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Young, A.

AP Lab # 1
Diffusion and Osmosis

Introduction
Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration
to an area of lower concentration. The molecules pass across a gradient and have a
net change in movement until it reaches its equilibrium. Certain type diffusion is
osmosis which is the diffusion of water. The goal of molecules moving along a
gradient is to reach equilibrium, which is when the solution and the object placed in
the solution are both isotonic. When something is isotonic, it is equal in
concentration. This means that the molecules are moving into the object and out of
the object into the solution equally. When the solution has a higher concentration
than the object has, the solution is hypertonic and the object is hypotonic.
Hypertonic has more solute and less water whereas the hypotonic has less solute
and more water. The hypotonic solution wants to give water to the hypertonic
solution; therefore, the object in the hypertonic solution loses water in attempt to
reach equilibrium. When the cell loses water, plasmolysis is occurring because the
cell is shrinking due to its loss of water. Water is what typically moves across the
membrane because most solutes are too large to move across; they cannot pass
through the pores on the membrane.
Water potential is based off of two components: pressure potential and the
solute potential. Water potential measures the tendency of water to leave on place
in favor of another place. This is when it would move down a water potential
gradient. If pressure is increased, the water potential increases. If the solute
potential is increased, the water potential is also increased. Water potential is the
sum of the pressure potential and the solute potential.

Data
Table 1.1
Initial Solution Color Presence of Glucose
Contents Initial Final Initial Final
Bag 15% Clear Blue-Purple + +
glucose &
1% Starch
Beaker H2O & IKI Golden- Golden- - +
yellow yellow

Table 1.2 – Dialysis Bag Results: Group Data


Contents in Initial Mass Final Mass Mass Percent
Dialysis Bag Difference Change in
Mass
0.0 M 20.85g 20.2g -0.7 -3.1%
0.2 M 20.72g 20.4g -0.3 -1.5%
0.4 M 21.09g 24.5g 3.4 16.2%
0.6 M 19.97g 21.3g 1.3 6.7%
0.8 M 21.64g 23.5g 1.9 8.6%
1.0 M 22.27g 27.2g 4.9 22.1%

Table 1.3 – Percent Change in Mass of Dialysis Bags


Percent Change in Mass of Dialysis Bags Class
Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Avera
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ge
0.0M -3.1 0 1.8 -0.1 0.5 2.6 4.4 -1.1 0.6

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Young, A. AP Lab # 1
Diffusion and Osmosis

0.2M -1.5 5.8 6.7 5.0 5.7 7.3 6.3 3.2 4.8
0.4M 16.2 11.4 14.3 8.9 11.5 11.5 13.8 8.9 12.1
0.6M 6.7 14.3 18.8 16.4 16.2 18.3 20.2 13.4 15.5
0.8M 8.6 17.7 23.7 25.1 25.5 25.2 23.6 21.8 21.4
1.0M 22.1 32.0 39.7 33.5 39.6 45.0 41.0 27.2 35.0

Table 1.4 – Baby Carrot: Individual Data


Contents in Initial Mass Final Mass Mass Diff. % Change in
Beaker Mass
0.0 M 9.17g 9.1g -0.1 -0.8%
0.2 M 12.83g 12.5g -0.3 -2.6%
0.4 M 10.36g 9.9g -0.5 -4.4%
0.6 M 12.75g 11.3g -1.5 -11.4%
0.8 M 13.15g 10.7g -2.5 -18.6%
1.0 M 14.39g 11.4g -3.0 -20.2%

