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Chapter 10 – Applications of differentiation

Solutions to Exercise 10A


1 y = x2 − 1 3 y = x2 − 5x + 6
dy = (x − 3)(x − 2)
= 2x
dx
y = 0, x = 2, 3
x = 2,
dy
dy = 2x − 5
=4 dx
dx
When x = 2,
tangent : y = 4x + c
dy
x = 2, y = 3 =4−5
dx
3=8+c = −1
c = −5 Gradient of normal = 1
y = 4x − 5 y= x+c
= x+c
2 y = x2 + 3x − 1 x = 2, y = 0
x = 0, y = −1 0=2+c
dy
= 2x + 3 c = −2
dx
y= x−2
x = 0,
When x = 3,
dy
=3 dy
dx =6−5
dx
normal :
=1
−1
grad = − Gradient of normal = -1
4
y = −x + c
−1
y= x+c
3 = −x + c
x = 0, y = −1 x = 3, y = 0
−1 = c 0 = −3 + c
−x
y= −1 c=3
3
y=3−x

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4 y = (2x + 1)9 5 y = x2 − 5
dy dy
= 2 × 9(2x + 1)8 = 2x
dx dx
= 18(2x + 1)8 dy
=3
dx
x = 0,
3 = 2x
dy
= 18(1)8 3
dx x=
2
= 18
3
tangent: x= ,
2
y = 18x + c  3 2
x = 0, y = 1 y= −5
2
1=c 9
= −5
4
y = 18x + 1
−11
normal: y=
−1 4
y= x+c  3 −11 
18 co-ords = ,
2 4
x = 0, y = 1
y = 3x + c
1=c
3 −11
−1 x = ,y =
y= x+1 2 4
18 −11 3
=3× +c
4 2
−11 9
c= −
4 2
−11 18
= −
4 4
−29
c=
4

6 a y = x2 − 2
x = 1, y = 1 − 2 = −1
dy
= 2x
dx
dy
x = 1, =2
dx
i tangent:

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
y = 2x + c ii normal:
−1
x = 1, y = −1 y= x+c
−3
−1 = 2 + c 1
= x+c
c = −3 3
y = 2x − 3 x = 0, y = −1
−1 = c
ii normal:
1
y=
−1
x+c y= x−1
2 3
x = 1, y = −1 1
c y=
−1 x
−1 = +c x = −1, y = −1
2
−1 dy −1
c= = 2
2 dx x
−1 1 dy
y= x− x = −1, = −1
2 2 dx
b y = x2 − 3x − 1 i tangent:
y = −x + c
x = 0, y = −1
dy x = −1, y = −1
= 2x − 3
dx −1 = 1 + c
dy
x = 0, = −3 c = −2
dx
y = −x − 2
i tangent: ii normal:
y = −3x + c y=
−1
x+c
−1
x = 0, y = −1
= x+c
−1 = c
x = −1, y = −1
y = −3x − 1
−1 = −1 + c
c=0
y=x

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d y = (x − 2)(x2 + 1) e y= 3x + 1

= x3 − 2x2 + x − 2 x = 0, y= 1=1
x = −1, dy 1
=3× √
y = −1 − 2 − 1 − 2 dx 2 3x + 1
3
= −6 = √
2 3x + 1
dy
= 3x2 − 4x + 1 x = 0,
dx
x = −1, dy 3
= √
dx 2 1
dy
=3+4+1 dy 3
dx =
dx 2
=8
i tangent:
i tangent: 3
y= x+c
y = 8x + c 2
x = −1, y = −6 x = 0, y = 1

−6 = −8 + c 1=c

c=2 3
y= x+1
2
y = 8x + 2
ii normal:
ii normal: −2
y= x+c
−1 3
y= x+c
8 x = 0, y = 1
x = −1 1=c
y = −6 −2
y= x+1
1 3
−6 = +c
8 √
1 −49 f y= x
c = −6 = −
8 8 x = 1, y = 1
−1 49 dy 1
y= x− = √
8 8 dx 2 x
x = 1,
dy 1
=
dx 2

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
i tangent: ii normal:
1 −3
y= x+c y= x+c
2 2
x = 1, y = 1 x = 1, y = 2
1 −3
1= +c 2= +c
2 2
1 7
c= c=
2 2
1 1 7 − 3x
y= x+ y=
2 2 2
ii normal:
h y = x3 − 8x
y = −2x + c
x = 2,
x = 1, y = 1
y = 8 − 16
1 = −2 + c
= −8
c=3
dy
y = −2x + 3 = 3x2 − 8
dx
2 x = 2,
g y = x3 + 1
dy
x = 1, y = 2 = 12 − 8
dx
dy 2 −1 =4
= x3
dx 3
i tangent:
x = 1,
y = 4x + c
dy 2
= x = 2, y = −8
dx 3
i tangent: −8 = 8 + c
2 c = −16
y= x+c
3
y = 4x − 16
x = 1, y = 2
2
2= +c
3
4
c=
3
2x + 4
y=
3

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
ii normal: j y = 2x3 + x2 − 4x + 1
−1
y= x+c x = 1,
4
y=2+1−4+1
x = 2, y = −8
−1 y=0
−8 = +c
2 dy
= 6x2 + 2x − 4
1 dx
c = −7
2 x = 1,
−15
= dy
2 =6+2−4
dx
−x 15
y= − =4
4 2

i y = x3 − 3x2 + 2 i tangent:
y = 4x + c
x = 2,
x = 1, y = 0
y=8−3×4+2
0=4+c
y = −2
c = −4
dy
= 3x2 − 6x y = 4x − 4
dx
x = 2, ii normal:
dy −1
=3×4−6×2 y= x+c
dx 4
=0 x = 1, y = 0
−1
i tangent: 0= +c
y=c 4
1
x = 2, y = −2 c=
4
c = −2, y=
−1
x+
1
4 4
y = −2

ii normal: 7 y = 56x − 160


x=2

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
x2 − 1 tangent:
8 a y=
x2 + 1 3
y= x+c
−1 2
x = 0, y = = −1
1 x = 1, y = 2
x2 + 1 − 2 3
y= 2= +c
x2 + 1 2
2 1
y=1− 2 c=
x +1 2
y = 1 − 2(x2 + 1)−1 3 1
y= x+
dy 2 2
= 2x × −1 × −2(x2 + 1)−2
dx 1
4x c y=
= 2 2x − 1
(x + 1)2 x = 0,
dy
x = 0, =0 1
dx y=
−1
tangent :
y = −1
y=0×x+c dy 1
= 2 × −1 ×
x = 0, y = −1 dx (2x − 1)2
−1 = c −2
=
(2x − 1)2
y = −1
x = 0,

b y = 3x2 + 1 dy −2
=
dx (−1)2
x = 1,
√ = −2
y= 3+1
tangent:
=2 y = −2x + c
dy 1
= 6x × √ x = 0, y = −1
dx 2 3x2 + 1
c = −1
3x
= √
3x2 + 1 y = −2x − 1
x = 1,
dy 3
= √
dx 3+1
3
=
2

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
1 b y = cos 2x
d y=
(2x − 1)2
dy
x = 1, = −2 sin 2x
dx
1 π
y= x= ,
(1)2 2
y = cos π = −1
y=1
dy
dy 1 = − sin π = 0
= −2 × 2 × dx
dx (2x − 1)3
−4 y = −1
=
(2x − 1)3
c y = tan x
x = 1,
dy
dy −4 = sec2 x
= dx
dx (1)3 π
x= ,
= −4 4
tangent: π
y = tan = 1
y = −4x + c 4
dy π √
x = 1, y = 1 = sec2 = 22 = 2
dx 4
1 = −4 + c y = 2x + c
c=5 π
x= , y=1
4
y = −4x + 5 π
1= +c
2
π
9 a y = sin 2x c=1−
2
dy π
= 2 cos 2x y = 2x + 1 −
dx 2
x = 0, d y = tan 2x
y = sin 0 = 0 dy
= 2 sec2 2x
dy dx
= 2 cos 0 = 2
dx x = 0,
y = 2x + c y = tan 0 = 0
x = 0, y = 0 dy
= 2 sec2 0 = 2
c=0 dx
y = 2x y = 2x + c
x = 0, y = 0
0=c
y = 2x

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
e y = sin x + x sin 2x e x − e−x
b f (x) =
dy 2
= cos x + sin 2x + 2x cos 2x e + e−x
x
dx f 0 (x) =
2
x = 0, 1+1
f 0 (0) = =1
y = sin 0 + 0 sin 0 = 0 2
dy y= x+c
= cos 0 + 2 sin 0 + 0 = 1
dx 1−1
f (0) = =0
y= x+c 2
x = 0, y=0 0=c

c=0 y=x

y=x c f (x) = x2 e2x

f y = x − tan x f 0 (x) = 2xe2x + 2x2 e2x


dy = 2xe2x (x2 + x)
= 1 − sec2 x
dx f 0 (1) = 2e2 (1 + 1)
π
x= , = 4e2
4
π π π y = 4e2 x + c
y = − tan = − 1
4 4 4
f (1) = 1 × e2 = e2
dy π
= 1 − sec2 = 1 − 2 = −1 e2 = 4e2 + c
dx 4
y = −x + c c = −3e2
π π
x= , y= −1 y = 4e2 x − 3e2
4 4
π −π √
−1= +c d f (x) = e x
4 4
π 1 √
c= −1 f 0 (x) = √ e x
2 2 x
π e
y = −x + − 1 f 0 (1) =
2 2
e
y= x+c
2
10 a f (x) = e x + e−x
f (1) = e1 = e
f 0 (x) = e x − e−x
e
e= +c
f 0 (0) = 1 − 1 = 0 2
e
y=c c=
2
f (0) = 1 + 1 = 2 e
y = (x + 1)
2
2=c
y=2

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2
e f (x) = xe x b f (x) = ln(2x)
2
f 0 (x) = e x + 2x2 e x
2
2 1
f 0 (x) = =
2 2x x
= e x (2x2 + 1) 1
f0 =2
f 0 (1) = e1 (2 + 1) 2
= 3e y = 2x + c
1 
y = 3ex + c ,0 ⇒ 0 = 1 + c
2
f (1) = 1 × e = e
0 1
c = −1
e = 3e + c y = 2x − 1
c = −2e
c f (x) = ln(kx)
y = 3ex − 2e
k 1
f 0 (x) = =
f f (x) = x2 e−x kx x
1
f 0 (x) = 2xe−x − x2 e−x f =k
k
= e−x (2x − x2 ) y = kx + c
f (2) = e (4 − 4) = 0
0 −2 1 
,0 ⇒ 0 = 1 + c
k
y=c
c = −1
4
f (2) = 2 e 2 −2
= 2 y = kx − 1
e
4
=c
e2 1
4 12 a y = x5
y= 2
e dy 1 − 4
= x 5
dx 5
11 a f (x) = ln x dy
When x = 0, y = 0, not defined.
dx
1
f 0 (x) = Therefore equation of tangent
x
f (1) = 1
0 x=0
y= x+c 3
  b y = x5
1, 0 ⇒ 0 = 1 + c dy 3 − 2
= x 5
dx 5
c = −1
dy
y= x−1 When x = 0, y = 0, not defined.
dx
For the normal the gradient is −1
Therefore equation of tangent
The equation of the normal is
y= x+1 x=0

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1
c y = (x − 4) 3 13 y = tan 2x
dy
y=0⇒x=4 = 2 sec2 2x
dx
2 π
dy 1 − x= ,
= (x − 4) 3 8
dx 3 π
x = 4, y = tan = 1
4
dy dy π
is undefined = 2 sec2 = 4
dx dx 4
∴ tangent is x = 4
y = 4x + c
2 π
d y = (x + 5) 3 x= , y=1
8
y = 0 ⇒ x = −5 π
1= +c
1 2
dy 2 − π
= (x + 5) 3 c=1−
dx 3 2
π
x = −5, y = 4x + 1 −
2
dy
dx
is undefined x = 0,
∴ tangent is x = −5 π
y=1−
1 2
e y = (2x + 1) 3
 π
A = 0, 1 −
1 2
y=0⇒x=− π
2 OA = − 1
dy 2 2 2
= (2x + 1)− 3
dx 3
−1 14 y = 2e x
x=− , dy
2 = 2e x
dy dx
is undefined dy
dx ∴ = 2ea when x = a
1 dx
∴ tangent is x = − Gradient of the line segment joining
2 2ea
(a, 2ea ) and the origin is
4 a
f y = (x + 5) 5 2ea
∴ = 2ea
y = 0 ⇒ x = −5 a
∴a=1
dy 4 1
= (x + 5)− 5
dx 5
x = −5,
dy
is undefined
dx
∴ tangent is x = −5

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15 y = loge x ∴ a2 + 2a = 2a2 + 2a
dy 1 ∴a=0
=
dx x
dy 1
∴ = when x = a
dx a 17 y = x3 + x
Gradient of the line segment joining dy
loge a = 3x2 + 1
(a, loge a) and the origin is dx
a dy
loge a 1 ∴ = 3a2 + 1 when x = a
∴ = dx
a a Gradient of the line segment joining
∴ loge a = 1 ∴ a = e
(a, a3 + a) and the point (1, 1) is
a3 + a − 1
16 y = x2 + 2x a−1
dy a3 + a − 1
= 2x + 2 ∴ 3a2 + 1 =
dx a−1
dy ∴ (3a2 + 1)(a − 1) = a3 + a − 1
∴ = 2a + 2 when x = a
dx ∴ 3a3 + a − 3a2 − 1 = a3 + a − 1
Gradient of the line segment joining ∴ 2a3 − 3a2 = 0
a2 + 2a
(a, a2 + 2a) and the origin is ∴ a2 (2a − 3) = 0
a 3
a2 + 2a ∴ a = 0 or a =
∴ = 2a + 2 2
a

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Solutions to Exercise 10B
1 a 4
f (3) − f (2) 3 a I=
Average rate of change = (t + 1)2
3−2 dI −8
45 − 24 =
= dt (t + 1)3
1
t = 10,
= 21
dI −8
= 3
b Average rate of change dt 11
−8
f (2 + h) − f (2) =
= 1331
2+h−2 i.e. I wanes by ≈ 0.006 units/day
3(2 + h)2 + 6(2 + h) − 24
=
h
4 V(t) = 1000(90 − t)3
3(4 + 4h + h2 ) + 6(2 + h) − 24
=
h a V 0 (t) = −3000(90 − t)2
18h + 3h )2
it empties at 3000(90 − t)2 m3 /day
=
h
= 18 + 3h b V(t) = 0,

c f 0 (x) = 6x + 6 1000(90 − t)3 = 0


f 0 (2) = 18 t = 90 days

c V(0) = 1000(90)3
dV
2 a = 729 000 000 m3
dt
dS d V 0 (t) = −300 000
b
dr
−300 000 = −3000(90 − t)2
dV
c (90 − t)2 = 100
dx
90 − t = ±10
dA
d
dt t = 90 ± 10
dV since t ∈ [0, 90]
e
dh t = 80th day

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e d 1
c = (60t2 − 4t3 )
dt 160
V
(m3) 1
= (15t2 − t3 )
40
7.29 × 108 d
= 0,
dt
15t2 − t3 = 0
t2 (15 − t) = 0
0 90 t (days) t = 0, 15
max flow occurs at
f V′(t)
t = 15
(using graph to determine max. or min. status)
0 t
6 a t ≈ 100, 250, 500
−2.43 × 107 (read off graph-turning points)

b draw tangent at t = 200,


rise
1  4 t5  use to find gradient
5 V(t) = 5t − , 0 ≤ t ≤ 20 run
160 5 dV
 430 000 m3 /day
dt
1 (be careful re: vertical scale)
a V 0 (t) = (20t3 − t4 ) ml/min
160
c t = 100, V  4 × 107
b
t = 250, V  8 × 107
V′(t)
(mL/min) rise 4 × 107
≈ ≈ 270 000 m3 /day
run 150
(15, 105.47)
d 100 < t < 250 or t > 500

0 20 t (minutes)

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
7 a 30
=− loge 3
P = P0 e−kt 8
15
When t = 0, P = 30 = − loge 3
4
∴ 30 = P0 e0 The rate of loss is
15
4 loge 3 ≈ 4.120 units per
∴ P0 = 30 hour when t = 0.
When t = 8, P = 10 dP
ii When t = 8, = −30ke−8k
∴ 10 = 30e −8k
dt
1 15
∴ = e−8k = − × loge 3 × e− loge 3
3 4
1 15 1
∴ loge = −8k = − × loge 3 ×
3 4 3
1 1 5
and k = − loge = − loge 3
8 3 4
This rate of loss is
1 5
= loge (3) ≈ 0.1373 4 loge 3 ≈ 1.373 units per
8 hour when t = 8.
 
