Sie sind auf Seite 1von 31

See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.

net/publication/309487107

TRAFFIC CALMING MEASURES - REVIEW AND ANALYSIS

Working Paper · May 2009


DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.19515.00807

CITATION READS

1 2,268

2 authors:

Marianne Vanderschuren Rahul Jobanputra


University of Cape Town South Africa Government
116 PUBLICATIONS   327 CITATIONS    12 PUBLICATIONS   12 CITATIONS   

SEE PROFILE SEE PROFILE

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

Road Safety View project

Land-Use Planning View project

All content following this page was uploaded by Marianne Vanderschuren on 28 October 2016.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.


ACET PROJECT 7:
TRAFFIC CALMING MEASURES -
REVIEW AND ANALYSIS

May 2009

University of Cape Town

Marianne Vanderschuren
Rahul Jobanputra
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... - 1 -
1.1. BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................... - 1 -
1.2. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY ................................................................................ - 1 -
1.3. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS ........................................................................................... - 1 -
2. TYPES OF TRAFFIC CALMING MEASURES ........................................................ - 3 -
2.1. SPEED CONTROL MEASURES ...................................................................................... - 5 -
2.1.1. Speed hump .......................................................................................................... - 5 -
2.1.2. Speed table ........................................................................................................... - 5 -
2.1.3. Raised crosswalk .................................................................................................. - 6 -
2.1.4. Raised intersection ............................................................................................... - 6 -
2.1.5. Textured pavements ............................................................................................. - 7 -
2.1.6. Speed cushion ...................................................................................................... - 7 -
2.1.7. Rumble Strips ....................................................................................................... - 8 -
2.1.8. Traffic circle .......................................................................................................... - 8 -
2.1.9. Roundabout........................................................................................................... - 9 -
2.1.10. Chicanes.............................................................................................................. - 10 -
2.1.11. Realigned intersection ........................................................................................ - 10 -
2.1.12. Tight radii ............................................................................................................ - 10 -
2.1.13. Neckdowns.......................................................................................................... - 11 -
2.1.14. Centre island narrowing ..................................................................................... - 11 -
2.1.15. Chokers ............................................................................................................... - 12 -
2.1.16. Road Diets ........................................................................................................... - 12 -
2.1.17. Bike Lanes........................................................................................................... - 13 -
2.2. VOLUME REDUCTION MEASURES .............................................................................. - 13 -
2.2.1. Full closure ......................................................................................................... - 13 -
2.2.2. Half closure ......................................................................................................... - 14 -
2.2.3. Diagonal diverters............................................................................................... - 14 -
2.2.4. Lateral shift ......................................................................................................... - 15 -
2.2.5. Median barriers ................................................................................................... - 15 -
2.2.6. Neo-Traditional Design ....................................................................................... - 15 -
3. ESTIMATED TRAVEL IMPACTS OF TRAFFIC CALMING MEASURES .............. - 17 -
4. MICRO- SIMULATION MODELLING .................................................................... - 20 -
4.1. MODELLING APPROACH ........................................................................................... - 20 -
4.2. FINDINGS ............................................................................................................... - 20 -
4.3. COMPARISON OF MODELLING RESULTS WITH INTERNATIONAL LITERATURE .................... - 21 -
5. SYNTHESES ........................................................................................................ - 23 -

- II -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACKGROUND

Transport is an essential component of today’s society. It brings huge benefits, but it


also has many costs. One of the major costs in South Africa is the cost related to and
due to road accidents. Annually, between 14 000 and 18 000 persons are killed
(www.arrivealive.co.za) on South African roads. According to the World Road statistics
(IRF, 2006), South Africa has one of the highest number of people killed in road
accidents per 100 000 population in the world.

Road based traffic calming measures have, amongst other measures, been proven to
be successful in many parts of the World in reducing the number of accidents and
consequently costs to society. Definitions of traffic calming and the use of design
features vary, but they all share the goal of reducing vehicle speeds, improving safety,
mobility for non-motorised transport and enhancing quality of life by context specific
design.

Road based traffic calming projects can vary from a few minor changes, to
modifications of local streets, to area wide changes and major rebuilds. Impacts range
from moderate speed reductions to arterial design changes with various degrees of
success in reducing crashes.

1.2. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY

This report provides a comprehensive overview of common (inter)national road based


traffic calming strategies and devices by category and their relative degree of success
based on an extensive literature review. The findings are supplemented by computer
modelled outcomes and compared and contrasted to determine whether modelled
strategies provide realistic results and whether models can be used to provide
guidance on the most appropriate strategy for the goals defined.

1.3. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS


The scope of this exercise is limited to research material available via the Internet,
UCT’s library and databases, journal pages and commercially available software. The
research is as exhaustive as possible but has been presented using the most common
road based traffic calming features used in practice and the results, comparisons and
outcomes are not intended as a guide for appropriate uses in specific contexts.

--1--
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

It should be noted that it is anticipated that computer models can only be created for
certain scenarios and comparisons will be limited to those. Furhtermore, the modelling
is based on a non-calibrated vehicle flow on a single link. The effects of volume
change can therefore not be established. It is anticipated that future network wide
modelling studies, within ACET, will however be able to provide volumetric guidelines.

--2--
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

2. TYPES OF TRAFFIC CALMING MEASURES

Road based traffic calming measures can be separated into two groups based on the
main impact intended. Volume control measures are primarily used to address cut-
through traffic problems by blocking certain movements, thereby diverting traffic to
streets better able to handle it. Speed control measures are primarily used to
address speeding problems by changing vertical alignment, changing horizontal
alignment, or narrowing the roadway. The distinction between the two types of
measures is not as clear as their names suggest, since speed control measures
frequently divert traffic to alternate routes, and volume control measures also slow
down traffic flows (www.trafficcalming.org). Table 1 provides an overview of the
different types of measures.

Table 1: Traffic calming measures


Speed control measures Volume
measures
Vertical deflection Horizontal Horizontal Others Divertive/
deflection narrowing restrictive
 Speed hump  Traffic circle  Neckdowns  Speed  Full
 Speed table  Roundabout  Centre Limits closure
 Raised  Chicanes island  Speed  Half
crosswalk  Realigned narrowing alerts, closure
 Raised intersection  Chokers enforce  Diagonal
intersection  Tight radii  ‘Road diets’  Perceptual diverters
 Textured  Bike lanes design  Lateral
pavements  Warning shift
 Speed Signs  Median
cushion barriers
 Rumble  Neo-
strips traditional
design
Source: Adapted from www.trafficcalming.org and www.vtpi.org

The remainder of this chapter provides a brief description of the potential individual
measures, however, in practice, usually a combination of measures provide the
greatest benefits and design is always context specific.

Readers need to realise that different measures are appropriate on different types of
roads. Furthermore, effects on speeds and volumes are not mutually exclusive.
Table 2 provides an overview of the road applications (arterial versus local), as well as
the impact on speed and volume of various identified traffic calming measures.

--3--
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Table 2: Traffic calming application and impacts


Type Application Impacts
Arterial Local Volumes Speeds
Speed hump -  Possible Yes
Speed table -  Possible Yes
Raised crosswalk   Possible Yes
Raised intersection With caution  Possible Yes
Textured pavements   Possible Yes
Speed cushion With caution  Possible Yes
Rumble strips   No Yes
Traffic (mini) circle -  Possible Yes
Roundabout  - Not likely Yes
Chicanes -  Yes Yes
Realigned intersection   Possible Yes
Tight radii   Possible Yes
Neckdowns   Possible Yes
Centre island narrowing   Possible Yes
Chokers   Possible Yes
‘Road diets’   Yes Yes
Bike lanes   Possible Possible
Speed Limits   Yes Yes
Speed alerts, enforcement   No Yes
Perceptual design   Possible Yes
Warning Signs   No Yes
Full closure -  Yes Yes
Half closure   Yes Possible
Diagonal diverters   Yes Possible
Lateral shift   No Yes
Median barriers  - Yes Yes
Neo-traditional design   Yes Yes
Source: Adapted from VTPI, 1999; based on various

Measures described as ‘Other’ in Table 1 are omitted from the detail in the remainder
of this chapter, as the focus has been kept on physical measures only. These
measures are either design based as in the Neo-traditional design or are signage or
enforcement devices and are generally targeted at reducing speeds.

