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Document Title : PROCEDURE FOR

LIQUID PENETRANT EXAMINATION

Document No :

Revision No :

Rev. Prepared By Approved By Reviewed By


Date
No. NDE Level II NDE Level III Authorized Inspector

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CONTENTS

Clause Title Page No.

- Code Review Record 03


1.0 Scope 04
2.0 Applicable Codes & Specifications 04
3.0 Responsibilities 04
4.0 Personnel Qualification 04
5.0 Surface Preparation 04
6.0 Brand of Penetrant Consumables 05
7.0 Cleaning 05
8.0 Temperature of the Test Object 05
9.0 Application of Penetration 05
10.0 Excess Penetrant Removal 05
11.0 Drying After Removal of Excess Penetrant 05
12.0 Developer Application 05
13.0 Examination 05
14.0 Evaluation of indications 06
15.0 Acceptance Criteria 06
16.0 Repair Requirements 06
17.0 Post - Examination Cleaning 06
18.0 Inspection Report 06
-- Table 1 07

Attachments:

1. Qualification & demonstration record

2. Light Intensity Verification Record

3. Format for Liquid Penetrant Examination Report (Form No: )

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Code Review Record

The following table identifies the Code Edition and Addenda of ASME Codes
Section I, VIII Div 1 & VIII Div 2 against which this procedure has been reviewed.
This record is updated only on the master copy of the procedure unless changes
are required in the procedure.

Procedure Date of Edition/Addenda of


Revision details Reviewed by
Revision Review the Codes

0 Edition 2010 Initial issue

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1.0 GENERAL
• This procedure details the techniques to be applied for Visible (Color Contrast) Solvent Removable Liquid
Penetrant Examination (PT), to find the defects open to surface on all types of non porous metals and non-
metals including welds, pipes, tubes, forgings, fittings and other wrought products when such examination
is required by the construction Code and/or material specification.
• The extent of examination shall be as specified in the drawing and test plan
• This procedure requires qualification by demonstration for all the applicable essential variables when
specified by construction Codes or specification. The demonstration shall be carried out on a flawed
specimen. NDE Level III shall certify that this procedure has been demonstrated for capable of producing
interpretable examination results to the satisfaction of AI as per Article I Para T-150 of ASME Code Sec V.
• Any change in a variable identified as an essential variable in this procedure shall require re-qualification
by demonstration. Any change in a variable identified as non-essential variable does not require
requalification or demonstration; however a revision to the procedure shall be required.
• Based on the contract specific customer requirements, an annexure to this procedure can be issue. Any
change in the essential variable shall however require qualification and demonstration
• The applicable essential and non essential variables are identified on the Qualification and Demonstration
record, which is attached and forms part of this procedure

2.0 APPLICABLE CODES & SPECIFICATIONS


ƒ ASME Code Section V Article 6
ƒ ASME Code Section VIII, Div. 1 - Appendix 8
ƒ ASME Code Section VIII Div 2 - Clause 7.5.7
ƒ ASME Sec. IX
ƒ ASME B31.1 & ASME B31.3
ƒ ASME Sec. 1
ƒ Applicable SA/SB material specification
ƒ Written Practice Document no.

3.0 RESPONSIBILITY
• The procedure shall be prepared by NDE Level II and reviewed and approved by NDE Level III. A copy
shall be made available to all qualified Level I & Level II personnel.
• NDE Level III shall be responsible for demonstration, qualification and certification of this procedure

4.0 PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS


• Personnel used for PT shall be qualified as per Written Practice
• Personnel qualified as Level II or III can perform, interpret and report the results of the examination.
• Level I can only perform the examination under the supervision of a Level II or Level III.

5.0 SURFACE PREPARATION


• As welded, as forged or machined condition is acceptable. Grinding or machining may be done on irregular
surfaces which could mask indications of unacceptable discontinuities.
• The surface to be examined and all adjacent area within at least 1 inch (25mm) shall be dry and free of all
dirt grease, lint, and scale, welding flux, weld spatter, paint, oil and other extraneous matter.

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6.0 BRAND OF PENETRANT CONSUMABLES
• The following brands of PT consumables are approved for use. All consumables shall be used within the
expiry date specified by the manufacturer.
• Inter mixing of consumables from different families or manufacturers is not permitted.

Manufacturer Cleaner Penetrant Developer

• When examining nickel base alloys, all liquid penetrant materials shall be analyzed individually for sulfur
content and shall be within 1% of the residue by weight as specified in Article 6 mandatory Appendix II of
ASME Sec. V.
• When examining austenitic stainless steel, duplex stainless steel or titanium all liquid penetrant materials
shall be analyzed individually for chlorine and fluorine content and the total content of chlorine plus
fluorine shall not exceed 1% by weight as specified in Mandatory Appendix II of Article-6 of ASME Sec. V.
• Penetrant materials manufacturer’s certification for above shall be considered acceptable. This certification
shall include the penetrant material’s batch numbers and test results.

7.0 CLEANING

• The surface to be examined shall be cleaned using solvent cleaners before liquid penetrant examination.
Minimum drying time after cleaning shall be 1 minute. Drying shall be by natural evaporation.

