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Christopher Jhon G.

Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I.Pantoprazole - Description: Pantoprazole is a substituted Gastro-oesophageal Known hypersensitivity to Significant: Hypomagnesaemia, Assess underlying condition
Pantovex benzimidazole gastric antisecretory agent reflux disease any of the constituents of cutaneous lupus erythematosus, SLE, before therapy and thereafter to
40mg IV and is also known as proton pump Prophylaxis of NSAID- Pantoloc or of the osteoporosis-related fractures, fundic monitor drug effectiveness. Assess
inhibitor (PPI). It blocks the final step in induced ulcers combination partners. Mild gland polyp, carcinoma, Clostridium GI symptoms:
II.Antacids, gastric acid secretion by specific Zollinger-Ellison gastrointestinal complaints difficile-associated diarrhoea, interstitial epigastric/abdominal pain,
Antireflux inhibition of H+/K+ adenosine syndrome eg, nervous dyspepsia. nephritis, Vitamin B12 deficiency (long- bleeding and anorexia. Monitor
Agents & triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme system Pantoloc must not be used in term therapy), gastrointestinal infection for possible drug induced adverse
Antiulcerants present on the secretory surface of the combination treatment for (e.g. salmonella, Campylobacter). reaction
gastric parietal cell. Both basal and eradication of Gastrointestinal disorders: Nausea,
stimulated acid are inhibited. H. pylori vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation,
Onset: 2.5 hours (oral); 15-30 minutes in patients with moderate to flatulence, abdominal pain, dyspepsia,
(IV). severe hepatic or renal dry mouth.
Duration: 24 hours. dysfunction General disorders and administration
Pharmacokinetics: site conditions: Asthenia, fatigue,
Absorption: Rapidly absorbed. Time to malaise.
peak plasma concentration: Approx 2-2.5 Hepatobiliary disorders: Increased liver
hours (oral). Bioavailability: Approx 77%. enzymes.
Distribution: Enters breast milk. Volume Immune system disorders: Urticaria.
of distribution: 11-23.6 L. Plasma protein Metabolism and nutrition disorders:
binding: Approx 98% (mainly to albumin). Peripheral oedema.
Metabolism: Extensive hepatic Musculoskeletal and connective tissue
metabolism, mainly by CYP2C19 disorders: Arthralgia, myalgia.
isoenzyme to desmethylpantoprazole and Nervous system disorders: Headache,
slightly by CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 dizziness, vertigo.
isoenzymes. Psychiatric disorders: Insomnia.
Excretion: Mainly via urine (approx 80%); Reproductive system and breast
faeces. Elimination half-life: Approx 1 disorders: Gynaecomastia.
hour. Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:
Rash, pruritus.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I.Rebamipide - Mucopro Description: Rebamipide is a mucosal Gastritis, Peptic ulcer Contraindicated in patients Dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth, Let the patient verbalize if there
100mg protective agent and is postulated to who are allergic to the drug. constipation, diarrhoea, abdominal are discomfort after
increase gastric blood flow, prostaglandin distention, nausea, vomiting, administration
II. Antacids, Antireflux biosynthesis and decrease free oxygen eructation; ALT, AST and BUN elevation,
Agents & Antiulcerants radicals. oedema, hyperbilirubinaemia;
Pharmacokinetics: gynaecomastia, induction of lactation,
Absorption: Time to peak plasma menstrual disorders, hot flushes;
concentration: 2 hr. leucopenia, leucocytosis,
Distribution: Plasma protein binding: thrombocytopenia; rash, urticaria,
Approx 98%. eczema.
Excretion: Via urine (approx 10%) as
unchanged drug. Plasma elimination half-
life: Approx 1.5 hr.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I.Irbesartan - Irbez Description: Irbesartan is an angiotensin HTN. Alone or in Concomitant use w/ aliskiren Diarrhoea, fatigue, dyspepsia or Check BP before taking the
150mg II receptor antagonist. It blocks the combination w/ other in patients w/ diabetes and heartburn, dizziness, orthostatic medicine. Do not take if you are
vasoconstricting and aldosterone- antihypertensives. HTN renal impairment (GFR <60 hypotension, nausea, vomiting, pregnant. Use during pregnancy
II.Angiotensin II secreting effects of angiotensin II by including renal disease in mL/min). Pregnancy musculoskeletal pain, may cause birth defects or loss of
Antagonists (2f) binding to AT1 receptors. hypertensive diabetic thrombocytopaenia, hyperkalaemia, the unborn baby.