--4--
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

2.1. SPEED CONTROL MEASURES

2.1.1. Speed hump


Speed humps are raised areas placed across the roadway. They are often tapered as
they reach the kerb on each end to allow unimpeded drainage. Speed Humps are
good for locations where very low speeds are desired and reasonable, and where
noise and fumes are not a major concern (see Table 3).

Table 2: : Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of speed humps


Advantages Disadvantages
 Relatively inexpensive  Causes a "rough ride" for all
 Relatively easy for bicycles to drivers, and can cause severe pain
cross if designed appropriately for people with certain skeletal
 Effective in slowing travel speeds. disabilities.
 Forces large vehicles, such as
emergency vehicles and those with
rigid suspensions, to travel at
slower speeds.
 May increase noise and air
pollution.
 Questionable aesthetics.

Source; Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

2.1.2. Speed table


Speed tables are flat-topped speed humps often constructed with brick or other
textured materials on the flat section. Speed tables are typically long enough for the
entire wheelbase of a passenger car to rest on the flat section. Their long flat fields
give speed tables higher design speeds than speed humps. The brick or other textured
materials improve the appearance of speed tables, draw attention to them, and may
enhance safety and speed-reduction. Speed tables are good for locations where low
speeds are desired but a somewhat smooth ride is needed for larger vehicles
(www.trafficcalming.org). See Table 4 for more information on the advantages and
disadvantages of speed tables.

--5--
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Table 4: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of speed tables


Advantages Disadvantages
 Smoother for large vehicles (such  Questionable aesthetics, if no
as fire trucks) than speed humps. textured materials are used.
 Effective in reducing speeds,  Textured materials can be
though not to the extent of speed expensive.
humps.  May increase noise and air
pollution.

Source; Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

2.1.3. Raised crosswalk


Raised crosswalks are speed tables outfitted with crosswalk markings and signage to
channelise pedestrian crossings, providing pedestrians with a level street crossing.
Also, by raising the level of the crossing, pedestrians are more visible to approaching
motorists (see also Table 5. Raised crosswalks are good for locations where
pedestrian crossings occur at haphazard locations and vehicle speeds are excessive
(www.trafficcalming.org).

Table 5: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of raised crosswalks


Advantages Disadvantages
 Improves safety for both  Textured materials can be
pedestrians and vehicles. expensive.
 If designed well, they can have  Impacts on drainage need to be
positive aesthetic value. considered.
 They are effective in reducing  They may increase noise and air
speeds, though not to the extent pollution.
of speed humps.

Source; Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

2.1.4. Raised intersection

Raised intersections are flat raised areas covering an entire intersection, with ramps
on all approaches and often with brick or other textured materials on the flat section.
They are usually built to the level of the sidewalk, or slightly below to provide a "lip"
that is detectable by the visually impaired. By modifying the level of the intersection,
the crosswalks are more readily perceived by motorists to be "pedestrian territory" (see
also Table 6). Raised intersections are good for intersections with substantial
pedestrian activity, and areas where other traffic calming measures would be
unacceptable because they take away scarce parking spaces (www.trafficcalming.org).

--6--
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Table 6: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of raised intersections


Advantages Disadvantages
 Improves safety for both  Tend to be expensive, varying by
pedestrians and vehicles. materials used.
 If designed well, they can have  Their impact to drainage needs to
positive aesthetic value. be considered.
 They can calm two streets at  They are less effective in reducing
once. speeds than speed humps, speed
tables, or raised crosswalks.

Source; Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

2.1.5. Textured pavements

Textured and coloured pavements include the use of stamped pavement or alternate
paving materials to create an uneven surface for vehicles to traverse. They may be
used to emphasise either an entire intersection or a pedestrian crossing, and are
sometimes used along entire street blocks (see Table 7). Textured pavements are
good for "main street" areas where there is substantial pedestrian activity and noise is
not a major concern (www.trafficcalming.org).

Table 7: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of textured pavements


Advantages Disadvantages
 Can reduce vehicle speeds over  They are generally expensive,
an extended length. varying by materials used
 If designed well, they can have  If used on a crosswalk, they can
positive aesthetic value. make crossings more difficult for
 Placed at an intersection, they wheelchair users and the visually
can calm two streets at once. impaired.

Source: Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

2.1.6. Speed cushion

Speed cushions can be described essentially as being speed humps with gaps to ease
access for emergency vehicles whilst still being close enough to reduce speed of
normal vehicular traffic (see Table 8).

--7--
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Table 8: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of speed cushions


Advantages Disadvantages
 Can reduce vehicle speeds over  Can be a problem for emergency
an extended length. vehicles if there are parked cars on
 Allow unrestricted access for the street
emergence vehicles  If used on a crosswalk, they can
 Are generally inexpensive make crossings more difficult for
 Relatively easy for bicycles to wheelchair users and the visually
cross if designed appropriately impaired.
 Effective in slowing travel speeds.  Causes a "rough ride" for all
drivers, and can cause severe pain
for people with certain skeletal
disabilities.
 Forces large vehicles, such as
emergency vehicles and those with
rigid suspensions, to travel at
slower speeds.
 May increase noise and air
pollution.
 Questionable aesthetics.

2.1.7. Rumble Strips

Rumble strips are essentially low bumps on the road surface that produce a noise
when ridden over. They are usually formed by the use of common road marking paint.
The spacing of the bumps is conventionally used to reduce speeds particularly when
approaching a hazardous area (see Table 9).

Table 9: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of rumble strips


Advantages Disadvantages
 Very effective at reducing vehicle  Causes a "rough ride" for all
speeds over a desired length. drivers, and can cause severe pain
 Are generally inexpensive for people with certain skeletal
 Are not obstructive to emergency disabilities.
vehicles or non-motorised  Forces large vehicles, such as
transport emergency vehicles and those with
rigid suspensions, to travel at
slower speeds.
 Increases noise and air pollution.

2.1.8. Traffic circle


Traffic circles (mini circles or mini roundabouts) are raised islands, placed in
intersections, around which traffic circulates. They are good for calming intersections,

--8--
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

especially within neighbourhoods, where large vehicle traffic is not a major concern but
speeds, volumes, and safety are problems (www.trafficcalming.org). See Table 10 for
the advantages and disadvantages of traffic circles.

Table 10: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of traffic circles


Advantages Disadvantages
 Very effective in moderating  They are difficult for large vehicles
speeds and improving safety. (such as fire trucks) to
 If designed well, they can have circumnavigate.
positive aesthetic value.  Must be designed so that the
 Placed at an intersection, they circulating lane does not encroach
can calm two streets at once. on the crosswalks.
 May require the elimination of some
on-street parking.
 Landscaping must be maintained,
either by the residents or by the
municipality.

Source; Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

2.1.9. Roundabout
Roundabouts require traffic to circulate around a centre island. Unlike Traffic
Roundabouts are used on higher volume streets to allocate right-of-way between
competing movements (www.trafficcalming.org). Roundabouts promote traffic calming
at high accident locations, intersections where queues need to be minimised,
intersections with irregular approach geometry, providing inexpensive-to-operate traffic
control as an alternative to a traffic signal, handle a high proportion of U-turns and
locations with abundant right-of-way (see Table 11).

Table 11: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of roundabouts


Advantages Disadvantages
 Can moderate traffic speeds on  May be difficult for large vehicles
an arterial. (such as fire trucks) to
 Generally aesthetically pleasing if circumnavigate.
well landscaped.  Must be designed so that the
 Enhanced safety compared to circulating lane does not encroach
traffic signals. on the crosswalks.
 Can minimise queuing at the  May require the elimination of some
approaches to the intersection. on-street parking.
 They are less expensive to  Landscaping must be maintained,
operate than traffic signals. either by the residents or by the
municipality.

