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Denna Iarobok ar ett forsok att angripa notliisllingsproblem i sDmband med 1OO0-talets icke dur/molltonala musik. Den har vuxit
fram direkt ur fOrfattarens praktiska erfarenheter som liirare i geh;irsutbildning vid KlIllgl. Musikh<>gskolan, Stockholm. En god not-
Iasningskunskap inom dur/moll-tonaliteten ar onskviird, innan arbetet med fiiIjande material piiborjas. Forfattaren har i skriften »Om
gehorsutbildning» (Nr 3 i serien Publikatbner utgivna av Kungl. Musikaliska Akademien med Musikhi>gskoIan, Stockholm 1963) kurt-
fattat redogjort for det studium, som heIst mir fOrega det Iritonala gehors-studiet. I viss lItstriickning och med vissa elever torde dock
Iaroboken kunna studeras parallellt med dur/moll-tonalt gehorsarbete.
Denna bok tillagnas mina elever.
Si>dertiilje i maj 1963.
Lars Edlund.

Dieses Lehrbuch ist ein Versuch, das Problem des Notenlesens im Zusammenhang mit der nicht dur/moll-tonalen Musik des 20.
Jahrhunderts in Angriff zu nehmen. Es ist direkt aus den praktischen Erfahrungen des ,Autors als Lehrer fur Gehorallsbildung an
der Koniglichen Musikhochschule in Stockholm hervorgegangen. Eine gute Kenntnis des Notenlesens innerhalb der Dur/Moll-To-
nalitat ist wunschenswert, ehe die Arbeit mit dem folgenden Material begonnen wird. Der Autor hat in der Schrift »Om gehOrsutbild-
ning«*) (Nr. 3 in der Serie Publikationer utgivna av Kungl. Musikaliska Akademien med Musikhogskolan, Stockholm 1963) kurz uber
das Studium berichtet, das dem freitonalen GehOrstudium am besten vorausgehen solI. In gewissem Ausmass und mit bestimmten
Schiilem durfte jedoch das Lehrbuch parallel mit der dur/tonalen Gehorarbeit studiert werden k(inncn.
Dieses Buch ist meinen Schulem gewidmet.
SOdertiilje im Mai 1963.
• ) Ober Gehorausbildung.
Lars Edlund.

This text-book is an attempt to tackle the problems connected VI ith the reading of 20th-century music that is not major/minor-tonal.
It has been evolved out of the author's practical experience as a teacher in aural training at the Royal Academy of Music in Stock-
holm.!t is desirable that the student should be proficient in reading major/minor-tonal music before he starts working with the follow-
ing material. In my booklet "Om gehorsutbildning"*) (No.3 in the serie Publikationer utgivna av Kungl. Musikaliska Akademien med
MusikhOgskolan, Stockholm, 1963), I gave a brief account of the studies which should preferably precede the aural training for atonal
music. To some extent.. however, and by some students, the book can be studied at the same time as aural training for major/minor-
tonal music.
I dedicate this book to my pupils.
") Concerning Aural Training,
Si>dertalje, May, 196.:1
Lars Edlund.