Onset: 1-2 hr. patients. elevated serum creatinine.
Duration: >24 hr.
Pharmacokinetics:
Absorption: Rapidly absorbed from the GI
tract. Bioavailability: 60-80%. Time to
peak plasma concentration: 1.5-2 hr.
Distribution: Volume of distribution: 53-
93 L. Plasma protein binding: Approx
96%.
Metabolism: Undergoes hepatic
metabolism via CYP2C9 isoenzyme to
inactive metabolites.
Excretion: Via bile and urine (as
unchanged drug and metabolites); urine
(approx 20%, <2% as unchanged drug).
Terminal elimination half-life: Approx 11-
15 hr.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Clopidogrel 75mg Description: Clopidogrel selectively Prophylaxis of Active pathological bleeding Haematoma, epistaxis, diarrhoea, Assess patient for symptoms of
inhibits adenosine diphosphate (ADP) thromboembolic (e.g. peptic ulcer or dyspepsia, abdominal pain, bruising, stroke,peripheral vascular disease,
II. Anticoagulants, from binding to its platelet P2Y12 disorder. Acute coronary intracranial haemorrhage). bleeding at puncture site. Rarely, or MI periodicallyduring therapy.
Antiplatelets & receptor and subsequent activation of syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema Monitor patient for signs of
Fibrinolytics glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex thus multiforme, serum sickness, interstitial thromboticthrombocytic purpura
(Thrombolytics) reducing platelet aggregation. pneumonitis, lichen planus, myalgia. (thrombocytopenia,microangiopat
Pharmacokinetics: Potentially Fatal: Intracranial bleeding, hic hemolytic anemia,neurologic
Absorption: Rapidly but incompletely GI and retroperitoneal haemorrhage, findings, renal dysfunction,
absorbed from the GI tract (approx 50%). blood dyscrasias, thrombotic fever).May rarely occur, even after
Time to peak plasma concentration: thrombocytopenic purpura. short exposure(<2 wk). Requires
Approx 30-60 min. prompt treatment.
Distribution: Plasma protein binding: 98%
(parent drug); 94% (carboxylic acid
derivative).
Metabolism: Undergoes extensive
hepatic metabolism via esterase-
mediated hydrolysis to inactive carboxylic
acid derivative and by CYP450-mediated
(primarily CYP2C19 isoenzyme) oxidation
to active thiol metabolite.
Excretion: Via urine (approx 50%); faeces
(approx 46%) both as metabolites and
unchanged drug.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Oxacillin - Wydox Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by Infections due to Hypersensitivity to to Fever, rash, nausea, diarrhoea, Observe for signs and symptoms
500mg binding to 1 or more of the penicillin- staphylococci resistant to oxacillin and other vomiting, eosinophilia, leucopenia, of anaphylaxis during 1st dose.
binding proteins (PBPs); which in turn benzylpenicillin penicillins. neutropenia, thrombocytopenia,
II. Penicillins inhibits the final transpeptidation step of agranulocytosis, hepatotoxicity,
peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell increased AST, acute interstitial
walls. Bacteria eventually lyse due to nephritis, haematuria, serum sickness-
ongoing activity of cell wall autolytic like reactions.
enzymes (autolysins and murein
hydrolases) while cell wall assembly is
arrested.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Piracetam - Nurocer A GABA derivative classified as a Adjunct in cortical Cerebral haemorrhage, Hyperkinesia, somnolence, Take with a glass of water or soft
800mg nootropic agent. The exact mechanism of myoclonus, As a cognitive Huntington’s chorea. ESRD nervousness, confusion, hallucinations, drink to mask bitter taste.