Source; Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

--9--
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

2.1.10. Chicanes

Chicanes are kerb extensions that alternate from one side of the street to the other,
forming S-shaped curves. Chicanes can also be created by alternating on street
parking, either diagonal or parallel, between one side of the street and the other. Each
parking bay can be created either by re-striping the roadway or by installing raised,
landscaping islands at the ends of each parking bay (see also Table 12). Good for
locations where speeds are a problem but noise associated with speed humps and
related measures would be unacceptable (www.trafficcalming.org).

Table 12: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of chicanes


Advantages Disadvantages
 Discourage high speeds by  Must be designed carefully to
forcing horizontal deflection. discourage drivers from deviating
 Easily negotiable by large out of the appropriate lane.
vehicles (such as fire trucks)  Kerb realignment and landscaping
except under heavy traffic can be costly, especially if there
conditions are drainage issues.
 May require the elimination of
some on-street parking.

Source; Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

2.1.11. Realigned intersection

Realigned intersections are changes in alignment that convert T-intersections with


straight approaches into curving streets that meet at right-angles. A former "straight-
through" movement along the top of the T becomes a turning movement (see also
Table 13). While not commonly used, they are one of the few traffic calming measures
for T-intersections, because the straight top of the T makes deflection difficult to
achieve, as needed for Traffic Circles (www.trafficcalming.org).

Table 13: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of realigned


intersections
Advantages Disadvantages
 Can be effective reducing speeds  Kerb realignment can be costly
and improving safety at a  May require some additional right-
T-intersection that is commonly of-way to cut the corner
ignored by motorists

Source; Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

2.1.12. Tight radii

The radius of streets, especially corners affects traffic turning speeds. The tighter the
radius, the slower the traffic speed. Tighter radii are particularly useful for intersections
with numerous pedestrians (see Table 14).

- - 10 - -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Table 14: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of Tighter radii


Advantages Disadvantages
 Can be effective reducing speeds  Kerb realignment can be costly
and improving safety particularly  May require some additional land if
at intersections reto-fitting
 Needs to be adequately enforced
or may lead to increased accident
levels.

2.1.13. Neckdowns

Neckdowns are kerb extensions at intersections that reduce the roadway width from
kerb to kerb. They ‘pedestrianise’ intersections by shortening crossing distances for
pedestrians and drawing attention to pedestrians via raised peninsulas. They also
tighten the kerb radii at the corners, reducing the speeds of turning vehicles (see also
Table 15). They are good for intersections with substantial pedestrian activity and
areas where vertical traffic calming measures would be unacceptable because of noise
considerations (www.trafficcalming.org).

Table 15: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of neckdowns


Advantages Disadvantages
 Improve pedestrian circulation  Effectiveness is limited by the
and space. absence of vertical or horizontal
 Are easily negotiable by large deflection.
vehicles.  May slow emergency vehicles
 Create protected on-street  May require the elimination of some
parking bays. on-street parking near the
 Reduce speeds. intersection.
 May require bicyclists to briefly
merge with vehicular traffic.

Source; Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

2.1.14. Centre island narrowing

A centre island narrowing is a raised island located along the centreline of a street that narrows
the travel lanes at that location. Centre island narrowings are often landscaped to provide a
visual amenity. Placed at the entrance to a neighbourhood, and often combined with textured
pavement, they are often called "gateway islands." Fitted with a gap to allow pedestrians to
walks through at a crosswalk, they are often called "pedestrian refuges” (see also Table 16).
Centre island narrowings are good for entrances to residential areas, and wide streets where
pedestrians need to cross (www.trafficcalming.org).

- - 11 - -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Table 16: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of centre island


narrowings
Advantages Disadvantages
 Increase pedestrian safety.  Their speed-reduction effect is
 If designed well, they can have somewhat limited by the absence
positive aesthetic value. of any vertical or horizontal
 They reduce traffic volumes. deflection.
 May require elimination of some
on-street parking.

Source; Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

2.1.15. Chokers

Chokers are kerb extensions at midblock locations that narrow a street by widening the
sidewalk or planting strip. If marked as crosswalks, they are also known as safe
crosses. Two-lane chokers leave the street cross section with two lanes that are
narrower than the normal cross section. One-lane chokers narrow the width to allow
travel in only one direction at a time, operating similarly to one-lane bridges (see also
Table 17). They are good for areas with substantial speed problems and no on-street
parking shortage (www.trafficcalming.org).

Table 17: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of chokers


Advantages Disadvantages
 Are easily negotiable by large  Their effect on vehicle speeds is
vehicles (such as fire trucks). limited by the absence of any
 If designed well, they can have vertical or horizontal deflection.
positive aesthetic value.  May require bicyclists to briefly
 Reduce both speeds and merge with vehicular traffic.
volumes.  May require the elimination of
some on-street parking.

Source; Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

2.1.16. Road Diets

Road ‘diets’ are is an application that reduces the number and width of traffic lanes,
particularly on arterials to reduce speeds which consequentially wil reduce volumes.
Typical applications include the converstion of a 4 lane road to 3 lanes with a centre
turning lane and bicycle lanes. Aesthetic and pedestrian improvements also help the
effect. (www.vtpi.org). for more information on the advantages and disadvantages of
road diets refer to Table 18

- - 12 - -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Table 18: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of road ‘diets’


Advantages Disadvantages
 If designed well, they can have  May cause consequential
positive aesthetic value. congestion elsewhere on the
 Reduce both speeds and network due to reduced capacity.
volumes.  May require bicyclists to briefly
 Does not require additional land merge with vehicular traffic.
 Can help provision of and  May require the elimination of
integrate non-motorised transport. some on-street parking.
 Should reduce overall accident
levels

2.1.17. Bike Lanes

The introduction of bike lanes on existing roads narrows traffic lanes thereby reducing
traffic speeds and facilitating cycling (see Table 19).

Table 19: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of bike lanes


Advantages Disadvantages
 If designed well, they can have  May require bicyclists to briefly
positive aesthetic value. merge with vehicular traffic.
 Can reduce both traffic speeds  May require the elimination of
and volumes. some on-street parking.
 Does not require additional land  May be problematic at
or road construction intersections.
 Can help provision of and  Road surfaces could be
integrate non-motorised transport. problematic for cyclists
 Should reduce overall accident  Could be unsafe where road
levels speeds are high

2.2. VOLUME REDUCTION MEASURES

2.2.1. Full closure

Full closures are barriers placed across a street to completed close the street to
through-traffic, usually leaving only sidewalks open (see also Table 20). They are good
for locations with extreme traffic volume problems and several other measures have
been unsuccessful (www.trafficcalming.org).

- - 13 - -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Table 20: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of full closures


Advantages Disadvantages
 Are able to maintain pedestrian  Might require legal procedures.
and bicycle access.  Cause circuitous routes for local
 Are very effective in reducing residents and emergency services.
traffic volume.  May be expensive.
 May limit access to businesses.

Source; Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

2.2.2. Half closure

Half closures are barriers that block travel in one direction for a short distance on
otherwise two-way streets (see Table 21). They are good for locations with extreme
traffic volume problems and non-restrictive measures have been unsuccessful
(www.trafficcalming.org).

Table 21: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of half closures


Advantages Disadvantages
 Are able to maintain two-way  Causes circuitous routes for local
bicycle access. residents and emergency services.
 Are effective in reducing traffic  May limit access to businesses
volumes.  Depending on the design, drivers
may be able to circumvent the
barrier.

Source; Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

2.2.3. Diagonal diverters


Diagonal diverters are barriers placed diagonally across an intersection, blocking
through movements and creating two separate, L-shaped streets. Like half closures,
diagonal diverters are often staggered to create circuitous routes through the
neighbourhood as a whole, discouraging non-local traffic while maintaining access for
local residents (see Table 22). They are good for inner-neighbourhood locations with
non-local traffic volume problems (www.trafficcalming.org).

