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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND SUSTAINABLE

DEVELOPMENT: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

SUB THEME: IS CLIMATE CHANGE JUST A HOAX?

PARINITA AND SHAMBHAVI SINGH

FIRST YEAR, B.A. LL.B.

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY, PATNA.

ABSTRACT

The paper reviews how people cannot comprehend climate change arising from environmental
pollution is that it is a notional concept and is constantly bamboozled. Henry David Thoreau has
rightly said, “What is the use of a house if you have not got a tolerable planet to put it on?”
Climate change debates are otiose as they have become a matter of political belonging. We are
given a premonition for the next 100 years and the climate change is happening in the present
time. The weather phenomenons are becoming worse. Around the world ice caps are melting,
rate of ocean levels rise is accelerating. Major threat is to the ecosystem, which is facing higher
temperature changes leading to global warming that is having a massive negative impact on
Earth. Climate change has myriad of direct and indirect consequences on the complex of the
communities of organisms. Some of the earth species are menace with extinction as a result of
rising temperature. Although inter-governmental is forethoughtful on pollution apropos of rules
and plans are concerned. However, paucity of action plan and half hearted efforts has made this
money sucking counterproductive and feckless tasks. However there is multitudinous work to be
done to make earth a better place to live in.

KEYWORDS: Climate change, Sea level, Ecosystem, Political issue, Air pollution, Global
warming, Ice caps.
INTRODUCTION

The desideratum of the moment is healthy environment to live in. Although globalization has
numerous benefits to the economy of the country, the race of becoming a developed country
from a developing one has impair in the progress of economic development but also have
harmful effects on the people’s health. The last century has seen a wider implication of global
temperature and trends and its impact on the planet wildlife and humanity. The main challenge
today is to strike a chord of balance between economic growth and conservation and evenhanded
sharing of resources. They are so deeply catenated that we cannot simply address that climate
challenges unless we are able to utilize the pattern of change of globalization that affects them.
Reprehensible is that climate change has been felicitously a topic of political discourses.1

The extreme weather phenomena are the mirror of the coming disasters. Higher temperature,
uneven rainfall resulting in floods and droughts, melting of ice caps, rise in sea level, and
endangered earth species all are at risk.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The researcher has used various sources for doing the research work. The data for this paper
comes from relied sources like articles and journals. Doctrinal method of research is used by
researcher here. Mostly the researcher has taken help from the trustworthy online materials.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Let us unearth the developments that lead to contrive of this global phenomenon that is,
resonating in the air that we breathe in and out. Climate change is enduring mutation in earth’s
climate and weather diagram. Almost a century of data analysis was required to convince that
human activities are the reason for the climate change. In 1800s and then in 1950s, the first data
offered by carbon dioxide(CO2) readings were there to validate the global warming theory and
also a host of dire consequences was known.

1
https://soapboxie.com/social-issue/
Talking about the theory of climate effects one theory believed until the dust bowl 1930s2 held
that, “ rains follows the plow” , which is now a discredited idea that tilling soil results in
increased rainfall. As said by Svante Arrhenius, “By the influence of the increasing percentage of
carbonic acid(H2CO3) in the atmosphere, we may hope to enjoy ages with more equable and
better climates, especially as regards the colder regions of the earth.” While in early 1970s
people became concerned and earth did cool somewhat between 1940-1970. But the summer of
1988 was the hottest on record following which in 1989 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) was established under United Nations. Then in 1997, the first global agreement
to reduce greenhouse gases, the Kyoto Protocol, was signed by US President Bill Clinton. While
in march 2001, after President George W. Bush announced US would not implement the protocol
saying, “fatally flawed in fundamental ways”. And thereafter politicization over climate change
continued.

The early part of 20th century went through cutthroat criticism of extant theories. The inaccurate
tests in early 19th century were disposed off.

CONTEMPRORARY SCENARIO

GLOBAL WARMING

Global warming is rise in earth’s surface temperature as a result of greenhouse gases, also
referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the temperature of the Earth’s
climate system and its related effects. The major impacts of global warming are the world is
becoming warmer and warmer, water balance is disturbed, and pattern of agriculture changes, as
well as puts threat on rich biodiversity of the ecosystem. Human health is also at risk as reports
are there of spread of major tropical diseases with change in climate.

The human activities are the reason for natural greenhouse. The activities like cleaning of land
for agriculture, industrial activities lead to concentration of greenhouse gases. The solar
variability plays an important role in climate change. Talking about the decrease in solar activity
which triggered the little ice age between 1650-1850 and also from 1410-1720s when the
Greenland was largely cutoff by ice.3
2
https://www.history.com/topics/natural-disasters-and-environment/history-of-climate-change

3
https://climate.nasa.gov/causes/
Although certain laws are made that govern pollution and greenhouse gases but these are needed
to be followed. The government has created green tribunal, number of rules and regulations
under environmental pollution act but the implications are very marginal because the ground
realities are never disclosed. The main reason that somehow global warming is a hoax is that the
main proctor of global warming live lifestyles opposite of what they preach. The Paris agreement
which is very much in dispute did nothing to address the issues but can be called as primarily a
tax on ‘western civilization countries’. According to a study it was found out that 75 scientists
said they believe in global warming on the other hand over 31000 scientists have signed a
petition saying that they don’t believe in Catastrophic Man-Made Global Warming.4