1
− 8 loge (3) t
b When P = 8, 8 = 30 e dT 45
8 a = − e−0.3t
 1 dt 2
4 log (3) 8 t
e 1
∴ =e Also, e−0.3t = (T − 15)
15 75
4 t dT 45
∴ = 3− 8 ∴ =− (T − 15)
15 dt 150
15 t
= −0.3(T − 15)
∴ = 38
4
 15  b i When T = 90, t = 0
8 loge
4
∴ t= ≈ 9.625 dT 45
loge (3) ∴ =−
The pressure would be 8 units after dt 2
approximately 9.625 hours. ii When T = 60
dP
c i = −30ke−kt dT
= −0.3(60 − 15) = −13.5
dt dt
1
where k = loge 3 iii When T = 30
8
dP
When t = 0, = −30ke0 dT
dt = −0.3(30 − 15) = −4.5
dt
= −30k

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Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
9 dV
c a= = 12t − 18
y = 3x + 2 cos x dt
dy t = 1, a = −6 cm/s2
= 3 − 2 sin x
dx t = 2, a = 6 cm/s2
−1 ≤ sin 2x ≤ 1
d a=0
−2 ≤ −2 sin 2x ≤ 2
12t = 18
dy
−1 ≤ 3 − 2 sin 2x ≤ 5 ∴ >0 QED 3
dx t=
2
9 3
t V =6× − 18 × + 12
10 V(t) = 3 + 2 sin 4 2
4
27
5 = − 27 + 12
a V(10) = 3 + 2 sin 2
2 24 27
= −
≈ 4.197 2 2
−3
1 t V= cm/s
b V 0 (t) =
cos 2
2 4
1  5
V (10) = cos
0
12 x = 8 + 2t − t2
2 2
≈ −0.4 a t = 0,
x = 8 cm
11 x = 2t − 9t + 12t
3 2
b V = 2 − 2t
dx
a V= = 6t2 − 18t + 12 t = 0,
dt
v = 2 cm/s
b V=0
⇒ t2 − 3t + 2 = 0 c V=0
(t − 2) (t − 1) = 0 t = 1s
t = 1, 2 x = 8 + 2 − 1 = 9 cm
t = 1,
d a = −2 cm/s2
x = 2 − 9 + 12

t = 1, x = 5 cm 13 x = 2t2 + 2
t = 2, x = 16 − 36 + 24 = 4 cm

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
1
a V = 4t × √ a y
2t2 +2
√ y = 600
2t
= √
2t2 + 2

2t
V= √
t2 + 1 t
0
b √ √ √ √
t2 + 1 dtd ( 2t) − 2t dtd ( t2 + 1) dy
a= b = 600(0.5e−0.5t )
+1 t2 dx
√ √
2t2 + 2 − 2t × √2t2 = 300e−0.5t
2 t +1
a=
+1 t2 t = 10,
√ 2 √
2(t + 1) − 2t2 dy
= 3 = 300e−5 ≈ 2.02
dx
(t2 + 1) 2

2
= 3 16 a y = e−2x
(t2 + 1) 2
−2x = ln y
c t=1
−1
√ x= ln y
2 2
V = √ = 1 cm/s
2 dy −1
√ =
2 1 dx 2y
a= 3
= cm/s2 dy
(2) 2
2 = −2y
dx

b y = Aekx
14 x = 0.4e t
dy
v = 0.4et = Akekx
dx
t = 0, v = 0.4 m/s = k(Aekx )
t = 1, v = 0.4e ≈ 1.087 m/s = ky
t = 2, v = 0.4e2 ≈ 2.956 m/s
17 m = 2e−0.2t
15 y = 600(1 − e−0.5t )
a t = 12,
m = 2e−2.4
≈ 0.18 kg

405

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
b t = 0, 1
ii e−0.2t =
8
m=2
0.2t = ln 8
m − 1,
t = 15 ln 2 ≈ 10.4 hours
1 = 2e−0.2t
dm 2 −t
−0.2t = ln
1 d =− e5
2 dt 5
1 −t
0.2t = ln 2 = − (2e 5 )
5
t = 5 ln 2 ≈ 3.47 hours 1
= − m/hr
5
1
c i e−0.2t = 1
Rate of decay = m
4 5
0.2t = ln 4
t = 10 ln 2 ≈ 6.93 hours

406

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Solutions to Exercise 10C
1 a f (x) = x3 − 12x d f (t) = 8t + 5t2 − t3 , t > 0
f 0 (x) = 3x2 − 12 f 0 (t) = 8 + 10t − 3t2
f 0 (x) = 0 f 0 (t) = 0,
3x2 − 12 = 0 3t2 + 10t + 8 = 0

x2 − 4 = 0 100 + 16
10 ±
t=
x = ±2 6
10 ± 14
f (±2) = ±8 ∓ 24 =
6
= ∓16 −2
= ,4
co-ords = (−2, 16), (2, −16) 3
t > 0, ∴ t = 4
b g(x) = 2x2 − 4x f (4) = 32 + 80 − 64 = 48
g (x) = 4x − 4
0
co-ords = (4, 48)
g (x) = 0,
0

e g(z) = 8z2 − 3z4


4x − 4 = 0
g0 (z) = 16z − 12z3
x = 1,
g0 (z) = 0,
g(1) = 2 − 4
16z − 12z3 = 0
= −2
(3z2 − 4)z = 0
co-ords = (1, −2)
±2
z = 0, √
c h(x) = 5x4 − 4x5 3
h0 (x) = 20x3 − 20x4 g(0) = 0,
 ±2  4 16
h0 (x) = 0, g √ =8× −3×
3 3 9
20x3 − 20x4 = 0
32 16
x3 (1 − x) = 0 = −
3 3
x = 0, 1 =
16
3
h(0) = 0,  ±2 16 
co-ords = √ , , (0, 0)
h(1) = 1 3 3
co-ords = (0, 0), (1, 1)

407

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
f f (x) = 5 − 2x + 3x2 f (0) = −10
f 0 (x) = −2 + 6x f (2) = 3 × 16 − 16 × 8 + 24 × 4 − 10
f 0 (x) = 0, = 48 − 128 + 96 − 10
6x − 2 = −80 + 86

x=
1 =6
3
1 co-ords = (0, −10), (2, 6)
2 1
f =5− +
3 3 3
=4 =
2 14 2 a f (x) = e2x − 2x
3 3
 1 14  f 0 (x) = 2e2x − 2
co-ords = , f 0 (x) = 0 ⇒e2x = 1
3 3
⇒x=0
g h(x) = x3 − 4x2 − 3x + 20,
Coordinates of stationary point: (0,1)
x>0
b f (x) = x loge (3x)
h0 (x) = 3x2 − 8x − 3
f 0 (x) = loge (3x) + 1
h0 (x) = 0
f 0 (x) = 0 ⇒ loge (3x) = −1
3x2 − 8x − 3 = 0
√ 1
8±64 + 36 ⇒x=
x= 3e
6 1 1
Coordinates of stationary point: ( , − )
−2 18 3e 3e
= ,
6 6
18 c f (x) = cos(2x), x ∈ [−π, π]
x > 0, ∴ x = =3
6 f 0 (x) = −2 sin(2x)
h(3) = 27 − 36 − 9 + 20 f 0 (x) = 0 ⇒ sin(2x) = 0
=2 ⇒ 2x = −2π, −π, 0, π, 2π
co-ords = (3, 2) π π
⇒ x = −π, − , 0, , π
2 2
h Coordinates of stationary point :
f (x) = 3x4 − 16x3 + 24x2 − 10 π π
(−π, 1), (− , −1), (0, 1), ( , −1), (π, 1)
f (x) = 12x − 48x + 48x
0 3 2
2 2
f 0 (x) = 0, d f (x) = xe x
x(x2 − 4x + 4) = 0 f 0 (x) = e x + xe x = e x (1 + x)
x(x − 2)2 = 0 f 0 (x) = 0 ⇒x = −1
x = 0, 2 1
Coordinates of stationary point: (−1, − )
e

408

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
e 4 y = x3 + bx2 + cx + d
f (x) = x2 e x dy
= 3x2 + 2bx + c
f (x) = x e + 2xe = xe (2 + x)
0 2 x x x dx
f 0 (x) = 0 ⇒x = −2, 0 When x = 0, y = 3
Coordinates of stationary point: ∴d=3
4 When x = 1, y = 3
(−2, ), (0, 0)
e2 ∴1+b+c+3=3
f f (x) = 2x loge (x) ∴ b + c = −1 . . . (1)
f 0 (x) = 2 loge (3x) + 2 When x = 1,
dy
=0
dx
f 0 (x) = 0 ⇒ loge (x) = −1
∴ 2b + c = −3 . . . (2)
1
⇒x= Subtract (1) from (2)
e
1 2
Coordinates of stationary point:( , − ) b = −2
e e
∴c=1
3 a f (x) = x2 − ax + 9
f 0 (x) = 2x − a 5 y = ax2 + bx + c

f 0 (3) = 0, x = 1, y = −3
(1) − 3 = a + b + c
6−a=0
dy
a=6 = 2ax + b
dx
dy
b h(x) = x3 − bx2 − 9x + 7 x = 2, =4
dx
h0 (x) = 3x2 − 2bx − 9 (2) 4 = 4a + b
h (−1) = 0,
0
dy
x = 1,=0
3 + 2b − 9 = 0 dx
2b = 6 (3) 0 = 2a + b
(2) − (3) ⇒ 4 = 2a
b=3
a=2
sub in (3) ⇒ b+4=0
b = −4
sub in (1) ⇒ −3 = 2 − 4 + c
c = −1
y = 2x2 − 4x − 1

409

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
6 y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d a x = 2, y = 7
1 b
x = 0, y = 7 1 7 = 2a +
2 3
15 dy 2b
d= =a−
2 dx (2x − 1)2
x = 3, y = −6 dy
x = 2, =0
15 dx
−6 = 27a + 9b + 3c + 2b
2 0=a−
27 9
− = 27a + 9b + 3c 2b
2 2 a=
9 9
− = 9a + 3b + c . . . (1) 4b b
2 sub in 1 ⇒ 7 = +
dy 9 3
= 3ax2 + 2bx + c 7b
dx 7=
dy 9
x = 0, = −3
dx b=9
−3 = c sub in 2 ⇒ a = 2
9
sub in (1) ⇒ − = 9a + 3b − 3 9
2 b y = 2x +
3 (2x − 1)
− = 9a + 3b . . . (2) dy 18
2 =2−
dy dx (2x − 1)2
x = 3, =0 dy
dx =0
0 = 27a + 6b − 3 dx
18
9a + 2b = 1 . . . (3) =2
(2x − 1)2
−5
(2) − (3) ⇒ b = (2x − 1)2 = 9
2
sub in (3) ⇒ 9a − 5 = 1 2x − 1 = ±3
9a = 6 2x = 1 ± 3
2 x = −1, 2
a=
3 x = −1,
2x2 5x2 15
y= − − 3x + 9
3 2 2 y = −2 +
−3
= −5
7 y = ax + b(2x − 1)−1
co-ords = (−1, −5)

410

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
y = (2x − 1)n (x + 2) 9 y = (x2 − 1)n
dy d dy
= (2x − 1)n × (x + 2)(2x − 1)n = 2x × n(x2 − 1)n−1
dx dx dx
d
× (x + 2) = 2nx(x2 − 1)n−1
dx
= 2nx((x + 1)(x − 1))n−1
= 2n(2x − 1)n−1 × (x + 2)
dy
+ (2x − 1)n = 0,
dx
= (2x − 1)n−1 (2n(x + 2) + (2x − 1)) 2nx((x + 1)(x − 1))n−1 = 0
= (2x − 1)n−1 (2nx + 4n + 2x − 1) x = 0, −1, 1
= (2x − 1)n−1 ((2n + 2)x + (4n − 1))
dy x
= 0, 10 y=
dx x2+1
0 = (2x − 1)n−1 ((2n + 2)x + (4n − 1)) dy (x + 1) dx
2 d d
(x) − x dx (x2 + 1)
=
dx (x2 + 1)2
2x − 1 = 0 or (2n + 2)x + (4n − 1) = 0
x2 + 1 − 2x2
1 1 − 4n =
x= or x = (x2 + 1)2
2 2n + 2
1 − x2
=
(x2 + 1)2
dy
= 0,
dx
1 − x2 = 0
x = ±1
±1
y=
2
 1  −1 
co-ords = 1, , −1,
2 2

411

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Solutions to Exercise 10D
1 a 0 = 4x2 e 0 = x2 − x − 12
x=0 0 = −(x − 4) (x + 3)

0 x = −3, 4
+ 0 + −3 4
+ 0 − 0 +
inflexion
max. min.
b 0 = (x − 2) (x + 5)
x = −5, 2 f 0 = 5x4 − 27x3
0 = x3 (5x − 27)
−5 2
27
+ 0 − 0 + x = 0,
5
27
max. min. 0 5
+ 0 − 0 +
c 0 = (x + 1) (2x − 1)
1
x = −1, max. min.
2
1 g 0 = (x − 1) (x − 3)
−1
2
+ 0 − 0 + x = 1, 3

1 3
max. min.
+ 0 − 0 +
d 0 = −x2 + x + 12
0 = −(x2 − x − 12) max. min.

0 = −(x − 4) (x + 3) h 0 = −(x − 1) (x − 3)
x = −3, 4 x = 1, 3

−3 4 1 3
− 0 + 0 − − 0 + 0 −

min. max. min. max.

412

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
2 a y = x3 − 12x dy
<0
dy dx
= 3x2 − 12 x = 0,
dx
dy dy
=0 =0
dx dx
x2 − 4 = 0 x = 1,
x = −2, +2 dy
> 0,
x = −2.5, dx
dy x = 2,
>0
dx dy
=0
x = −1.5, dx
x = 2.5,
dy
<0 dy
dx <0
∴ x = −2 is a max dx
∴ x = 0 is a min.
x = 1.5,
∴ x = 2 is a max.
dy
<0
dx c y = x3 − 5x2 + 3x
x = 2.5, dy
= 3x2 − 10x + 3
dy dx
>0 dy
dx = 0,
dx
∴ x = 2 is a min
(3x − 1) (x − 3) = 0
b y = 3x2 − x3 1
x = ,3
dy 3
= 6x − 3x2
dx x = 0,
dy
= 0, dy
dx >0
dx
2x − x2 = 0
1
x(x − 2) = 0 x= ,
3
x = 0, 2 dy
=0
dx
x = −0.5,

413

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
x = 1, e
dy y = 3x4 + 16x3 + 22x2 + 3
<0 dy
dx = 12x3 + 48x2 + 48x
x = 3, dx
dy
dy = 0,
=0 dx
dx
x(x2 + 4x + 4) = 0
x = 4,
x(x + 2)2 = 0
dy
>0 x = −2, 0
dx
1
∴ x = is a max. x = −3,
3 dy
x = 3 is a min. = −27 × 12
dx
d + 48 × 9 − 48 × 3 < 0
y=3−x 3
x = −2,
dy dy
= −3x2 =0
dx dx
dy
= 0, x = −1,
dx
x=0 dy
= −12 + 48 − 48 < 0
x = −1, dx
x = 0,
dy
<0 dy
dx =0
dx
x = 0,
x = 1,
dy
=0 dy
dx = 12 + 48 + 48 > 0
dx
x = 1,
∴ x = −2 is a stationary point of
dy infection
<0
dx
x = 0 is a min.
x = 0 is a stationary point of infection
f y = x3 − x
dy
= 3x2 − 1
dx
dy
= 0,
dx
1
x2 =
3

414

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
±1 ii
x= √ dy
3 = 12x2 − 12x3
dx
x = −1,
dy
= 0,
dy dx
>0
dx 12x2 − 12x3 = 0
−1
x= √ , x2 (1 − x) = 0
3
x = 0, 1
dy
=0
dx x = 0, y = 0
x = 0, (0, 0) is a stationary point of inflection
dy x = 1, y = 4 − 3 = 1
<0
dx (1, 1) is a maximum turning point
+1
x= √ ,
3 b i y = x3 − 6x2
dy
=0 y=0
dx
x2 (x − 6) = 0
x = 1,
x = 0, 6
dy y
>0
dx
−1
∴ x = √ is a max
3
1
x = √ is a min (0, 0) (6, 0)
3 x
0
3 a i y=0
(4, −32)
4x3 − 3x4 = 0
dy
x3 (4 − 3x) = 0 ii = 3x2 − 12x
dx
4 dy
x = 0, =0
3 dx
y

(1, 1)

(0, 0)
x
0
4, 0
3

415

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
3x(x − 4) = 0 d i
x = 0, 4 y = x3 + 6x2 + 9x + 4

x = 0, y = 0 y=0

(0, 0) is a maximum turning point x3 + 6x2 + 9x + 4 = 0

x = 4, (x + 4) (x + 1)2 = 0

y = 64 − 96 x − ints : x = −4, −1

= −32 y − int : y = 4
y
(4, −32) is a minimum turning point

c i y = 3x2 − x3 (−3, 4)
(0, 4)
y=0
(−4, 0) x
x2 (3 − x) = 0
(−1, 0) 0
x = 0, 3
y
(2, 4) ii
dy
= 3x2 + 12x + 9
dx
dy
(3, 0) =0
dx
x
0 (0, 0) 3x2 + 12x + 9 = 0
x2 + 4x + 3 = 0
(x + 3) (x + 1) = 0
dy x = −3, −1
ii = 6x − 3x2
dx
dy x = −3,
=0
dx y = −27 + 6 × 9 − 9 × 3 + 4
3x(2 − x) = 0 y = −27 + 54 − 27 + 4
x = 0, 2 y=4
x = 0, y = 0 (−3, 4)
(0,0) is a minimum turning point is a maximum turning point
x = 2, x = −1,
y=3×4−8 y=0
(−1, 0)
=4
is a minimum turning point
(2, 4) is a maximum turning point

416

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
e i y = (x2 − 1)5 y
y=0
x2 − 1 = 0 (0, 1)
x − ints : x = ±1
x = 0, y = −1 x
(−1, 0) 0 (1, 0)
y − int : y = −1
y dy
ii = 8x(x2 − 1)3
dx
dy
= 0,
dx
x(x2 − 1)3 = 0
x x = 0, ±1
(−1, 0) 0 (1, 0)
(−1, 0), (1, 0)
are minimum turning points
(0, −1)
(0, 1) are maximum turning points
dy
ii = 2x × 5(x2 − 1)4
dx 4 a y = 2x3 + 3x2 − 12x + 7
= 10x(x2 − 1)4 dy
dy = 6x2 + 6x − 12
=0 dx
dx dy
= 0,
10x(x2 − 1)4 = 0 dx
x = 0, ±1 0 = 6x2 + 6x − 12

x = 0, x2 + x − 2 = 0

y = (−1)5 = −1 (x − 1) (x + 2) = 0
(0, −1)
is a minimum turning point
x = ±1,
y=0
(±1, 0)
are stationary point of inflection

f i y = (x2 − 1)4
x2 = 1
x-ints: x = ±1
x = 0, y = 1
y-int: y = 1

417

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
x = −2, 1 both are turning points ∴ (x − 1)2 is a factor,
x = −3, ∴ y = (x − 1)2 (2x + 7)
dy (x − 1)2 (2x + 7) = 0
= 6(9 − 3 − 2)
dx −7
>0 x = ints : x = 1,
2
x = 0, y = 7, y − int : y = 7
x = 0, d y
dy
= −12 < 0 (−2, 27)
dx
∴ x = −2 is a max
x = −2, (0, 7)
y = −2 × 8 + 3 × 4 + 12 × 2 + 7 x
− 7, 0 0 (1, 0)
y = −16 + 12 + 24 + 7 2
= 27
(−2, 27) is a max 5 a P(x) = x3 + ax2 + b
x=2
P0 (x) = 3x2 + 2ax
dy
= 6(4 + 2 − 2) = x(3x + 2a)
dx
>0 P0 (0) = 0
∴ x=0
∴ x = 1 is a min
is a stationary point for all values of a
x = 1, and b
y = 2 + 3 − 12 + 7
x = 1, y = 0
(1,0) is a min

b see above, (1,0)


is a point on the curve

c y=0
2x3 + 3x2 − 12x + 7 = 0 (from a),
we know (1,0) is a turning point.

