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kad-prep-notes

List of resources and notes for passing the Certified Kubernetes Application
Developer (CKAD) exam. Official links below.

CNCF Official CKAD Main


CNCF Kubernetes Curriculum Repo
CNCF Official CKAD Exam Tips
CNCF Official CKAD Candidate Handbook
VIM Cheatsheet - You should know VIM pretty well
Excellent CKAD Exercises to complement this guide
TMUX Cheat Sheet - TMUX is useful, especially for CKA
Current Kubernetes Version (EXAM)
Version: 1.14

Important vi Tips
'dG' - Deletes contents from cursor to end of file. This is very useful when
editing YAML files.
'ZZ' - Save and exit quickly.
kubectl Tips
To set nano as your editor for 'kubectl edit'

export KUBE_EDITOR="nano"
Outline
Right now there are five primary sections to this document.

General Exam Tips


Overview
A Checklist of Curriculum Progress
Where to Practice?
Detailed Review (with Tips) Ordered by Curriculum
List of Resources Ordered by Curriculum (mostly K8s.io) for Study
Tips
Okay, this section is new and contains some general pointers to help pass the exam.

First, as discussed later, the exam is primarily about speed. With that in mind,
the best way to approach the moderate to complex questions is to generate the
initial YAML via the dry run flag. Then, edit the file with either vi or nano, and
then create the required resource. The steps are outlined below.

$ kubectl run nginx --image=nginx --restart=Never --dry-run -o yaml > mypod.yaml


$ nano mypod.yaml
$ kubectl create -f mypod.yaml
pod "nginx" created
There you go. If you're not satisfied with the results. Delete the resource, re-
edit the declaritive yaml file, and redo.

$ kubectl delete -f mypod.yaml


pod "nginx" deleted
$ nano mypod.yaml
$ kubectl create -f mypod.yaml
pod "nginx" created
Overview
The exam is 100% hands on using the innovative exams (www.examslocal.com) product.
The CKAD exam requires an excellent understanding of K8s along with how to
efficiently use kubectl to accomplish various tasks on Kubernetes. I'm sure they
use this exam approach as it pretty much precludes any form of cheating. You either
know the material and can very quickly implement it or not.

You will be given a list of 'tasks' to accomplish on one of four kubernetes


clusters (these are described in the official exam tips above). The exam is 'open
book' but only with the content available at kubernetes.io. You will have one tab
for the exam content and one additional tab for kubernetes.io. However, don't
expect that you can just research questions during the exam, as there will be very
little time for 'learning' a specific k8s concept at exam time. It's there to help
with YAML syntax detail only, IMO.

The items in this particular repo / page describe and follow the official
curriculum and point back to the various documents at Kubernetes.io. There is a lot
of content on k8s and a lot of it does not pertain to the CKAD exam, so I've pulled
out the sections that are pertinent based on the curriculum. There is a nice
checklist below that you can update once you think you have mastered a particular
topic.

I think the best approach is to fork this repo as a starting point for your
studies, and then use the markdown checklist to ensure you cover all of the
expected material, etc.

Current Progress
The list below is based on the curriculum v1.0. Once you have mastered a section,
check it off and move on to the next. You need to understand them ALL very well.
The Core Concepts piece is kind of vague, but the others are defined well enough
that it is easy to prepare for with a hands-on work through the tasks offered at
kubernetes.io. The rest of this document follows this same outline of curriculum.

Core Concepts - 13%


API Primitives
Create and Configure Basic Pods
Configuration - 18%
Understand ConfigMaps
Understand SecurityContexts
Define App Resource Requirements
Create and Consume Secrets
Understand Service Accounts
Multi-Container Pods - 10%
Design Patterns: Ambassador, Adapter, Sidecar
- Sidecar Pattern
- Init Containers
Pod Design - 20%
Using Labels, Selectors, and Annotations
Understand Deployments and Rolling Updates
Understand Deployment Rollbacks
Understand Jobs and CronJobs
- State Persistence - 8%
- Understand PVCs for Storage
Observability - 18%
Liveness and Readiness Probes
Understand Container Logging
Understand Monitoring Application in Kubernetes
Understand Debugging in Kubernetes
Services and Networking - 13%
Understand Services
Basic Network Policies
Where to Practice
This particular items was difficult for me as I didn't have a (current) k8s cluster
to use at work. As I was initially studying for the CKA which requires more
cluster-level work, I tried many, many different approaches for an inexpensive k8s
environment. built many clusters using K8s The Hard way on gcloud (and AWS), built
a raspberry pi cluster I could carry to work, and tried using kubeadm / kops on
gcloud and aws.

