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‘FRANCHISING IN BRITAIN’ SERIES

L
NA
The Lloyds Bank Plc/IFRC Franchising in

FR
O

AN
I
AT
Britain series comprised 3 volumes:

CH
RN

IS
TE

E
IN
Vol.1
RE

E
TR
SE
1 Prospective Franchisees, (Hatcliffe,
AR

N
CE
CH
Mills, Purdy & Stanworth), 1995

2 Franchising in Figures, (Purdy,


Stanworth & Hatcliffe), 1996

THE INTERNATIONAL FRANCHISE 3 Secrets of Success, (Silvester,


RESEARCH CENTRE (IFRC) 1993-2007 Stanworth, Purdy & Hatcliffe), 1996
University of Westminster, London, UK.
Vol.2
"The International Franchise Research
Centre (IFRC) is committed to 1 Cloning Success, (Silvester,
improving the understanding of Stanworth, Purdy & Hatcliffe), 1997
franchising. This is achieved by the
publication of impartial research and 2 Franchising Your Business: Getting
by the encouragement of informed Started, (Stanworth, Purdy &
debate." Hatcliffe), 1998. A more recent version
- I franchised my business, so can you
Franchising operates in a dynamic environ- (2002) - is also available.
ment, with new issues and challenges
emerging, including: globalisation, coping 3 Franchisee Success: Perceptions &
with competition, disclosure, industry Barriers, (Nunn, Stanworth, Purdy,
regulation, managing relations with Thomas & Hatcliffe), 1998
franchisee associations, franchisee
recruitment & market saturation. Vol.3

Against this backdrop, the IFRC was 1 Fifth Annual Strategy Seminar:
established in 1993 by Professor John Breaking Out Of The Home Market,
Stanworth (Director of the Future of Work (Stanworth & Purdy, Eds., papers by
Research Group at the University of McCosker, Scott, Hoy & Harris), 1998
Westminster), supported by Brian Smith (ex-
BFA Chairman, franchisee, franchisor and 2 Franchising: The Gender Dimension,
author), and Chair of its Steering Group. (Nunn, Purdy, Stanworth & Hatcliffe),
1998
FOUNDER MEMBERS
Web versions
Founder members and sponsors included:
Barclays Bank, the British Franchise The above reports are now available online,
Association (BFA), Dyno-Rod, Franchise in Acrobat format, published January 2011,
Development Services Ltd., Lloyds Bank via http://www.scribd.com/SME_Research
(now Lloyds Banking Group), Mail Boxes
Etc., Midland Bank (now HSBC), Prontaprint, LIABILITY DISCLAIMER
Rosemary Conley Diet & Fitness Clubs,
Royal Bank of Scotland, The Swinton Group, The information and analysis in each report
and Wragge & Co. is offered in good faith. However, neither the
publishers, the project sponsors, nor the
author/s, accept any liability for losses or
damages which could arise for those who
choose to act upon the information or
analysis contained herein.