418

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
b 6 a
f (x) = (2x − 1)5 (2x − 4)4
P (−2) = 0
0

f (0) = (−1)5 (−4)4


3(−2)2 + 2a(−2) = 0
y-intercept = −256
12 − 4a = 0
co-ords(0, −256)
a=3
f (x) = 0,
P(−2) = 6
0 = (2x − 1)5 (2x − 4)4
(−2) + 3(−2) + b = 6
3 2
1
−8 + 12 + b = 6 x = ,2
2
4+b=6 1
x-intercepts = , 2
b=2 2
1 
P(x) = x3 + 3x2 + 6 co-ords , 0 , (2, 0)
2
P0 (x) = 3x2 + 6x b
P (−1) = 3 − 6
0
f 0 (x) = (2x − 1)5
d d 
((2x − 4)4 ) + (2x − 4)4 ((2x − 1)5 )
<0 dx dx
P0 (1) = 3 + 6 = (2x − 1)5 × 2 × 4(2x − 4)3
+ (2x − 4)4 × 2 × 5(2x − 1)4
>0 = (2x − 4)3 (2x − 1)4 ((2x − 1) × 8
x = 0 is a min. + (2x − 4) × 10)
Local minimum at (0, 2) = (2x − 4)3 (2x − 1)4 (16x − 8 + 20x − 40)
= (2x − 4)3 (2x − 1)4 (36x − 48)
P (−3) = 27 − 18 >
0
0
= 12(3x − 4) (2x − 4)3 (2x − 1)4
x = −2 is a max.
f 0 (x) = 0,
Local maximum at (−2, 6)
12(3x − 4) (2x − 4)3 (2x − 1)4 = 0

419

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
4
x= (turning point) y
3
or x = 2 (turning point) 4 , 40.6
1 3
or x = (stationary point of inflection)
2 x
f (1) = 12(3 − 4) (2 − 4)3 (2 − 1)4
0 0 (2, 0)

>0 1, 0
2

f 0 (1.5) = 12(4.5 − 4) (3 − 4)3 (3 − 1)4


(0, −256)

<0
f 0 (3) = 12(9 − 4) (6 − 4)3 (6 − 1)4
7 a y
f(x)g(x)
>0
4
x= is a max.
3
x = 2 is a min. 1
4 8 5  8 4  5 5  −4 4
f = −1 −4
3 3 3 3 3 x
≈ 40.6 −1 0 1
4  2 2
, 40.6 is a max.
3 −1
f (2) = (4 − 1)5 (4 − 4)4
=0
(2, 0) is a min.
1
f =0
2
1 
, 0 is a stationary point of inflection
2

420

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
b i (4x2 − 1)6 > (4x2 − 1)5 i f x < 0,
4x2 − 1 > 1 i f (4x2 − 1)5 > 0 6(4x2 − 1) < 5
4x2 > 2 i f (4x2 − 1)5 > 0 5
(4x2 − 1) <
1 6
x2 > i f (4x2 − 1)5 > 0 11
2 4x2 <
1 6
|x| > √ i f (4x2 − 1)5 > 0 11
2 x2 <
24
1
x2 < i f (4x2 − 1)5 < 0 66
4 x2 <
144
1 √
|x| < i f (4x2 − 1)5 < 0 − 66
2 x> ,x<0
1 1 12
∴ |x| > √ or |x| < 1
2 2 x,±
2

ii − 66 −1
f 0 (x) = 8x × 6(4x2 − 1)5 ∴ <x< ,
12 2
g0 (x) = 8x × 6(4x2 − 1)4 −1
or < x < 0,
2
f 0 (x) > g0 (x) √
66
8x × 6(4x2 − 1)5 > 8x × 6(4x2 − 1)4 or x >
12
6x(4x2 − 1) > 5x
i f x > 0, 8 a
y = x3 + x2 − 8x − 12
6(4x − 1) > 5
2
x = 0, y = −12
5
(4x − 1) >
2
y-intercept = (0, −12)
6
4x2 >
11 y=0
6
x3 + x2 − 8x − 12 = 0
11
x2 >
24 try x = 3 (a factor of − 12)
r
11 27 + 9 − 24 − 12
x>
24 =0

66
x> ∴ (x − 3) is a factor
12
(x − 3) (x2 + 4x + 4) = 0
(x − 3) (x + 2)2 = 0
x = 3, −2

421

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
x-intercepts = (−2, 0), (3, 0) b y = 4x − 18x2 + 48x − 290
dy = 2(2x3 − 9x2 + 24x − 145)
= 3x2 + 2x − 8
dx x = 0, y = −290
= (3x − 4) (x + 2)
y-intercept = (0, −290)
dy
= 0, y=0
dx
(3x − 4) (x + 2) = 0 2x3 − 9x2 + 24x − 145 = 0
4 using CAS calculator
x = −2,
3 x=5
x = −2, y = 0
y = 2(x − 5) (2x2 + x + 29)
4
x= 2x2 + x + 29 = 0,
3 √
 4 3  4 2 4 −1 ± 1 − 232
y= + −8 − 12 x=
3 3 3 4
64 16 32 no real solutions
= + − − 12
27 9 3
y = 0, x = 5
64 + 48 − 288 − 324
= x-intercept = (5, 0)
27
−500 dy
= = 12x2 − 36x + 48
27 dx
14 = 12(x2 − 3x + 4)
= −18
27 dy
stationary points are (−2, 0) max = 0,
 4 −500  dx
and , min x2 − 3x + 4 = 0
3 27 √
3 ± 9 − 16
x=
2
no real solutions
∴ y has no stationary points

9 a f (x) = 3x4 + 4x3


f (x) = 12x3 + 12x2
f 0 (x) = 0,
12x2 (x + 1) = 0
x = −1, 0
f 0 (0) = 0
(0, 0), stationary point of inflection

422

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f (−1) = 3 − 4 c f (x) = 3x3 − 3x2 + 12x + 9
= −1 = 3(x3 − x2 + 4x + 3)
(−1, −1) min., since
f 0 (x) = 3(3x2 − 2x + 4)
f (x) is shaped and (0, 0)
is a stationary point of inflection f 0 (x) = 0,
3x2 − 2x + 4 = 0


4 − 48
x=
6
no real solutions
∴ f (x) has no stationary points
b f (x) = x4 + 2x3 − 1
f 0 (x) = 4x3 + 6x2
1
f 0 (x) = 0, 10 f (x) = (x − 1)3 (8 − 3x) + 1
8
2x2 (2x + 3) = 0 1
x = 0 (stationary point of inflection) a f (0) = (−1)3 (8) + 1
−3 8
x= (turning point) =1−1
2
f (0) = −1
= 0 QED
(0, −1)
1
is a stationary point of inflection f (3) = (2)3 (−1) + 1
f 0 (−2) = 4 × −8 + 6 × 4 8
= −1 + 1
=0 QED
<0
1 d
f 0 (−1) = −4 + 6 b f 0 (x) = (x − 1)3 (8 − 3x)
8 dx
1 d
+ (8 − 3x) (x − 1)3
8 dx
>0 −3 3
 3  81 −27 = (x − 1)3 (8 − 3x) (x − 1)2
f0 − = + −1 8 8
2 16 4 3
= (x − 1)2 ((8 − 3x) − (x − 1))
−43 8
=
16 3
 −3 −43  = (x − 1)2 (9 − 4x) QED
8
, = (−1.5, −2.6875) is a min. want x such that f 0 (x) ≥ 0
2 16
3
(x − 1)2 (9 − 4x) ≥ 0
8
since (x − 1)2 ≥ 0,
9 − 4x ≥ 0
9
x≤
4

423

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c y y

9, 1.305
(3, 351)
(1, 1) 4
x
x 0
0 3

(8, −1024)

11 y = 3x4 − 44x3 + 144x2


12 a
dy x = −1 (stationary point of inflection)
= 12x3 − 132x2 + 288x
dx
x = 1 (min)
= 12x(x2 − 11x + 24)
x = 5 (max)
= 12x(x − 8) (x − 3)
dy b x = 0 (max)
= 0,
dx
x = 2 (min)
x = 0, 3, 8
x = 0, c x = −4 (min)

y=0 x = 0 (max)
(0, 0) is a minimum turning point
x = 3, d x = −3 (min)

y = 35 − 44 × 27 + 144 × 9 x = 2 (stationary point of inflection)

= 243 − 1188 + 1296


13 a y = x4 − 16x2
= 351 dy
(3,351) is a maximum turning point = 4x3 − 32x
dx
x = 8,
= 4x(x2 − 8)
y = 3 × 84 − 44 × 83 + 144 × 64
dy
= 0,
= 12288 − 22528 + 9216 dx

= −1024 x = 0, ±2 2
(8, −1024) is a minimum turning point √
x = 0, x = ±2 2,
y = 0 y = −64
Since the x-intercepts are ±4, 0 we
can sketch the graph.

424

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r
(m − 1)
Ifx = 4
m
y=
 r (m − 1) 2m  r (m − 1) 2m−2
4 − 16 4
m m
 (m − 1) m  (m − 1) m−1
hence = 16m − 16 × 16m−1
√ (0,0) is a maximum m m
(±2 2, −64) are minimums  m − 1 m  (m − 1) m−1
= 16m −
b y = x2m − 16x2m−2 m m
 (m − 1) m−1  (m − 1) 
dy = 16 m
1−
= (x2m − 16x2m−2 ) m m
dx  (m − 1) m−1 1
= 2mx2m−1 − 16(2m − 2)x2m−3 = 16m
m m
= 2x2m−3 (mx2 − 16(m − 1))
stationary points are :
dy
=0 (0, 0)min
dx
x2m−3 (mx2 − 16(m − 1)) = 0  r (m − 1) 16m (m − 1)m−1 
±4 , max
x = 0, mx2 − 16(m − 1) = 0 m mm
16(m − 1)
x2 = y
m 14
r
16(m − 1)
x=±
m 1
r
(m − 1)
= ±4
m
If x = 0 then y = 0. x
0

15 f (x) = x2 e x in set
f 0 (x) = 2xe x + x2 e x
= e x (x2 + 2x)
f 0 (x) < 0,
e x (x2 + 2x) < 0
x2 + 2x < 0
x(x + 2) < 0
x < 0 & x > −2
∴ −2 < x < 0
notation, {x : − 2 < x < 0}

425

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
in set notation, {x : − 2 < x < 0} c y

16 y=x
f (x) = 100e−x +2x−5
2
f(x) = x + e−x
f 0 (x) = 100(−2x + 2)e−x +2x−5 x
2

0
f 0 (x) > 0,
100(−2x + 2)e−x +2x−5 > 0
2

−2x + 2 > 0
19 y = e x (px2 + qx + r)
x<1
hence maximum f (x) occurs at x = 1. dy
= e x (px2 + qx + r) + e x (2px + q)
f 0 (1) = 100e−1+2−5 dx
= e x (px2 (q + 2p)x + (r + q))
= 100e−4
x = 0, y = 9
 1.83
9 = e0 (0 + 0 + r)

17 f (x) = e x − 1 − x 9=r
y = e x (px2 + qx + 9)
a f 0 (x) = e x − 1 dy
= e x (px2 (q + 2p)x + (q + 9))
f (x) = 0,
0
dx
ex = 1 x = 1, y = 0
x=0 0 = e1 (p + q + 2p + q + 9)
f (0) = e0 − 1 − 0 13p + 2q + 9 = 0

min f (x) = 0 x = 3, y = 0
0 = e3 (9p + 3(q + 2p) + (q + 9))
b min f (x) = 0
9p + 3q + 6p + q + 9 = 0
∴ f (x) ≥ 0
215p + 4q + 9 = 0
ex − 1 − x ≥ 0
2 − 21 ⇒ 9p − 9 = 0
e x ≥ 1 + x QED
p=1
sub in 1 ⇒ 3 + 2q + 9 = 0
18 a (0, 1) min 2q = −12

b y=x q = −6
y = e x (x2 − 6x + 9)

426

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
2
20 a y = e4x −8x 21 y

dy 2 y = loge 5x
= (8x − 8)e4x −8x
dx y = loge x
(0.2, 0)
dy x
b =0 0 (1, 0)
dx
2
8(x − 1)e4x −8x = 0 tangents are parallel for any given
value of x
x−1=0
x=1
22 f (x) = x2 ln x
x < 1, f (x) < 0
0

x > 1, f 0 (x) > 0 x2


a f 0 (x) = 2x ln x +

2
 x
since e4x −8x >0
= x(2 ln x + 1)
∴ x = 1 is a min.
x = 1, b f (x) = 0,
x2 ln x = 0
y = e4−8 = e−4
∴ (1, e−4 ) is a min. x2 = 0, ln x = 0

y x = 0, x=1
c
x = 0, 1 but x > 0, ∴x=1

c f 0 (x) = 0
1
x x(2 ln x + 1) = 0
0
(1, e−4) x = 0, 2 ln x + 1 = 0
−1
ln x =
d x = 2, 2
1
y = e16−16 = 1 x= √
e
dy 1
= 8(x − 1)e16−16 x = 0, √ but x > 0,
dx e
=8 1 1
∴ x = √ = e− 2
x = 2, y = 1 e
1
1=− +c 1 1 2 1 1
 
4 d x=e −2
,y = e −2
ln e −2
= − e−1
2
5
c=
4
1 5
y=− x+
8 4

427

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
y d y

4 (1, 16)
3 − 2√3 3 + 2√3
x
0 3
2 (5, –16)

1 translated 2 to the right

x e y
0 −1 −1
2
(e 2 , −e 2 )
(3, 16)

1
y x
23 a 0
1 − 2√3 (0, −11)
(−1, −16) 1 + 2√3
(−1, 16) y = f(x)
(0, 11) reflected in the x-axis
1 − 2√3 1 + 2√3
x
0 1
(3, −16) 24 a y

(1, 4)
b y
2
(−1, 32) x
(−1, 0) 0 2
(0, 22)

1 − 2√3 1 + 2√3
x y
0 1 b

(3, −32)
graph dilated by factor 2 from x-axis (−1, 0)
x
0 2
−4
c y
(1, −8)

(–3, 16) 1 + 2√3 y


c
−1 − 2√3
x (2, 8)
−3 −1 0

(1, −16)
x
0 3
translated 2 to the left

428

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
d y f (x) = 2 cos x + 2 sin xcox
f 0 (x) = −2 sin x + 2 cos x cos x − 2 sin x sin x
(1, 1) = −2 sin x + 2(1 − 2 sin2 x)
0 x
−1 = 2(−2 sin2 x − sin x + 1)
(−1, −3)
f 0 (x) = 0,

e y 1± 1+8
sin x =
−4
−1 ± 3
(0, 12)
sin x =
4
x 1
(−2, 0) 0 1 sin x = , −1
2
π 3π 5π
x= , ,
 π 6 2 6  π  π
f = 2 cos + sin
6 6 3
25 a A0 = (a + l, 0) √
√ 3
B0 = (b + l, 0) = 3+
2

b P0 = (h + l, kp) 3 3
=
 3π  2  3π 
f = 2 cos + sin 3π
26 a 2 2
f (x) = 2 cos x − 2 cos2 x + 1 =0
 5π   5π  10π
f (x) = −2 sin x + 4 sin x cos x
0
f = 2 cos + sin( )
6 6 6
f 0 (x) = 0 ⇒ 2 sin x(2 cos x − 1) = 0 √
√ 3
1 =− 3−
⇒ sin x = 0 or cos x = 2
2 √
−3 3
⇒ x = 0, π, 2π or =
2
π 5π  π 3 √3 
x= , , max.
3 3 6 2
(0,  5π−3)3 , (2π, 1) are min.
 π 1)3 , (π,
 3π
, 0 stationary point of inflection
, , , are max. 2
 5π −3 √3 
3 2 3 2
, min.
b 6 2
π 3π 7π 11π
c Max x = , ; Min x = ,
2 2 6 6
π 5π
d Max x = ; Infl x = π; Min x =
3 3

429

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
27 a and Using a CAS calculator:
y = −x4 + 8x3 + 10x2 + 4x
b loc max at (6.761,867.07)
y no stationary point of inflexion, since at
(6, 816)
(7, 861) dy
x = 0, = 4.
dx
(5, 645) y = f(x)
c −960
(2, 96)
x d Use the ‘solve’ command of a CAS
0 (1, 21) 9. 142
calculator, giving:
y = f′ (x)
x = 4.317 or x = 8.404

430

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Solutions to Exercise 10E
 3 5
1 f : [−3, 3] → R, f (x) = 2 − 8x2 3 f : − , → R,
Local maximum at (0, 2) 2 2
f (−3) = 2 − 8(−3)2 = 2 − 72 = −70 f (x) = 2x3 − 6x2
f (3) = 2 − 2(3)2 = 2 − 72 = −70 f 0 (x) = 6x2 − 12x
Therefore absolute maximum of f is 2
f 0 (x) = 0,
and absolute minimum is −70
x(x − 2) = 0

2 f : [−3, 2] → R, x = 0, 2

f (x) = x3 + 2x + 3 f (0) = 0

f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 2 f (2) = 16 − 24

f 0 (x) has no real solution = −8


 −3 
−27 27
∴ f (x) has no stationary points f − =
2 4 2
∴ f (−3) is absolute minimum −81
= = −20.25
f (2) is absolute maximum 4
5 125 75
f (−3) = −27 − 6 + 3 f( ) = −
2 4 2
abs. min. = −30 −25
=
f (2) = 8 + 4 + 3 4
−81
absolute min =
abs. max. = 15 4
absolute max = 0

431

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
4 f : [−2, 6] → R, f (x) = 2x4 − 8x2 dV
c = 0,
dx
f 0 (x) = 8x3 − 16x
30x − 36x2 = 0
f 0 (x) = 0,
x(5 − 6x) = 0
8x(x2 − 2) = 0
5
√ x = 0,
x = ± 2, 0 6
√ since x = 0 gives
f (± 2) = 8 − 16 V = 0, it is not the max,
5
= −8 ∴ x = is the max
6 
f (0) = 0 co-ords =
5 125 
,
6 36
f (−2) = 32 − 32 = 0
d
f (6) = 2 × 64 − 8 × 62
there are no turning points, so test the end points,
= 2592 − 288 x = 0,
= 2304 V=0
absolute min = −8
absolute max = 2304 x = 0.8,
16 64
V = 15 × − 12 ×
25 125
5 1200 − 768
=
125
432
absolute max : V = = 3.456 cm3
125
when x = 0.8
5
e turning point at x = ,
6
4x + 4(3x) + 4y = 20 5
test the endpoints,
6
4x + y = 5 x = 0,
y = 5 − 4x V = 0,

a V = x(3x)y x = 1,

= 3x2 (5 − 4x) V = 15 − 12

V = 15x2 − 12x3 =3
5
QED x= ,
6
dV 16 125
b = 30x − 36x2 V = 15 × − 12 ×
dx 25 216
375 − 250
=
36