action is not yet fully elucidated however, enhancer in (CrCl <20 mL/min). depression, asthenia, ataxia, vertigo,
II. Nootropics & it has neuronal and vascular properties. It cerebrocortical Pregnancy and lactation. headache, insomnia, aggravated
Neurotonics/Neurotroph exerts neuronal effect by protecting the insufficiency epilepsy, impaired balance, abdominal
ics cerebral cortex from various insults (e.g. pain, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting,
hypoxia, intoxications). It also has weight gain, haemorrhagic disorder,
vascular effects on platelets, RBC, and angioneurotic oedema, dermatitis,
vessel walls by inhibiting platelet pruritus, urticaria.
aggregation, improves erythrocyte
deformability and reduces blood
viscosity.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Phenytoin Sodium Involve the voltage-dependent blockade For the control of status History of acute Decreased coordinationd, mental check skin color, lesions; lymph
50mg/ml of membrane sodium channels resulting epilepticus of the tonic- hepatotoxicity attributable to confusion, nervousness, slurred speech, node palpation; orientation,
in a reduction in sustained high- clonic (grand mal) type phenytoin. Concomitant use trouble with breathing, speaking, or affect, reflexes, vision
II. Anticonvulsants frequency neuronal discharges. and prevention and with delavirdine. Inj: Sinus swallowing, unsteadiness, trembling, or examination; P, BP; R, adventitious
treatment of seizures bradycardia, sino-atrial block, other problems with muscle control or sounds; bowel sounds, normal
occurring during or 2nd and 3rd degree AV block, coordination, serious skin rashes, output, liver evaluation;
following neurosurgery Adams-Stokes syndrome. suicidal thoughts or behaviors, periodontal examination; LFTs,
and/or severe head multiorgan hypersensitivity urinalysis, CBC and differential,
injury. blood proteins, blood and urine
glucose, EEG and ECG
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Memantine Continuous activation of the N-methyl-D- As treatment of patients Hypersensitivity to the active tiredness, body aches, joint pain, Patients with rare hereditary
Hydrochloride - Mentra aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the central with moderate to severe substance or other dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, problems of fructose intolerance
10mg nervous system caused by glutamate is Alzheimer's disease. pyrrolidone derivatives or to constipation, loss of appetite, weight should not take this medicine.
thought to cause some of the Alzheimer's any of the excipients. loss, headache, swelling in your hands
II. Neurodegenerative disease symptoms. This overactivation is or feet, fast heart rate, easy bruising or
Disease Drugs thought to contribute to neurotoxicity bleeding, unusual weakness, anxiety,
due to the excitatory properties of aggression, skin rash, redness or
glutamate. swelling of or around your eyes, or
urinating more than usual.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Metoprolol 50mg Selectively inhibits β1-adrenergic Angina pectoris, 2nd or 3rd degree Bradycardia, atrioventricular block, Monitor blood pressure, heart
receptors but has little or no effect on β2- Hypertension, Adjunct in atrioventricular block, hypotension. Fatigue. Psoriasis. rate, and ECG. Weight, skin
II. Beta-Blockers receptors except in high doses. It does hyperthyroidism, decompensated cardiac Peripheral oedema. Musculoskeletal condition, neurologic status, P, BP,
not exhibit membrane stabilising or Prophylaxis of migraine, failure, severe bradycardia, pain. Headache. Depression, confusion, ECG, respiratory status, renal and
intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Heart failure, Cardiac sick-sinus syndrome (without nightmares, insomnia, hallucinations. thyroid function tests, blood and
arrhythmias pacemaker), untreated Bronchospasm. Photosensitivity, skin urine glucose
phaeochromocytoma, severe rash. Orthostatic hypotension
peripheral arterial disease, (occasionally with syncope), cold
and cardiogenic shock. extremities.