8.0 TEMPERATURE OF THE TEST SURFACE

• The temperature of the test surface shall be between 40oF (5oC) and 125oF (52oC) throughout the
examination period. Local heating or cooling is permitted to maintain the required surface temperature.

9.0 APPLICATION OF PENETRATION

• The penetrant may be applied by aerosol spray cans. For the minimum dwell time refer Table 1. The
surface shall remain wet with penetrant during the dwell time. Re-spray is permitted.

10.0 EXCESS PENETRANT REMOVAL

• The excess penetrant shall be removed completely using cloth or absorbent paper, repeating the operation
until the traces of penetrant have been removed. The remaining traces shall be removed by lightly wiping
the surface with cloth or absorbent paper moistened with solvent.

• Flushing the surface with solvent, following the application of the penetrant and prior to developing is
prohibited.

11.0 DRYING AFTER REMOVAL OF EXCESS PENETRANT

• Following the removal of excess penetrant, the surfaces shall be dried by normal evaporation for a
minimum of 1 minute and a maximum 20 minutes. Refer Table 1.

12.0 DEVELOPER APPLICATION

• The developer shall be applied uniformly to the surface being examined to obtain a coating of even
thickness over the entire surface by spraying. Only wet non-aqueous developer in aerosol spray shall be
used.

13.0 EXAMINATION

• Developing time for final interpretation begins immediately after the application of developer, as soon as
wet developer coating is dry. Final interpretation shall be made not less than 10 minutes nor more that 30
minutes after the coating is dry. See Table 1.
• If the surface to be examined is large enough to preclude complete examination within the prescribed or
established time in Table 1, the examination can be performed in increments.

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• The area under inspection shall be illuminated adequately by natural or artificial light of minimum 1000 lux
to enable interpretation of the results accurately. 220V/100 W lamps at a maximum distance of 0.5 meter
gives the required light intensity. This has been verified by demonstration using light meter.
• Light meter shall be calibrated at least once in a year or earlier if repaired.

• If false indications are suspected, re-examination of the area shall be carried out.

14.0 EVALUATION OF INDICATIONS

• An indication of an imperfection may be larger than the imperfection that causes it, however the size of the
indication is the basis for acceptance or rejection.

• An indication is evidence of mechanical imperfection. Only indications with major dimensions greater than
1
/16 inch (1.5mm) shall be considered relevant.

• A linear indication is one having a length greater than 3 times the width. A rounded indication is one of
circular or elliptical shape with the length equal to or less than three times the width.

• Any questionable or doubtful indications shall be re-examined to determine whether or not relevant.

15.0 ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS

• These acceptance standards shall apply unless other more restrictive standards are specified by contract
and specified in drawing and / or test plan.
• All surfaces to be examined shall be free of following.
¾ Relevant linear indications.
3
¾ Relevant rounded indications greater than /16 inch (5.0 mm).
¾ Four or more relevant rounded indications in line separated by 1/16 inch (1.5mm) or less (edge to edge).
¾ Crack like indications, irrespective of surface conditions are unacceptable.
16.0 REPAIR REQUIREMENTS

• Unacceptable imperfections shall be repaired and re examined to ensure removal or reduction to an


acceptable size. Whenever an imperfection is repaired by chipping or grinding and subsequent repair by
welding is not required, the excavated area shall be blended into the surrounding surface so as to avoid
sharp notches, crevices or corners. Where welding is required after repair of an imperfection, the area
shall be cleaned and welding performed in accordance with a qualified welding procedure.
• Any indications which is believed to be non relevant shall be regard as an imperfection unless it is shown
by reexamination by the same method or by the use of other non-destructive methods and/or by surface
conditioning that no unacceptable imperfection is present.
• After a defect is thought to have been removed and prior to making weld repairs, the area shall be
examined by suitable methods to confirm the defect has been removed or reduced to an acceptable size of
imperfection.
• After repairs have been made, the repaired area shall be blended into the surrounding surface so as to
avoid sharp notches, crevices, or corners and reexamined by the liquid penetrant method and by all other
methods of examination that were originally required for the affected area, except that, when the depth of
repair is less than the radiographic sensitivity required, re radiography may be omitted.

17.0 POST EXAMINATION CLEANING

• The area after examination will be cleaned using dry/wet cloth or water washed. Other special cleaning if
required shall be specified on Inspection & Test Plan.

18.0 INSPECTION REPORT

• The results of the examination shall be reported on the Form .