432

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
125 8
absolute max : V = = 3.472 cm3
36
5
when x =
6

6 x + y = 30, z = xy

a x ∈ [2, 5],
a square 1 has perimeter
y = 30 − x x
x, i.e. side
y ∈ [25, 28], i.e. 25 ≤ y ≤ 28 4
x2
A1 =
b z = x(30 − x) 16
square 2 has perimeter
z = 30x − x2
 10 − x 
(10 − 4), i.e. side
dz 4
= 30 − 2x (10 − x)2
dx A2 =
16
dz
= 0, x = 15 A = A1 + A2
dx
this is outside the domain x ∈ [2, 5] x2 + (10 − x)2
∴ values to test are =
16
x = 2, 5
x + 100 − 20x + x2
2
=
x = 2, 16
z = 60 − 4 = 56, 2x − 20x + 100
2
=
16
x = 5,
1
= (x2 − 10x + 50) QED
z = 150 − 25 = 125 8
absolute minimum = 56
dA 1
absolute maximum = 125 b = (2x − 10)
dx 8
1
1 1 = (x − 5)
7 a − 4
(x − 4) 2 (x − 1)2
dA
5 4 c = 0,
b , dx
2 3 x=5
4
c Absolute max = ; Absolute min 1
3 d A = (x2 − 10x + 50)
3 8
= 25 41
2 x ∈ [0, 1] A(0) = and A(1) =
4 8
25 2
The maximum is m but only one
4
square is formed

433

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
1 b f 0 (x) = 0,
9 g : [2.1, 8] → R, g(x) = x +
x−2
1 1
1 =
g0 (x) = 1 − (x − 4) 2 (x + 1)2
(x − 2)2
(x − 4)2 = (x + 1)2
g0 (x) = 0,
1 (x − 4) = ±(x + 1)
=1
(x − 2)2 if x − 4 = x + 1
(x − 2) = 1
2
−4 = −1
x − 2 = ±1 does not work
x=2±1 ∴ x − 4 = −(x + 1) = −x − 1
x ∈ [2.1, 8] 2x − 3 = 0
x = 3, 3
x=
2
values to test : 3 1 1
f (2.1), f (3), f (8) f =  +  
2 5 5
2 2
1
f (2.1) = 2.1 + 4
0.1 =
= 12.1 5
3 4
1 co-ords = ,
f (3) = 3 + 2 5
1
=4 c values to test: 
3
1 f (0), f (3), f
f (8) = 8 + 2
6 3 4
1 f( ) =
=8 2 5
6 1 1 5
f (0) = + =
absolute minimum = 4 1 4 4
1 1 5
absolute maximum = 12.1 f (3) = + =
4 1 4
4
absolute minimum =
1 1 5
10 f : [0, 3] → R, f (x) = + 5
x+1 4−x absolute maximum =
4
1 1
f (x) = −
x+1 x−4
−1 −1
a f 0 (x) = −
(x + 1)2 (x − 4)2
1 1
= −
(x − 4) 2 (x + 1)2

434

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.

2 absolute maximum = 2
11 Absolute max = ; Absolute min
2 absolute minimum = −2
= −1
y

1
1 14 Absolute max = 2
+ 2e2 ;
2 e√
Absolute min = 2 2
y

0
Π Π
x
" 1
2 8 " 2 !2
!2

"1

√ 2
!
"!

2 3

12 Absolute max = 1; Absolute min = !1, 1"

y
2 0
x

2
15 f (x) = 2e(x−1)
1

1
f (−2) = 2e9 and f (2) = 2e
2
2
f 0 (x) = 4(x − 1)e(x−1)
f 0 (x) = 0 implies x = 1
f (1) = 2
Absolute max = 2e9 ; Absolute min = 2
0
Π
x
8

16 Absolute max = − loge 10;


10
Absolute min = −
13 y e

(−1, 1) 2
y = f(x)
x
0 (8, −2)

435

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Solutions to Exercise 10F
1 Let x m be the width of the rectangle 3 x + y = 100 P = xy
Let y m be the length of the rectangle y = 100 − x
2x + 2y = 100 ⇒ x + y = 50
Area,A = xy = x(50 − x) = 50x − x2 P = x(100 − x)
dA = 100x − x2
= 50 − 2x
dx
dA dp
= 0 ⇒ x = 25 = 100 − 2x
dx dx
∴ maximum area = 25 × 25 = 625 m2 . dp
= 0,
dx
2 x = y = 4; x, y > 0; x = 50

x3 + y2 is a min. this gives max P

let z = x3 + y2 x = 50, y = 100 − 50 = 50 = x

y=4−x QED

z = x3 + (4 − x)2 P = 502

= x3 + 16 − 8x + x2 P = 2500

= x3 + x2 − 8x + 16
dz
= 3x2 + 2x − 8
dx
dz
= 0,
dx
3x2 + 2x − 8 = 0 4

−2 ± 4 + 96
x=
6
−2 ± 10
x=
6
4 y + 2x = 4
x = −2,
3 y = 4 − 2x
but x > 0, A = xy
4
∴ x= = x(4 − 2x)
3
8 = 4x − 2x2
y=4−x=
3 dA
= 4 − 4x
dx
dA
= 0,
dx
x = 1 km

436

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
the farmer should make one side 2 dv 75 3 2
c = − x
km long and the other two sides 1 km dx 2 2
dv
long, using 2 km of river. = 0,
dx
75 2
x2 = ×
5 p, q > 0 2 3
= 25
p3 q = 9
9 x = 5 cm
⇒q=
p3 75 × 5 − 52 375 − 125
V= = = 125 cm3
z = 16p + 3q 2 2
27
z = 16p + 7 P = 100n − 0.4n2 − 160
p3
dz 81 dP
= 16 − 4 a i = 100 − 0.8n
dx p dn
dz dP
= 0, = 0 implies 100 = 0.8n
dx dn
∴ n = 125
81
= 16 A maximum occurs when n = 125
p4
as P is a quadratic with negative
3 coeffient of n2 .
= 2 since p > 0
p
3 ii When n = 125, P = 100 × 125 −
p=
2 0.4 × 1252 − 160 = 6090
9 9 8 Maximum daily profit is $ 6090.
q= 3 =   =
p 27 3
8 b When P = 0, √
100 ± 1002 − .4 × 04 × 160
n=−
6 S A = 150, base has side x(x >, not ≥ 0) −0.8
∴ n ≈ 1.6, 248.4
a SA = 2x2 + 4xh In this problem a continuous model
for a discrete situation has been used.
150 = 2x2 + 4xh
75 − x2
h= QED
2x

b V = x2 h
2
2 75 − x

=x
2x c P > 0 implies 2 ≤ n ≤ 248 (Note: n
75x − x3 can only take integer values)
V=
2
d Let $P be the profit per article

437

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
P total profit  values to test :
∴ p= =
n no. of articles
S (6), S (12), S (20)
100n − 0.4n2 − 160
= S (6) = −216 + 108 + 2160 + 5000
n
= 100 − 0.4n −
160 = 2052 + 5000 = 7052
n
In order to find the maximum profit S (12) = −1728 + 432 + 4320 + 5000
per article consider the derivative of p = 3024 + 5000 = 8024
with resect to n.
dp 160 S (20) = −8000 + 1200 + 7200 + 5000
= −0.4 + 2
dn n = 400 + 5000 = 5400
dp 160 absolute maximum = 12◦ C
= 0 implies 0.4 = 2
dn n S (12) = 8024 salmon
160
∴ n2 =
0.4
−1 3
i.e. n = 400
2 9 M(x) = (x − 14x2 + 32x − 50),
30
∴ n = 20 0 ≤ x ≤ 10
−1 2
The gradient chart indicates M 0 (x) = (3x − 28x + 32)
30
maximum:
< 20 20 > 20 M 0 (x) = 0,
sign f (x) +ve 0
0
−ve 3x2 − 28x + 32 = 0

shape / − \ 28 ± 784 − 384
i.e. selling 20 articles maximises the x=
6
profit per article. 28 ± 20
x=
6
4
8 x = ,8
3
S (x) = −x3 + 3x2 + 360x + 5000, values to test:
x ∈ [6, 20]
S 0 (x) = −3x2 + 6x + 360
S 0 (x) = 0,
x2 − 2x − 120 = 0
(x + 10) (x − 12) = 0
x = −10, 12
but x ∈ [6, 20]
x = 12

438

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
4 b
x = 0, x = , x = 8, x → ∞ 1
3 Area = × (8 + 8 cos θ) × 4 sin θ
50 5 2
M(0) = =
30 3 = 16 sin θ(1 + cos θ)
4 1  4 16 64 
M = 50 − 30 × + 14 × − A = 16 sin θ(1 + cos θ)
3 30 3 9 27
dA
1 1 = 16[cos θ(1 + cos θ) − sin2 θ)]
 
= (1350 − 1152 + 672 − 64) dθ
30 27
806 = 16[cos2 θ − sin2 θ + cos θ]
=
810 = 16[cos2 θ − (1 − cos2 θ) + cos θ]
 4  403
M = = 16[2 cos2 θ + cos θ − 1]
3 405
1 dA
M(8) = (50 − 32 × 8 + 14 = 0 implies
30 dθ
× 64 − 512) (2 cos θ − 1)(cos θ + 1) = 0
178 1
= cos θ = or cos θ = −1
30 2
1
89 For the figure to exist cos θ =
= π
2
. 15 which implies θ =
Maximum M occurs at x = 8 mm 3
Therefore maximum area
Minimum when x =
4 π  π
3 = 16 sin 1 + cos
3 3

3 3 √
10 a Let X be the midpoint of BC. = 16 × × = 12 3 square units
2 2
Angle XCO = θ
Therefore XC = 4 cos θ q
BC = 8 cos θ 11 distance = (x − 3)2 + y2
p
= x2 − 6x + 9 + x4
want minimum distance
d 4
(x + x2 − 6x + 9) = 0
dx
4x3 + 2x − 6 = 0
2x3 + x − 3 = 0
try x = 1

2+1−3=0

439

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
(x − 1) (2x2 + 2x + 3) = 0 d The quotient rule gives
dT cos θ(−60 cos θ) + sin θ(75 − 60 sin θ)
x − 1 = 0, 2x2 + 2x + 3 = 0 =
√ dθ cos2 θ
−2 ± 4 − 24 d
x=1x= (Note: (220) = 0)
4 dθ
no solution −60 cos2 θ + 75 sin θ − 60 sin2 θ
=
cos2 θ
x = 1 is the only solution
−60[cos2 θ + sin2 θ] + 75 sin θ
y=1 =
cos2 θ
∴ (1, 1) is the point on y = x 2
75 sin θ − 60
=
closest to (3, 0) cos2 θ
dT
e =0
AB dθ
12 a = cos θ 75 sin θ − 60
AP implies 2θ
=0
300 cos
∴ AP = 60 4
cos θ ∴ sin θ = =
∴ time taken to run from 75 5
300 1 75 4
A to P = × = ∴ θ = sin −1 5
cos θ 4 cos θ (Only the acute angle solution needs
to be considered).
θ ≈ 53.13◦
In order to confirm a minimum
consider the following
When θ = 60◦ ,
b dT 75 sin 60◦ − 60
PC = BC − BA tan θ = >0
dθ cos2 θ
= 1100 − 300 tan θ When θ = 50◦ ,
∴ the time taken to run from P to C dT 75 sin 50◦ − 60
= <0
1100 − 300 tan θ dθ cos2 θ
= ∴ a minimum
  occurs when
5 −1 4
θ = sin
= 220 − 60 tan θ 5
f
c Let T denote the total time 75 − 60 × 45 + 220
4
then T = time to run from A to When sin θ = , T = 3
5 5
P+ time taken to run from P to C
75 = 45 + 220
= + 220 − 60 tan θ
cos θ
75 sin θ = 265
= + 220 − 60 ∴ minimum time taken is
cos θ cos θ
75 − 60 sin θ 265 seconds.
= + 220
cos θ

440

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
4 4 N 00 (t) = −5e−0.1x − 0.5e−0.1x (10 − x)
If sin θ = , tan θ =
5 5
∴ BP = BA tan θ N 00 (t) = 0 ⇒ t = 20
4 50
= 300 × N 0 (20) = − 2
5 e
Maximum rate of decrease
= 400 50
= N 0 (20) = 2
e

3  2 t3 
15 V(t) = 10t − 0 ≤ t ≤ 20
4 3
P is 400 metres from B for a a i V(0) = 0 The volume of water is
minimum time. 0 mL when t = 0
3 203 
13 ii V(20) = 10 × 202 −
4 3
N(t) = 50te−0.1t 3 × 400  20 
= 10 −
N 0 (t) = 50e−0.1t − 5te−0.1t 4 3
 30 − 20 
= 5e−0.1t (10 − t) = 3 × 100
3
N 0 (t) = 0 ⇒ t = 10 = 1000
Therefore maximum population when t = 10 The volume of water is 1000 mL
when t = 20
N(10) = 500e−1
3 3t3 
b V (t f ) =
0
20t −
y 4 3
14 a
3
= (20t − t2 )
4
180
c
Domain of V(t) = [0, 20]
120
V(0) = 0 and V(20) = 1000

y=Nt V 0 (t) = 0 implies 20t − t2 = 0


60
∴ t(20 − t) = 0
y = N′ t
x ∴ t = 0 or t = 20
0 A gradient chart
−20 10 60
t < 0 << 20 >
b Maximum rate of increase
0
sign of V (t) −ve 0 +ve 0 −ve
= N 0 (0) = 50 shape \ − / − \

441

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
18π 9π
amplitude = =
80 40
π 80
period = 2π ÷ = 2π × = 160
80 π
dy
When x = 0, =0
dx
dy 18π  π × 80 
reveals a local minimum at (0,0) When x = 80, = sin
dx 80 80
and a local minimum at (20,1000)
18π
= sin π = 0
d The graph of V 0 (t) against t is a 80
c Maximum gradient magnitude occurs
parabola with t intercepts 0 and 20. πx 
where sin = ±1
80
This occurs when x = 40 for
0 ≤ x ≤ 80

17 a

The maximum occurs when t = 10


and
3
V 0 (10) = (200 − 100)
4
= 75 The depth of the harbour at time t is
e The flow is greatest after 10 seconds given by  πt 
and the flow is 75 mL/s. D(t) = 10 + 3 sin 0 ≤ t ≤ 24
6
amplitude = 3
π 6
dy 18π  πx  period = 2π ÷ = 2π × = 12
16 a =− sin x ∈ [0, 80] 6 π
dx 80 80 centre D = 10
9π  πx  range = [10 − 3, 10 + 3] = [7, 13]
= − sin
40 80
b

dy
For the graph of against x
dx

442

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
π
b D(t) ≥ 8.5  πt  is changing when t = 3 is −
2
⇔ 10 + 3 sin ≥ 8.5 metres/hours.
6
which is equivalent to (This means that the depth
 πt  π
3 sin ≥ −1.5 is decreasing at a rate of
6 2
 πt  metres/hour).
1
sin ≥− π π
6 2 iii D0 (12) = cos(2π) =
 πt  1 2 2
Consider sin =− The depth is increasing at a rate of
6 2 π
metres/hours
πt 7π 2
then =
6 6 d The function which describes the rate
11π 19π 23π is
or or or or · · · π  πt 
6 6 6 D0 (t) = cos
t = 7 or 11 or 19 or 23 or . . . 2 6
From the graph and considering the
i D0 (t)
 πthas
 a maximum when
domain [0, 24]
cos =1
{t : D(t) ≥ 8.5} = [0, 7] ∪ [11, 19] ∪ 6
πt
[23, 24] ∴ = 0 or 2π or 4π or · · ·
6
c The rate of change of depth is given t = 0 or 12 or 24 or · · ·
by the derivative For the required domain the depth
3π  πtfunction
 π  πt 
is increasing most rapidly when
D0 (t) = cos = cos
6 6 2 6 t = 0 or t = 12 or t = 24
π π
i D (t) = cos
0
=0 ii The depth is decreasing most
2 2
The rate at which the depth rapidly
 πt when
is changing when t = 3 is 0 cos = −1
6
metres/hour. πt
∴ when = π or 3π or 5π or · · ·
π  6π  π 6
ii D0 (6) = cos = cos(π) = ∴ t = 6 or 18 or 30 or· · ·
2 6 2 For the required domain the depth
π
− is decreasing most rapidly when
2
The rate at which the depth t = 6 or 18

443

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Solutions to Exercise 10G
1 f (x) = (x − 1)2 (x − b) , b > 1 2 y = x4 − 4x2

a f (x) = (x2 − 2x + 1) (x − b) dy
a = 4x3 − 8x
dx
= x3 − (2 + b)x2 + (1 + 2b)x − b dy
= 0,
f 0 (x) = 3x2 − 2(2 + b)x + 1 + 2b dx
= (x − 1) (3x − 2b − 1) 4x(x2 − 2) = 0

b f 0 (x) = 0, x = 0, ± 2
(x − 1) (3x − (1 + 2b)) = 0 x = 0, y = 0
1 + 2b
x = 1, x = (0, 0)
3 √
f (1) = 1 − 2 − b + 1 + 2b − b = 0 x=± 2
y = 4 − 4(2)
 1 + 2b   2b − 2 2  2b + 1 − 3b 
f =
3 3 3
4 1 − b = −4
= (b − 1)2 √
9 3 (± 2, −4)
−4
= (b − 1)3
27
 1 + 2b −4(b − 1)3  b (x, y) → (x + a, y + b)
co-ords = (1, 0) & ,
3 27 (0, 0) → (a, b)
√ √
2b + 1 (± 2, −4) → (a ± 2, b − 4)
c > 1 as b > 1 so the other stationary
3
point is a local minimum; hence the point
(1,0) is always a local maximum.
3 a
1 + 2b f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx
d =4
3
f (1) = 10 ⇒ a + b + c = 10 . . . (1)
1 + 2b = 12
11
f 0 (x) = 3ax2 + 2bx + c
b=
2 f 0 (1) = 0 ⇒ 3a + 2b + c = 0 . . . (2)
Multiply (1) by 2 and subtract from (2)
a − c = −20 ⇒ a = c − 20
Substitute for a in (1)
c − 20 + b + c = 10
∴ b = 30 − 2c