International Franchise Research Centre Lloyds Bank Franchising In Britain - Web Versions 2011 p.1
OTHER PUBLICATIONS 14 Direct Selling: Its Location in a
Franchise Typology, 1999
The IFRC published extensively, including
journal articles, book chapters, conference 15 Unravelling the Evidence on
papers and a Special Studies Series (also Franchise System Survivability, 1999
available via http://www.scribd.com/
SME_Research): 16 Survey: Professional Services For
Franchising In The U.K., 2001
1 The Blenheim/University of
Westminster Franchise Survey: Spring ACADEMIC LINKS
1993, 1993
Close links were fostered with universities in
2 Improving Small Business Survival Rome and Pisa (Italy), Haute Alsace
Rates via Franchising: The Role of the (France) and Boston, Minneapolis and
Banks in Europe, 1993 Texas (USA), with a view to research
collaboration. Professor Pat Kaufmann of
3 Targeting Potential Franchisees: Atlanta, Georgia, addressed our inaugural
Industry Sector Backgrounds and annual strategy seminar, in 1994. Overseas
Declared Areas of Interest, 1994 speakers in subsequent years included
Cheryl Babcock, Director of the Franchising
4 The Impact of Franchising on the Institute, University of St. Thomas,
Development Prospects of Small & Minneapolis (1995), Professor Rajiv Dant,
Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in University of Boston (1996), Professor
Europe, 1994 Francine Lafontaine, University of Michigan
(1997), Professor Claude Nègre, University
5 The Blenheim/University of of Haute Alsace (1997), Colin McCosker,
Westminster Franchise Survey: A University of Southern Queensland (1998),
Comparison of UK and US Data, 1995 Professor Frank Hoy, University of Texas at
El Paso (1998), Professor Jack Nevin,
6 Developing a Diagnostic University of Wisconsin-Madison (1999),
Questionnaire as an Aid to Franchisee Professor Tom Wotruba, San Diego State
Selection, 1995 University (1999), Professor Bruce Walker,
University of Missouri, (2000), and,
7 Franchising as a Source of Professor Wilke English, University of Mary
Technology-transfer to Developing Hardin-Baylor (2000).
Economies, 1995
IFRC members were active supporters of the
8 Aspects of Franchisee Recruitment, International Society of Franchising, and
1996 hosted the ISoF 2005 conference in London.

9 Business Format Franchising: The IFRC ceased its research activities in


Innovation & Creativity or Replication 2007, when John Stanworth took retirement.
& Conformity ?, 1996

10 London: A Capital City For Franchisee John Stanworth, Emeritus Professor,


Recruitment, 1997 University of Westminster
http://www.westminster.ac.uk/schools/
11 The Effectiveness of Franchise business
Exhibitions in the United Kingdom,
1997 David Purdy, Visiting Fellow,
Kingston University
12 Franchising: Breaking Into European http://business.kingston.ac.uk/sbrc
Union Markets, 1998
January 2011
13 Succeeding As A Franchisor,
published jointly with Business Link
London Central), 1998

International Franchise Research Centre Lloyds Bank Franchising In Britain - Web Versions 2011 p.2
AUTHORS LLOYDS BANK PLC/IFRC
FRANCHISING IN BRITAIN REPORTS
Michele Nunn is currently undertaking a Ph.D
in franchising with the IFRC. She is also a The Lloyds Bank Plc/IFRC report comprises 3
director of several companies involved in constituent issues each year, focusing upon
franchising and new ways of working. franchisors, franchisees and franchising more
broadly. This issue focuses upon franchisee
David Purdy is a researcher supporting the gender differences. The analysis derives from
Future of Work Research Group and its primary research undertaken with four
interest in franchising. He has also specialised established UK franchise systems in late
in small business research since 1985, and 1997/early 1998.
publications include authorship of 'Risk Capital
for Small Firms', commissioned by the Small
Business Research Trust. He has also co- INTERNATIONAL FRANCHISE RESEARCH
authored studies investigating Small Business CENTRE
Management Development and Teleworking.
The International Franchise Research Centre
Professor John Stanworth is director of the (IFRC) is committed to improving the
International Franchise Research Centre understanding of franchising. This is achieved
and has been engaged in research into by the publication of impartial research and by
franchising since the mid-1970's. He also the encouragement of informed debate.
leads the Future of Work Research Group, Membership is suitable for anyone with an
based at the University of Westminster, which interest in franchising and further details are
has a record of specialist research in available from the address on the rear cover.
Teleworking, Small Business Development
and Human Resource Management. Studies
have been undertaken for many clients, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
including the Department of Trade and
Industry, The Department for Education, The The International Franchise Research Centre
Economic & Social Research Council and is particularly pleased to acknowledge the
various commercial organisations. generous support provided by Lloyds Bank Plc
in sponsoring the research, analysis and
Mark Hatcliffe is National Franchise Manager presentation of this report. However, it is
for Lloyds Bank Plc, based at their UK Retail important to note that any opinions expressed
Banking Headquarters in Bristol. He is in this publication are not necessarily those of
responsible for their strategic development in Lloyds Bank Plc.
franchising.
Finally, we wish also to acknowledge the
support of the participating firms, without
whom the survey would not have been
possible.

Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998) 1


HIGHLIGHTS ■ Men were twice as likely as women (65%
vs. 33%) to have used bank finance to
Based on a survey of the U.K. franchisees of purchase their franchise (Figure 9).
four established franchise systems, it was
found that: ■ Women franchisees were more likely than
their male counterparts to change banks
■ More women (46%) than men (25%) when setting up a franchise (Figure 11).
believed they would not be in business on
their own account if it were not for ■ Male-owned businesses were more likely
franchising (Figure 4). to employ full-time staff and less likely to
employ part-time staff than female-owned
■ Whilst four in five women (79%) said that, businesses (Figures 13 and 14).
when choosing a franchise, it was
important that the franchise of their choice ■ Overall, one in three franchisees (35%)
offered them domestic flexibility, only half reported that the franchisors had grossly
of the men (47%) also thought the same over-estimated the likely profit of their
(Figure 5) outlet.

■ Fewer women (29%) than men (50%) had ■ Conversely, it could be argued that, for
held managerial positions immediately two in three franchisees (65%), the
prior to their role as a franchisee (Figure franchisor had provided an acceptably
2). accurate estimate for the likely profit of
their outlet.
■ A quarter of females (24%) compared to
3% of males had entered franchising ■ Male franchisees were more likely than
directly from a clerical/administrative post their female counterparts to report a gross
(Figure 2). over-estimation of profit by franchisors
prior to them taking up the franchise
■ There is a significant redundancy ‘push’ (Figure 18).
factor encouraging men to enter
franchising (Figure 3). ■ Women appeared to have more regular
contact with their franchisors than men
■ Female franchises were likely to earn less (Figure 19).
than male franchisees, estimated to be
£10,000 p.a. less on average (Figure 6a). ■ Females were twice as likely (44% vs.
22%) to seek advice from close friends as
■ Overall, male franchisees were likely to their male counterparts (Figure 21).
have a higher gross income than their
spouses or partners (Figures 6a and 6b). ■ Male franchisees were better qualified
than women franchisees - 44% having
■ Overall, female franchisees were likely to HNC/HND/Degree qualifications vs. 20%
have a lower gross income than their - other than in the professional category
spouses or partners (Figures 6a and 6b). (Figure 22).

■ Both males and females often


encountered similar types of business
problems, but males mentioned financial
issues, such as cashflow, more often than
females. Some women were more
concerned about trying to accommodate
both family/domestic matters with a
working life.

■ Both sexes encountered difficulties in


recruiting and keeping staff.

2 Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998)


Figure 1 - Survey Composition:
Franchise System Size vs. Franchisee Start-up Costs

System Size
Health
Large ‘n’ CopyShop
100 + Outlets
Beauty

Medium Supa-Kleen DrainBrain


20-99

Small
< 20

Low Medium High


< £20k £20k-£99k £100k +

Franchise Outlet Start-Up Cost

INTRODUCTION a database supplied mid-1998 by Franchise


Development Services, and corresponding to
The data for this report was collected via a the 14th Edition of the UK Franchise
postal questionnaire, despatched to all of the Directory).
franchisees belonging to four UK-based
franchisors. After discarding the responses For practical reasons, the sample was
for which the gender was not known, the deliberately restricted to a small number of
sample comprised 155 usable responses (87 franchise systems, so that, with the essential
female respondents and 68 male co-operation of the respective franchisors,
respondents). franchisees could be questioned in depth
about a variety of issues.
In order to retain anonymity, we have given a
fictitious name to each of the franchise Almost inevitably, some of the analyses will
systems surveyed: DrainBrain, CopyShop, be more strongly influenced by factors
Health ‘n’ Beauty , and, Supa-Kleen. The associated with the respective franchise
names have been chosen also to indicate the systems, rather than simply by gender alone.
sectors in which they operate. Two of the So, in a number of instances, the gender
systems (Health ’n’ Beauty and Supa-Kleen) breakdown might not apply exactly across
are predominantly female in terms of the total spectrum of franchisees or franchise
franchisees, whereas the others are systems in the UK. However, based on a
predominantly male. The target market for more detailed analysis of gender/system
the service offered by Health ’n’ Beauty responses, it has been noted where franchise
franchisees is the general public, whereas system influences may be significant also.
the other systems have customers in both the
public and commercial/industrial markets. Nonetheless, the analysis presented here
may be useful in the context of other
Figure 1 illustrates where the systems sit in franchise systems which have, or which may
relation to franchise start-up costs and the be expected to have, a strong male or female
overall size of the system (data derived from bias in their franchisees.

Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998) 3


Figure 2 - Occupation Immediately Prior To This Venture

50%

29%

24%
28% 50%
22%
45%
40%
3% 14%
Managerial 35%
Clerical/administrative 10% 30% Proportion
of
Professional 5% 25%
Sub-sample
Other 20% (Gender)
15%
Supervisory
10%
Student
5%
Manual 0%

Unemployed FEMALE
MALE

PREVIOUS OCCUPATION ATTRACTIONS OF FRANCHISING

When considering franchisees’ occupations In terms of the main catalyst prompting


immediately prior to involvement in their franchise purchase (Figure 3), males and
present franchise venture, there were some females exhibited very different response
notable similarities and differences between patterns. For instance, 26% of males,
the sexes (Figure 2). Some 28% of males compared to just 7% of females, had been
and 22% of females came from professional made redundant prior to taking their
backgrounds, indicating a measure of franchise. Thus, there was a significant
similarity, but rather more men (50%) than redundancy ‘push’ factor operating as an
women (29%) had previously held inducement for males to enter franchising.
managerial positions. There was a starker Also, a third of women (32%) quoted job
contrast where 24% of females came directly frustration, a cause cited by a quarter of the
from clerical/administrative posts compared men (24%).
to only 3% of males.
Far more women (32%) than men (10%) had
previously been interested in the particular
area of business in which they took their
franchise. This interest was particularly
evident for the women in Health ‘n’ Beauty,
and for the men only in CopyShop.

4 Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998)


Figure 3 - Main Catalyst Prompting Involvement In Present Venture

32%
24%

24%
26%
10%
35%

9% 30%

Job frustration 1% 25%


Interested in the area
Other
7% Proportion
20%
Spouse's employment circumstances changed of
3% Sub-sample
Made redundant 15%
(Gender)
Children became older
6% 10%
Divorce/relationship split
Inherited money 5%

Early retirement 0%

Dismissed
MALE
FEMALE

A further 24% of males chose the ‘other’ Females


response. In comparison, only 9% of women
selected this option. Some examples of the ● Opportunity arose at the time of
‘other’ options are noted here. completing higher education course
● Physical disability (partially sighted) - could
Males help with future work problems
● Returned to work after birth of children
● A desire to be own boss ● Second career after marriage - wanted to
● Commercial opportunity combine an interest with work
● Reached the top of profession and had ● The franchise had been seen to work well
decided to start new venture with family locally
● Returned to England after a number of ● Wanted to do a job from home around
years abroad young children
● Sold out to partner in a previous business
● To make money !

Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998) 5


Figure 4 - Would You Be In Business On Your Own Account If It Were
Not For Franchising ?

46%

50%

25% 29%
40%
31% 44%
30% Proportion
of
23%
Sub-sample
20%
(Gender)
No
10%

Don't know 0%

FEMALE
Yes

MALE

WOULD RESPONDENTS BE IN BUSINESS DOMESTIC FLEXIBILITY


BUT FOR FRANCHISING ?
Respondents were asked the importance they
When asked if they would be in business if it attached to the need for their work to offer
were not for franchising (Figure 4), flexibility for accommodating domestic duties
contrasting perceptions were offered. Roughly (Figure 5). Perhaps not surprisingly, this
the same percentage of men (31%) and factor rated more strongly with women than
women (29%) said they were unsure. men. In fact, 47% of women rated this
However, 46% of females believed that they ‘Extremely Important’ compared to only 10%
would not have been in business on their own of men. Moreover, whilst four out of five
account but for the opportunities presented by women (79%) rated the issue at least
franchising. The corresponding male figure ‘important’, just under half of the men (47%)
was only 25%. Against this, 44% of men and thought the same. It should be noted that the
23% of women said they thought that they female profile is strongly influenced by the
would be in business anyway. This indicates distribution of the Health ‘n’ Beauty responses,
that franchising could be a far more significant whose system would appear to allow such
start-up route for females than males. flexibility.