Dyspnoea, pulmonary oedema,
palpitations. Tinnitus. Blurred vision,
visual disturbances., Nausea, vomiting,
abdominal pain, constipation,
flatulence, dry mouth, heartburn.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Citicoline - Brainact
A naturally occurring endogenous Cerebrovascular Hypertonia of the Cardiac disorders: Bradycardia, Monitor blood pressure, pulseand
125mg/ml 8ml nucleoside involved in the biosynthesis of disorders, Cognitive parasympathetic nervous tachycardia. heart rate. Assess allergic reaction
lecithin. It increases the synthesis of disorder, Head injury, system. Gastrointestinal disorders: Diarrhoea, like GI disturbances.
II. Nootropics & phosphatidylcholine (main neuronal Parkinson's disease epigastric discomfort, stomach pain.
Neurotonics/Neurotroph membrane phospholipid) and enhances General disorders and admin site
ics acetylcholine production. It is also conditions: Fatigue.
claimed that it increases blood flow and Nervous system disorders: Dizziness,
oxygen consumption in the brain. headache.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:
Rashes.
Vascular disorders: Hypotension.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Enoxapharin - Lomoh A low-molecular weight heparin are Prophylaxis of venous Hypersensitivity to Haemorrhage (including at the inj site), Monitor blood pressure and signs
40mg/0.4ml fragments or fractions of conventional thromboembolism during enoxaparin, heparin. Patients peripheral or unspecified oedema, of bleeding. Administer in
(unfractionated) heparin that produce surgical procedures. w/ active major bleeding, anaemia, haematuria, ecchymosis, subcutaneous tissue. Do not eject
II. Anticoagulants, anticoagulation when administered SC. Deep vein thrombosis. acute bacterial endocarditis, fever, confusion, nausea, diarrhoea, air bubble prior to injection. Do
Antiplatelets & Unstable angina. recent haemorrhagic stroke, dyspnoea, inj site pain. not aspirate or massage site
Fibrinolytics Prophylaxis of clotting in active gastric or duodenal Potentially Fatal: Major haemorrhagic
(Thrombolytics) the extracorporeal ulceration, complications (e.g. retroperitoneal and
circulation during thrombocytopenia intracranial bleeding).
haemodialysis associated w/ positive in
vitro test for platelet
antibodies.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Piperacillin + In combination, tazobactam enhances the Empiric therapy for Hypersensitivity to diarrhoea, nausea, constipation, rash, Monitor patient carefully during
Tazobactam - Vigocid activity of piperacillin against β-lactamase- febrile neutropenic piperacillin, tazobactam or pruritus, fever, headache, insomnia, the first 30 min after initiation of
4g/500mg producing bacteria. Piperacillin and patients. Nosocomial any other penicillin- Decreases in Hb and haematocrit, the infusion for signs of
tazobactam has a wide range of activity pneumonia. Complicated antibacterial agent. History of thrombocytopenia, increases in platelet hypersensitivity
II. Penicillins and is active against gm+ve and gm-ve intra-abdominal acute severe allergic reaction count, transient eosinophilia,
aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. infections and urinary to any other β-lactam active leucopenia, neutropenia; positive
tract infections, Skin and substances (e.g. Coombs’ test results, prolonged
soft tissue infections cephalosporin, monobactam prothrombin time and partial
or carbapenem). thromboplastin time. Increases in
serum concentrations of creatinine and
BUN, changes in serum electrolytes,
transient increases in AST, ALT, alkaline
phosphatase and bilirubin.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Amlodipine 10mg A dihydropyridine Ca-channel blocker, Chronic stable angina, Severe hypotension, Swelling of the ankles or feet, Difficult Monitor BP very carefully. Report
reduces peripheral vascular resistance Hypertension, cardiogenic shock, left or labored breathing irregular heartbeat, shortness of
II. Calcium Antagonists and BP by relaxing coronary vascular Prinzmetal's angina ventricular outflow tract dizziness, fast, irregular, pounding, or breath, swelling of the hands or
smooth muscle and coronary vasodilation obstruction (e.g. high-grade racing heartbeat or pulse, feeling of feet, pronounced dizziness,
through inhibition of Ca ion aortic stenosis), heart failure warmth, redness of the face, neck, constipation.