Table 22: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of diagonal diverters


Advantages Disadvantages
 Do not require a closure per se,  Cause circuitous routes for local
only a redirection of existing residents and emergency services.
streets.  May be expensive.
 Are able to maintain full  May require reconstruction of
pedestrian and bicycle access. corner kerbs.
 Reduce traffic volumes.

Source; Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

- - 14 - -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

2.2.4. Lateral shift


Lateral shifts are usually shifts designed into the horizontal alignment of the lane
centreline to introduce a curve or shift, thereby forcing a reduction in vehicular speeds
(see Table 23).

Table 23: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of Lateral Shifts


Advantages Disadvantages
 Do not require a closure per se,  Cause circuitous routes for local
only a redirection of existing residents and emergency services.
roads.  May be expensive.
 Are able to maintain full  May require additional land
pedestrian and bicycle routes.  Needs to be adequately enforced
 Reduces traffic speeds and or could lead to increases in
volumes. accidents

2.2.5. Median barriers


Local street connections to main streets, where through traffic along the continuing
local street is a problem, median barriers are an appropriate traffic calming measure
(see Table 24). Median barriers are islands located along the centreline of a street and
continuing through an intersection so as to block through movement at a cross street
(www.trafficcalming.org).

Table 24: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of median barriers


Advantages Disadvantages
1. Can improve safety at an intersection  Require available street width on
of a local street and a major street by the major street.
prohibiting dangerous turning  Limit turns to and from the side
movements. street for local residents and
2. Can reduce traffic volumes on a cut- emergency services.
through route that crosses a major
street.

Source: Adapted from: www.trafficcalming.org

2.2.6. Neo-Traditional Design

Neo-Traditional Designs use a network of trough streets (as opposed to a hierarchy)


with narrow streets, shorter block lengths, T-intersections, and other features to reduce
vehicle speeds and volumes (www.ite.org, 1998). For more information on the
(dis)advantages of neo-traditional designs, see Table 25.

- - 15 - -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Table 25: Advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of Neo-Traditional


Design
Advantages Disadvantages
3. Narrower lanes and lower traffic  Can reduce speeds of emergency
volumes can significantly improve vehicles
safety  Needs sufficient public transport
4. Designs usually allow the increased infrastructure to work appropriately
facilitation of non-motorised modes
and greater integration between
modes

- - 16 - -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

3. ESTIMATED TRAVEL IMPACTS OF TRAFFIC CALMING MEASURES

A significant amount of research in international literature in transportation is devoted


to describing and explaining the occurrence and impact of road accidents. Many
authors examined the relationship between vehicle accidents and roadway geometrics
(e.g. Agent and Deen, 1975; Okamoto and Koshi, 1989; Zeeger et al., 1990; Wong and
Nicholson, 1992; Ivan et al., 1999; Martin, 2002). Road based traffic calming measures
are part of the road geometrics.

The WHO in their World Report on road traffic injury prevention (2004) textually
summarise the main risk factors for road traffic injuries based on a systems approach.
In each risk category: exposure to risk, crash involvement and crash severity, human
factors related to speed are reported as being significant contributors to each category
of risk. Reducing trraffic speeds and volumes can reuduce the severity of vehicle
crashes, particularly those involving pedestrians and cyclists. Each 1 mph traffic speed
reduction typically reduces vehicle collisions by 5% and fatalities by an even greater
amount. (www.trl.co.uk). Fatality risk increases with speed to the fourth power ; a 1%
reduction in speed provides a 2% reduction in th erisk of injuries and a 4% reduction in
the risk of fatalities (Stuster and Coffman, 1998).

Besides the closure of local roads, bypasses of larger urban areas provide a measure
that reduces traffic volumes. Elvik and Vaa (2004) in a meta analysis of five
Norwegian, two Swedish, one Danish, one British and one German study on effects of
bypasses conclude that construction of bypasses, on average, decreases the number
of injury accidents by around 25%.

Other studies found that road based traffic calming measures that result in a speed
reduction of 14.4 km/h reduce traffic accidents by 60–70%. Furthermore, fatal or
serious injury accidents are significantly reduced when road based traffic calming
measures are implemented (Webster, 1993; Webster and Mackie, 1996). Garder
(2004) found that pedestrian crashes were lower in two-lane streets (with middle
island) than wider streets, due to the lower speed of vehicles. Narrower streets in
general have also been mentioned in the literature as measures to improve traffic
safety (Milton and Mannering, 1998; Noland, 2003).

In general, roundabouts also have a favourable effect on traffic safety, at least for
accidents causing injuries (Daniels at al., 2008). A meta study of 28 projects in eight
different countries estimated a reduction of injury accidents by 30-50% (Elvik, 2003).
The Dutch road safety research institute indicates that roundabouts are safer than
controlled intersections. A study regarding the replacement of controlled intersections
with roundabouts revealed a 51% decrease in accidents after a six months period
(www.swov.nl).

The results for bicyclists’ safety are however, clearly poor at roundabouts (Daniels et
al, 2008). In Flanders, Belgium, bicyclists appear to be involved in almost one third of
reported injury accidents at roundabouts (1118 reported accidents with bicyclists; 3558
in total, period 1991–2001), while only 14.6% of all trips (5.7% of distance travelled)
are made by bicycle (Zwerts and Nuyts, 2004). In the Netherlands, safety records of
185 roundabouts were studied, and a 30% decrease in the number of bicycle victims
was reported in the period after roundabout construction, while the overall number of

- - 17 - -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

traffic victims decreased by 95% (car occupants), 63% (motorcyclists), 63%


(pedestrians) and 64% (other road users) (Schoon and van Minnen, 1993).

An extensive literature review of other studies, mainly from Europe and the US, also
show a substantial margin in the findings for the road based traffic calming measures
detailed in the report. In general the results are positive – a review of 600 Danish road
based traffic calming projects fund an average 43% reduction in traffic crash casualties
(Harvey 1991).

In summary, the application of road based traffic calming measures reduce speed by
up to 30%. Raised crosswalks have the most effect, although the margin of results in
different studies is large, and results as low as 5% reduction have been found. Raised
intersections, narrowings and diagonal diverters appear to cause an increase in speed
in some studies. The reason is unknown, but the effect of local conditions is assumed
to be a large contributor.

Road based volume measures all appear successful, but the margin of results is
substantial (up to over 60%). Full closures, half closures and diagonal diverters have
the largest maximum effect, of between 62% and 70%. Nonetheless, some studies
have an effect of as low as 0%. Again, the local conditions that cause these
disappointing effects are unknown to the authors.

Only a limited amount of studies have been able to analyse the influence of road
based traffic calming measures on accidents. Results show reductions of accidents of
between 15% and over 90%. Traffic circles/roundabouts have the largest effects,
although they differ for various modes of transport. The reader needs to keep in mind
that the various measures apply to different types of road classes.

Where appropriate and within the context of this report, results from the literature are
summarised below in a percentage change form in a bar format to indicate the
variances in findings (Figure 1). As mentioned, local conditions influence the
percentage change severely. Although the authors realise this, it is still felt that
Figure 1 is a useful aggregation of literature findings.

- - 18 - -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Speed

Speed hump

Speed table

Raised crosswalk

Raised Intersection

Traffic circle/Roundabout

Narrowing

Chokers

Half closure

Diagonal diverters

-60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60


% change

Volume

Chokers

Full closure

Half closures

Diagonal diverters

Other volume control

-60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60


% change

Accidents

Speed hump

Speed table

Traffic circle/Roundabouts

Bypass

Roundabouts for cyclists

Road diets

-90 -60 -30 0 20 40 60


% change
Figure 1 Speed, volume and accident effects of traffic calming measures
Source: Based on various reports, journal articles and working documents

- - 19 - -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

4. MICRO- SIMULATION MODELLING

Over the last decade, microscopic simulation models have become available to the
transport profession. These models enable researchers and practitioners to analyse
the effectiveness of interventions on a disaggregated level as individual vehicles are
simulated in detail as they move through the road network with the goal of reaching
their destination by the most cost effective route. The vehicles interact with the road
network, the control systems and with other vehicles. Models capture the interactions
of the real world road traffic through a series of algorithms describing car following,
lane changing, gap acceptance and spatial collision detection. One such commercially
available microscopic simulation model, Paramics, was used in this study, to analyse
the safety impacts of different road link based traffic calming measures.