6 Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998)


Figure 5 - Importance Of The Business To Accommodate Domestic
Commitments

47%

32% 50%
37%
45%
40%
10% 35%
29% Proportion
30%
of
25%
Sub-sample
Extremely important 9% 20%
(Gender)
21% 15%
Important 9% 10%
5%
Neither important or unimportant 0%

Unimportant FEMALE

MALE

FRANCHISEES AND SPOUSES INCOMES female biased systems (especially Health ‘n’
Beauty) are markedly lower than the others.
Figure 6a indicates that male franchisees
generally out-earned female franchisees, It is estimated that the median male gross
although the outlet sales turnover for the income is some £28,000 p.a., whereas it is

Figure 6a - Franchisee's Current Gross Income p.a. From All Sources

44%

10% 45%
24% 26%
26% 40%
1% 35%
25%
No income
30%
Proportion
£9.9k or less 11% 25% of
£10k to £19.9k 20% Sub-sample
15% (Gender)
£20k to £29.9k
9% 2% 10%
£30k to £39.9k
10% 3% 5%
£40k to £49.9k 0%

Over £50k FEMALE

MALE

Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998) 7


Figure 6b - Spouse's/Partner's Current Gross Income p.a. From All
Sources

26%

26%

8%
18% 22% 14% 30%

3% 0% 16% 25%

No income
20%
Proportion
£9.9k or less
10% of
15%
£10k to £19.9k Sub-sample
6%
10% (Gender)
£20k to £29.9k 8%
£30k to £39.9k 3% 7% 5%

£40k to £49.9k 0%

Over £50k FEMALE

MALE

approximately £10,000 p.a. lower, at around ROUTES INTO FRANCHISING


£18,000 p.a. for the female franchisees (N.B.
the ‘median’ is simply the point at which 50% Franchisees were questioned as to their
of the respondents in the sample earn less decision processes adopted before going into
than the median value, and the other 50% franchising (Figure 7). The purpose of the
earn more). The franchisees may also have question was to determine, amongst
included other sources of income here, from prospective franchisees, the relative
such as investments or second jobs. importance of: a) the general industry sector,
b) franchised business opportunities, and, c)
Similarly, when comparing the distributions in the particular franchise they ultimately
Figure 6b against those in 6a, we find that, selected. There were very substantial
overall, female franchisees were appreciably differences between the sexes here. Whereas
out-earned by their spouses/partners. most previous research indicates that people
considering a route into franchising choose
An important point to emerge from this data is sector first and then make decisions
that the male members of the male-female concerning the franchise or independent
couples tended to be the dominant earners, route, the results gained here do not conform
whether they were involved in franchising or to that pattern. The decision to choose making
not. an entry into business via franchising
specifically appeared to be made early on by
men. It had been thought that the importance
of choosing a particular franchise early on
amongst females perhaps stemmed from the
fact that many respondents chose one specific
franchise because of its charismatic chief
executive. However, the bias by females
towards ‘a particular franchise’ (60% of
women) was also found amongst the female
franchisees belonging to other systems.