In my opinion, and all that is required to pass this test, is to just setup a
gcloud account, and use a two-node GKE cluster for studying. Heck, you can even use
the very nice google cloud shell and not even leave your browser.

gcloud command line (SDK) documentation

Here are commands used to create a two-node cluster for studying. I keep these here
just so I can fire up and destroy a cluster for a few hours each day for study.
Notice that you can tailor the cluster version to match the k8s version for the
exam.

gcloud config set compute/zone us-central1-a


gcloud config set compute/region us-central1
gcloud container clusters create my-cluster --cluster-version=1.15.8-gke.2 --image-
type=ubuntu --num-nodes=2
The result:

NAME LOCATION MASTER_VERSION MASTER_IP MACHINE_TYPE


NODE_VERSION NUM_NODES STATUS
my-cluster us-central1-a v1.15.8-gke.2 35.232.253.6 n1-standard-1 v1.15.8-
gke.2 2 RUNNING

cloudshell:~$ kubectl get nodes


NAME STATUS ROLES AGE VERSION
gke-my-cluster-default-pool-5f731fab-9d6n Ready <none> 44s v1.15.8-
gke.2
gke-my-cluster-default-pool-5f731fab-llrb Ready <none> 41s v1.15.8-
gke.2
Setting kubectl Credentials
If using the cloud shell, you'll sometimes need to authorize kubectl to connect to
your cluster instance.

gcloud container clusters get-credentials my-cluster


Deleting Your Cluster
No need to keep the cluster around when not studying, so:

gcloud container clusters delete my-cluster


To Get Current GKE Kubernetes Versions
gcloud container get-server-config
Detailed Review
The exam is about speed and efficiency. If you spend very much time looking at
documentation, you will have zero chance of completing the many questions. With
that said, the following will help with time management. I've aligned the tips to
follow the curriculum. This section is best used to provide a quick overview of the
curriculum along with the needed kubectl commands for a hands-on exam.

CORE CONCEPTS
The core concepts section covers the core K8s API and its primitives and resources.
It also covers the important concept of a POD. This is the basic unit of deployment
for app developers and so this 'POD' concept is important to understand as well as
how they are managed with kubectl. To me, this is embodied in the kubectl RUN
command.

Using the RUN/CREATE command for Pods, Deployments, etc.


The run command allows quick creation of the various high-level execution resources
in k8s, and provides speed, which we need for the exam. (NOTE: The use of run to
handle various resource creations was updated to instead use the create command as
of 1.14)

The specific, underlying resource created from a particular create/run command is


based on its 'generator'.

$ kubectl create deployment nginx --image=nginx #deployment


$ kubectl run nginx --image=nginx --restart=Never #pod
$ kubectl create job nginx --image=nginx #job
$ kubectl create cronjob nginx --image=nginx --schedule="* * * * *" #cronJob
The above is helpful in the exam as speed is important. If the question indicates
to 'create a pod', use the quick syntax to get a pod going.

CONFIGURATION
Configuration covers how run-time 'config' data is provided to your applications
running in k8s. This includes environment variables, config maps, secrets, etc.
Other items that are pertinent to config are the service account and security
contexts used to execute the containers. The below items are covered by this part
of the curriculum.

Config Maps / Environment Variables


The exam is about application development and its support within Kubernetes. With
that said, high on the list of objectives is setting up config options and secrets
for your applications. To create the most basic config map with a key value pair,
see below.

$ kubectl create configmap app-config --from-literal=key123=value123


configmap "app-config" created
There are many ways to map config map items to environment variables within a
container process. One quick, but tricky (syntax) option is shown below. This would
be for a simple nginx container.

spec:
containers:
- image: nginx
name: nginx
envFrom:
- configMapRef:
name: app-config
Here is another way to map a specific value to a specific environment variable
value.

containers:
- image: nginx
name: nginx
env:
- name: SPECIAL_APP_KEY
valueFrom:
configMapKeyRef:
name: app-config
key: key123
Now to verify it worked.

$ kubectl exec -it nginx /bin/bash


root@nginx:/# env
HOSTNAME=nginx
SPECIAL_APP_KEY=value123
KUBERNETES_PORT_443_TCP_PROTO=tcp
...
Security Contexts
Security contexts can be applied at either the pod or container level. Of course
pod-level contexts apply to all containers within that pod. There are several ways
of defining privileges and access controls with these contexts.

