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Adamson University Chemical Quadratic Equation

Engineering Student Society


ACADEMIC COMMITTEE  (general formula)
Byaheng ChEneskwela: The Next 
Journey
ENGINEERING QUALIFYING EXAM REVIEW Discriminant
ACADEMIC YEAR: 2015 – 2016
Nature of Roots
SUMMARIZED FORMULAS 0 Real and equal
>0 Real and unequal
ALGEBRA TRIGONOMETRY <0 Imaginary and unequal
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY SOLID MENSURATION
DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS
 Sum of the roots
PHYSICS 1 AND 2 CHEMISTRY

ALGEBRA
 Product of the roots
Properties of Exponents



Binomial Theorem

  Coefficient of any term



  rth term of binomial expansion

Properties of Radicals

  Sum of the coefficients of the expression


 Sum of the exponents of the expansion



Variation
 ; if n is odd
 ; if n is even x varies directly as y
x varies inversely as y
Properties of Logarithm
x varies directly as y
 but inversely as z


Progression

Arithmetic:

 + (n – 1)d
  n/2 ( )
  n/2 (

Geometric:
*
 = + (n – 1)d
 

TRIGONOMETRY

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY Sum to Product Formulas

Reciprocal Identities






Sine Law
Tangent and Cotangent Identities For Cases that are ASA or SSA
 
 Cosine Law
Pythagorean Identities For cases that are SAS or SSS
 
 
 
Co-function Identities Law of Tangents



 Mollweides’ Equation



Sum and Difference Formula


 Hyperbolic Functions
 






Double-Angle Formulas


 
 
 

Power Reducing Formulas

 SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY
 For Right Spherical Triangles
Napiers Rule:

a. Sine of any angle is equal to the product of the cosine
Half-Angle Formulas of opposite angles
 b. Sine of any angle is equal to the product of the
tangent of the adjacent sides
 





Product to Sum Formulas


For Quadrantal Spherical Triangle Slope of a line
A. When c = 90o

 A’ = 180 – a
 B’ = 180 – b Angle between two lines
 C’= 180 – c  tan
 A = 180 – a’
Area of a polygon of n vertices
 B = 180 – b’
 C = 180 – c’ 
Napiers Rule: 
a. Sine of any angle is equal to the product of the cosine
1 1+ 1 + 1
of opposite angles
Lines
b. Sine of any angle is equal to the product of the
 General Equation Ax + Bx + C = 0
tangent of adjacent sides
 Point- Slope form y- = m(x - )
For Isosceles Triangles
 Slope intercept Form y= mx + b
B. When a = b or A = B
 Two- Point Form y - = (x- )
 Convert the Isosceles Triangle into Right Spherical
Triangle  Two-Intercept Form =1
Napiers Rule: Equations of parallel lines
a. Sine of any angle is equal to the product of the cosine 
of opposite angles ;
b. Sine of any angle is equal to the product of the Equations of perpendicular lines
tangent of adjacent sides 
Sine Law
 
Cosine Law for Sides Normal form of a line
 

Sign of radical is the same as B or if B=0, same

as A.
Cosine Law for Angles
Perpendicular distance of a line to the origin:



 Distance between 2 parallel lines
 d=| |
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY Distance from a point to a line
 d=
Distance between two points
 d=
Midpoint formula General Equation of Conic Section
 A + Bxy + C +Ey + F = 0

Circle
Point of Division formula 1  Standard equation:

  General equation:


 Center: C

Point of Division formula 2  Radius:


Radical Axis
 
 Parabola ( e = 1 )
 
upward/downward
Angle of inclination  right/left
 Latus rectum = 4a
 Ellipse ( e < 1 )

 ; Horizontal Major Axis 
Trapezium
 ; Vertical Major Axis

 Latus rectum = 2 / a
 Eccentricity = c/a


 Distance between directrices = 2a/e
 Distance between vertices = 2a
 Distance between foci = 2c
Hyperbola ( e > 1 )
 ; Horizontal Trasverse
Axis
Cyclic Quadrilateral
 ; Vertical Transverse
Axis 
 Latus rectum = 2 / a
 Eccentricity = c/a