444

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
1 1 a
b b f0 = 2−3
f 0 (3) = 0 ⇒ 27a + 6b + c = 0 a a a
−1
∴ 27(c − 20) + 6(30 − 2c) + c = 0 =
a
27c − 540 + 180 − 12c + c = 0 −x
y= +c
a
16c − 360 = 0
1
360 45 x= ,y = 0
c= = a
16 2 −1
0= +c
a2
4 f : [0, ∞] → R, f (x) = x2 − ax3 1
c=
a>0 a2
−x 1
y= + 2
a f 0 (x) = 2x − 3ax2 a a
= x(2 − 3ax) c y = ax + c
f (x) < 0,
0
1
x = ,y = 0
x(2 − 3ax) < 0 a
since x ≥ 0, 2 − 3ax < 0 0=1+c
2 c = −1
⇒x>
3a y = ax − 1
2
f (x) is decreasing when x >
3a 2
d max. at x =
f 0 (x) > 0, 3a
2 4 a×8 1 4 8
x(2 − 3ax) > 0 f = 2− = 2 −
3a 9a 27a3 a 9 27
since x ≥ 0, 2 − 3ax > 0 =
4
2
2  27a 4 
⇒x< range = − ∞,
3a 27a2
2
0<x<
3a
2 5 a i y = (x − 3)2
f (x) is increasing when 0 < x <
3a dy
= 2(x − 3)
dx
= 2x − 6
x = a,
dy
= 2a − 6
dx
ii m = 2a − 6

445

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
b x=a c
y = (a − 3)2 y = ax4 − bx3
dy
= a2 − 6a + 9 = 4ax3 − 3bx2
dx
⇒ (a, a2 − 6a + 9) x = 1,
c y = mx + c dy
=0
dx
= (2a − 6)x + c
4a = 3b . . . (1)
x = a, y = (a − 3)2
x = 1, y = 16
(a − 3)2 = 2a(a − 3) + c
16 = a − b
c = (a − 3) (a − 3 − 2a)
a = 16 + b . . . (2)
c = (a − 3) (−a − 3)
sub in (1) ⇒ 4(16 + b) = 3b
y = (a − 3) (2x − a − 3)
64 + 4b = 3b
= 2(a − 3)x − a2 + 9
b = −64
d y = 0, sub in (2) ⇒ a = −48
2x − a − 3 = 0
2x = a + 3 7 a
f (x) = (x − a)2 (x − 1)
a+3
x= = (x2 − 2ax + a2 ) (x − 1)
2
= x3 − (2a + 1)x2 + (a2 + 2a)x − a2
6 a f (x) = x4 f 0 (x) = 3x2 − (4a + 2)x + (a2 + 2a)
⇒ f (x + h) = (x + h)4 f 0 (x) = 0,
f (1 + h) = 16 3x2 − (4a + 2)x + (a2 + 2a) = 0
4a + 2 ± 4(2a + 1)2 − 4(3a2 + 6a)
p
(1 + h)4 = 16 x=
6
1 + h = ±2 √
2a + 1 ± 4a2 + 4a + 1 − 3a2 − 6a
h = −1 ± 2 =
3

h = −3, 1 2a + 1 ± a2 − 2a + 1
=
3
b f (x) = x3 (2a + 1) ± (a − 1)
=
⇒ f (ax) = (ax)3 3
a+2
f (a) = 8 x = a,
3
a3 = 8 f (a) = 0,
a=2

446

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
iii f 0 a + 1
a + 2 a + 23a 2  a + 2 3 
 
f = − −
3 3 a 3 3 2
 2 − 2a 2  a − 1  3(a + 1)2
= = − (2a + 1) (a + 1) + (a2 + 2a)
3 3 4
4 −1
= (1 − a)2 (1 − a) 3a2 + 6a + 3 − 8a2
9 3 −12a − 4 + 4a2 + 8a
−4(1 − a) 3 =
= 4
27 −a + 2a − 1
2
 a + 2 −4(1 − a)3  =
co-ords = (a, 0), , 4
3 27 −(a − 1)2
=
−4(1 − a)3  a + 14  a + 1 2  a + 1
b Since a > 1, > 0,

27 f = −a −1
Hence (a, 0) is a local minimum and 2 2 2
 a + 2 −4(1 − a)3  1 1
, is a local = (1 − a)2 (a − 1)
3 27 4 2
maximum. 1
= (a − 1)3
8
c i f 0 (1) = 3 − 4a − 2 + a2 + 2a −(a − 1)2
y= x+c
= a2 − 2a + 1 4
a+1 1
= (a − 1)2 x= , y = (a − 1)3
2 8
y = (a − 1)2 x + c
f 0 (1) = 0,
0 = (a − 1)2 + c
c = −(a − 1)2
y = (a − 1)2 (x − 1)

ii f 0 (a) = 0
y=c
f (a) = 0 = c
y=0

447

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
1 −1 a + 1
(a − 1)3 = (a − 1)2 +c
8 4 2
1 a − 1 a + 1
c = (a − 1)2 +
4 2 2
1
= (a − 1)2
4
1
y = (a − 1)2 (−x + a)
4
−1
= (a − 1)2 (x − a)
4
d d
8 a f (x) = (x − 1) (x − b)2 + (x − b)2 (x − 1)2
0 2
dx dx
= 2(x − 1) (x − b) ((x − 1) + (x − b))
= 2(x − 1) (x − b) (2x − b − 1)

b f 0 (x) = 0,
b+1
x = 1, b,
2
f (1) = 0, f (b) = 0,
 b + 1   b − 1 2  1 − b 2
f =
2 2 2
 b − 1 4
=
2
 b + 1 (b − 1)4 
co-ords = (1, 0) (b, 0) ,
2 2
b+1
c =2
2
b=1=4
b=3

448

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
9 a=
1
, b = 0, c =
−1
, d=
1459 b f 0 (4) = 0
486 161 243
0 = 4a(64) + 3b(16) + 2c(4) + d
0 = 256a + 48b + 8c + d
10 f (x) = ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx  4d − 1   −3 − 2d 
0 = 256 + 48
a f 0 (x) = 4ax3 + 3bx2 + 2cx + d 4 2
f (1) = 1
 11 − 4d 
+8 +d
4
1 = a + b + c + d . . . (1)
0 = 256d − 64 − 72 − 48d + 22 − 8d + d
f 0 (1) = 0
0 = 201d − 114
0 = 4a + 3b + 2c + d . . . (2)
114
f 0 (−1) = 4 d=
201
4 = a − b + c − d . . . (3) 38
d=
(1) − (3) ⇒ −3 = 2b + 2d 67
−3
b=−d
2
(2) − (1) − (3) ⇒ −5 = 2a + 3b + d
9
−5 = 2a − − 3d + d
2
1
− = 2a − 2d
2
1
a=d−
4
 1   −3 
sub in (1) ⇒ 1 = d − + −d c+d
4 2
7
1=− +c+d
4
11
c= −d
4

449

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Solutions to Technology-free questions
1 a y = x3 − 8x2 + 15x A parallel tangent has gradient 3, so:
dy
dy =3
= 3x2 − 16x + 15 dx
dx
3x2 − 14x + 14 = 3
= −1 (at x = 4)
For the tangent: 3x2 − 14x + 11 = 0
y + 4 = −1(x − 4) (3x − 11) (x − 1) = 0
y = −x 11
x = 1,
3
b Tangent meets curve again when The x coordinate of a second point with
x3 − 8x2 + 15x = −x 11
the same gradient is x = .
3
x3 − 8x2 + 16x = 0
x(x2 − 8x + 16) = 0 4 a Average rate is given by
x(x − 4) = 0
2 A(3) − A(2) 9π − 4π
= = 5π
Thus x = 0 and then y = 0 (x = 4 3−2 1
corresponds to the given point).
b A = πr2
The tangent meets the curve again at
dA
the point (0, 0). = 2πr
dr
= 6π (at r = 3)
2 At x = a, y = 3a2 Instantaneous rate is 6π
y = 3x2
dy
= 6x 5 a f (x) = 4x3 − 3x4
dx
f 0 (x) = 12x2 − 12x3
= 6a (at x = a)
For the tangent: = 12x2 (1 − x)
y − 3a2 = 6a(x − a)
= 0 if x = 0, 1
y = 6ax − 3a 2
x = 0, y = 0; x = 1, y = 1
x = 0 : y = −3a2 , so the tangent meets The stationary points have coordi-
the y axis where y = −3a2 . nates (0, 0) and (1, 1).
x < 0, f 0 (x) > 0; f 0 (0) = 0;
3 y = x3 − 7x2 + 14x − 8 0 < x < 1, f 0 (x) > 0; so (0, 0) is a
stationary point of inflexion.
dy
= 3x2 − 14x + 14 0 < x < 1, f 0 (x) > 0; f 0 (1) = 0;
dx
x > 1, f 0 (x) < 0; so (1, 1) is a
= 3 (at x = 1)
maximum.
For the tangent, x = 1 gives y = 0, so:
y − 0 = 3(x − 1)
y = 3x − 3

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b g(x) = x3 − 3x − 2 6 y = x3 − 6x2 + 9x = x(x − 3)2
g0 (x) = 3x2 − 3 dy
= 3x2 − 12x + 9
dx
= 3(x + 1) (x − 1)
= 3(x2 − 4x + 3)
= 0 if x = −1, 1
x = −1, y = 0; x = 1, y = −4 = 3(x − 1) (x − 3)
The stationary points have = 0 if x = 1, 3
coordinates (−1, 0) and (1, −4).
x = 1, y = 4; x = 3, y = 0
x < −1, f 0 (x) > 0; f 0 (−1) = 0; The stationary points have coordinates
−1 < x < 1, f 0 (x) < 0; so (−1, 0) is a (1, 4) and (3, 0) . Also it is evident
maximum. from the factorised form that (3, 0) is a
−1 < x < 1, f 0 (x) < 0; f 0 (1) = 0; stationary point of inflexion. Then (1, 4)
x > 1, f 0 (x) > 0; so (1, −4) is a must be a maximum.
minimum. For the intercepts:
y = 0, x = 0, 3
c h(x) = x3 − 9x + 1
The graph is shown below.
g0 (x) = 3x2 − 9
= 3(x2 − 3)
√ √
= 3(x + 3) (x − 3)
√ √
= 0 if x = − 3, 3
√ √
x = − 3, y = 6 3 + 1
√ √
x = 3, y = −6 3 + 1
The stationary √points√have
√ (− 3, 6 3 + 1) and
coordinates

( 3, −6√ 3 0+ 1). √
x < − 3, f (x) > 0; f 0 (− 3) = 0; dy
√ √ 7 = (x − 1)2 (x − 2)
dx
− 3 < x < 3, f 0 (x) < 0;
= 0 if x = 1, 2
so there is a maximum at There are stationary points where x = 1
√ √
(− 3, 6 3 + 1). and x = 2.
dy dy
√ √ x < 1, < 0; = 0 at x = 1;
− 3 < x < 3, f 0 (x) < 0; dx dx
√ dy
f 0 ( 3) = 0; 1 < x < 2, < 0;
√ dx
x > 3, f 0 (x) > 0; so there is a stationary point of inflexion at x = 1.
so there is a minimum at dy dy
√ √ 1 < x < 2, < 0; = 0 at x = 2;
dx dx
( 3, −6 3 + 1).
dy
x > 2, > 0; so there is a minimum at x = 2.
dx

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8 y = x3 − 3x2 − 9x + 11 4
y − 1 = (x − 2)
5
dy
= 3x2 − 6x − 9 4 3
dx y= x−
5 5
= −9 (at x = 2) For the tangent at (0, 1):
Also when x = 2, y = −11 4
y − 1 = − (x − 0)
For the tangent: 5
y + 11 = −9(x − 2) 4
y=− x+1
5
y = −9x + 7
4 3 4
c x− =− x+1
5 5 5
9 f (x) = 3 + 6x2 − 2x3 8 8
x=
f 0 (x) = 12x − 6x2 5 5
x=1
= 6x(2 − x)
1  1
= 0 if x = 0, 2 When x = 1, y = , so 1, is the
5 5
The graph of the gradient function is an point of intersection of the tangents.
inverted parabola with x intercepts 0 and
2. So the gradient function is positive if
12 For a sphere of radius r and volume V,
0 < x < 2, i.e. the graph of y = f (x) has 4 3
a positive gradient in the interval (0, 2). V = πr .
3
dV
a = 4πr2
10 dr
dy
y = x3 ⇒ = 3x2 = 64π if r = 4
dx The rate of increase of volume with
dy
y = x3 + x2 + x − 2 ⇒ = 3x2 + 2x + 1 respect to the change in radius is 64π
dx cm3 /cm when the radius is 4 cm.
So the graphs have the same gradient
when 3x2 = 3x2 + 2x + 1, i.e. when dV dV dr
1 b = ×
2x + 1 = 0, or x = − . dt dr dt
2
= 4πr2 × 1
4 = 4πr2
11 f (x) = (x − 1) 5
= 64π if r = 4
a The function is differentiable for The rate of increase of volume with
4 1
respect to time is 64π cm3 /s when the
R\{1}. f 0 (x) = (x − 1)− 5
5 radius is 4 cm.
4 4 (An alterative is to use the initial
b f 0 (0) = , f 0 (2) = −
5 5 conditions to express r in terms of
For the tangent at (2, 1): t, i.e. r = 1 + t, and then V in terms
of t; then differentiate to get the result
directly.)

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13 x = 0.25et 17 y = e3x + e−3x
dx dy
v= = 0.25et = 3e3x − 3e−3x
dt dx
At t = 0, 1, 2, 4, the velocity v in m/s is
= 0 if
respectively 0.25, 0.25e, 0.25e2 , 0.25e4 .
3e3x = 3e−3x
1 e6x = 1
14 θ = e100t
4 x=0
dθ When x = 0, y = 2.
a = 25e100t ◦ C/s Since y → ∞ when x → ±∞, it is
dt
evident that y = 2 is a minimum.
dθ  1
b = 25e5 at t =
dt 20
So the rate of increase is 25e5 ◦ C/s. 18 a y = loge x
dy 1
=
15 y=e x dx x
1
dy = (at x = e)
= ex e
dx
1
= e (at x = 1) y − e = e(x − 1) y − 1 = (x − e)
e
y − e = ex − e 1
y−1= x−1
y = ex e
1
y= x
e
16 D = 50ekt  x
b y = 2 sin
dD 2
a = 50kekt
dt dy  x
= cos
= k × 50ekt = kD dx 2
dD 1  π
Thus = cD, where c = k. = √ at x =
dt 2 2
dD
√ 1 π
b = kD = 0.2 × 100 = 20 cm/year y − 2 = √ (x − )
dt 2 2
1 π √
y= √ x− √ + 2
2 2 2

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c y = cos x d y = loge (x2 )
dy dy 2
= − sin x =
dx dx x
 3π  2 √
= 1 at x = = − √ (at x = − e)
2 e
 3π  2 √
y = (1) x − y − 1 = − √ (x + e)
2 e

y= x− 2
y=−√ x−1
2
e

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Solutions to multiple-choice questions
1 A y = x2 − x − 5 4 E The graph of the second function
dy is obtained from the graph of the
= 2x − 1 first function by this sequence of
dx
Gradient of tangent equation=4 transformations:
dy
∴ =4 (1) a reflection in the x-axis
dx
(2) a dilation of factor 2 from the
∴ 4 = 2x − 1 x-axis
5 (3) a dilation of factor 2 from y-axis
x=
2 (4) a translation of k units vertically
 5 2 5
y= − −5 up
2 2 The point (0, 0) transforms to (0, k)
5 and is now a maximum due to the
y=−
4 reflection (the dilation leave no
Sub x and y values into y = 4x + c
5 effect).
− = 10 + c The maximum point a, f (a) of the
4
45 original graph transforms as follows:
c=−
4 (1) (a, − f (a); local minimum
(2) (a, −2 f (a); local minimum
2 E Tangent of y = x4 at x = 1
dy (3) (2a, −2 f (a); local minimum
= 4x3 (4) (2a, −2 f (a) + k) local minimum
dx
dy
=4 5 B f (x) = x3 − x2 − 1
dx
Equation of tangent: f 0 (x) = 3x2 − 2x
y = 4x + c Stationary points occur when
At x = 1, y = 1 f 0 (x) = 0
1=4+c 3x2 − 2x = 0
c = −3 x(3x − 2) = 0
Using the null factor theorem:
∴ y = 4x − 3 2
x = 0 and x =
3
3 E Since the gradient changes from
negative to positive at point a, this is 6 C As it is a local minimum the gradient
a local minimum. of the tangent is 0. Therefore it is a
Since the gradient remains the same horizontal line which goes through
at, before and after point b, this is a the point (2, 4)
stationary point of inflection. y = mx + c
m=0
∴ y=4

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7 B V = −10x(2x2 − 6) 10 E y = eax 1 
V = −20x3 + 60x Tangent at point ,e
a
dV dy
= −60x2 + 60 = aeax
dx dy
0 = −60x2 + 60 At x =
1
a
60x2 = 60
dy a
= ae a
x = ±1 dx
When x = −1, V = −80 dy
= ae
dx
V , −80  1  y = aex + c
Equation of tangent:
∴ Maximum volume occurs when Sub in point , e
x=1 a
1
e = ae + c
8 B y = x2 a
e=e+c
dy
= 2x
dx c=0
At x = a, gradient of tangent = 2a ∴ equation of tangent:
1
Normal at x = a : − y = aex
2a
1
∴y=− x+c 11 A N = 4000e0.2t
2a
At x = a, y = a2 dN
1 = 800e0.2t
∴ a2 = − a + c dt
2a
1 When t = 3
∴c=a + 2
2 dN
Equation of normal: = 800e0.6 ≈ 1458
1 1 dt
y = − x + + a2
2a 2 12 E y = x2 cos(5x)
9 D f : R → R, f (x) = e x − ex Tangent at x = π
0
f (x) = e x − e Using product rule to find derivative:
dy
f 0 (x) = 0 = 2x cos(5x) − 5x2 sin(5x)
dx
Gradient of tangent:
ex − e = 0 dy
= 2π cos(5π) − 5π2 sin(5π)
ex = e dx
dy
x=1 = −2π
Turning point occurs at x = 1 dx
Sub into f (x) to find y coordinate: 13 B y = e−x − 1
y=e−e Point where equation crosses the
y=0 y-axis:
∴ (1, 0) x = 0, y = 0 coordinate: (0, 0)

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dy 14 C
= −e−x ax
dx f (x) = eax −
Gradient of tangent at x = 0: e
dy a
= −1 f 0 (x) = aeax −
dx e
Equation of tangent:
y = −x + c = 0 if
a
Sub in point (0, 0): aeax =
c=0 e
1
∴ Equation of tangent: eax = = e−1
e
y = −x
ax = −1
1
x=−
a
 1 −1 2
f − = e−1 − =
a e e
Thecoordinates of the turning point
1 2
are − , .
a e

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Solutions to extended-response questions
1 4m

y m2 xm

xm

a Shaded area = 4x − x2
i.e. y = 4x − x2

b As y > 0, 4x − x2 > 0
i.e x(4 − x) > 0

∴ y > 0 for 0 < x < 4


The possible values of x are 0 < x < 4.
dy
c = 4 − 2x
dx
dy
= 0 implies x = 2
dx
Note: y = 4x − x2 is a quadratic with negative coefficient of x2 .
When x = 2, y = 8 − 4 = 4.
The maximum value of y is 4 and this occurs when x = 2.

d y = 4x − x2 is a quadratic with negative coefficient of x2


or gradient to the left of x = 2 is positive and to the right negative.

f From the graph the possible values for y are 0 < y < 4.