transmembrane influx into cardiac and after acute MI. arms, and occasionally, upper chest,
vascular smooth muscles. tightness in the chest
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Warfarin 2.5mg Inhibits synthesis of vit K-dependent Treatment and Patient w/ haemorrhagic Jaundice, hepatic dysfunction, Monitor blood pressure and signs
coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X as well prophylaxis of venous tendencies or blood vasculitis, pancreatitis, nausea, of bleeding. Do not give patient
II. Anticoagulants, as the anticoagulant protein C and its thromboembolism. dyscrasias, recent or vomiting, diarrhoea, taste perversion, any IM injections. Keep vitamin K
Antiplatelets & cofactor protein S. These clotting factors contemplated surgery of the abdominal pain, flatulence, bloating, readily available in case of
Fibrinolytics are biologically activated by the addition CNS or eye, those undergoing rash, purpura, erythematous swollen overdose.
(Thrombolytics) of carboxyl groups to key glutamic acid traumatic surgery resulting in skin patches leading to ecchymosis,
residues w/in the proteins' structure. large open surfaces, overt pruritus, alopecia, purple discolouration
Warfarin competitively inhibits the C1 bleeding or active ulceration of toes due to cholesterol embolisation,
subunit of the multi-unit vit K epoxide involving the GI, tracheal or tracheobronchial
reductase (VKORC1) enzyme complex, genitourinary or resp tract, calcification, fever, chills. Unexplained
thus depleting functional vit K reserves cerebrovascular drop in haematocrit, decreased Hb.
and hence reduces synthesis of active haemorrhage, cerebral Rarely, hypersensitivity reactions.
clotting factors. aneurysms, dissecting aorta,
pericarditis and pericardial
effusions, bacterial
endocarditis, threatened
abortion, eclampsia, and pre-
eclampsia, malignant HTN.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Ceftriaxone - Forgram A 3rd generation cephalosporin Uncomplicated Hypersensitivity to Headache, dizziness. Rash. Flushing. Do Skin Testing intothe
1g antibiotic. It binds to 1 or more penicillin- gonorrhoea. Acute otitis cephalosporins or history of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic intradermal area. Protect Drug
binding proteins (PBPs) inhibiting the media. Syphilis. severe hypersensitivity to epidermal necrolysis (TEN)/Lyell’s from light. Do not mix ceftriaxone
II. Cephalosporins final transpeptidation step of Susceptible infections. other type of β-lactam syndrome, hypersensitivity, renal and with other antimicrobial drug.
peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell Lyme disease. antibiotic. gallbladder precipitation, pancreatitis Monitor Blood levels in patients
wall, leading to bacterial cell lysis and Prophylaxis of surgical secondary to biliary obstruction, renal taking this drug.
death. infections lithiasis, superinfection. Eosinophilia,
leucopenia, thrombocytopenia.
Diarrhoea, oral candidiasis. Diaphoresis.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Omeprazole - Omepron Reduces Gastric Acid Secretion and GERD, Erosive Hypersensitivity to drug, Dizziness, headache, asthenia, nausea, Assess Vital Signs. Check for
40mg increases Gastric mucus and bicarbonate Esophagitis, Short-term Hepatic Disease, Pregnancy, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal Pain, emesis, Diarrhea
production, creating protective coating treatment of Duodenal Children, Posterior Laryngitis abdominal pain, back pain, cough, or constipation. Evaluate fluid and
II. Antacids, Antireflux on gastric mucosa and easing discomfort ulcer, Gastric Ulcer, upper respiratory tract infection, rash intake. Watch for elevated liver
Agents & Antiulcerants from excess gastric acid Pathologic function test results.