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TABLE 1

PERMISSIBLE DWELL TIME

MATERIAL TYPE
After initial Penetrant After penetrant removal and Interpretation Time
cleaning before Developer Application

FOR SURFACE TEMPERARURE BETWEEN 100C AND 520C

WELDS Minimum 1 min Minimum 5 min Maximum 20 min Minimum 10 min


Maximum 20 min Maximum 30 min
PLATES, FORGINGS, FITTINGS, PIPES, Minimum 1 min Minimum 10 min Maximum 20 min Minimum 10 min
TUBES & OTHER WROUGHT PRODUCTS Maximum 20 min Maximum 30 min

FOR SURFACE TEMPERARURE BETWEEN 50C AND 100C

Minimum 1 min
WELDS Minimum 10 min Maximum 20 min Minimum 10 min
Maximum 20 min
Maximum 30 min

Minimum 1 min
PLATES, FORGINGS, FITTINGS, PIPES, Minimum 20 min Maximum 20 min Minimum 10 min
Maximum 20 min
TUBES & OTHER WROUGHT PRODUCTS Maximum 30 min

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Qualification & Demonstration Record of Essential & Non-Essential Variables for
Liquid Penetrant Examination Procedure no. _______________ Revision___

No. Variable Type Procedure Qualified Limits


Reference
1a Type of pentrant test material E 1.0 Visible Solvent Removable type
1b Family(Brand) of penetrant test material E 6.0 Make
Cleaner Penetrant Developer
2 Surface preparation E 5.0 Finishing : wire brush/grinding/machining
Cleaning: solvent cleaning using Cleaner in 1b
3 Method of Applying Penetrant E 9.0 Aerosol spray
4 Method of excess penetrant removel E 10.0 Hand wiping & cleaning.
Direct spray or flushing of cleaner on test surface prohibited
5 Method of applying developer E 12.0 Spray
6 Min & max time period between steps & drying aid E 7.0 & 11.0 Minimum time after initial cleaning 1 min
Maximum time after penetrant cleaning 20 min
7 Pentrant Dwell time (Minimum) E 9.0 & Table 1 welds at 100C to 520C: 5 min. At 50C to 100C : 10 min.
For all other materials at 100C to 520C: 10 min. At 50C to 100C : 20 min.
8 Developer Dwell time(Interpreation Time) E 13.0 & Table 1 Minimum 10 minutes
Final interpretion not later than 30 minutes
9 Minimum Light Intensity E 13.0 1000 Lux. 220 V, 100 W lamp at 500 mm satisfies requirements
10 Surface Temperature outside 50C to 520C E 8.0 Not to be used for temperature outside At 50C to 520C
11 Perfomance Demonstration when required E 1.0 As per T-150 of Sec V Article 1
12 Personnel Qualificaion N 4.0 SNT-TC-1A Level I can perform
SNT-TC-1A Level II or III can perform/evaluate/report
13 Material/shapes/sizes to be examined & extent of exam N 1.0 All ferrous & non ferrous welds, wrought products i.e. plates, pipes, tubes, forgings & fittings as
required by Codes and/or specifications
14 Post examination Cleaning N 17.0 Not required. Clean by wiping or water wash when specified in contract

Legend : E = Essential Variable N = Non-Essential Variable


Note: Any change in the above listed essential variables require requalification by demonstration
Any change in the above listed non essential variables required revision to this document and procedure

Certificate of Qualification and Demonstration


This is to certify that this procedure has been qualified and demonstrated to the satisfaction of Authorised Inspector for the essential variables mentioned above in accordance with the
requirements of Article 1, para T-150 of ASME Code Section V. See attached report

Date of Demonstration:

Certified by Approved by Witnessed By

NDE Level III QC Manager Authorized Inspector


DEMONSTRATION OF VISIBLE LIGHT FOR LIQUID PENETRANT
EXAMINATION & MAGNETIC PARTICLE EXAMINATION

PROCEDURE NO & REV NO. : PT_________________________


MT ________________________

DATE OF DEMONSTRATION : _______________

INSTRUMENT USED : Elyscan 2 Radiometer / Photometer


(For Visible Light)

MAKE & SERIAL NO : Applied scintillation Technologies


Sr. No. ______________

LIGHT SOURCE USED : 240 Volts, 100 Watt Electric bulb Hand lamp

DESCRIPTION OF DEMONSTRATION : The above hand lamp is held at 500 mm distance


from the test surface in a dark room as shown in the sketch.

With the use of above calibrated instrument, the light intensity is checked by placing the sensor at
four locations (A,B,C & D) where visible light intensity is 1000 lux . These four points (A, B, C &
D) are marked to show the area where light intensity is equal or more than 1000 lux.

Light level 1000 lux at 500 mm distance from the light source (Centre of bulb) to the test surface.

SKETCH:

500 mm

CC
120 mm A B

D
D
120 mm

Demonstrated by Approved by Witnessed by


Level II Level III AI
Name

Signature

Date
LIQUID PENETRANT TEST REPORT
Customer / Project: Report no:
Job no.: Date :
Vessel Identification: Weld or Part identification:
Procedure no.: Acceptance standard:
Material: Thickness / dimensions:
Test Temperature: Lighting (Min 1000 lux) Natural Artificial
Surface condition: Stage of examination:
Consumable Brand Cleaner: Penetrant: Developer:
Batch no.
Cleaning Penetrant: Developer / Interpretation
Dwell Time

Sketch

Notes
• Minimum drying time after initial cleaning: 1 minute
• Maximum drying time after penetrant removal: 20 minute

RESULTS
Sl. Type of indication Location Size/Extent Evaluation Remarks
No.

Examined by (Level I / II) Evaluated By (Level II / III) Witnessed by

Name
Signature
Date

Form no._______ Rev______