SOLID MENSURATION

No. of Diagonals
 Quadrilateral circumscribing a Circle
Sum of Interior Angles 

Square

Regular Polygon
Rectangle


Ellipse

Circle
 Regular polygon circumscribing a Circle


 

Sector of a Circle
 Regular Polygon inscribed in a Circle

Segment of a Circle 

Rhombus Cube
 
 Rectangular parallelpiped
 

Parallelogram or Rhomboid Prism


 
Lateral area of Prism


Oblique Prism
 
Lateral Area of Oblique Prism

Trapezoid
Truncated Prism
 Oblate Spheroid
Cylinder 

Lateral Area of Cylinder DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

Algebraic Functions
Oblique Cylinder

Pyramid

Cone

Frustum of Pyramid

Frustum of Cone

Prismatoid

Sphere


Zone

Spherical Segment
 Logarithmic & Exponential Functions
Spherical Sector

Spherical Pyramid

Spherical Wedge

Torus

Lateral Area of Torus

General Ellipsoid

Prolate Spheroid

Trigonometric Functions Inverse Hyperbolic Functions

Slopes of the Curve( y = f(x) )


Inverse Trigonometric Functions
 Slope at any point of = y’ =
Partial Derivatives
 Let F be a function of several variables say x,y,
and z. In symbols The partial
derivative of F with respect to x is denoted by
and can be found by differentiating f(x,y,z)
in terms of x and treating the variables y and
z as constants.

Rate of Change
 The derivative of the function is identical to
its rate of change
 = V = velocity

 = = a = acceleration
Curvature and Radius of Curvature

 K(Curvature) =

 Ρ(Radius of Curvature) = 1/k =


Graph of a function y = f(x)
 if y’ = 0 and y” is negative, the point is a
Hyperbolic Functions
maximum point ( concave downward)
 if y’ = 0 and y” is positive, the point is a
minimum point ( concave upward)
 a point of inflection is a point at which the
curve changes from concave upward to
concave downward and vise-versa
 at point of inflection y” = 0
Steps in Solving Maxima Minima Problems
1. Identify the variable to be maximize or
minimize, say area A.
2. Express this variable in terms of other
relevant variable(s),say A = f(x,y)
3. If the function shall consist of more than one
variable, express it in terms of one variable (if
possible) using the conditions in the problem, 
say A = f(x)
4. Differentiate and equate to zero, dA/dx = 0 
Steps in Solving Time Rate Problems
1. Identify what are changing and what are fixed 
2. Assign variables to those that are changing
and appropriate value (constant) to those Trigonometric Substitution
that are fixed  When integrand contains:
3. Create an equation relating all the variables a2 – u2 , let u = a sin
and constants in step 2 a2 + u2 , let u = a tan
4. Differentiate the equation with respect to u2 – a2 , let u = a sec
time Partial Fractions:
Case I: Distinct Linear Factors
INTEGRAL CALCULUS

Integrations Formulas Case II: Repeated Linear Factors
 
 Case III: Distinct Quadratic Factors

 
 Case IV: Repeated Quadratic Factors


Properties of Definite Integrals

Trigonometric Functions 
 
 
 
 
 Wallis’ Formula




Inverse Trigonometric




 Zero is considered even
 Improper Integrals
Case I
Hyperbolic Functions 

Case II



Case III




  Convergent= the integral is defined
Standard Integration Formulas  Divergent= the integral is undefined
 Application of Integral Calculus
Plane Area

 A= ; vertical strip

 A= ; vertical strip

 A=½ ; polar area 
Solid of Revolutions 
 V=п or
Flat unbanked curve
 V=п ; using Circular Disk

 V = 2п or
Banked curve
 V = 2п ; using Hallow 
Cylindrical Shell
Force of Gravitational Attraction
Length of Arc
 ; G = 6.67x10-11
 s= or
Work and Energy
 W=F
 s=

Moment of Inertia of Plane Areas  =
 
  P ; k = force constant
Work Power
 W= or  P=
Impulse and Momentum
 W=
 J = Ft
Centroids of Plane Areas  J=
 xc A = 
 yc A = Torque

