention on the material

to be learned (Olurinola & Tayo, 2015).

Figure X: Flowchart

Analogies

May (2014) describes analogies as a tool to expose commonalities between two ideas that

are superficially very different. The base of an analogy is the idea that is already known and is

familiar while the target is the new or unfamiliar information. Analogies work by building on

the base to facilitate an understanding of the target. Two analogies are presented below.

Analogy 1 (simile). Using Microsoft Access is as easy as following a Betty Crocker©

cak erecipe. The steps are straightforward and manageable, and once followed exactly and in the
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 73

required order of steps, a masterpiece is created!

Figure X: Analogy 1

Analogy 2 (Cartoon Advance Organizer). Generating a report using the Report Wizard is

very simple, once the process is adhered to. One miscalculated step could result in creating

inaccurate, unwanted and, possibly, disastrous results! Learn from the Wizard of Id and follow

the steps carefully. This will save you and the organization time and potential liability lawsuits.

Figure 3: Cartoon Advance Organizer


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Analogy 3: Wedding Preparation

Using the report tutorial is like designing a wedding


dress. The process is detailed but the result has great
visual appeal!

Formatting and modifying the report is like adjusting the


fit of the wedding dress. It must suit your preference and
needs for the best appearance and most comfortable fit!

Applying themes to your Report Wizard is like adding


the finishing touches – bouquet and accessories – to your
wedding ensemble… They help unify and refine the
look by adding color and style, and offer the most
appropriate and desired final presentation!

Completing the report is like the wedding itself!


Congratulations! You have successfully completed the
workshop on Database Reports using the Report Wizard!
We wish you all success as you venture on this new
journey together!
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Appendix K

Instructional Lesson – Unit 3

DATABASE REPORTS USING THE REPORT WIZARD

Slide 1 Slide 2

INTRODUCTION

TO THIS! A CONFIDENT, KNOWLEDGABLE, POWERFUL!


REPORT MASTER.
This workshop will help you get there.

Slide 3 Slide 4

Slide 5 Slide 6
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Slide 7 Slide 8

• Procedure:

• Procedure:

• Procedure:

• Procedure:

• Procedure:

• Procedure:
TUTORIAL: USING THE REPORT WIZARD

Slide 9 Slide 10

Slide 11 Slide 12
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Slide 13 Slide 14

Slide 15 Slide 16

Slide 17 Slide 18
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Slide 19 Slide 20

Slide 21 Slide 22

Slide 23 Slide 24
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Slide 26
Slide 25

FORMATTING REPORTS

FORMATTING THE REPORT

Slide 27 Slide 28

Slide 29 Slide 30
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Slide 31 Slide 32

Slide 33 Slide 34

Slide 35 Slide 36
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Slide 37 Slide 38

Slide 39 Slide 40

Slide 41 Slide 42
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MODIFYING THE REPORT

Slide 43 Slide 44

Slide 45 Slide 46

Slide 47 Slide 48
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Slide 49 Slide 50

APPLYING THEMES

Slide 51 Slide 52

Slide 53 Slide 54
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Slide 55 Slide 56

Slide 57 Slide 58

Slide 59 Slide 60
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Slide 61 Slide 62

Slide 63 Slide 64
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Appendix L

Pilot Users Sample Work

Sample 1: Create a simple query including all the fields for the candidate table.

Sample 2: Create a query for the candidate table for all candidates in the CIS department.
Running head: DATABASE TRAINING WORKSHOP 87

Sample 3: Create a query for the candidate table for all candidates with an app date after January

1, 2008.