hypersecretory
Conditions, including
Zollinger-Ellison
Syndrome, Frequent
Heartburn
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Atorvastatin - LipitorSelectively and competitively inhibits Reduction of risk of Hypersensitivity, active liver Headache, flatulence, diarrhoea, Stress that atorvastatin is an
40mg HMG-CoA reductase, the enzyme that stroke and heart attack in disease or unexplained nausea, vomiting, anorexia, xerostomia, adjunct to and not a substitute for
catalyses the conversion of HMG-CoA to type 2 diabetes patients persistent elevations of angioedema, myalgia, rash/pruritus, low-cholesterol diet. Tell patient
II. Dyslipidaemic Agents produce mevalonate. The reduction of without evidence of heart serum transaminase, alopecia, allergy, infection, chest pain, to take drug at the same time each
mevalonate production results to a disease but with other CV porphyria, pregnancy, Thrombocytopenia.Rhabdomyolysis day to maintain its effects. Advise
compensatory increase in the expression risk factors, and lactation. with acuterenal failure patient to notify prescriber
of LDL receptors and stimulation of LDL revascularization immediately if he/she develops
catabolism, consequently lowering LDL- procedures in patients unexplained muscle pain,
cholesterol levels. without evidence of tenderness, or weakness,
coronary heart disease especially if accompanied by
(CHD) but with multiple fatigue or fever
risk factors other than
diabetes. Patients with
CHD, to reduce risks of
MI, revascularization
procedures,
hospitalization for CHF,
and angina
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Quetiapine Fumarate - A dibenzothiazepine atypical Schizophrenia. Acute Concomitant use with confusion, agitation, constipation, Assess tne VS of the patient.
Quetadin 25mg antipsychotic agent. Its clinical manic episodes of bipolar CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. HIV xerostomia, blurred vision, urinary Provide safety.
antipsychotic properties and low disorder. Depressive protease inhibitor, azole- retention, leucopenia,
extrapyramidal side effect are mediated phase of bipolar disorder. antifungal agents, pseudoparkinsominsm, acute dystonic
II. Antipsychotics through a combination of D2 and 5-HT2 Prophylaxis of bipolar erythromycin, reactions, akathisia, tardive dyskinesia,
receptor antagonism. It has an affinity for disorder. Major clarithromycin, nefazodone). withdrawal symptoms, orthostatic
serotonin (e.g. 5-HT2), histamine (H1) depressive disorder hypertension, hyperlipidemia,
and adrenergic (e.g. α1 and α2) and hyperprolactinemia, anaphylactic
dopamine (D1 and D2) receptors. reactions, hypothyroidism, weight gain,
cataracts, impaired body temperature
regulation, pancreatitis, venous
thromboembolism (VTE), constipation,
cardiomyopathy, myocarditis,
dysphagia, constipation, intestinal
obstruction.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario
Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Linagliptin 5mg Inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), Type 2 DM. low blood sugar, chronic Hypoglycaemia, severe and disabling Administer the drug as prescribed
an enzyme which is involved in the heart failure, low blood arthralgia, nasopharyngitis, rash, mouth in the appropriate relationship to
II. Antidiabetic Agents inactivation of the incretin hormones GLP- pressure, pregnancy, ulcer, stomatitis, diarrhoea, cough. meals to ensure therapeutic
1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) and GIP pancreatitis, allergies to Rarely, hypersensitivity reactions. effectiveness. Obtain blood
(glucose-dependent insulinotropic Gliptins glucose levels as ordered to
polypeptide). Both incretin hormones are monitor drug effectiveness.
involved in the physiological regulation of
glucose homeostasis. Inhibition of DPP-4
leads to increased and prolonged active
incretin levels.
Christopher Jhon G. Almario

Name of Drug /
Mechanism of Action Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration
Classification
I. Human Albumin Increases intravascular oncotic pressure Neonatal Cardiac failure, severe Allergic reactions, nausea, vomiting, Monitor BP, pulse and respiration,
25%/50ml and causes movement of fluids from hyperbilirubinaemia. anaemia, history of increased salivation, fever and chills; and IV albumin flow rate. Adjust
interstitial into intravascular space. Hypoproteinaemia. Acute hypersensitivity, parenteral vascular overload, haemodilution and flow rate as needed to avoid too
II. Intravenous & Other hypovolaemic shock nutrition. pulmonary oedema. Anaphylactic rapid a rise in BP. Withhold fluids
Sterile Solutions shock. completely during succeeding 8 h,
when albumin is given to patients
with cerebral edema.