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Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive within 12 months. If you are infertile, then you
cannot get pregnant naturally and have children Approximately 85% of couples will achieve
pregnancy within one year of trying, with the greatest likelihood of conception occurring during
the earlier months. Additional 7% of couples will conceive in the second year and the couples
who are enable to conceive even after trying this long defined as infertile .

Until recently,  it was usually the women who were assumed to be the origin of any fertility
issues. However, recent studies as conducted by the International Committee for Monitoring
Assisted Reproductive Technology, World Health Organization, show that nearly 50%
of  infertility is related to the reproductive anomalies or disorders in the male.


In order for a couple to become pregnant, at least four things have to happen:

 OVULATION -A woman must produce and release a healthy egg from one of
her ovaries.This is known as ovulation.
 FERTILIZATION-A man must produce viable sperm which can successfully
fertilize the woman’s egg. This procedure is known as fertilization.
 TRANSPORTATION-The egg must travel through a fallopian tube toward the
 IMPLANTATION-The fertilized egg must attach to the inside of the uterus.

What are the causes of low sperm count or abnormal sperm function in

Low sperm count or abnormal sperm function may be caused by:

 Undescended testicles
 If there is any Genetic defects/DNA damage
 When a man is suffering from Diabetes
 If a man had a Prior bacterial or viral infections such as mumps or adenovirus
 Had a history of trauma or prior surgeries on the testicles or inguinal region
 If a person has enlarged veins (varicoceles) in the testes that can increase
blood flow and heat, both of which affect the number and shape of the sperm
 If a man is exposed to chemicals like pesticides, radiation, and chemotherapy
 If a man is an Alcohol user, marijuana user, and uses tobacco smoke
 If a man is on Steroid
 There is overexposure to heat (such as in saunas and hot tubs)
 If surgical removal of one of the testicles due to cancer
In addition, there can be problems with the delivery of sperm and subsequent
fertilization due to any of the following:

 Premature ejaculation
 Damage or injury to the reproductive organs
 Semen entering the bladder instead of emerging through the penis during
orgasm (retrograde ejaculation)
 Certain genetic diseases (such as cystic fibrosis)

Men who have previously had a vasectomy and wish to father a child have two
choices. They either need to have the vasectomy reversed or have sperm retrieved
through a surgical procedure as part of assisted reproductive techniques.

What are the causes of infertility in women?

The causes of infertility in women can include many of the following:

 Hormonal issues: These can be due to the lack of the necessary

synchronized hormonal changes leading to the release of an egg from the
o Disorders of the thyroid gland: Either too much thyroid hormone or too
little thyroid hormone can interfere with the menstrual cycle or cause
o Gland disorders: These hormonal disorders may include polycystic
ovarian syndrome (PCOS), or problems with the hypothalamus,
pituitary gland, adrenal gland (such as Cushing's syndrome or
congenital adrenal hyperplasia)
 Structural issues: Benign growths (such as polyps and fibroids) in the uterus,
blocked fallopian tubes, abnormal anatomy of the cervix or uterus,
endometriosis, scar tissue
o Fallopian tube damage can include scarring from prior surgery and/or
pelvic infections. These include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
Problems with transportation of the egg(s) can occur due to damaged
or blocked fallopian tubes.
 Diminished ovarian reserve, premature menopause or cessation of ovulation
(primary ovarian insufficiency); changes in egg quality or quantity can affect
 Additional factors:
o Poor diet that is lacking in nutrients
o Athletic overtraining
o Stress
o Too much exposure to certain chemicals and toxins (for example,
tobacco smoke, alcohol, marijuana, pesticides, radiation, and
o Certain medications (the effect usually is temporary)
o Sickle cell disease
o Kidney disease
o Celiac disease
o Diabetes

Women who have had a tubal ligation or an Essure® device (forms of permanent
birth control) should speak with a gynecologist about their options.