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2

a A = xy + 3xy = 4xy

b Perimeter = 48
∴ 48 = 6y + 4x
48 − 4x
y=
6
2
=8− x
3

c A = 4xy
 2 
= 4x 8 − x
3
8x2
= 32x −
3
dA 16x
d = 32 −
dx 3
dA 96
= 0 implies x = = 6. Maximum as quadratic with negative coefficient of x2
dx 16
2
When x = 6, y = 8 − × 6 = 4
3

e When x = 6
8
A = 32 × 6 − × 36
3
= 96
The maximum area is 96 m2 .

3 a Cost is (12 + 0.008x) dollars per kilometre plus $14.40 per hour for the driver, where
x is the speed of the truck in km/h
i Cost per kilometre for tmck travelling at 40 km/h
1
= (12 + 0.008 × 40) + 14.40 ×
40
= 12.68
i.e. the cost per kilometre is $12.68.

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ii Cost per kilometre for truck travelling at 64 km/h
1
= (12 + 0.008 × 64) + × 14.40
64
= 12.737
i.e. the cost per kilometre is $12.74.

b Let C be the cost per kilometre.


14.40
C = (12 + 0.008x) +
x
14.40
= 12 + 0.008x +
x
c To sketch the graph we first differentiate to determine tuming points.
14.40
For C = 12 + 0.008x +
x
dc 14.40
= 0.008 − 2
dx x
dC
and stationary points occur for = 0.
dx
This implies
0.008x2 = 14.40
x2 = 1800
x = 30
≈ 42.426
A sign chart is used√to determine
√ the nature
√ of the stationary point.
< 30 2 30 2 > 30 2
sign f 0 (x) -ve 0 +ve
shape \ − /

∴ A minimum occurs where x = 30 2.

When x = 30 2
√ 14.40
C = 12 + 0.008 × 30 2 + √
30 2
√ 0.48
= 12 + 0.24 2 + √
2
√ √
= 12 + 0.24 2 + 0.24 2

= 12 + 0.48 2
≈ 12.679
√ √
∴ minimum at (30 2, 12 + 0.48 2)
When x = 120

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14.40
C = 12 + 0.008 × 120 +
120
= 12 + 0.96 + 0.12
= 13.08
It is also observed that as x → 0, C → ∞ and that as x large, the graph gets close to
that of c = 12 + 0.08x.


d From the above, the truck should be driven at 30 2 ≈ 42.43 km/hr.

4 a

∴ length of box = (16 − 2x) cm


width of box = (10 − 2x) cm
height of box = x cm
Volume = length × width × height
= (16 − 2x) (10 − 2x)x
= 4(8 − x) (5 − x)x
= 4(40 − 13x + x2 )x
= 4(x3 − 13x2 + 40x) cm3

b All dimensions are positive.


10 − 2x > 0 and 16 − 2x > 0 and x > 0
∴ x < 5 and x < 8 and x > 0
∴ 0<x<5

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c Let V = 4(x3 − 13x2 + 40x)
dV
= 4(3x2 − 26 + 40)
dx
dV
= 0 implies 4(3x2 − 26x + 40) = 0
dx
∴ 3x2 − 26x + 40 = 0
∴ (3x − 20) (x − 2) = 0
20
∴ x= or x = 2
3
but 0 < x < 5 ∴ x = 2
d A gradient chart reveals there is a maximum when x = 2:
<2 2 >2
dV
sign +ve 0 −ve
dx
shape / − \
Whenx = 2,
16 − 2x = 12
10 − 2x = 6
∴ The dimensions of the box for maximum volume are:
2 cm, 6 cm, 12 cm

e Maximum when x = 2
∴ Vmax = 4(5 − 2) (8 − 2)2
=4×3×6×2
= 144
The maximum volume is 144 cm3

Area of rectangle = length × width


Let A denote the area.
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Let x denote the width.
Let y denote the length.
A = xy
 x
= x 8−
2
2
x
= 8x −
2
Consider the derivative of A with respect to x.
dA
=8−x
dx
dA
= 0 implies x = 8
dx
As A is a quadratic function with negative coefficient of x2 , a maximum occurs where
x = 8.
82
When x = 8, A = 8 × 8 − = 32
2
∴ Maximum area = 32 square units.

6 a T = k + 2w2
When w = 5, T = 75
∴ 75 = k + 50
i.e. k = 25
So : T = 2w2 + 25

T 25
c Average time in seconds per kg = = + 2w
w w

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d i Let A be the average time.
25
A= + 2w
w
dA
Minimum occurs when = 0.
dw
dA
= −25w−2 + 2 = 0
dw
25
which implies w2 =
2

5 5 2
i.e. w = √ =
2 2
A gradient chart confirms minimum:
5 5 5
w < √ √ > √
2 2 2
dA
sign of −ve 0 +ve
dw
shape / − \

5 2
∴ kg ≈ 3.54 kg yields the minimum average machinery time.
2

5 2
ii When w =
2

2×5 2 25
A= +  √ 
2 5 2
2
√ √
=5 2+5 2

= 10 2

∴ minimum average machine time is 10 2 ≈ 14.14 seconds.

7 a Area of bottom = x2 + x2 = 2x2


Area of top = x2
Area of sides = xh + xh + xh + xh = 4xh
∴ total area = 4xh + 3x2
i.e. C = 4xh + 3x2

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b Volume V = x2 h
For Volume = 12 m3
12 = x2 h
12
i.e. h =
x2
 12 
and C = 4x + 3x2
x2
48
= + 3x2
x
c It is preferable to complete d
before sketching the graph.
dC 48
d i = − 2 + 6x
dx x
dC 48
= 0 implies − 2 + 6x = 0
dx x
48
which implies 6x = 2
x
∴ x = 8 and x = 2
3

The gradient chart is as shown:


x <2 2 >2
dC
sign −ve 0 +ve
dx
shape \ − /
∴ a minimum when x = 2 When x = 2, the dimensions are
12
2 m, 2 m, 3 m h = 2
2

ii When x = 2
48
C = 12 + = 12 + 24 = 36
2
∴ The minimum area is 36 m2

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8 Let the base have dimension x m by x m and h m be the height of the tank.
The volume of a cuboid = length × width × height
= x×x×h
= x2 h
For this tank volume = 500 m3
∴ x2 h = 500 1

Let A m2 be the area of sheet metal required.


A = x2 + 4xh
(Note: The tank is open.)
From equation (1)
500
h= 2
x
 500 
∴ A = x2 + 4x 2
x
2000
= x2 +
x
Differentiating to find a minimum:
dA 2000
= 2x − 2
dx x
dA
∴ = 0 implies x3 = 1000
dx
∴ x = 10
The gradient chart shows a minimum occurs when x = 10.
x < 10 >
dA
sign of −ve 0 +ve
dx
shape \ − /
When x = 10, h = 5
Therefore the dimensions necessary for a minimum surface area are 10 m × 10 m × 5 m
1
9 a The area of a sector A = r2 θ
2
In this case r = a
1
∴ A = a2 θ
2

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b The length of the wire = a + a + `
= 2a + `
where ` = aθ
Therefore as the wire is 1 m = 100 cm in length
100 = 2a + aθ
∴ 100 = a(θ + 2)
100
i.e. a =
θ+2
1  100 2
∴ A= θ
2 θ+2
c Differentiating to find maximum
104  1 2
A= θ
2 θ+2
Using the product
 1rule
dA 2θ 
= 5000 −
dθ (θ + 2)2 (θ + 2)3
dA 1 2θ
= 0 implies =
dθ (θ + 2) 2 (θ + 2)3
∴ (θ + 2)3 − 2θ(θ + 2)2 = 0
∴ (θ + 2)2 [θ + 2 − 2θ] = 0
∴ θ = 2 or θ = −2
but θ > 0 ∴ θ = 2
The gradient chart will show a maximum i.e. A is maximum when θ = 2

1  100 2
d When θ = 2, A = ×2
2 2+2
1
=
× 252 × 2
2
= 625
The maximum area is 625 cm2

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10 a L = 2r + rθ
1
∴ θ = (L − 2r) 1
r
1
Area of sector = r2 θ
2
1 2 1 
= r (L − 2r)
2 r
1
= r(L − 2r)
2
1
= rL − r2
2

1
b i The area of the sector A = rL − r2
2
dA 1
∴ = L − 2r
dr 2
dA 1 L
and = 0 implies L − 2r = 0, so r = .
dr 2 4
L
ii Substituting r = in 1 gives
4
1  L
θ= L−2×
L 4
4
4 L
= L−
L 2
4 L
= × =2
L 2
L
iii A stationary point occurs when r = .
4
L dA
If r < , >0
4 dr
L dA
r< , < 0 (gradients considered locally)
4 dr
So the stationary point is a maximum.

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1
c Area of sector = r2 θ
2
L
When θ = 2, r =
4
1 L2
∴ Area of sector = × ×2
2 16
L2
=
16
1
Area of triangle = r2 sin 2
2
1 L2
= × sin 2
2 16
L2 sin 2
=
32
Area of triangle L sin 2 L2
2
= ÷
Area of sector 32 16
2
L sin 2 16
= × 2
32 L
sin 2
= = 0.4546 · · ·
2
∴ Area of triangle ≈ 45.5% area of sector

11

a Let T be the total time in seconds and DP = x (m) (Note: the position of P varies)
T = time to swim to AP + time to run PC + √time to get out
AP 900 + x2
time to swim AP = = (Pythagoras’ Theorem)
speed of swimming 1
75 − x 3
time to run PC = = (75 − x)
1 23 5
time to get out = 2
p 3
T = 900 + x2 + (75 − x) + 2
5

469

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d √  1 1
b 900 + x2 = 2x × (900 + x2 )− 2 (Chain rule)
dx 2
dT 1 3
∴ = x(x2 + 900) 2 −

dx 5
dT
c i Minimum occurs when =0
dx
dT 1 3
= 0 implies x(x2 + 900)− 2 =
dx 5
x 3
∴ 1
=
5
x(x + 900) 2
2

1
and 5x = 9(x2 + 900) 2
Squaring both sides yields
25x2 = 9x2 + 8100
∴ 6x2 = 8100
8100
∴ x2 =
16
90
and x = (Note: x ≥ 0 and so positive root is chosen)
4
1
= 22
2
1
A gradient chart reveals a local minimum when x = 22
2
90
ii The minimum time occurs when x =
s 4
90  90  2 3 90 
When x = , T = 900 + + 75 − +2
4 4 5 4
r
22500  18 
= + 3 15 − +2
16 4
150 42
= +3× +2
4 4
= 71
The minimum time is 71 seconds.

d If the boy runs from A to D and then from D to C


30 75
time = 2 + 2
13 13
30 75
= 5
+ 5
3 3
3 105
= × = 63
5 1
It takes 63 seconds to run from A to D and then from D to C.
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dy
12 a For y = e x , = ex
dx
dy
When x = 1, y = e and =e
dx
Therefore the equation of the tangent is given by
y − e = e(x − 1)
i.e. y − e = ex − e
∴ y = ex is the equation of the tangent.
dy
b For y = e2x , = 2e2x
dx
1 dy
when x = , y = e + = 2e
2 dx 1 
The equation of the tangent at , e is given by
2
 1
y − e = 2e x −
2
i.e. y − e = 2ex − e
1 
∴ y = 2ex is the equation of the tangent at , e
2
dy
c For y = ekx , = kekx
dx
1 dy
when x = , y = e and = ke
k dx
The equation of the
 tangent is
1
y − e = ke x −
k
i.e. y = kex

d Consider the equation of the tangent at the point (a, eka )


which passes through the origin for the curve with equation y = ekx
dy dy
= kekx and at (a, eka ) , = keka
dx dx
∴ The equation of the tangent is
y − 0 = keka (x − 0)
i.e. y = keka x
Also the gradient of the tangent can be determined as the gradient of a straight line
joining the point (a, eka ) and (0,0)
eka − 0 eka
Gradient = =
a−0 a
ka
e
∴ keka =
a
1
∴ a=
k
and e =e
ka

∴ Equation of tangent is y = kex


471

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e Solving ekx = x is equivalent to solving the pair of
equations
y = ekx
y=x
simultaneously.

i There is a single solution to the equation ekx = x if y = x is a tangent to the curve


y = ekx .
1
From (d) this occurs only if ke = 1 i.e. if k = for k > 0.
e
There is always a unique real root for k ≤ 0 (check the graph of y = ekx for k ≤ 0)

ii For no real roots, there are no solutions to the pair of equations


y = ekx
and y = x
1
For k = , y = x is a tangent.
e
1
For k > , the curve y = ekx does not meet the liney = x.
e

13 a Distance S L = 64 + x2 (Pythagoras’ Theorem)
Time taken = time taken for S L+ time taken for LF
SL LF
= +
rowing speed running speed

64 + x2 20 − x
= +
5 15

64 + x2 20 − x
∴ T (x) = +
5 15

b Differentiating to find minimum

472

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x 1 1
T 0 (x) = (64 + x2 )− 2 −
5 15
T (x) = 0
0

x 1
implies 1
=
15
5(64 + x2 ) 2
1
∴ 15x = 5(64 + x2 ) 2
Squaring both sides yields
225x2 = 25(64 + x2 )
i.e. 200x2 = 25 × 64
5×8
and x = √ (Note: positive root is chosen as x ≥ 0)
10 2

4 2 √
= =2 2
2
A gradient chart
√ reveals a minimum.
When x = 2 2
√ √
64 + 8 20 − 2 2
T= +
5 15
√ √
6 2 4 2 2
= + −
5 3 15
√ √
18 2 − 2 2 + 20
=
15

16 2 + 20
=
15
≈ 2.84

16 2 + 20
The minimum time is hours ≈ 2.84 hours ≈ 2 hours 50 minutes
15
31 seconds

473

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Graphic calculator techniques for question 13
In a Calculator page, define the function.
To find the x-value where the minimum
occurs, solve the derivative equalling√zero.
 √ 16 2 4 
Hence minimum occurs at 2 2, +
15 3

In a Graphs page enter the function t(x).


Find the minimum
using b>Analyze Graph>Minimum.

A further investigation can be made by


considering

64 + x2 20 − x
T (x) = +
A B
where A is the rowing speed and B is the
running speed.
In the problem, store A = 20 and B = 5 in a
Calculator page
Enter the formula in the Function Entry
Line as shown by the graph label.
The result is as expected. It is best to row
straight to F.

474

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Investigate the minimum value, holding
A = 5 and varying B. The use of fMin(,
b>Calculus>Function Minimum, is a
good way of doing this. The screen shows
a possible investigation. The first value of
fMin( was obtained with A = 5, B = 15. i.e.
f1(x). The following values are obtained
by altering the B value (A is constant) in
function f2(x).
Note: approx( is used to give decimal an-
swers for easier comparison. Other options
to give decimal answers can also be used.

14

Position of fishing boat 1 after t hours = (6 − 6t) km North


Position of fishing boat 2 after t hours (10 − 8t) km East
Distance
p apart after t hours
= (6 − 6t)2 + (10 − 8t)2 (Pythagoras’ Theorem)
Let D km bep the distance apart after t hours
D = (6 − 6t)2 + (10 − 8t)2
and D2 = (6 − 6t)2 + (10 − 8t)2
The minimum value of D will occur for the same value of t as the minimum of D2 .
d(D2 )
= −12(6 − 6t) − 16(10 − 8t)
dt
= −72 + 72t − 160 + 128t
= 200t − 232
d(D2 )
= 0 implies
dt
232
t= = 1.16
200
This is a local minimum as D2 vs t is a parabola with positive coefficient of t2 .
The boats are closest 1.16 hours after noon, i.e. after 1 hour 9 minutes and 36 seconds.
Whenpt = 1.16
D = (6 − 6 × 1.16)2 + (10 − 8 × 116)2
= 1.2
The least distance between the two fishing boats is 1.2 km.
475

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15 a

Area of rectangle, A = 2x × 2y

= 4x 2 − 2x2
1
= 4x(2 − 2x2 ) 2

b 2 − 2x2 > 0 for the relation to be defined


∴ 1 > x2
and −1 < x < 1
But 0 < x < 1 (as x is the half–width of the beam)
∴ allowable values are x ∈ (0, 1)

c Using the product rule and chain rule


1
A = 4x(2 − 2x2 ) 2
dA 1 1
= 4(2 − 2x2 ) 2 − 2x(2 − 2x2 ) 2 × 4x
dx
1 8x2
= 4(2 − x2 ) 2 − 1
(2 − 2x2 ) 2
4(2 − x2 ) − 8x2
= 1
(2 − 2x2 ) 2
8 − 8x2 − 8x2 8 − 16x2
= 1
= 1
(2 − 2x2 ) 2
(2 − 2x2 ) 2
dA
Maximum will occur when =0
dx
dA
When =0
dx
8 = 16x2
1
x2 =
2
1
∴ x=±√
2
1
but x ∈ (0, 1) ∴ x = √
2
1 1
A gradient chart shows local maximum when x = √ . When x = √ , y = ±1
2 2
476

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1
d When x = √
2
4   1 2  1
2
A= √ × 2−2× √
2 2
4 1
= √ × (2 − 1) 2
2

=2 2

∴ The maximum cross-sectional area of the beam is 2 2 square units.

