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Quality

Function
Deployment
(QFD)
Outline
Introduction
QFD Team
Benefits Of QFD
Voice Of The Customer
House Of Quality
Building A House Of Quality
QFD Process
Summary
Introduction
Dr. Mizuno, Prof. Emeritus
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Kobe Shipyards, 1972
Toyota Minivans (1977 Base)
1979 - 20% Reduction In Start-Up Costs
1982 - 38%
1984 - 61%
Dr. Clausing, Xerox, 1984
Any Manufacturing Or Service Industry
QFD Team
Significant Amount Of Time
Communication
Two Types Of Teams
New Product
Improve Existing Product
Marketing, Design, Quality, Finance,
Production, Etc.
Benefits Of QFD
Customer Driven
Reduces Implementation Time
Promotes Teamwork
Provides Documentation
Customer Driven
Creates Focus On Customer Requirements
Uses Competitive Information Effectively
Prioritizes Resources
Identifies Items That Can Be Acted On
Structures Resident Experience/Information
Reduces Implementation Time
Decreases Midstream Design Change
Limits Post Introduction Problems
Avoids Future Development Redundancies
Identifies Future Application Opportunities
Surfaces Missing Assumptions
Promotes Teamwork
Based On Consensus
Creates Communication At Interfaces
Identifies Actions At Interfaces
Creates Global View-Out Of Details
Provides Documentation
Documents Rationale For Design
Is Easy To Assimilate
Adds Structure To The Information
Adapts To Changes (Living Document)
Provides Framework For Sensitivity
Analysis
Voice Of The Customer
Driving Force Behind QFD
Customer Dictates Attributes Of Product
Customer Satisfaction
Meeting Or Exceeding Customer Expectations
Customer Expectations Can Be Vague &
General In Nature
Customer Expectations Must Be Taken
Literally, Not Translated Into What The
Organization Desires
Collecting Customer
Information
What Does Customer Really Want ?
What Are Customer’s Expectations ?
Are Customer’s Expectations Used
To Drive Design Process ?
What Can Design Team Do To
Achieve Customer Satisfaction?
Types Of Customer Information
Solicited, Measurable, Routine
Cus. & Market Surveys, Trade Trials
Unsolicited, Measurable, Routine
Customer Complaints, Lawsuits
Solicited, Subjective, Routine
Focus Groups
Solicited, Subjective, Haphazard
Trade & Cus. Visits, Indep. Consultants
Unsolicited, Subjective, Haphazard
Conventions, Vendors, Suppliers
House Of Quality

Interrelationship
between
Technical Descriptors

Technical Descriptors
(Voice of the organization)

Requirements
Requirements
(Voice of the

Prioritized
Customer)

Customer
Customer

Relationship between
Requirements and
Descriptors

Prioritized Technical
Descriptors
Building A House Of Quality
List Customer Requirements (What’s)
List Technical Descriptors (How’s)
Develop Relationship (What’s & How’s)
Develop Interrelationship (How’s)
Competitive Assessments
Prioritize Customer Requirements
Prioritize Technical Descriptors
QFD Matrix Relationship between
Technical
Descriptors Customer Requirements
and
Primary
Technical Descriptors
Interrelationship between
Secondary WHATs vs. HOWs
Technical Descriptors
(correlation matrix) +9 Strong

Secondary
HOWs vs. HOWs +3 Medium

Primary
+1 Weak
+9 Strong Positive
+3 Positive
-3

Requirements
Negative Requirements

Prioritized
Customer
Customer

-9 Strong Negative

Technical Our

Customer Importance
Competitive A’s

Our

B’s
A’s
Assessment
B’s

Absolute Weight
Scale-up Factor
Degree of Technical Difficulty

Target Value
Assessment
Target Value

Competitive

Sales Point
Customer
Absolute Weight and Percent
Relative Weight and Percent
Prioritized Technical
Descriptors
Customer Requirements (What’s)
Customer Requirements
(WHATs)
Primary

Secondary

Tertiary
Technical Descriptors (How’s)
Technical Descriptors
(HOWs)
Primary

Secondary

Tertiary
L - Shaped Diagram
Technical
Descriptors
Primary

Secondary

Secondary
Primary
Requirements
Customer
Relationship Matrix
Technical
Descriptors
Primary