The main object of aural training should be to develop musical have this perspective in order to be able to understand the struc-
sensitivity. The different exercises-sight-reading (sight-singing), ture of the material on which our method is to be based.
dictation etc., should not be regarded as an end in themselves We ask ourselves, therefore: Does the music so far composed
but as a means to attain this sensitivity. It is a concrete study tu in the 20th century contain any such logical structural principles
develop the power of obtaining a conscious and clear comprehen- which could serve as a basis for a method of training the ear?
sion of musical structures. This power of comprehension depends Hitherto the methods have been based on the major/minor
primarily, it is true, on a fast and accurate reading technique tonality with the triad as tonal basis. Is there any other equally
and on the proficiency acquired in the dictation exercises, but it clear tonal principle in 20th-century music, and any just as clearly
also includes emotional elements. It is important that we do not discernible basic tonal design? The answer to this, of course, is
lose Sight of these elements in the training of the ear. The prof- "No"! The study material presented in this book. however, has
fessional musician should indeed be able to give a more detailed been built up on a number of tonal and melodic figures which
account of the constructive elements of the musical "gestus", in the author's opinion have played some part in avoiding the
than the listener, but the most essential thing for both of them is major/minor-tonal limitations in 20th-century music. (The 20th
to have a feeling for the nuances in the e~Eression of the music. century is to be understood here as approximately "the first half
After all, ee iiiffiWii'UaiiCes of the musica 110m pro a of the 20th century". The sight reading problems connected with
ean~!!l~tban a mere technical command of il§ .i!.a~mar. the most recent so-called radical music are not dealt with here.)
Tlifs book is addressed primarily to students of music, anddeals These melodic figures have been grouped together, according to
in the first instance with the reading of 20th-century music. The the intervals they contain, in different chapters with an increas-
traditicnal aural training was based on the major/minor tonality, ing degree of.difficulty. Each chapter may also be said to deal
and its object was to acquir~ an aural command of the major/ with one more special interval. One of the author's main thesis,
minor-tenal music. The methods applied in aural training have however, is that great accuracy in singing individual intervals is
thus heen dictated by the musical material; and during this epoch. not always a guarantee of accuracy in reading atonal melodies;
it has been based on the laws of the tonal cadence. With the this is because most students still feel the interval with a major/
"collapse" ot the majer/minor tonality. however. those concerned minor interpretation. which in tum can be ascribed to the fact
with aural training have been confronted with an entirel" new that trom childhood the lac lor that most actively influences our
situation. The conventional aural training does not meet the ear and our instinct for the hannonic relation of the tones is still
reqllirements of 2mh-century music. Indeed. it is quite natural the major/minor mllsic.
that only a few attempts. if any. have been made in ear-training- From a point of view of sight reading training. therefore, the
techniquf'!> in connection with the music that Jlas emerged aftel most important thing now is to practice combinations of intervals
the major/minor epoch. for if we postulate the truth that the that will break the bonds of the major/minor interpretation of
method is largely detennined by the nature of the material each individual interval. It is clear that the individual interval
studied, it follows that we have to obtain some perspective of as an "atonal" figure is of great importance in this training. The
this material before we can produce a sound method. We must student's command (visual and aural) of the theory of intervals
in the absolute sense of the word, however, is here merely a pre- music to that for which it stands as a symbol-the sounding
requisite tor the further study of what I would like to call "the music, the most abstract and intangible of the arts! To acquire
aural study of the musical patterns". proficiency in reading music demands a great deal of work, and
Reading music is a difficult art to master, and its mechanism this even more so aiter the great revolutions that have occurred
is a very complicated process. Take, by way of comparision, the in contemporary music, specially in the domain of tonality. This
difficulty a.. child has in learning to read by putting together book is an attempt to assemble material for this work. It is my
letters and syllables into forms that are lingual symbols not only hope that it will also stimulate others to add to the material by
of concrete things but also of abstract concepts, knovm or un- presenting new ideas and new publications!
known to the child. Still less clear is the relation of the written


The contents of the chapters of this book are in principle built music. The teacher plays or sings the phrase with a few
up around the following headings: "... reng notes. The pupil analyses the wrong notes.
1. Presentation of the interval material to be used. (e) Dictation. The teacher giws the name of the first note
2. Preparatory exercises. .(possibly also the time), plays the phrase (several times, if
3. Melodies. required). The pupil sings the phrase (but not on the names
4. Chord series. of the notes), and writes it down.
There are also chapters containing ~Examples of Melodies from (f) Sing or play the phrase again at a different pitch. This
the Repertoire" at four different stages in the consecutive chap- exercise is of special importance in the case of pupils with
ters. ciifierent torms of absolute pitch. (See ~Absolute Pitch" on
Some directions for the use of the material are given below: p.15.)
Needless to say one should 1I0t first of all work through each
preparator\ exercise lrom (a) to (f'). lor in that case the dictation
f'leparatory Exercises. These con!>ist of some ;30 short phrases exercise, t(~r instance would be rather too well prepared. Instead,
built up on the intervals in question. These phrases may be used the principle should be to go through all off the preparatory exer-
in the following ways: cises according to one of tht'l\1, e.g. as in (a), and then start from
(a) The phrase is sung from the music: the beRinning again and practise them as in (d), (e) etc. There are
(b) The teacher gives the first note and plays the phrase. The enough phrases, and the} are often sufficiently alike to prevent
pupil sings it on the names of the notes without looking at their bein~ learned by heart al'ter practising them once.
the music and without accompaniment. Some of the preparatory t'xercises have been written with black
(c) Play the phrase. The same as (b), except that the pupil notes only. The idea is that the} are to be sling on the names of
repeats the phrase on his instrument. the notes from different starling points and with different rhythms,
(d) Locate deviations from the notation. The pupil sees the e.g. according to the following fonnulae:

feeling of major/minor tonality. With increased experience, the
need for it will disappear.
The melodIes have been composed by the author.
fJ· n· Chord Series. The feeling for tone plays a very important part

TnJ nJ n in contemporary music. This applies both to the harmony and

colour of the tone. The most recent music, in particular in this

mmm respect, calls for a new approach to aural training.

The chord series given here may be used in the following
a) Chord dictation. The pupil does not see the music. The
Melodies: The melodies are to be sung by the pupil on a suit- teacher plays the first note, and then plays each chord, say.
able vowel. The teacher should give them as home-work, which twice, at an interval of approx. 5 seconds. The pupil writes
is to be supervised. It goes without saying that they should not be down the notes of the chord. which are then checked.
practised with the aid of an instrument, but on the other hand b) lhe pupil sees the music. He plays the chords one by one.
the pupil may check up occasionally on a well-tuned piano. Great While the chord is still sounding he sings the name of a
importance is attached to the reading and understanding of the certain note in the sounding chord. He checks up whether
melodic Hgures and their organic context in the melodic pro- it is correct.
gression. See the comments on Melody No. I, Chap. I, (p. 22).
In controlling the pl;~il's singing the teacher should distinguish Examples of Melodies from the Repertoire. These examples
clearly between faults due to uncertainty regarding the interval from the Repertoire can be used in the same way as in the
as such, and those due to faulty intonation. Needless to say both preparatcry exercises and melodies. Many of them are impossible
of these faults have to be dealt with. Regarding the intonation: to sing because of their compass and pitch. lhe exercises under
If one wants the final note of the melodies to agree with the "Preparatory Exercises". p.14, give an idea of how these examples
corresponding note on a well-tuned "clavier", one has to sing in can be used. If possible the teacher should give the pupil an idea
a "well-tempered" tone of voice. of the entire compositional situation in which the example origi-
From the point of view of method there is no cause for great nally occurs. The chapters containing examples have therefore
anxiety because of a pupil's possible tendency to read major/minor been prefaced with a list of the sources and the pages on which
cells in to the melodies, or to feel them. If the pupils will only they occur in the publications available. The examples have been
accustom themselves to the frequent "mutations" between these taken from a limited selectio"n of 20th-century classics and from
cells, it will promote their routine music-reading in spite of this the works of some Swedish composers.


Special problems are encountered in connection with absolute which notes are being sung or played on the piano or some other
pitch. Pupils with active absolute pitch generally have little diffi- instrument, hut cannot with equal accuracy sing the written or
culty in training the ear as far as melody and harmony are Con- heard note, often find themselves in a difficult "'in-between" posi-
cerned. Those with passive absolute pitch, i.e. those who can hear tion when it comes to reading atonal music. As long as the exer-

cises are limited to major/minor melodies, this passive absolute Those who can boast of having so-called, absolute pitch are thus
pitch may function. perfectly, since absolute pitch is largely a form often deficient in atonal melody-reading. They have difficulty
of memory, and in this case the objects to be remembered in reading the melodic patterns, apart from separate intervals.
probably consist of both absolute note pitches and the major/mi- These same pupils, however, may often react with great accuracy
nor tonality's supply of formulae. It is clear, however, that pupils to wrong notes in an atonal example. It is very important that
with this passive form of absolute pitch only rarely give any this type of pupil should consciously practise producing the inter-
thought to the interval they are singing, and still less do they val combinations and melodic designs that are of fundamental
think of the tonal function of that interval in the musical con- importance in this book. In doing so they should think more of
text. When they are then confronted with the exercises in melody- the intervals and their melodic function than of the actual
reading in which the major/minor tonal functions have been names of the notes. For these pupils the exercises on transposi-
disrupted and weakened, it is often found that their memory for tion sling according to their own comprehension of the melodic
the pitch of notes (on the keyboard) is of little avail. and in this design, and not on the names of the notes, are of special import-
situation their insufficient knowledge of intervals is also revealed. ance. See p. 14, exercise (e) and (£)1