These concepts are covered well in the tasks section below, but here is a basic
RunAs example from the doc that shows both pod and container contexts being used.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
spec:
securityContext:
runAsUser: 1000
containers:
- name: sec-ctx-demo
image: gcr.io/google-samples/node-hello:1.0
securityContext:
runAsUser: 2000
allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
App Resource Requirements
Defining the memory and cpu requirements for your containers is something that
should always be done. It allows for more efficient scheduling and better overall
hygiene for your application environment. Again, covered well in the tasks section
below, but here is a brief snippet for the standard mem/cpu specification.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
spec:
containers:
- name: demo
image: polinux/stress
resources:
limits:
memory: 200Mi
cpu: 200m
requests:
memory: 100Mi
cpu: 100m
Now to verify:

$ kubectl describe po stress


Name: stress
Namespace: default
Labels: run=stress
IP: 10.36.1.17
Containers:
stress:
Image: polinux/stress
Limits:
cpu: 200m
memory: 200Mi
Requests:
cpu: 100m
memory: 100Mi
Secrets
To quickly generate secrets, use the --from-literal flag like this:

$ kubectl create secret generic my-secret --from-literal=foo=bar -o yaml --dry-run


> my-secret.yaml
This produces the following secret that can then be consumed by your containers.
The value is encoded.

apiVersion: v1
data:
foo: YmFy
kind: Secret
metadata:
creationTimestamp: null
name: my-secret
Now create the secret:

$ kubectl create -f my-secret.yaml


secret "my-secret" created
Now have a look at it:

kubectl get secret my-secret -o yaml


apiVersion: v1
data:
foo: YmFy
kind: Secret
metadata:
name: my-secret
namespace: default
uid: bae5b8d8-d01a-11e8-8972-42010a800002
type: Opaque
Decode it:

$ echo "YmFy" | base64 --decode


bar
Secrets can be mounted as data volumes or be exposed as environment variables to be
used by a container in a pod. Here we'll mount our above secret as a volume.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
name: secrets-test-pod
spec:
containers:
- image: nginx
name: test-container
volumeMounts:
- mountPath: /etc/secret/volume
name: secret-volume
volumes:
- name: secret-volume
secret:
secretName: my-secret
Service Accounts
When pods are created by K8s they are provided an identify via the service account.
In most cases, pods use the default service account, but it can be specified
directly.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
name: my-pod
spec:
serviceAccountName: build-robot
...
MULTI-CONTAINER PODS
This particular section needs additional detail as these concepts are not covered
that well via the tasks provided at kubernetes.io. Actually, the best coverage (for
sidecars) is in the concepts section under logging architecture.

One or more containers running within a pod for enhancing the main container
functionality (logger container, git synchronizer container); These are sidecar
container

One or more containers running within a pod for accessing external


applications/servers (Redis cluster, memcache cluster); These are called ambassador
container

One or more containers running within a pod to allow access to application running
within the container (Monitoring container); These are called as adapter
containers-

Concepts -> Logging Architecture

POD DESIGN
The Pod design section mostly covers deployments, rolling updates, and rollbacks
(and jobs). These are all covered well in the tasks section later in this document.
The primary trick here is to really understand the basic commands for updating a
deployment which causes a new replicaSet to be created for the rollout. Both
replica sets exist as the rollout continues and completes.

Deployment Updates
Below is a quick example of creating a deployment and then updating its image. This
will force a rolling deployment to start. You can then roll it back.

$ kubectl run nginx --image=nginx --replicas=3


deployment.apps "nginx" created
Okay, now force a rolling update by updating its image.

$ kubectl set image deploy/nginx nginx=nginx:1.9.1


deployment.apps "nginx" image updated
Now you can check the status of the roll out.

$ kubectl rollout status deploy/nginx


Waiting for rollout to finish: 2 out of 3 new replicas have been updated...
Waiting for rollout to finish: 1 old replicas are pending termination...
Waiting for rollout to finish: 2 of 3 updated replicas are available...
deployment "nginx" successfully rolled out
Now, if you want to roll it back:

$ kubectl rollout undo deploy/nginx


$ kubectl rollout status deploy/nginx
Waiting for rollout to finish: 1 old replicas are pending termination...
Waiting for rollout to finish: 2 of 3 updated replicas are available...
deployment "nginx" successfully rolled out
This is all describe well on kubernetes.io by searching for 'deployment' and
reading the overview there. Kubernetes Deployments

Jobs and CronJobs


Job vs CronJob -> A job runs a pod to a number of successful completions. Cron jobs
manage jobs that run at specified intervals and/or repeatedly at a specific point
in time, thus they have the 'schedule' aspect. The below demonstrates quickly
creating a cronjob and then a quick edit to add a command, etc.
$ kubectl run crontest --image=busybox --schedule="*/1 * * * *"
--restart=OnFailure --dry-run -o yaml
apiVersion: batch/v1beta1
kind: CronJob
metadata:
labels:
run: crontest
name: crontest
spec:
schedule: '*/1 * * * *'
jobTemplate:
spec:
template:
spec:
containers:
- image: busybox
name: crontest
command: ["date; echo Hello"]
restartPolicy: OnFailure
You can also redirect (> cron.yaml) the above to a file, edit it to add the
container command, and then create the cronjob with the kubectl create:

$ kubectl create -f cron.yaml


STATE PERSISTENCE
This is still one of my weaknesses and the whole PV creation is high dependent on
the underlying cloud or file storage technique used. For now, the links provided
later in the persistence tasks are best for studying this.