4.1. MODELLING APPROACH

Road based infrastructure is complex and difficult to accurately model as well as


analyse on computer models. As indicated, the literature review shows a substantial
variance in results of road based traffic calming measures implemented historically. In
recognition of this, and in order to provide supportable and verifiable results of
measures, it was decided to model a short two-way urban link with a 50km/h speed
limit incorporating a simple T-junction at one end, with a basket of measures selected
from the literature review.

Clearly there are limitations to the type of measures that can be modelled reasonably
accurately and the study was therefore limited to finding the differences between
speed humps (modelled at higher and lower speed limits reflecting good and bad
designs), a general speed restriction to 20 kph, a mini-roundabout within the link and a
simulated chicane allowing a one-way priority.

A relatively small flow of 300 vehicles per hour (2 way total) was used to simulate
differences. This flow incorporates buses and mini-bus taxis to more accurately reflect
the constituent parts of a typical South African traffic flow. External effects such as
signage, road furniture, speed cameras, proximity of building and the general
environment were kept consistent throughout the exercise.

4.2. FINDINGS

Output data from the software provides modelled speed and delay. As safety is one of
the key outcomes from this study and given the weight of evidence on the relationship
between speed and accidents/injury risks, differences in speed between the modelled
scenarios was considered the most appropriate output of effectiveness of the
measures modelled. Table 26 provides average before and after speeds per measure
for both vehicles and Public Transport.

- - 20 - -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Table 26: Results of modelling work


% Change from Base Case
Public Transport Vehicles Speeds
Measure Public Private
Speeds (Km/h) (km/h)
Transport vehicles
Base Case 17.6 46.0 - -
Humps 18.6 23.9 +5.7% -48%
(good design)
Humps 6.8 6.8 -61.4% -85.2%
(bad design)
Chicane 14.8 22.1 -15.9% -51.9%
Mini- 17.1 21.7 -2.8% -52.8%
Roundabout

An extension to these results would be the simulation of overall environmental impacts


as well as fuel consumption of modelled measures from the output data which is not
part of this study.

4.3. COMPARISON OF MODELLING RESULTS WITH INTERNATIONAL LITERATURE

The results of the modelling work indicate that the selected measures do have a speed
reducing effect. An exception is the effect of well designed speed humps on public
transport, which shows a minor positive effect caused by the changes in private vehicle
speed.

In comparison to the literature, modelled effects relating to speed were much more
severe (see Figure 2). Two reasons for this are apparent: it is not clear how speed
reductions in the case studies are implemented nor from which point they apply,
whereas the model calculates on the basis of actual speed limits imposed with
100% compliance by drivers. Furthermore, the limited volume used in the modelling
study could also have influence the results.

As described in section 1.3, volume calculations could not be performed as a very


limited non-calibrated flow was assumed in the first place and therefore there would
not be much in the way of a reduction between measures. Accidents are not an output
of the model, and can therefore also not be compared directly.

- - 21 - -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Speed
Well designed speed hump

Speed hump

Bad designed speed hump

Traffic circle/Roundabout

Chicanes

-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40

= Literature review = Public transport = Private vehicle


Figure 2: Traffic calming comparison between literature and modelling study

- - 22 - -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

5. SYNTHESES

Over the past few decades, transport policy has focussed on providing road based
infrastructure that is faster, wider and more efficient. These policies facilitated driving
faster and neglected: the human impact of accidents, the degraded conditions for
walking and cycling and neighbourhood liveability.

Road based traffic calming (or management) is a strategy developed to reduce the
impact of vehicles on neighbourhoods via measures that either reduce speeds or
volumes of traffic, or both.

The majority of the most common measures implemented internationally are detailed
in section 2. Strategies can involve the use of one or more measures, as their
appropriateness is completely dependent upon the local circumstances and the
problem encountered.

A comprehensive review of International literature indicating the effectiveness of


individual measures is summarised in Figure 1. The majority of measures reviewed by
the researchers provided a significant reduction in traffic speeds (up to 30%), volumes
(up to over 70%) and therefore accidents (by between 15% and 90%) from the base
case (unaltered).

Micro-simulation models enable researchers and practitioners to analyse the


effectiveness of interventions on a disaggregated level, as individual vehicles are
simulated in detail as they move through the road network with the goal of reaching
their destination by the most cost effective route. The study modelled a series of
measures that could reasonably be modelled using computer software to determine
the reduction in speed of traffic.

Although there is a current over-estimate by the software regarding the effect of the
simulated measures on speed, the results so far have shown that they are in line with
the findings of the literature. A more detailed and fully calibrated model will most
probably provide results that may be more in keeping with the findings in the literature.

It can, therefore, be concluded that micro-simulation models do have the potential to


be a helpful tool at a decision making level. They also provide the opportunity to
explore different impacts of road based traffic calming measures, before
implementation. The hypothesis is that measures that reduce speeds and volumes
might well increase fuel consumption and pollution. Further studies will explore these
impacts.

- - 23 - -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

REFERENCES

Abbott, P., M. Taylor, and R. Layfield, "The Effects of Traffic Calming Measures on Vehicle and Traffic Noise," Traffic
Engineering and Control, Vol. 38, 1997, pp. 447-453.
Agent, K.R., and R.C. Deen, Effect of roadway geometrics on traffic operations. Transport. Research Record, 541, 1975, pp1–
11.
Ahn K. and H. Rakha, A field evaluation of the environmental and energy impacts of traffic calming, Transportation Research D,
2009, in press.
Appleyard, D. Livable Streets, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1981.
Aspelin, K. "Recruiting Private Help for a Public Demonstration Project: Taking the 'Hump' Out of Traffic Calming," paper
presented at the 1998 ITE International Conference in Monterey, California, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington,
D.C., 1998.
Atkins, C. and M. Coleman, "The Influence of Traffic Calming on Emergency Response Times," ITE Journal, Vol. 67, August
1997, pp. 42-46.
AUSTROADS, Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice - Part 10 - Local Area Traffic Management, Sidney, 1988.
Ballard, A.J. "Efforts to Control Speeds on Residential Collector Streets," ITE 1990 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute
of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1990, pp. 92-95. Beaubien, R.F. "Controlling Speeds on Residential Streets,"
ITE Journal, Vol. 59, April 1989, pp. 37-39.
Ben-Joseph, E. "Changing the Residential Street Scene: Adapting the Shared Street (Woonerf) Concept to the Suburban
Environment," Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 61, 1995, pp. 504-515.
Ben-Joseph, E. "Traffic Calming and the Neotraditional Street," Resource Papers for the 1997 ITE International Conference,
Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1997, pp.47-52.
Bowers, P.H. "Environmental Traffic Restraint: German Approaches to Traffic Management by Design," Built Environment, Vol.
12, 1986, pp. 60-73.
Brennan, D.T. ""The Evaluation of Residential Traffic Calming: A New Multi-Criteria Approach," Traffic Engineering and Control,
Vol. 35, January 1994, pp. 19-24.
Bretherton, W.M. "Neighborhood Traffic Management Program," ITE 1992 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of
Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1992, pp. 398-401.
Brilon, W. and H. Blanke, "Extensive Traffic Calming: Results of the Accident Analyses in Six Model Towns," ITE 1993
Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1993, pp. 119-123.
Brindle, R. "Local Street Speed Management in Australia: Is It `Traffic Calming'?" Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 24,
1992, pp. 29-38.
Brindle, R. Living with Traffic, ARRB Transport Research Ltd., Victoria, Australia, 199?.
Brindle, R. "Traffic Calming in Australia - More Than Neighborhood Traffic Management," ITE Journal, Vol. 67, July 1997, pp.
26-31.
Buchanan, C. Traffic in Towns: A Study of the Long Term Problems of Traffic in Urban Areas, Her Majesty's Stationery Office,
London, 1963.
Burchfield, R.M. "Traffic Calming Collector Streets: Portland's Experience," ITE 1995 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute
of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1995, pp. 67-69.
Castellone, A.J. and M.M. Hasan, "Neighborhood Traffic Management: Dade County Florida's Street Closure Experience," paper
presented at the 1998 ITE International Conference in Monterey, California, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington,
D.C., 1998.
CART, Traffic Calming, Sensible Transportation Options for People, Tigard, Ore., 1989.
Chadda, H.S. and S.E. Cross, "Speed (Road) Bumps: Issues and Opinions," Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 111,
1985, pp. 410-418.
Challis, S.D. "North Earlham Estate, Worwich: The First UK 20 mph Zone," in Traffic Management and Road Safety, PTRC
Education and Research Services Ltd., London, England, 1992, pp. 61-72.
Chartier, G. and Diane G. Erickson, "Canada's Guide to Neighbourhood Traffic Calming - CITE/TAC Project 208," paper
presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C, 1997.
City of Seattle, Making streets that work, www.ci.seattle.wa.us/npo/tblis.htm. 1996.
Clarke, A. and M.J. Dornfeld, Traffic Calming, Auto-Restricted Zones and Other Traffic Management Techniques: Their Effects
on Bicycling and Pedestrians, Case Study No. 19, National Bicycling and Walking Study, Federal Highway Administration,
Washington, D.C., 1994.
Clement, J.P. "Speed Humps and the Thousand Oaks Experience," ITE Journal, Vol. 53, January 1983, pp. 35-39.
Committee MS/12, Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices - Part 13: Local Area Traffic Management, Standards Association
of Australia, Sidney, 1991.
County Surveyors Society, Traffic Calming in Practice , Landor Publishing, London, 1994.
Craus, J. et al., "Geometric Aspects of Traffic Calming in Shared Streets," ITE 1993 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute
of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1993, pp. 1-5.
Daff, M.R. and I.D.K. Siggins, "On Road Trials of Some New Types of Slow Points," Vol. 11, 1982, pp. 214-237.