This book does not contain any special studies in rhythm. In in the reading and performance of rhythm students are referred
many of the melodies and examples quoted from the repertoire, to J0rgen Jersild's: "Laerebog i Rytmelasning" (Text-book on the
however, the rhythm is fairly complicated. It is important that Reading of Rhythm), Copenhagen, 1962.)
this rhythm should be carefully observed. For systematic training

Intervallmaterial: Stor och liten sekund Intervallmaterial: Grosse und kleine Se- Interval material: Major and minor
Ren kvart kunde second
Reine Quart Perfect fourth

Intervallmaterialet erbjuder foljande Das Intervallmaterial bietet folgende The interval material offers the following
grundtyper av melodisk rorelse (forutom de Grundtypen melodischer Bewegung (ausser basic types of melodic movement (besides
traditionella tonartsbundna diatoniska ska- den traditionellen tonartgebundenen dia- the conventional key-bound diatonic scales):
lorna): tonischen Skalen):

a) Kromatik i hOgre eller mindre grad: a) Chromatik in hoherem oder geringerem a) Chromatics in a greater or lesser degree:

'C J. ¥J JU,U.; liJ J,J J. f~ I _J - I

- I
b) Heltonsrorelse: b) Ganztonbewegung: b) whole tone movement.

c) Kvartstaplingar: c) Quartenstaffelungen: c) Superimposed fourths.

bJ. I
Copyright © 1964 by A. B. Nordiska Musikf6rIaget / Edition Wilhelm Hansen Stockholm N. M. S. 5n;w

Arbetet bestar nu i Die Arbeit besteht nun darin, The work consists of:
a) att trana agat att snabbt uppfatta a) das Auge zu iiben, diese melodischen a) training the eye quickly to perceive
dessa melodiska strukturer i nottexten. D.v.s. Strukturen im Notentext sChnell aufzu- these melodic structures in the written
att snabbt se om ett steg ar helt eller halvt, fassen, d.h. schnell zu sehen ob ein Schritt music, i.e. to see quickly whether an inter-
snabbt kunna kiinna igen bUden av kvart- ganz oder halb ist und schnell das BUd einer val is a major or a minor second, and to
stapling etc., Quartenstaffelung etc. wiederzuerkennen, recognise quickly the appearance of super-
b) aU med Orat uppfatta de olika melodi- b) mit dem Ohr die verschiedenen Melo- imposed fourths, etc.,
strukturema. Har sker ovningen pa flera diestrukturen aufzunehmen. Hier ist die b) training the ear to hear the different
satt: man sjunger notema i de foljande fra- Obung eine mehrfache: man singt die No- melodic structures. This exercise should be
serna, man Qvar eftersjungning och efter- ten in den einander folgenden Phrasen, man carried out in different ways: Sing the notes
spelning, lokaliserar lararens »felspelningaJ» ubt das Nachsingen und Na<;hspielen, 10- of the follOwing phrases; repeat as in b) and
i ovningama, anvander dem som diktat etc. kalisiert das »Falschspielen« des Lehrers in c) in the directions for study, p. 14; locate
(se Studieanvisningar sid. 7 ). den Obungen, verwendet sie als Diktat etc. the teacher's "wrong notes" in, the exercises;
(siehe Studienanweisungen Seite 10). use them for dictation etc. (see "Directions
for Study", p. }41).


(Se studieanvisningarna, sid 7). (Siehe Studienanweisungen Seite 10). (See "Directions for Study" on p. 14).