OBSERVABILITY
This part of the curriculum covers the logging, debugging, and metrics of your
running applications.

Container Metrics
Container metrics require that heapster be running, and it is pretty standard on
clusters now.

$ kubectl top pod -n my-namespace


$ kubectl top node -n my-namespace
SERVICES and NETWORKING
Services are pretty straight forward, but there are lots of networking details in a
k8s cluster. The curriculum only mentions network policies so you should understand
that particular aspect of networking in good detail.

Services
Services provide a persistent endpoint for a logical set of pods. This endpoint is
typically used to expose a pods services externally. They are quite straight
forward and quick to build and configure, so the concepts are more important than
the 'speed' factor for the exam, IMO. There are several ways to expose a service as
well as the underlying detail of using selectors to ultimately select the target
pods of the service.

'Exposing' Ports for PODS


By default pods can all inter-communicate via their internal IP address and port.
Services are needed to expose services OUTSIDE of the cluster. So, it's important
to understand the basic container spec for specifying the port a container will
use. The example below declares the port as well as an environment variable
describing same.

spec:
containers:
image: nginx
imagePullPolicy: Always
name: busybox
env:
- name: PORT
value: "80"
ports:
- containerPort: 80
protocol: TCP
Network Policies
Resources use labels to select pods and define rules which specify what traffic is
allowed to the selected pods. So, the pods themselves require certain labels /
selectors to enable network policies.

By default, pods are non-isolated; they accept traffic from any source.

Pods become isolated by having a NetworkPolicy that selects them. Once there is any
NetworkPolicy in a namespace selecting a particular pod, that pod will reject any
connections that are not allowed by any NetworkPolicy. (Other pods in the namespace
that are not selected by any NetworkPolicy will continue to accept all traffic.)

MISCELANEOUS TIPS and TRICKS


Extracting yaml from running resource
Use the --export and -o yaml flags to export the basic yaml from an existing
resource:

kubectl get deploy busybox --export -o yaml > exported.yaml


The --dry-run flag
The --dry-run flag can be used with the kubectl run and create commands. It
provides a nice template to start your declarative yaml config files. Below is an
example for creating a basic secret yaml.

kubectl create secret generic my-secret --from-literal=foo=bar -o yaml --dry-run >


my-secret.yaml
The --from-literal flag
As shown above, the --from-literal flag is useful for things like config maps and
secrets for the basic cases.

apiVersion: v1
data:
foo: YmFy
kind: Secret
metadata:
creationTimestamp: null
name: my-secret
Tasks from Kubernetes Doc
The following are primarily links to either the 'concepts' or 'tasks' section of
the kubernetes.io documentation. The 'task' items are very useful to use as labs.
I've tied them directly to the curriculum to ensure they are appropriate study
material for the exam.

Core Concepts and Kubectl


Tasks -> Accessing Multiple Clusters
Tasks -> Accessing Cluster with API
Tasks -> Port Forwarding
Tasks -> Shell to Running Container (exec)
Configuration
Task -> Config Maps
Task -> Security Contexts
Tasks -> Assigning Memory Resources to Pods
Tasks -> Assigning CPU Resources to Pods
Tasks -> Pod QOS
Tasks -> Credentials using Secrets
Tasks -> Project Volume w/Secrets
Tasks -> Setting Service Account
Multi-Container Pods
Tasks -> Init Containers
Concepts -> Logging Architecture
Pod Design
Concepts -> Assign Pods to Nodes - Selectors
Concepts -> Labels and Selectors
Tasks -> ReplicaSet Rolling Updates
Concepts -> Deployments, Rollouts, and Rollbacks
CRON
Tasks -> Automated Tasks with Cron Jobs
Tasks -> Parallel Jobs with Expansions
Tasks -> Course Parallel Processing with a Work Queue
Tasks -> Fine Parallel Processsing with a Work Queue
State Persistence
Concepts -> Persistent Volumes
Tasks -> Configuring PVCs
Observability
Tasks -> App Introspection and Debugging
Tasks - Liveness and Readiness Probes
Tasks -> Debugging Pods
Tasks -> Troubleshooting Applications
Tasks -> Debugging Services
Tasks -> Debugging Services Locally
Tasks -> Core Metrics Pipeline
Services and Networking
Concepts -> Connecting Apps with Services
Tasks -> Declare Network Policy