Rotational Motion
PHYSICS 1
 s=
Kinematics Angular Speed
 
 Linear Speed
 V=

Density
  = m/v
Free Fall
 Specific gravity =

Elasticity

 F = kx
  Stress = F/A
  Strain =
Pressure
Projectile Motion
 P=
 X-Component:
Bouyancy
o

o
 Y-Component:
o
PHYSICS 2
o
o Thermodynamics:
 Thermal Expansion
 

 R=  ;
Circular Motion Sensible Heat (Temp. Change)
  Q = mCp
Latent Heat (Phase Change) 
 Q = mL 
Parallel (Resistors)
Methods of Heat Transfer 
 Conduction 
o H= 
 Convection (Fluids) Electric Force
 Radiation

o H = Ae ;
Electric Field
Thermodynamic Processes
 E=
 Isobaric (P=K)
o Q = nCp Electric Flux
o = nCv 
o Electric Potential Energy
 Isochoric (V=K) 
o Q = nCv
Electric Potential/Voltage
o Q=
o W=0 V=
 Isothermal (T=K)
o Q=W CHEMISTRY
Stoichiometry
o W = PV ln(
Consider the hypothetical reaction:
o aA + bB  cC + dD
 Adiabatic (Q=0) where a,b,c,d are coefficients that balance the equation
o Let x  amount in moles of species A; therefore
o Mole to Mole Relationship
o
Capacitor
Mole to Mass Relationship
 C = q/v
 Parallel Conducting Plates
o C= ; where MW is the molecular weight
Series Circuit Let x  amount in grams of species A; therefore
 Mass to Mole Relationship


Mass to Mass Relationship
Parallel Circuit

 Note: The above equations are also applicable for
 species c and d, simply change all of the coefficients of b
Dielectrics with the species respective coefficient, the same can be
 k = C/Co (Vacuum) said with the basis, that is, it is not dependent on just
 C=k species A, the formulas above can be used in any
Electrodynamics combination of species, so as long that the equation is
 I = q/t = C/s = nqVdA balanced.
Resistance Notations:
 R= where X  any chemical species (ex. N, Br, Ne, etc)
A  Mass Number
 R = Ro(1 + )
Mass Number = no. of protons + no. of neutrons
Ohm’s Law
Z  Atomic Number
 R = V/I ; V = IR
Atomic Number = no. of protons = no. of electrons
Electric Power
Percent Yield
 P = W/t = IV = I2R =
Series (Resistors)

Theoretical Yield  amount of product formed based
on the limiting reactant
Concentration
Variations:
Comparison of time of effusion/diffusion for two
different species:

Gas Law
Boyles Law – changes in pressure and volume
Comparison of distance covered for effusion/diffusion
at constant T
for two different species
Charles Law – changes in volume and temperature

where T is expressed in Kelvins (TC + 273.15) Real Gas  Gases that deviate from ideal behavior
Gay – Lussac’s Law – changes in pressure and Van der Waals Equation
temperature

where a, b  van der waals coefficients


where T is expressed in Kelvins (TC + 273.15)
Stoichiometry of Gases
Ideal Gas Law
 at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)  0oC
PV = nRT where;
and 1 atm, 1 mole = 22.4 L
P  Pressure V Volume
Collecting Gases over Water
T  Temperature expressed in Kelvins
n  moles R  Ideal Gas Constant
where:
R  Ideal Gas Constants
 Total Pressure (Pressure of the Wet Gas)
 Pressure of the gas (Normally computed
Combined Gas Law – relates, pressure, volume, and through the Ideal Gas Law)
temperature  Pressure of H2O at that temperature (constant)

Variations of the Ideal Gas Law


For calculating mass or Molecular Weight (MW)

For calculating density,

Mole Fraction

where XA  moles of species A


XT  total moles (sum of individual moles of each
chemical species present)
Daltons Law of Partial Pressure – The partial pressure
of species A is equal to the mole fraction of A

The total pressure is equal to the sum of the partial


pressures

Root Mean Square Speed

Grahams Law of Diffusion and Effusion