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## ME451: Control Systems Modeling Analysis Design

Laplace transform
Time response
Transfer function Design specs
• Transient
Lecture 2 • Steady state
Models for systems Root locus
Laplace transform • electrical
Frequency response
• mechanical Frequency domain
• Bode plot
• electromechanical
Stability
Dr. Jongeun Choi Block diagrams
• Routh-
Routh-Hurwitz
Design examples
Department of Mechanical Engineering • (Nyquist)
Nyquist)
Linearization
Michigan State University

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## Laplace transform Examples of Laplace transform

 One of most important math tools in the course!  Unit step function f(t)
f(t)
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 Definition: For a function f(t) (f(t)=0 for t<0),
t
0
(Memorize this!)

## (s: complex variable)

f(t)
f(t)
f(t)  Unit ramp function

t
F(s) t
0 0

##  We denote Laplace transform of f(t) by F(s).

(Integration by parts)
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Integration by parts Examples of Laplace transform (cont’d)
f(t)
f(t) Width = 0
 Unit impulse function Height = inf
Area = 1

t
0
(Memorize this!)

f(t)
f(t)
EX.  Exponential function
1
t
0

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## Examples of Laplace transform (cont’d) Laplace transform table

 Sine function
(Memorize these!)

 Cosine function

## Remark: Instead of computing Laplace

transform for each function, and/or
memorizing complicated Laplace transform,
use the Laplace transform table !

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Inverse Laplace Transform
Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform
1. Linearity 2.Time delay

f(t) f(t-T)
Proof. Proof.

0 T

Ex. Ex.

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## Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform

3. Differentiation 4. Integration

Proof.
Proof.

Ex.
t-domain s-domain
t-domain s-domain

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Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform
5. Final value theorem 6. Initial value theorem
if all the poles of sF(s)
sF(s) are in if the limits exist.
the left half plane (LHP)

## Remark: In this theorem, it does not matter if

Ex.
pole location is in LHS or not.
sF(s) are in LHP, so final value thm applies.
Poles of sF(s)
Ex.
Ex.
Ex.
sF(s) are not in LHP, so final value
Some poles of sF(s)
thm does NOT apply.
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## Properties of Laplace transform Summary & Exercises

7. Convolution
 Laplace transform (Important math tool!)
 Definition
Convolution  Laplace transform table
 Properties of Laplace transform
 Next
 Solution to ODEs via Laplace transform
 Exercises
 Read Chapters 1 and 2.
IMPORTANT REMARK  Solve Quiz Problems.

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