2 3

J ~F I,j II J. ~)luJ I J J Ilij #J J I ,J ,J I ,J. II

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5 6 7

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Observera: Det ar viktigt aU arbetet med Beachte: Es ist wichtig, dass die Arbeit Note: It is important that the work on the
fOljande melodimaterial tar silde pa over- mit dem folgenden Melodienmaterial den following melodic examples should be di-
blick och fOrstilelse fOr de musikaliskt struk- Oberblick und das Verstiindnis.fUr die mu- rected towards obtaining a survey and
turella elementen. Denna liisfardighet, som sikalisch strukturellen Elemente anstrebt. understanding of the musical structure. Pro-
inkluderar strukturell fOrstaelse, spelar ofta Diese Lesefertigkeit, die strukturelles Ver- ficiency in reading, which includes an
sjiilva tontraffningen i hiinderna (se kom- stiindnis einchliesst, erleichtert oft das Ton- understanding of the structure, often makes
mentaren till Melodi nr 1 nedan!) och for- treHen selbst (siehe die Kommentare zu Me- it easier to place the note correctly (see the
hindrar aU eleven blir mera inriktad pa me- lodie Nr. 1 unten!) und verhindert, dass der comments on Melody No. 1 below). It also
kanisk intervalladdition an pa avliisandet av Schiller mehr auf die mechanische Intervall- prevents the pupil from tending auto-
melodiska sammanhang. Det kommer pa addition als auf das Ablesen von melodi- matically to count the intervals rather than
lararens lott aU hjiilpa eleven fram till bUck schen Zusammenhiingen eingestellt ist. Auf- to read the melodic design in the music. It
och ora for dylika sammanhang. gabe des Lehrers ist es, dem Schiller zu devolves upon the teacher to help the pupil
Blick und Ohr derartiger Zusammenhiinge to acquire an eye and an ear for such con-
zu verhelfen. nections.


Kommentar: I taktema 7, 8 och 10 moter Kommentar: In den Takten 7, 8 und 10 Comment: In bars Nos. 7, 8 and 10 we
vi intervall, som forst senare upptages till begegnen wir Intervallen, die erst spater zur find intervals that will not be dealt with in-
specialbehandling. Forutsatt att man forstill' Spezialbehandlung herangezogen werden. dividually until later on. Provided one
den melodiska gestaltningen, sa iir del iinda Vorausgesetzt, dass man die melodische Ce- understands the melodic design, however,
liitt aU sjunga detta avsniU. C2 i den me- staltung versteht, ist es jedoch leicht, diesen there should be no difficulty in singing this
locliska gestalten told 8 moo upptakt sjunger Abschnitt zu singen. C2 in der melodischen exercise. C2 in the melodic figure in bar No.
man lika slikert ulifran minnet av C2 i takt Gestalt Takt 8 mit Auftakt singt man 8 with an up-beat can be sung from the
7 med upptakt som genom aU helt tiinka ebenso sicher aus dem Gediichtnis von C2 memory of c· in bar No. 7 with up-beat
liten sext! D.v.s. denna IiIla sext har har irn Takt 7 mit Auftakt, wie dadurch, dass with the same accuracy as by thinking
ingen sjiilvstandig melodisk betydelse, och man die kleine Sext denkt, d.h. diese kleine entirely minor sixth, i.e. this minor sixth has
det giiller att 5e och fOrM detta.Det'samma Sext hat hier keine 5elbswndige melodische no independent melodic significance, and it
galler den lilla septiman i takt 8 och den Bedeutung und man muss das sehen und is a matter of seeing and understanding this.
forminskade oktaven i takt 10. Minnet oeh verstehen. Das gleiche gilt hinsichtlich der The same applies to the minor seventh in
forstaelsen av den narmast foregaende me- kleinen Septime irn Takt 8 und die Ver- bar No.8 and the diminished octave in bar
lodiska gestalten ar har aIltsi aven ur ton- minderte Oktave im Takt 10. Das Gediicht- No. 10. Thus the memory and comprehen-
traffningssynpunkt det vasentligaste! nis und das Verstiindnis der vorhergehenden sion of the immediately preceding melodic
melodisehen Gestalt ist also auch hier aus figure is of great importance in pitching
dem Gesichtspunkt des Tontreffens das we- the ri)!;ht note.
(J c. 69) sentlichste!

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17t. - - - - - - - - - -

6 8 9 10

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