RISE IN SEA LEVEL

One of the major indicators of ongoing climate change is rising sea level. Rather than increasing
steadily the rate of global sea level rise has been accelerating in recent decades, according to new
study based on 25years of NASA and European satellite data. From the model experiments it has
been made out that 20th century sea level rise cannot be explained by natural process alone.
Generating thermal expansion of ocean waters, anthropogenic forcing by greenhouse gases has
become a dominant cause of sea level rise. Rise in concentration of greenhouse gases in earths
atmosphere causes sea level to rise in two ways: first, melting land ice flows into the ocean
increasing sea level across the globe; secondly, warmer water expands and this thermal
expansion of ocean has led to about half of the 2.8inches (7 centimeters) of global mean sea level
rise. Aquaculture is one of the socio-economic centers which are adversely affected by sea level
rise. People living in coastal areas have to face dire consequences and looking “under the hood”
in their calculation, protection costs are the most important cost. The physical impacts of sea
level rise includes disappearance of some low-lying islands, submergence and increases flooding
of coastal land, saltwater intrusion of surface and subsurface waters, increased erosion, and
habitat destruction in coastal areas.

If the trend continues the rise in sea level will be one to four feet higher than what it is now
leading to existential threat to people living there. Big metropolitan cities like Mumbai, Los
Angeles, New York will be exposed to risk of inundation or thinking about the worst case
scenario almost nearly half of the earth population could be displaced.
4
www.globalclimatescam.com/opinion/top-ten-reasons-climate-change-is-a-hoax/
AIR POLLUTION

Air quality standard is one of the basic as well as necessary requirements for a healthy living.
Sources which contribute to air pollutants are PM (particulate matter), nitrogen oxide (NOx),
carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3). Land vehicles, power plant, industries are some of the
biggest offenders for polluting the global atmosphere while recent researches reveals that
agriculture may have significant contribution.5 Fertilizers used, intensive feeding program for
higher milk and meat yields which when combines with sulfates from cold fired power plants
and nitrates from car fumes to form the soot is one of the biggest killer. If we have to pick one
pollutant that is critical for human health than it is PM.

Focusing on PM2.5 will be enough to gather the attention for overall urban air quality scenario in
Delhi. However, a lot of steps has been taken like better infrastructure for pollution control
organization, heavy penalty and law breakers, promoting electric vehicles, improving quality of
public vehicles, increasing CNG and electric refilling stations, penalty on burning stubble.

The alarming effects of air pollution are respiratory and heart problems along with cancer, acid
rain which causes great damage to human, animal and crops, burning of fossil fuels releases
nitrogen oxide and sulphur oxide. Eutrophication adversely affects fish, plants and animals
species, depletion of ozone layer due to presence of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) causes skin and
eye problem. This will go a long way to curb air pollution. Several endeavors are being made on
every level to curb down the intensity at which air pollution is gaining the speed so as to achieve
and strike balance in the proportion of the foundation gases. A lot of innovations and alternatives
are made available to overcome the challenge for a better tomorrow.

ICE CAPS

Around the world ice caps such as mountain glaciers, west Antarctica covered by ice sheets and
Arctic sea ice are melting. It is obvious that the direct consequence of this is rise in sea level but
there are other repercussions like endangered polar fauna. Polar ice caps help in maintaining
5
https://www.theblot.com/science-hoax-air-pollution-really-killing-us-7760588
earth’s temperature which ultimately is very important for organism that lives around polar ice
caps. Melting of these ice caps not only increases the volume of water in ocean but also
decreases salinity.

ENDANGER TO ECOSYSTEM

Natural ecosystem is pivot for sustaining life on the planet. According to pew center reports,
“ecosystem and global climate change” is fifth in series on impact on climate change. Some of
the important issues raised are the distribution of territorial ecosystem will change. Many of the
deciduous forest due to climate zones shift can be lost. While species and ecosystem can migrate
up mountains slopes from lower elevations.6 This climate change in many ways will affect the
characteristics in which energy and chemical flow through plants, herbivores, carnivores, and
soil organisms which constitute the very component of ecosystem. Efforts are taken but the focus
should be more on how to lessen the adverse effects on species and ecosystem from climate
change as well as to maintain the species composition and overall ecosystem structure.

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

“Is climate change a hoax?” hearing this question the very first thing that comes to the mind is
the biggest threat to life on this planet can really become a vehement political issue and a person
matter for many people. In spite of many differences safeguarding of life on earth can be the
thing that unites us. The limited and resourceful is the best mean to control man and hence to
control the disaster that is approaching because it can be said that climate change is real as it
happens every year in the form of summer, winter and spring. It depends on us and we should
intend to take every possible step at one’s personal level to lead our generation and coming
generation towards better environment.

6
http://www.c2es.org/document/ecosystems-and-global-climate-change/