- 24 -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Dallam, L.N. "Environmental Capacity of Neighborhood Streets," ITE 1996 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of
Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1996, pp. 422-423.
Daniels, S., E. Nuyts and G Wets, The effects of roundabouts on traffic safety for bicyclists: an Observational study, Accident
Analysis and Prevention 40, 2008, pp. 518-526.
Datta, S. and T.K. Datta, "Humps - A Speed Reduction Strategy in Local Streets," Resource Papers for the 1997 ITE
International Conference, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1997, pp. 91-95.
Davis, R.E. and G. Lum, "Growing Pains or Growing Calmer? Lessons Learned from a Pilot Traffic Calming Program," paper
presented at the 1998 ITE International Conference in Monterey, California, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington,
D.C., 1998.
Devon County Council, Traffic Calming Guidelines, Great Britain, 1991.
DeRobertis, M. and A. Wachtel, "Traffic Calming: Do's and Don'ts to Encourage Bicycling," ITE 1996 Compendium of Technical
Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1996, pp. 498-503.
de Wit, I.T. "Dutch Experiences with Speed Control Humps," ITE 1993 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of
Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1993, pp. 6-10.
Dorroh, R.F. and R.A. Kochevar, "One-Way Conversions for Calming Denver's Streets," Resource Papers for the 1996 ITE
International Conference, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1996, pp. 109-113.
Drdul, R. and M. Skene, "Traffic Calming Do's and Don'ts," ITE 1994 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of
Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1994, pp. 491-495.
Durkin, M. and T. Pheby, "York: Aiming To Be the UK's First Traffic Calmed City," in Traffic Management and Road Safety,
PTRC Education and Research Services Ltd., London, England, 1992, pp. 73-90.
Elvik, R. and Vaa, T., The Handbook of Road Safety Measures. Elsevier, Oxford, The United Kingdom, 2004.
Eubanks-Ahrens, B. "A Closer Look at the Users of Woonerven," in A. Vernez Moudon (ed.), Public Streets for Public Use,
Columbia University Press, New York, 1991, pp. 63-79.
Ewing, R. "Residential Street Design: Do the British and Australians Know Something We Americans Don't?" Transportation
Research Record 1455, 1994, pp. 42-49.
Ewing, R. Best Development Practices, American Planning Association (in cooperation with the Urban Land Institute), Chicago,
1996, pp. 53-93.
Ewing, R. and C. Kooshian, "U.S. Experience with Traffic Calming,"ITE Journal, Vol. 67, August 1997, pp. 28-33.
Ewing, R. Traffic Calming: State of the Practice, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1999.
Fager, M. "Environmental Traffic Management in Stockholm," ITE Journal, Vol. 54, July 1984, pp. 16-19.
Flannery, A. and T.K. Datta, "Modern Roundabouts and Traffic Crash Experience in the United States," Transportation Research
Record 1553, 1996, pp. 103-109.
Frisbie, M.S. "The Power of ‘Proactivity" in Phoenix Neighborhoods," ITE 1995 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of
Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1995, pp. 278-280.
Fwa, T.F. and C.Y. Liaw, "Rational Appoach for Geometric Design of Speed-Control Road Humps," Transportation Research
Record 1356, 1992, pp. 66-72.
Garder, P., The impact of speed and other variables on pedestrian safety in Maine. Accident Analysis and Prevention 36, 2004,
pp. 533–542.
Geddes, E. et al., Safety Benefits of Traffic Calming, Insurance Corporation of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia,
1996.
Gonzalez, K.L. "Neighborhood Traffic Control: Bellevue's Approach," ITE Journal, Vol. 63, 1993, pp. 43-45.
Gorman, M.N., M. Moussavi, and P.T. McCoy, "Evaluation of Speed Hump Program in the City of Omaha," ITE Journal, Vol. ,
June 1989, pp. 28-32.
Grava, S. "Traffic Calming: Can It Be Done in America?" Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 47, 1993, pp. 483-505.
Guzda, M.K. Slow Down, You're Going Too Fast! -- The Community Guide to Traffic Calming, Public Technology, Inc.,
Washington, D.C., 1998.
Hagan, W.B. and S.E. Amamoo, "Residential Street Management in South Australia" ITE Journal, Vol. 58, March 1988, pp. 35-
41.
Halbert, G. et al., "Implementation of a Residential Traffic Control Program in the City of San Diego," Environment: Changing
Our Transportation Priorities, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1994, pp. 265-271.
Halperin, K. and R. Huston, "A Verkehrsberuhigung Design for an American Road," ITE Journal, Vol. 64, April 1994, pp. 28-34.
Hanks, J.R. "Traffic Calming," ITE Journal, Vol. 67, July 1997, p. 21.
Hass-Klau, C. et al., Civilised Streets — A Guide to Traffic Calming , Environment & Transport Planning, Brighton, England,
1992.
Hass-Klau, C. "Environmental Traffic Management in Britain—Does It Exist?" Built Environment, Vol. 12, 1986, pp. 7-19.
Hass-Klau, C. "Impact of Pedestrianization and Traffic Calming on Retailing: A Review of the Evidence from Germany and the
UK," Transport Policy, Vol. 1, October 1993, pp. 21-31.
Hassett, R.L. and M.L. Haywood-Spells, "Neighborhood Traffic Management: Albuquerque's Experience So Far," ITE 1996
Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1996, pp. 429-432.
Herrstedt, L. "Traffic Calming Design: A Speed Management Method - Danish Experience on Environmentally Adapted Through
Roads," Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 24, 1992, pp. 3-16.
Herrstedt, L. et al., An Improved Traffic Environment—A Catalogue of Ideas , Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark,
1993.