Secondary

Secondary
Primary

Relationship between
Customer
Requirements and
Requirements

Technical Descriptors
Customer

WHATs vs. HOWs

+9 Strong
+3 Medium
+1 Weak
Correlation Matrix
Interrelationship between Technical
Descriptors (correlation matrix)
HOWs vs. HOWs
Technical
Descriptors +9 Strong Positive
Primary +3 Positive
-3 Negative
Secondary Secondary -9 Strong Negative
Primary

Relationship between
Customer Requirements
and
Requirements

Technical Descriptors
Customer

WHATs vs. HOWs


+9 Strong
+3 Medium
+1 Weak
Customer Competitive Assessment

5
3
Requirements

Relationship between
1
Customer

Customer Requirements
2 and
5 Technical Descriptors
1 WHATs vs. HOWs
4
4 +9 Strong
+3 Medium
+1 Weak

Ours

Assessment B’s
Competitive A’s
Customer
Technical Competitive Assessment

5
3
Requirements

Relationship between
Customer

1
Customer Requirements
2 and
5 Technical Descriptors
1 WHATs vs. HOWs
4
4 +9 Strong
+3 Medium
Technical Our 1 3 4 2 1 2 1 4
+1 Weak
Competitive A’s
Assessment B’s

Our

B’s
A’s
Assessment
Competitive
Customer
Prioritized Customer
Requirements
Importance Rating
Target Value
Scale-Up Factor
Sales Point
Absolute Weight & Percent
(Importance Rating)
(Scale-Up Factor)
(Sales Point)
Technical
Descriptors
Primary Relationship between
Customer Requirements
Secondary and
Technical Descriptors
Secondary

WHATs vs. HOWs


Primary

+9 Strong
+3 Medium
5 7 5 1.2
+1 Weak
3 3 3

Requirements
1.5
Requirements

Prioritized
Customer
1 9 2 1
Customer

2 10 3 1.5 1 15
5 2 5 1 1.5 3
1 4 2 1
4 8 4 1.5
4 1 4 1
Technical Our 1 3 4 21 2 1 4

Customer Importance
Competitive A’s
Our

B’s
Assessment A’s
B’s

Absolute Weight
Scale-up Factor
Target Value
Assessment
Competitive

Sales Point
Customer
Prioritized Technical
Descriptors
Degree Of Difficulty
Target Value
Absolute Weight & Percent
n
a = ∑Rc R is Relationship Matrix
j ij i c is Customer Importance
i =1
Relative Weight & Percent
n
b = ∑Rd R is Relationship Matrix
j ij i c is Customer Absolute
i =1 Weights
Relationship between
Technical
Descriptors Customer Requirements
and
Primary
Technical Descriptors
Interrelationship between
Secondary WHATs vs. HOWs
Technical Descriptors
(correlation matrix) +9 Strong

Secondary
HOWs vs. HOWs +3 Medium

Primary
+1 Weak
+9 Strong Positive
+3 Positive 5 7 5 1.2
-3 3 3 3

Requirements
Negative Requirements 1.5

Prioritized
Customer
1 9 2 1
Customer

-9 Strong Negative
2 10 3 1.5 1 15
5 2 5 1 1.5 3
1 4 2 1
4 8 4 1.5
4 1 4 1
Technical Our 1 3 4 21 2 1 4

Customer Importance
Competitive A’s

Our

B’s
A’s
Assessment
B’s

Absolute Weight
Scale-up Factor
Degree of Technical Difficulty 1 8 4 2 9 8 2 5

Target Value
Assessment
Target Value 2 3 4 31 3 1 5

Competitive

Sales Point
Customer
Absolute Weight and Percent 90
Relative Weight and Percent 133
Prioritized Technical
Descriptors
QFD Process

HOWs HOWs
WHATs

WHATs
HOW HOW
MUCH MUCH
Phase I
Product Planning
Design
Requirements
Requirements
Customer
Phase II
Part Development
Part Quality
Requirements Characteristics
Design
Phase III
Process Planning
Key Process
Operations
Characteristics
Part Quality
Phase IV
Production Planning
Production
Key Process Requirements
Operations

Production Launch
QFD Summary
 Orderly Way Of Obtaining Information &
Presenting It
 Shorter Product Development Cycle
 Considerably Reduced Start-Up Costs
 Fewer Engineering Changes
 Reduced Chance Of Oversights During Design
Process
 Environment Of Teamwork
 Consensus Decisions
 Preserves Everything In Writing