16

h
a Area of a trapezoid = (a + b)
2
where h is the height of the trapezoid and a and b are the lengths of the opposite
parallel sides.
y
∴ Area of the trapezoid = (4 + 2x)
2
But y = 4 − x2
(4 − x2 )
∴ Area, A = (4 + 2x)
2
1
= (4 − x2 ) (2x + 4)
2
b Using the product rule
dA 1
= [−2x(2x + 4) + 2(4 − x2 )]
dx 2
1
= [−4x2 − 8x + 8 − 2x2 ]
2
1
= [−6x2 − 8x + 8] = −3x2 − 4x + 4
2

477

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dA
= 0 implies 3x2 + 4x − 4 = 0
dx
∴ (3x − 2) (x + 2) = 0
2
∴ x= or x = −2
3
dA
= −(3x − 2) (x + 2)
dx
2 dA
When x > , < 0 (locally)
3 dx
2 dA
When x < , >0
3 dx
2
∴ local maximum when x =
3
2
∴ The trapezoid has its greatest area when x =
3
1
c i A= × y(2a + 2x)
2
= y(a + x)
= (a2 − x2 ) (a + x)

ii Using the product rule


dA
= a2 − x2 + (−2x) (a + x)
dx
= a2 − x2 − 2xa − 2x2
= a2 − 2xa − 3x2
= (a + x) (a − 3x)

478

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dA a
iii = 0 implies x = or x = −a
dx 3
a dA
when x > , < 0 (locally)
3 dx
a dA
When x < , >0
3 dx
a
∴ maximum when x =
3

17 N(t) = 24te−0.2t
−t 24 −t
N 0 (t) = 24e 5 − te 5
5
−t  24t 
= e 5 24 −
5
N 0 (t) = 0,
24t
24 − =0
5
t
=1
5
t=5
N(5) = 120e−1
120
= = 44 bacteria
e
(round because it is a discrete quantity not a continuous one)

18 a y = −t3 + bt2 + ct
When t = 1, y = 10
When t = 2, y = 24
∴ 10 = −1 + b + c
and 24 = −8 + 4b + 2c
∴ 11 = b + c 1
and 32 = 4b + 2c 2
Subtract 2 × 1 from 2
10 = 2b
∴ b = 5 and from 1, c = 6
∴ y = −t3 + 5t2 + 6t

b y = −t3 + 5t2 + 6t

479

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i y is the rate of increase.
∴ to determine when area covered by the plant is a maximum consider y = 0
i.e. −t3 + 5t2 + 6t = 0
−t(t2 − 5t − 6) = 0
∴ t = 0 or (t − 6) (t + 1) = 0
∴ t = 6 or t = −1 or t (Note: t ≥ 0 and when t = 0, y = 0)
y = −t(t − 6) (t + 1)
When t > 6, y < 0 (locally)
When t < 6, y > 0
∴ local maximum then t = 6
The area is a maximum 6 weeks after planting.

ii The rate of increase y = −t3 + 5t2 + 6t


To determine maximum rate consider
dy
= −3t2 + 10t + 6
dt
dy
= 0 implies − 3t2 + 10t + 6 = 0
dt
The quadratic√ formula gives
−10 ± 100 + 72
t=
−6

−10 ± 172
=
−6

−10 ± 2 43
=
−6
√ √
10 ∓ 2 43 −5 ∓ 43
= = ≈ 3.852 or − 0.519
6 3
t ≥ 0 in this example and a gradient chart reveals that a maximum rate of
increase occurs when t = 3.852.
i.e. The rate of increase is a maximum after 3.852 weeks.

c This question requires antidifferentiation at year 11 MM 1 & 2 standard.


y = −t3 + 5t2 + 6t
t4 5t3 6t2
∴ Area = − + + +c
4 3 2
When t = 0, area = 100 cm ∴ c = 100
2

−t4 5t3
∴ Area = + + 3t2 + 100
4 3

480

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When t = 4
−44 5 × 43
Area = + + 3 × 16 + 100
4 3
5
= −43 + × 43 + 3 × 16 + 100
3
3
2×4
= 3 × 16 + 100
+
2 × 64
= + 48 + 100
3
2
= 42 + 48 + 100
3
2
= 190
3
2
The plant will cover 190 cm2 after 4 weeks
3
d After 6 weeks the rate becomes negative which implies the plant begins to recede.
Area = 244 cm2 after 6 weeks
7 = 218 cm2 after 7 weeks
= 121 cm2 after 8 weeks
The area becomes “negative” between 8 and 9 weeks. The model is not valid after
this. Once the area begins to decrease the model is questionable.

19 f (x) = x3 − 3x2 + 6x − 10

a f 0 (x) = 3x2 − 6x + 6
f 0 (x) = 3 implies 3x2 − 6x + 6 = 3
∴ x2 − 2x + 2 = 1
∴ x2 = 2x + 1 = 0
∴ (x − 1)2 = 0
x=1
and f (1) = 1 − 3 + 6 − 10 = −6
The coordinates of the point where f 0 (x) = 3 are (1, −6)

b f (x) = 3x2 − 6x + 6
= 3[x2 − 2x + 2]
= 3[x2 − 2x + 1 + 1]
= 3[(x − 1)2 + 1]
= 3(x − 1)2 + 3

c (x − 1)2 > 0 for all x ∈ R\{1}


481

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∴ f (x) > 3 for all x ∈ R\{1}

20 a y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d passes through the x-axis at (1, 0)


∴ 0 = a + b + c + d . . . . . . (1)
1
Gradient = 0 when x = 1 and x =
3
dy
gradient function, = 3ax2 + 2abx + c
dx
∴ 0 = 3a + 2b + c . . . . . . (2)
a 2
and 0 = + b + c . . . . . . (3)
3 3
1 4 
Finally it passes through the point ,
3 27
4 a b c
∴ = + + + d . . . . . . (4)
27 27 9 3
Subtract 3 and 2
8a 4b
0= +
3 3
∴ 0 = 2a + b
i.e. b = −2a . . . (5)
Substitute in (1) for b Substitute in (4) for b
4 a 2a c
0 = a − 2a + c + d = − + +d
27 27 9 3
4 5a c
i.e. 0 = −a + c + d . . . (6) = − + + d . . . (7)
27 27 3
Subtract (7) from (6)
4 22a 2c
− =− +
27 27 3
i.e −4 = −22a + 18c
and −2 = −11a + 9c
−2 + 11a
∴ c=
9
Substitute in (2) for b and c

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2 + 11a
0 = 3a − 4a + 2 −
9
9a + −2 + 11a
0=
9
∴ a=1
and b = −2a = −2
2 + 11
and c = − =1
9
From (1)
0=a+b+c+d
0=1−2+1+d
∴ d=0
i.e. a = 1, b = −2, c = 1, d = 0

483

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dy
b = 3ax2 + 2bx + c
dx
= 3x2 − 4x + 1
= (3x − 1) (x − 1)
dy 1
< 0 for < x < 1
dx 3
c

y = x3 − 2x2 + x
= x(x − 1)2
dy 1
= 0 when x =
dx 3
and x = 1
1 4
when x = , y =
3 27
dy 1 
and < 0 for x ∈ ,1
dx 3
π
21 V = ((y + 630)3 − 6303 )
3
a When y = 40
π
V = ((40 + 630)3 − 6303 )
3
π
= (6703 − 6303 )
3
π
= (50 716 000)
3
≈ 53109 671.0
Volume of water in reservoir = 53 109 671.0 m3
dV π
b = (3(y + 630)2 )
dy 3
= π(y + 630)2

484

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dV
c > 0 for all v ∈ R, gives that the function is increasing and the gradient increases
dy
as y increases.
π
d V= ((y + 630)3 − 6303 )
3
π
= ((690)3 + (630)3 ) when y = 60
3
π
= (78 462 000)
3
= 82 165 214 m3

dV
e = 20 000 − 0.005π(y + 630)2
dt

dV
The graph of against y is a parabola.
dt
It is the graph of z = −x2 transformed by a dilation of 0.005π from the x-axis
followed by a translation of 630 units “to the left” and 20 000 units “up”.
The domain is 0 ≤ y ≤ 60.
dV
When y = 60, = 12521.44
dt
dV
When y = 0, = 13765.51
dt
22 a i The circumference of the base of the cone is equal to the length of the sector
formed. Hence 2πr = (2π − θ) (radius of circle is one)
∴ 2πr = 2π − θ
2π − θ
r=

485

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ii

h2 + r2 = 1
∴ h2 = 1 − r2
2π − θ
From (i), r =

 2π − θ 2
∴ h =1−
2

s
 2π − θ 2
and h = 1 −

1
iii V = πr2 h
3
s
1 2π − θ
  2  2π − θ 2
= π 1−
3 2π 2π
π
b When θ =
2
π s
π 2π − 4 2 4π2 − (4π2 − 4πθ + θ2 )
V=
3 2π 4π2
π π 2
v
t
π 7
  2 4π × − ( )
= 4 4
3 8 4π2
v
u
t 1
49π 1 − 16
=
192r 4
49π 15
=
384 16
49π √
= 15
1536

486

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s
π  2π − θ 2 4πθ − θ2
c 0.3 = Solving using a CAS calculator θ = 0.3281
3 2π 4π2
(2π − θ)2 √
= 4πθ − θ2
24π2
d (Note: 0 < θ < π)

i maximum occurs at θ ≈ 1.153

ii maximum volume is V ≈ 0.403 cm2


(2π − θ)2 1
e V= (4πθ − θ 2 2
)
24π2
" #
dV 1 1 1 1
= −2(2π − θ) (4πθ − θ ) + (2π − θ) (4π − 2θ) (4πθ − π )
2 2 2 2 −2
dθ 24π2 2
(2π − θ) −2(4πθ − θ2 ) + (2π − θ)2
" #
=
24π2 1
(4πθ − θ2 ) 2
dV
= 0 implies θ = 2π

or −8πθ + 2θ2 + 4π2 − 4πθ + θ2 = 0
i.e 3θ2 − 12πθ √+ 4π2 = 0
12π ± 144π2 − 48π2
∴ θ=
6

12π ± 4 6π2
θ=
6

6π − 2π 6
∴ θ= ≈ 1.153
3
Maximum volume is 0.403 cm2

23 a i y
y = x3 + x2 + x

x
(0, 0)

No stationary points

487

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ii y

− 1, 5
3 27
x
−1.618 0 0.618
(1, −1)

iii y

(−1, 1)
0.618
x
−1.618 0
1, − 5
3 27

iv y

x
(0, 0)

No stationary point

b i f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 2ax + b

ii f 0 (x) = 0 implies 3x2 + 2ax + b = 0



−2a ± 4a2 − 4 × 3 × b
∴ x=
6

−2a ± 4a2 − 12b
=
6

−a ± a2 − 3b
=
3
−9
c i If a2 − 3b = 0, the cubic has one stationary point given by x = = −3.
3 488

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ii If b = 3, a2 = 9 and a = ±3 If b = 3, a = −3 and x = 1
∴ x = −1 or x = 1 y = (1)3 − 3(1)2 + 3(1)
If b = 3, a = 3 and x = −1 =1−3+3
y = (−1) + 3(−1) + 3(−1)
3 2
=1
= −1 + 3 − 3 Coordinates (1, 1)
= −1
Coordinates (−1, −1)
Each is a stationary point of inflexion

iii y
y = x3 + 3x2 + 3x

y = f ′(x)
x
−1 0
a = 3, b = 3
(−1, −1)

iv y

y = f ′(x) y = f(x)
(1, 1)

x
0 1
a = −3, b = 3
y = x3 − 3x2 + 3x

d No stationary points exist if a2 < 3b

489

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loge x
24 Let y=
x
1
dy x × x − loge x
=
dx x2
1 − loge x
=
x2
dy 1 − loge x
= 0 implies =0
dx x2
∴x=e
dy
< 0 for 1 − loge x < 0 ⇔ loge x > 1 ⇔ x > e
dx
dy
< 0 for 1 − loge x > 0 ⇔ loge x < 1 ⇔ x < e
dx
∴ a maximum for x = e
loge 1
When x = e, y = =
e e
i.e. The ratio of the logarithm of a number to the number is a maximum when x = e.

25 a i f (x) = 6x4 − x3 + ax2 − 6x + 8


If x + 1 is a factor f (−1) = 0
i.e. f (−1) = 6 + 1 + a + 6 + 8 = 0
∴ a + 21 = 0
a = −21

ii y

(−0.15, 8.4) 8

−4
3 −1 x
0 1 2
2
(−1.18, −0.88) (1.45, −21.4)

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b i y

(0, 8)
(0.143, 7.57)
x
0

ii minimum = 7.57 when x = 0.143

iii g0 (x) = 24x3 − 3x2 + 42x − 6

iv g0 (x) = 0
24x3 − 3x2 + 42x − 6 = 0
x = 0.1427

v g0 (o) = −6; g0 (10) = 24 114


d
vi (g(x)) can be written as g00 (x), meaning the derivative of derivative.
dx
g00 (x) = 72x2 − 6x + 42

vii g00 (x) = 0 implies


12x2 − x + 7 = 0
But ∆ = 1 − 4 × 12 × 7 < 0
∴ no stationary points
Hence the graph of
y = g0 (x) has positive gradient for all x. There is only one solution of g0 (x) = 0.

26 a f (x) = (x − a)2 (x − b)2 a > 0 b > 0


f 0 (x) = 2(x − a) (x − b)2 + 2(x − b) (x − a)2
= 2(x − a) (x − b) (x − b + x − a)
= 2(x − a) (x − b) (2x − (b + a))

b+a
b i f 0 (x) = 0 implies x = a or x = b or x =
2
ii x = a or x = b

c Stationary points
(a, 0) (b, 0)
491

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a+b
When x =
 a + b  2 a + b 2  a + b 2
f = −a −b
2 2 2
 a + b − 2a 2  a + b − 2b 2
=
2 2
 b − a 2  a − b 2
=
4 4
4
(a − b)
=
16
(a + b) (a − b)4 
∴ coordinates ,
2 16
d i y

y = (x a)4

x
0 a

ii If a = −b coordinates are (a, 0) (−a, 0) (0, a4 )

iii y

(0, a4)
x
−a a

27 a f (x) = (x − a)3 (x − b)
f 0 (x) = 3(x − a)2 (x − b) + (x − a)3
= (x − a)2 [3(x − b) + (x − a)]
= (x − a)2 [4x − (3b + a)]

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3b + a
b i f 0 (x) = 0 implies x = a or x =
4
ii f (x) = 0 implies x = a or x = b

c (a, 0) is a stationary point of inflection as f 0 (a + h) and f 0 (a − h) have the same sign


where h is a small number.
3b + a
If x =
4
 3b + a 3  3b + a 
f (x) = −a −b
4 4
 3b + a − 4a 3  3b + a − 4b 
=
4 4
 3b − 3a 3  a − b 
=
4 4
27
=− (b − a)4
256
3b + a
If x > then f 0 (x) > 0
4
3b + a
If x < then f 0 (x) < 0
4  3b + a 27 
∴ local minimum at ,− (b − a)4
4 256
d Calculator

e If a = −b
a 27a4
!
stationary points are (a, 0) and − ,
2 16

3b + a a
f i If a local minimum at x = 0, = 0, i.e. a = −3b or b = − .
4 3
a+b
g If there is a turning point for x =
2
a + b 3b + a
then =
2 4
∴ 2a + 2b = 3b + a
∴ 0=b−a
∴ b=a
If b = a f (x) = (x − a)4

28 f : (0, 6] → R, f (x) = x loge x + 1

1
a f 0 (x) = loge x + x × = loge x + 1 (product rule)
x

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b f 0 (x) = 0 implies loge x = −1
∴ x = e−1
When x > e−1 , loge x + 1 > 0
When x < e−1 , loge x + 1 < 0
∴ a minimum when x = e−1 ≈ 0.37,
i.e. during the fourth month of its life.
1
When x = e−1 , f (x) = loge e−1 + 1
e
1
=− +1
e
≈ 0.632

c y

1
1 , 0.632
e
x
0 6

d The mouse’s ability to memorise is a maximum after 6 years.

29 a i y2 + r2 = 100

∴ y = 100 − r2

∴ height = 2y = 2 100 − r2

ii V = πr2 h
 √ 
= πr2 2 100 − r2

= 2πr2 100 − r2

494

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b i V

(cm3)

0 10 r (cm)

ii Maximum volume is 2418.4 cm3


This occurs when r = 8.165 and h = 11.55

iii Use the ‘solve’ command of a CAS calculator.


r = 6.456 or r = 9.297
1
c i V = 2πr2 (100 − r2 ) 2
dV 1 2r 1
= 4πr(100 − r2 ) 2 − (100 − r2 )− 2 × 2πr2
dr 2
r2
" #
1
= 2πr 2(100 − r ) −
2 2
1
(100 − r2 ) 2
[2(100 − r2 ) − r2 ]
= 2πr 1
(100 − r2 ) 2
[200 − 3r2 ]
= 2πr 1
(100 − r2 ) 2
dV
ii If = 0, 200 − 3r2 = 0
dr
∴ 3r2 = 200
200
∴ r2 =
3
r r
200 600
r= =
3 3

10 6
=
3
∴ maximum volume is given by

495

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1
200  200  2
V max = 2π × 100 −
3 3
1 √
400π  100  2 4000π 3
= = ×
3 3 3 3

4000 3π
=
9
d i Calculator

dV  20 √6 
ii > 0 for r ∈ 0,
dr 6
dV
iii is increasing for r ∈ (0, 5.21)
dr
30 a Surface area = πr2 + 2πrh + 2πr2
∴ 3πr2 + 2πrh = 100π
∴ 3r2 + 2rh = 100
100 − 3r2
∴h=
2r
2
b V = πr2 h + πr3
3
 100 − 3r2  2
= πr2 + πr3
2r 3
 100 − 3r2  2
= πr + πr3
2 3
πr
= (300 − 9r2 + 4r2 )
6
πr
= (300 − 5r2 )
6
c defined for r > 0 and 300 − 5r2 > 0
i.e. r2√< 60
r < 2 15
π
d V = (300r − 5r3 )
6
dV π
= (300 − 15r2 )
dr 6

496

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e

31 a i 30x2 y = 3000
100
y=
x2

ii S = 12xy + 5xy + 13xy + 60x2


= 30xy + 60x2
100
= 30x + 60x2
x2
3000
= + 60x2
x

dS 3000
b i = − 2 + 120x
dx x
dS
ii = 0 implies 3000 = 120x3
dx
Therefore x3 = 250
2
and hence x = 5 3
2
When x = 5 3 , S ≈ 1539 cm2
dS dS dx  3000 
c = = − + 120x × 0.5
dt dx dt x2
dS  3000 
When x = 10, = − 2 + 1200 × 0.5
dt 10
= 585 cm2 /s

497

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100 000
32 a f (x) =
1 + 100e−3x
Using the Chain rule
100 000
f 0 (x) = − × −30e−0.3x
(1 + 100e−0.3x )2
3000 000e−0.3x
=
(1 + 100e−0.3x )2
3 000 000
b i When x = 0, f 0 (0) = = 294.08
(1 + 100)2
The rate of growth is 294 kangaroos per year when x = 0

3 000 000e−1.2
ii When x = 4, f 0 (4) = = 933.0498
(1 + 100e−1.2 )2
The rate of growth is 933 kangaroos per year when x = 4

33 a f is defined for
6 − 0.2x > 0
⇔ 6 > 0.2x
6
⇔ >x
0.2
⇔ 30 > x
∴ a = 30

b f (0) = 8 loge 6
When f (x) = 0
8 loge (6 − 0.2x) = 0
which implies
6 − 0.2x = 1
1
5= x
5
25 = x
∴ (25, 0) and (0, 8 loge 6) are the coordinates of the axes intercepts

c f (x) = 8 loge (6 − 0.2x)


−8
f 0 (x) =
5(6 − 0.2x)
when x = 20
−8
f 0 (20) =
5(6 − 4)
−4
= = −0.8
5

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
d Consider x = 8 loge (6 − 0.2y)
x y
e8 = 6 −
5
 x
∴ y = 5 6 − e8
 x
∴ f (x) = 5 6 − e
−1 8

e The domain of f −1 is R

34 a Calculator

b g0 (x) = cos(x)esin x
g0 (x) = 0 implies cos x = 0 asesin x , 0
π 3π
∴ the stationary points occur at x = and x =
2 2
The
 π coordinates
  3π 1of
 the stationary points are
, e and ,
2 2 e
1 
c range = , e
e
d period = 2π as g(x + 2π) = g(x)

35 a y = ex
dy
= ex
dx
dy
When x = 0, =1
dx
Therefore equation of tangent is y = x + 1

b Identical transformations applied to the curve and the tangent retain the relationship,
i.e. the image of the tangent is tangent to the image of the curve.

 x equation y = dy
c Consider the curve with a f (bx)
1
Then the gradient at is given by = ab f 0 (bx) = ab f 0 (x1 )
b dx

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But the gradient of y = f (x) at x1 is f 0 (x1 ) = m
∴ gradient of y = a f (bx) is abm
x 
1
∴ equation of the tangent at , y1 a
b
 x1 
is y − y1 a = abm x −
b
 x1 
∴ y = bam x − + y1 a
b
= bamx − amx1 + y1 a
But y1 = mx1 + c and
∴ y = a(bmx − mx1 + y1 )
y = a(bmx − mx1 + mx1 + c)
∴ y = a(bmx + c)

60 60
36 a i When t = 0, x = = = 30
5e0
−3 2
When t = 0, there are 30 g not dissolved.