Table 1.5 – Baby Carrot: Class Data


Percent Change in Mass of Baby Carrots Class
Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Avera
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ge
0.0M -0.8 -1.3 -0.3 0.7 0 2.1 -0.4 0 1.4
0.2M -2.6 -1.9 -1.5 -0.5 -2.2 -0.6 -2.3 -1.3 -1.6
0.4M -4.4 -1.9 -3.2 -2.8 -3.9 -2.4 -4.4 -4.4 -3.4
0.6M -11.4 -8.2 -11.6 -11.6 -8.3 -10.9 -10.8 -10.8 -10.1
0.8M -18.6 -15.8 -19.0 -16.6 -19.6 -16.0 -18.8 -18.8 -17.5
1.0M -20.2 -18.4 -21.4 -20.5 -21.3 -20.7 -21.3 -21.3 -20.7

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Young, A. AP Lab # 1
Diffusion and Osmosis

Analysis & Conclusions


1. Exercise 1A: Describe and explain the results that were obtained. Explain
HOW we know that each substance was moving where it did (or where it
didn’t.)
Glucose and starch were in the “cell” and the iodine solution was outside of
the cell. The initial color of the “cell” was clear and the initial color of the
beaker was golden-yellow due the iodine solution in it. As time elapsed, the
“cell” color changed to a bluish-purple color while the beaker color remained
the same golden-yellow color. Due to the color change in the bag
representing the cell, it shows that the iodine solution came through the
pores of the membrane and showed the presence of starch. When tested for
glucose, the solution in the beaker tested positive for glucose, thus proving
that glucose was small enough to pass through the pores of the membrane
on the dialysis bag. The sucrose and the starch were too big to move through
the pores of the membrane because they were not found in the beaker
solution. The glucose molecules, water molecules, and iodine are small
enough to pass through the membranes’ pores.

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Young, A. AP Lab # 1
Diffusion and Osmosis

2. Exercise 1B: Describe and explain the results that were obtained using the
dialysis bags in distilled water.
The dialysis bags containing different molarity levels of sucrose and
weighted. They were then placed in cups of distilled water. After completely
immersing the dialysis bags in the distilled water for 30 minutes, the bags
were weighted again. The results showed that the difference between the
final mass and the initial mass had an increase. The dialysis bags increased
in mass, therefore they gained water. The bags were hypertonic to the
distilled water, which was hypotonic. The water molecules from the distilled
water went into the dialysis bags in attempt to create equilibrium by
balancing out the concentration in the bags and the cup. Hypotonic solutions
always donate to the hypertonic solution.
3. Exercise 1C: Describe and explain the results that were obtained using the
carrots in the varying sucrose solutions.
Two carrots were placed in different levels of molarity of sucrose. The carrots
were weighted before they were placed in the sucrose solution and then they
were left overnight while completely immersed in the solutions. They were
then weighted again, and results showed that there was a decrease in mass.
This means that the carrots were hypotonic to the solutions, which were
hypertonic, they were immersed in. In attempt to reach isotonic and
equilibrium, water left the carrot and entered the sucrose solution.

4. Exercise 1D: Describe the results that were obtained in the zucchini core
experiment. Explain what these results indicate about the molarity of
zucchinis. Identify the molar concentration of the zucchini cores and indicate
how you know this.
The zucchini cores lost mass throughout the experiment. The higher the
sucrose molarity was, the greater the percent change in mass. Like the
carrots, the zucchini were hypotonic to the hypertonic solution they were
immersed in. Therefore, they lost water in attempt to create equilibrium,
making both the zucchini and the solution isotonic. The molar concentration
of the zucchini cores is most likely 0.26M because it is at equilibrium when it
crosses the X-axis at 0 and it does with the molarity at roughly 0.26M. This is
shown in the graph above titled “Percent Change in Mass of Zucchini Cores.”
5. Exercise 1E: Describe and explain the results that were obtained using the
onion cells and the salt solution.
When the salt solution was added to the onion cells, the onion cells lost
water, thus causing them to shrink in the process of plasmolysis, which is the
shrinking of the cytoplasm. The cell is hypotonic and the salt solution is
hypertonic, so in attempt to reach equilibrium, the water from the cytoplasm
leaves the cell and goes to the outer salt solution. The cell wall, however, still
holds its shape.