- 25 -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Hidas, P., K. Weerasekera, and M. Dunne, "Negative Effects of Mid-Block Speed Control Devices and Their Importance in the
Overall Impact of Traffic Calming on the Environment," Transportation Research D, Vol. 3D, 1998, pp. 41-50.
Homburger, W.S. et al., Residential Street Design and Traffic Control, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989, pp. 79-112.
Hoyle, C.L. Traffic Calming, Planning Advisory Service Report Number 456, 1995, pp. 25-39.
Hoyle, C.L. and R. Ewing, "Traffic Calming for New Residential Streets Enhances Housing Value," Land Development, Vol. 9,
Fall 1996, pp. 7-11.
Hyden, C., Odelid, K., Varhelyi, A., The effects of general speed calming in built-up areas. Results of a large scale experiment in
Vaxjo. University of Lund, 1995.
Institution of Highways and Transportation, Roads and Traffic in Urban Areas, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1987.
ITE Technical Council Committee 5B-15, "Road Bumps - Appropriate for Use on Public Streets," ITE Journal, Vol. 56, November
1986, pp. 18-21.
ITE Technical Council Task Force on Speed Humps, Guidelines for the Design and Application of Speed Humps - A
Recommended Practice, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1997.
Ivan, J.N., Pasupathy, R.K., Ossenbruggen, P.J., Differences in causality factors for single and multi-vehicles crashes on two-lane
roads. Accident Analysis and Prevention. Volume 31, 1999, pp. 695–704.
Jacquemart, G. Modern Roundabout Practice in the United States, Synthesis of Highway Practice 264, Transportation Research
Board, Washington, D.C., 1998.
Jenks, M. "Residential Roads Researched: Are Innovative Estates Safer?" Architects' Journal, Vol. 177, June 1983, pp. 46-49.
Janssen, S.T. "Road Safety in Urban Districts: Final Results of Accident Studies in the Dutch Demonstration Projects of the
1970s," Traffic Engineering + Control, Vol. 32, 1991, pp. 292-296.
Jarvis, J.R. and G. Giummarra, "Humps for Use on Bus Routes," Road & Transport Research, Vol. 1, December 1992, pp. 32-
47.
Kanely, B.D. and B.E. Ferris, "Traffic Diverters for Residential Traffic Control - The Gainesville Experience," ITE 1985
Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1985, pp. 72-76.
Kanely, B.D. "Neighborhood Traffic Calming - Do We Need Warrants?" Resource Papers for the 1997 ITE International
Conference, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1997, pp. 60-64.
Kanz, A.C. and W.A. Keim, "Residential Traffic Control in Montgomery County Maryland," ITE 1979 Compendium of Technical
Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1979, pp. 148-151.
Keller, H.H. "Environmental Traffic Restraints on Major Roads in the Federal Republic of Germany," Built Environment, Vol. 12,
1986, pp. 44-57.
Keller, H.H. "Urban and Transport Planning Concepts to Revitalise Two Medium-Sized Town Centres in West Germany," in New
Life for City Centres: Planning, Transport, and Conservation in British and German Cities, Anglo-German Foundation for the
Study of Industrial Society, London, 1988, pp. 179-185.
Keller, H.H. "Three Generations of Traffic Calming in the Federal Republic of Germany," Environmental Issues, PTRC Education
and Research Services, Sussex, England, 1989, pp. 15-31.
Kemper, B.K. and P.M. Fernandez, "Neighborhood Traffic Control Measures," in Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities,
Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1994, pp. 48-53.
Kent County Council, Traffic Calming: A Code of Practice, Maidstone, Great Britain, 1992.
Kjemtrup, K. and L. Herrstedt, "Speed Management and Traffic Calming in Europe: A Historical View," Accident Analysis &
Prevention, Vol. 24, 1992, pp. 57-65.
Klik, M. and A. Faghri, "A Comparative Evaluation of Speed Humps and Deviations," Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 47, 1993, pp.
457-469.
Klaeboe, R. "Measuring the Environmental Impact of Road Traffic in Town Areas," in Environmental Issues, PTRC Education
and Research Services Ltd., London, England, 1992, pp. 81-88.
Kraay, J.H., M.P.M. Mathijssen, and F.C.M. Wegman, Toward Safer Residential Areas, Institute of Road Safety Research
SWOV/Ministry of Transport, Leidschendam, Switzerland, 1985, pp. 30-39.
Kraay, J.H. "Woonerven and Other Experiments in the Netherlands," Built Environment, Vol. 12, 1986, pp. 20-29.
Leonard, J.D. and W.J. Davis, "Urban Traffic Calming Treatments: Performance Measures & and Design Conformance," ITE
Journal, Vol. 67, August 1997, pp. 34-40.
Lewis, D. "The Do's and Don'ts of Traffic Calming," Traffic Safety, Vol. 98, March/April 1998, pp. 14-17.
Litman, T. Evaluating Traffic Calming Benefits, Costs and Equity Impacts, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, British
Columbia, 1997.
Lockwood, I.M. "Do We Need Traffic Calming Warrants?"Resource Papers for the 1997 ITE International Conference, Institute
of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1997, pp. 55-59.
Lockwood, I.M. "ITE Traffic Calming Definition,"ITE Journal, Vol. 67, July 1997, pp. 22-24.
Lockwood, I.M. "Meeting Community Objectives Through Street Design (The West Palm Beach Approach)," paper presented at
the 1998 ITE International Conference in Monterey, California, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1998.
Marconi, W. "Speed Control Measures in Residential Areas," Traffic Engineering, Vol. 47, March 1977, pp. 28-30.
Marks, H. "Traffic Capacity," Traffic Circulation Planning for Communities, Gruen Associates, Los Angeles, 1974, pp. 223-231.
Marstrand, J. et al., Urban Traffic Areas - Part 7: Speed Reducers, Vejdirektoratet - Vejregeludvalget, The Netherlands, 1991.
Martin, J.-L., Relationship between crash rate and hourly traffic flow on interurban motorways. Accident Analysis and Prevention,
Volume 34, 2002, pp. 619–629.
Mazzella, T. and D. Godfrey, "Building and Testing a Customer Responsive Neighborhood Traffic Control Program," ITE 1995