60 1 6
ii When t = 5, x = where λ = loge
5e5λ −3 2 5
60
=  
5 6
2 log 5
5e −3
60
=
 5
6 2
5× 5 −3

≈ 12.2769
When t = 5 there are 12.28 g not dissolved.
dx 60
b = 5λeλt × − λt (Chain rule)
dt (5e − 3)2
300λeλt
=−
(5eλt − 3)2

500

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60
c i x=
5eλt −3
∴ 5xeλt − 3x = 60
3x + 60
∴ eλt =
5x
dx 300λeλt
∴ = − 2
dt λt
5e − 3
 3x + 60   5(3x + 60) 2
= −300λ ÷ −3
5x 5x
 3x + 60   3x + 60 − 3x 2
= −60λ ÷
x x
 3x + 60  x2
= −60λ ×
x 3600
x
= −λ(x + 20) ×
20
λx 2
=− − λx
20
dx  x2 
ii = −λ +x
dt 20
 x 
= −λx +1
20
x-axis intercepts x = 0 and x = −20 domain = [0, ∞)

iii Rate of dissolving increases where x is the amount of material not dissolved.

37 y

(8, 2)
N

x
0 M P

1
a Let y =
tan θ
Let u = tan θ

501

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
1 dy dy du
Then y = and = ×
u dθ du dθ
1
= − 2 × sec2 θ
u
1
= − 2 × sec2 θ
tan θ
cos2 θ
= − 2 × sec2 θ
sin θ
1
=− 2
sin θ
= −cosec2 θ
2
b = tan θ
MP
2
∴ MP =
tan θ
NQ
c = tan θ
8
∴ NQ = 8 tan θ

d OP + OQ = OM + MP + ON + NQ
2
=8+ + 2 + 8 tan θ
tan θ
2
= 10 + 8 tan θ +
tan θ

e Let x = OP + OQ
2
i.e. x = 10 + 8 tan θ +
tan θ
dx
= −2 cosec2 θ + 8 sec2 θ

dx
f minimum occurs when =0

502

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−2[cosec]2 θ + 8 sec2 θ = 0
2 8
∴ − + =0
sin θ cos2 θ
2

2 8
∴ =
sin θ cos2 θ
2

sin2 θ 2 1
= =
cos2 θ 8 4
1
∴ tan2 θ =
4
1
and tan θ = ±
2
π
We know 0 < θ <
2
1
∴ tan θ =
2
∴ θ > 26.6◦
dx
If θ > 26.6◦ , <0 (locally)

dx
If θ < 26.6◦ , >0

∴ minimum when θ = 26.6◦
1
If tan θ =
2
2
x= + 8 tan θ + 10
tan θ
2 1
= + 8 × + 10
1 2
2
= 4 + 4 + 10 = 18
The minimum value of x is 18 units.

38 Let f : R → R, f (x) = e x − e−x

a f 0 (x) = e x + e−x

b f (x) = 0 implies e x − e−x = 0


1
i.e. e x − x = 0
e
∴ e −1=0
2x

∴ 2x = 0
which implies x = 0

c f 0 (x) = e x + e−x and both e x and e−x are positive, so f 0 (x) > 0 for all x.

503

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d y The result that f 0 (x) > 0 for all x is used

x
0

39 a (loge x)2 = 2 loge x


is equivalent to (loge x)2 − 2 loge x = 0
i.e. loge x[loge x − 2] = 0
which implies loge x = 0 or loge x = 2
∴ x = 1 or x = e2

For y = 2 loge x For y = (loge x)2


dy 2
= Let u = log2e x
dx x
Then y = u2
dy dy du
b and = .
dx du dx
1
= 2u.
x
2 loge x
=
x
The gradient of y = 2 loge x at x = 1 is 2
The gradient of y = (loge x)2 at x = 1 is 0
This information is now used to sketch the graphs.

c Note: y = (loge x)2 ≥ 0 for all x and


(loge x)2 → ∞ as x → 0
  
d ∴ x : 2 loge x > (loge x)2 = x : 1 < x < y
y = (loge x)2

2
e
y = 2loge x
(e2, 4)
x
0 (1, 0)
e2

504

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40 A cross-section of the solids is as shown.

a h = V A + AE V

= a + a cos θ
where a is the radius of the sphere
h cm
b r = a sin θ A
1
c V = πr2 h
3 O r C
B
1
= π(a2 sin2 θ)(a + a cos θ)
3
1
= πa3 sin2 θ(1 + cos θ)
3

d Using the product rule


dV 1 3
= πa [sin2 θ × − sin θ + 2 sin θ cos θ(1 + cos θ)]
dθ 3
1
= πa3 [− sin3 θ + 2 sin θ cos θ(1 + cos θ)]
3
dV 1
= 0 implies πa3 [− sin3 θ + 2 sin θ cos θ(1 + cos θ)] = 0
dθ 3
∴ sin θ = 2 sin θ cos θ(1 + cos θ)
3

For sin θ , 0
sin2 θ = 2 cos θ + 2 cos2 θ
Using sin2 θ = 1 − cos2 θ
1 − cos2 θ = 2 cos θ + 2 cos2 θ
which implies 3 cos2 θ + 2 cos θ − 1 = 0
This is a quadratic equation in cos θ. It factorises to give the following:
(3 cos θ − 1)(cos θ + 1) = 0
1
∴ cos θ = or cos θ = −1
3
A gradient chart confirms a maximum volume occurs when
1 −1 1

cos θ = when θ = cos , i.e. θ ≈ 70.53◦
3 3

505

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1
e V = πa3 sin2 4(1 + cos θ)
3
Using sin θ = 1 − cos2 θ
2

1
V = πa3 (1 − cos2 θ)(1 + cos θ)
3
1
When cos θ =
3
1 3 1  1
V = πa 1 − 1+
3 9 3
1 8 4
= πa3 × ×
3 9 3
3
32πa
=
81
32πa3
The maximum volume is cm3
81
Aebt
41 a y =
1 + Aebt
Dividing through by 1 + Aebt gives
1
y=1−
1 + Aebt
1
and as Aebt > 0 for all t, <1
1 + Aebt
Hence 0 < y < 1

b By using the quotient rule


dy (1 + Aebt )bAebt − bA2 e2bt
=
dt (1 + Aebt )2
bAebt
=
(1 + Aebt )2

Aebt
c As y=
1 + Aebt
y(1 + Aebt ) = Aebt
∴ y + yAebt = Aebt
and y = Aebt (1 − y)
y
∴ Aebt =
1−y
d i From the result of b

506

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dy bAebt
=
dt (1 + Aebt )2
y
Substituting Aebt=
1−y
dy  y   y 2
=b ÷ 1+
dx 1−y 1−y
 y 
=b × (1 − y)2
1−y
= by(1 − y)

dy
ii = by(1 − y)
dx
is a quadratic expression in y with negative coefficient of y2 (b is a positive
constant)
∴ a maximum occurs when y = 0.5.
y
e From c Aebt =
1−y
∴ when A = 0.01, b = 0.7 and y = 0.5
0.01e0.7t = 1
∴ e0.7t = 100
∴ 0.7t = loge 100
10
∴ t= loge 100 ≈ 6.578
7
∴ The bacteria are increasing at the fastest rate when t = 7 (to the nearest hour).
ex
42 Let f (x) =
x
a f (x) = e x .x−1
The product rule gives
f 0 (x) = e x x−1 − e x x−2
ex ex
= − 2
x x
xe x − e x
=
x2

b If f 0 (x) = 0
xe x − e x
=0
x2
which implies e x (x − 1) = 0
and as e x , 0 for all x ∈ R+ , x = 1

507

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
c There is a stationary point when x = 1 and f (1) = e.
Therefore there is a stationary point at (1, e).
e x (x − 1)
If x > 1 f 0 (x) = 2
> 0 (Note: domain of f 0 is R+ )
x
e x (x − 1)
If x < 1 f (x) =
0
<0
x2
∴ there is a minimum at(1, e)
f 0 (x) xe x − e x x
d i = 2
× x y
f (x) x e
x−1
=
x
f 0 (x)  1
ii lim x→∞ = lim 1 − =1
0
f (x) x→∞ x (1, e)
∴ f (x) ≈ f (x) when x is very large x
0

aekt
e n=
t
ae65k
When t = 65, n =
65
ae30k
When t = 30, n =
30
The population of birds is the same for the years 1930 and 1965.
ae65k ae30k
∴ =
65 30
65 13
∴ e35k = =
30 6
 13 
∴ 35k = loge
6
1  13 
∴ k= loge ≈ 0.0221
35 6
dn
f Minimum occurs when =0
dt
Using the quotient rule
dn a(ktekt − ekt )
=
dt t2
aekt (kt − 1)
=
t2
dn 1
= 0 implies t =
dt k
This is a local minimum

508

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
1 35
and t =  13  =
 13  ≈ 45.27
1
loge loge
35 6 6
The minimum population occurred in 1945.

43 a When t = 0, N = 1000
When t = 5, N = 10 000
As N = Aekt
1000 = Ae0
which implies A = 1000
Also 10 000 = 1000e5k
which implies
e5k = 10
1
∴ k = loge 10
5
1
i.e. A = 1000 and k = loge 10 ≈ 0.46
5
dN 1
b = kAekt , where A = 1000 and k = loge 10
dt 5
dN
c = kN as N = Aekt
dt
d i When t = 4
dN 1 4
= loge 10 × 1000e 5 loge 10
dt 5
4
= 200 loge 10 × 10 5
i.e. the rate of growth when t = 4 is 2905.7 bacteria/hour.

ii When t = 50
dN 50
= 200(loge 10)e 5 loge 10
dt
= 200 loge 10 × 1010
= 2 loge 10 × 1012
≈ 4.61 × 1012
i.e. the rate of growth when t = 50 is 4.61 × 1012 bacteria/hour.

44 a For the populations to be equal


2 × 104 e0.03t = 104 e0.05t
which implies
e0.02t = 2
1
∴t= loge 2 ≈ 34.657
0.02
The populations will be equal after 34.66 years.
509

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dA dB
b = 600e0.03t and = 500e0.05t
dt dt
Rates are equal implies
dA dB
=
dt dt
∴ 600e0.03t = 500e0.05t
6
= e0.02t
5
which implies 
1 6
t= loge
0.02 5
6
= 50 loge ≈ 9.116
5
Rates are equal after 9.12 years.

45 h = 0.5 + 0.2 sin(3πt)t ≥ 0


where h metres is the height of the particular time t seconds.

a The greatest height above the floor is reached at values of t such that sin(3πt) = 1
i.e. the greatest height is 0.7 metres
and this occurs when
π 5π
3πt = or or · · ·
2 2
1 5
t = or or · · ·
6 6
1
The question required the first time and this is given by t =
6
2
b Period of oscillation is 2π ÷ 3π = seconds.
3
dh
c = 0.6π cos(3πt)
dt
1 dh
i When t = , = 0.6π cos(π) = −0.6π
3 dt
The speed is 0.6 π metres/second moving downwards.
2 dh
ii When t = , = 0.6π cos(2π) = 0.6π
3 dt
The speed is 0.6π metres/second moving upwards.
1 dh π
iii When t = , = 0.6π cos =0
6 dt 2
The speed is 0 metres/second.

510

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46 T (t) = p + q cos(πrt) where p, q and r are constants

a From the graph:



i The period is 12 ∴ = 12
πr
1
which implies r =
6
(20 − 4)
ii The amplitude is = 8 which implies q = 8
2
20 + 4
The centre is T = = 12 which implies p = 12
2

b T 0 (t) = −πrq sin(πrt)


4π  3π 
∴ T 0 (3) = − sin
3 6
4π  π 4π
= − sin =−
3 2 3

The hours of night are decreasing at a rate of hours/month when t = 3
3
4π  3π  4π
T 0 (9) = − sin =
3 2 3

The hours of night are increasing at a rate of hours/month when t = 9
3
c Average rate of change from t = 0 to t = 6
T (6) − T (0)
=
6−0
 πt 
when T (t) = 12 + 8 cos
6
12 + 8 cos(π) − (12 + 8 cos(0))
∴ Average rate of change =
6
12 − 8 − 12 − 8
=
6
16 8
=− =−
6 3
8
i.e. the average rate of change for time interval [0, 6] is − hours/month.
3
4π  πt 
d T 0 (t) = − sin
3 6
Rate of change of hours is maximum (in the sense of maximum increasing rate)
 πt 
when sin = −1
6
This occurs when
πt 3π 7π
= or or . . .
6 2 2
i.e. t = 9 or 21 or . . .
The rate of change of hours of night is a miximum after 9 months.
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47 a Area A = length × width
= x × 2 cos(3x)
= 2x cos(3x)
dA
b i = 2 cos(3x) − 6x sin(3x)
dx
dA
ii When x = 0, =2
dx
π dA π π
When x = , = −6 × sin
6 dx 6 2
= −π

c i A

x
0 π
6
ii Either use the ‘Intersect’ feature of a CAS calculator of the graph screen
or use the ‘solve’ command at the calculator screen to solve the equation
2x cos 3x = 0.2.
x = 0.105 or x = 0.449

iii maximum area is 0.374


Use the ‘max’ feature of a CAS calculator of the graph screen or use the
y
‘flex’ command at the calculator screen with the instruction 0 < x < . when
6
x = 0.287
dA
d i = 2 cos(3x) − 6x sin(3x)
dx
dA 1
= 0 implies tan(3x) =
dx 3x
ii The co-ordinates of the points of intersection are (0.287, 1.16), founded as
with c ii.
1 t
48 a i N 0 (t) = −1 + e 20
10

512

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t
ii N 0 (t) = 0 implies 10 = e 20
∴ t = 20 loge 10 ≈ 46.05
When t = 20 loge 10
N(t) = 1000 − 20 loge 10 + 2eloge 10
= 1000 − 20 loge 10 + 20
= 1020 − 20 loge 10
≈ 973.95
Minimum population is 974

iii N(0) = 1000 + 2 = 1002

iv N(100) = 1000 − 100 + 2e5


= 900 + 2e5
≈ 1196.826

v N
(100, 900 + 2e5)

1002 y = N(t)

(20 loge 10, 974)


t
0
1
1 t2
b N2 (t) = 1000 − t2 + 2e 20

i N2 (0) = 1000 − 0 + 2
= 1002
1
ii N2 (100) = 1000 − 10 + 2e 2
1
= 990 + 2e 2
1
1 1 1 1 1 t2
iii N20 (t) = − t− 2 + t− 2 × × 2e 20
2 2 20
1
1 1 1 t2 
= t 2 −1 + e 20
2 10

513

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
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1
t2
N20 (t) = 0 implies e 20 = 10
1
t2
∴ = loge 10
20
1
∴ t 2 = 20 loge 10
∴ t = (20 loge 10)2
When t = (20 loge 10)2
N2 (t) = 1000 − 20 loge 10 + 2elogs 10
= 1000 − 20 loge 10 + 20
Minimum population is 974
3 t
c N3 (t) = 1000 − t 2 + 2e 20

i Using a CAS calculator with the ‘min’ feature at the graph screen, the minimum
population is
297 when t = 100.24
3 1 1 t
d i N30 (t) = − t 2 + e 20
2 10

ii N30 (t) = 0
3 1 1 t
t 2 = e 20
2 10
1 t
15t 2 = e 20

t = 20 loge (15 t)

514

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-56747-4 © Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
49 a y = (2x2 − 5x)eax
(3, 10) : 10 = 3e3a
10
e3a =
3  
1 10
a = log e
3 3
b i y = 0: 2x2 − 5x = 0 (since eax > 0)
x(2x − 5) = 0
5
x = 0,
2
dy
ii = (4x − 5)eax + (2x2 − 5x) × aeax
dx
= (2ax2 (4 − 5a)x − 5)eax
= 0 if
2ax + (4 − 5a)x√− 5 = 0
2

−4 + 5a ± 16 − 40a + 25a2 + 40a


x=
4a

−4 + 5a ± 25a2 + 16
=
4a

515

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Mathematical Methods 3&4 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.