- 26 -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1995, pp. 75-79.
McCourt, R.S. "Neighborhood Traffic Management Survey," ITE District 6, available through DKS Associates, Portland, OR,
1996.
McCourt, R.S. "Survey of Neighborhood Traffic Management Performance and Results," paper presented at the 1998 ITE
International Conference in Monterey, California, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1998.
McGinnis, L. "Things That Go Bump in the Night: How Do Speed Humps Affect Fire Department Response Times," NFPA
Journal, Vol. 91, January/February 1997, pp. 78-82.
Meier, D. "The Policy Adopted in Arlington County, Virginia, for Solving Real and Perceived Speeding Problems on Residential
Streets," ITE 1985 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1985, pp. 97-
101.
Mohle, H. "Sunnyvale's Approach to the Old Challenge of Neighborhood Traffic Calming," paper presented at the 1997 Annual
Meeting, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1997.
Monheim, H. "Area-Wide Traffic Restraint: A Concept for Better Urban Transport," Built Environment, Vol. 12, 1986, pp. 74-82.
Mounce, J.M. "Driver Compliance with Stop-Sign Control at Low-Volume Intersections," Transportation Research Record 808,
1981, pp. 30-37.
Nielsen, O.H. and J. Rassen, "Environmental Traffic Management in Odense, Denmark,"Built Environment, Vol. 12, 1986, pp.
83-97.
Nicodemus, D.A. "Safe and Effective Roadway Humps -- The Seminole County Profile," ITE 1991 Compendium of Technical
Papers, Institute of Transporation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1991, pp 102-105.
Niederhauser, M.E., B.A. Collins, and E.J. Myers, "The Use of Roundabouts: Comparison of Alternate Design Solutions," ITE
1997 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1997.
Nitzel, J.J., F.G. Schattner, and J.P. Mick, "Residential Traffic Control Policies and Measures," ITE 1988 Compendium of
Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1988, pp. 217-223.
Noble, J. and A. Smith, Residential Roads and Footpaths - Layout Considerations - Design Bulletin 32, Her Majesty's Stationary
Office, London, 1992, pp.
Noland, R.B., (2003), Traffic fatalities and injuries: the effect of changes in infrastructure and other trends, Accident Analysis and
Prevention, volume 35, 2003, pp. 599-611.
Noyes, P. Traffic Calming Prime, Pat Noyes & Associates, Boulder, CO, 1998.
O'Brien, A.P. "Traffic Calming: Ideas Into Practice,"ITE 1993 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation
Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1993, pp. 129-134.
O'Brien, A.P. "The Need for Warrants - The Australian Experience,"Resource Papers for the 1997 ITE International Conference,
Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1997, pp., pp. 65-82.
O'Brien, A.P., R. Brindle, R. Fairlie, "Some Australian Experiences with Warrants," ITE 1997 Compendium of Technical Papers,
Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1997, pp. 1291-1310.
Ochia, K. "Calming Urban Street Crime through Traffic Calming: Program Development and Implementation," ITE 1996
Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1996, pp. 424-428.
Okamoto, H., Koshi, M., A method to cope with the random errors of observed accidents rates in regression analysis. Accident
Analysis and Prevention, Volume 21 (4), 1989, pp. 317–332.
Ourston, L. and J.G. Bared, "Roundaouts: A Direct Way to Safer Highways," Public Roads, Vol. *, August 1995, pp. 41-49.
Perone, J.P. "Traffic Calming: The Local Area Traffic Management (LATM) Approach", Resource Papers for the 1996 ITE
International Conference, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1996, pp. 215-222.
Perone, J.P. "Developing and Implementing Traffic Calming Warrants," ITE 1996 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of
Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1996, pp. 351-353.
Pharaoh, T.M. and J.R. Russell, "Traffic Calming Policy and Performance: The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany," Town
Planning Review, Vol. 62, 1991, pp. 79-105.
Poe, C.M. and J.M. Mason, "Geometric Design Guidelines to Achieve Desired Operating Speed on Urban Streets," ITE 1995
Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1995, pp. 70-74.
Preston, B. "The Need for Home Zones," in Environmental Issues, PTRC Education and Research Services Ltd., London,
England, 1993, pp. 215-226.
Proctor, S. "Accident Reduction Through Area-Wide Traffic Schemes," Traffic Engineering + Control, No. 12, 1991, pp. 566-573.
Pucher, J. and S. Clorer, "Taming the Automobile in Germany," Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 46, 1992, pp. 383-395.
Ribbens, H. and G. Schermers, "Traffic Calming as a Means for Promoting Pedestrian Safety in Urban Areas in South Africa,"
paper presented at the 76th Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1997.
Residential Area Speed Control Ad-Hoc Committee, Speed Control in Residential Areas, Michigan Office of Highway Safety
Planning, ?, 1998.
Savage, J.P., R.D. MacDonald, and J. Ewell, A Guidebook for Residential Traffic Management, Washington Department of
Transportation, Olympia, WA, 1994.
Schlabbach, K. "Traffic Calming in Europe," ITE Journal, Vol. 67, July 1997, pp. 38-40.
Schnull, R. and J. Lange, "Speed Reduction on Through Roads in Nordrhein-Westfalen,"Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol.
24, 1992, pp. 67-74.
Schoon, C.C., van Minnen, J., Ongevallen op rotondes. II. Tweede onderzoek naar de onveiligheid van rotondes vooral voor
fietsers en bromfietsers: rapport R-93-16. StichtingWetenschappelijk OnderzoekVerkeersveiligheid, Leidschendam, the
Netherlands. 1993.

- 27 -
UCT

ACET Project 7: Trafic Calming Measures – Review and Analysis (draft)

Skene, M. et al. "Developing A Canadian Guide to Traffic Calming," ITE Journal, Vol. 67, July 1997, pp. 34-36.
Smith, D.T. "End to Menlo Park's Traffic Calming Wars?" paper presented at the Annual Meeting, Institute of Transportation
Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1997.
Smith, D.T. and D. Appleyard, State-of-the-Art: Residential Traffic Management, Federal Highway Administration, Washington,
D.C., 1980.
Smith, D.T. and D. Appleyard, Improving the Residential Street Environment, Federal Highway Administration, Washington,
D.C., 1981.
Spitz, S. "How Much Traffic Is Too Much (Traffic)," ITE Journal, Vol. 52, May 1982, pp. 44-45.
Stein, H. et al., "Portland's Successful Experience with Traffic Circles," ITE 1992 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of
Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1992, pp. 39-44.
Stuster, J and Coffman, Z. Synthesis od Safety related to Speed and Speed limits, FHWA-RD-98-154 Federal Highway
Administration, 1998.
Sumner, R. and C. Baguley, Speed Control Humps on Residential Roads, Transport and Road Research Lab, Crowthorne,
England, 1979, pp. 3-10.
Swartz, R.D. "Mitigating Through Traffic in Residential Areas: Issues and Perspectives," Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 39, pp.
467-481.
Taylor, D. and M. Tight, "Public Attitudes and Consultation in Traffic Calming Schemes," Transport Policy, Vol. 4, 1997, pp. 171-
182.
TEST, Quality Streets: How Traditional Urban Centres Benefit from Traffic-Calming, London, 1988, pp. 1-20.
Traffic Calming, Ontario Traffic Conference, Toronto, 1995.
Tolley, R. Calming Traffic in Residential Areas , Brefi Press, BrefiEngland, 1990.
Topp, H.H. "Traffic Safety, Usability and Streetscape Effects of New Design Principles for Major Urban Roads," Transportation,
Vol. 16, 1990, pp. 297-310.
Ullman, G.L. "Neighborhood Speed Control: U.S. Practices," ITE 1996 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of
Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1996, pp. 111-115.
Underwood, R.T. "Neighbourhood Traffic Management—An Australian Perspective," ITE 1993 Compendium of Technical
Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1993, pp. 124-128.
Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Traffic Calming, roadway design to Reduce Traffic Speeds and Volumes, 2008.
Wallwork, M.J. "Traffic Calming," Traffic Safety Toolbox, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 199?, pp. 235-
245.
Walter, C.E. "Suburban Residential Traffic Calming," ITE Journal, Vol. 65, 1995, pp. 44-48.
Wang C., M. Quddus and S. Ison, The effect of area-wide road speed and curvature on traffic casualties in England, Journal of
Transport Geography, 2008, in press.
Webster, D., Effect of Traffic Calming Schemes on Vehicle Emissions. Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, 1993.
Webster, D.C., Mackie, A.M., Review of Traffic Calming Schemes in 20 mph Zones, TRL Report 215. Transport Research
Laboratory, Crowthorne, 1996.
Weinstein, A. and E. Deakin, "A Survey of Traffic Calming Programs in the United States," paper presented at the 1998 ITE
International Conference in Monterey, California, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1998.
Welke, R.C. and S.R. Navid, "Residential Traffic Control Initiatives," ITE 1988 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of
Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1988, pp. 92-95.
Whitelegg, J., "The Principle of Environmental Traffic Management," The Greening of Urban Transport: Planning for Walking and
Cycling in Western Cities, Belhaven Press, London, England, 1990.
Wong, Y.D., Nicholson, A., 1992. Driver behaviour at horizontal curves: risk compensation and the margin of safety. Accident.
Analysis and Prevention, Volume 24 (4), 1992, pp. 425–436.
Zaidel, D., A.S. Hakkert, and A.H. Pistiner, "The Use of Road Humps for Moderating Speeds on Urban Streets," Accident
Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 24, 1992, pp. 45-56.
Zegeer, C.V. et al., FHWA Study Tour for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety in England, Germany, and The Netherlands, Federal
Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1994, pp. 38-41, 55-57, 69-73, and 81.
Zein, S.R. "Safety Benefits of Traffic Calming," paper presented at the 76th Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Board,
Washington, D.C., 1997.
Zwerts, E., Nuyts, E., Onderzoek verplaatsingsgedrag Vlaanderen 2000–2001. Ministry of the Flemish Community, Brussels.
2004.

- 28 -

View publication stats