8 Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998)


Figure 7 - Decision Path Prior To Selecting Current Franchise

60%

60%
31%
50%
22%
40%
Proportion
of
13% 30%
7% 24% 34% Sub-sample
Chose a particular franchise
(Gender)
20%
Chose the type of industry, then franchising
10%
5%
Industry type & franchising equally important 0%

Chose franchising, then the type of industry FEMALE

MALE

SOURCES OF INFORMATION have read newspapers, attended franchise


exhibitions and read books and magazines on
Figure 8 investigates the sources of franchising. In general terms, men were
information used by our sample prior to taking typically twice as likely as women to have
up their franchise. Men were more likely to used the main sources presented in the

Figure 8 - Prior Research Sources Before Taking The Franchise

63%

43% 59%

40% 29% 70%


53%
62%
60%

50%
29%
Proportion
Newspapers 40%
of
30% Sub-sample
Other 23%
(Gender)
20%
Franchise magazines
21% 10%

Franchise exhibition attendance 0%

Franchise books MALE

FEMALE

Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998) 9


question. Newspapers would appear to be a ● Sister was a franchisee
useful medium to reach both sexes. Examples ● Used the franchise service as a customer
of the ‘other’ sources noted by respondents ● Was an employee of another franchise in
were: the same system
● Worked for the head office
Male
SOURCES OF FINANCE
● Attended bank franchise seminar
● Contacted brother-in-law who was The sample were asked what sources of
involved finance were utilised during the start-up phase
● Had prior experience of franchising of their current franchise (Figure 9). The
operations percentages show the proportion of
● Personal recommendation respondents having obtained finance from the
● Saw franchise on TV given source.
● Sought professional advice
● Talked to existing franchisees The main sources were personal savings,
● Was in print - so knew about other printing family/friends and bank finance. Two-out-of-
franchises three men (65%) used personal savings and/
or bank finance, and more women made use
Female of family/friends than men (33% vs. 15%). For
whatever reasons, approximately twice as
● Attended franchise system promotion day many males as females used bank finance
● Contacted other franchisees, talked to the (65% vs. 33%). No respondents reported the
banks use of a franchisor scheme, although it must
● Friend was selling the franchise outlet be borne in mind that the survey deliberately
● Knew other franchisees involved only a small number of franchise
● Obtained bank releases on franchises systems.
● Obtained information from bank and
accountant
● Saw video

Figure 9 - Sources Of Finance For Franchise Start-up

65%
49%

65%

33%

33% 70%

15% 60%

Personal Savings 50%


13% Proportion
Funds from family/friends 40%
15% of
Bank finance 9% 30% Sub-sample
9% (Gender)
Redundancy funds
6% 20%
Disposal of personal assets 10%
3% 3%
Home mortgage 7% 0%

Other (please state) FEMALE

MALE

10 Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998)


Figure 10 - Number Of Finance Sources Used For Franchise Start-up

52%

50%
38%
29%
60%

50%

40%
Proportion
1 Source used
16% of
5% 30%
Sub-sample
2 Sources used
20% (Gender)

3 Sources used
10%
1%
4 Sources used 0%

5 Sources used FEMALE

MALE

The vast majority of the respondents - four out When asked whether franchisees stayed with
of five, irrespective of gender - used either one their current bank for their franchise banking
or two sources of finance as an initial needs (Figure 11), women appeared more
foundation for their franchise (Figure 10). likely to change. Although it is common for
individuals to wish to spread their financial

Figure 11 - Did Franchisees Stay With Their Current Bank ?

53% 70%
60%
60%

50%
45%
Proportion
40%
of
30% Sub-sample
37% (Gender)
20%

10%

yes 0%

FEMALE
no

MALE

Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998) 11


Figure 12 - Number Of Outlets

82%
67%

90%
80%
70%
60%
Proportion
17% 50% of
40% Sub-sample
1 Outlet 13%
(Gender)
30%
2%
2 20%
13%
3% 10%
3 0%

4 or more outlets FEMALE

MALE

interests, it may be that males requiring larger chosen to break away from an institution
sums for investment in managerial rather than where they may have had joint banking
job franchises, found their current banking arrangements with a spouse.
relationship more conducive to fund raising.
Females, on the other hand, could have

Figure 13 - Full-Time Members Of Staff Employed

67%

44%
70%

60%
10% 17%
28% 50%
Proportion
None 7% 40%
of
1-4 30% Sub-sample
12% 3% (Gender)
5-9
20%
2%
10-19 10%
3%
20-49 0%
1%
100+ FEMALE

MALE

12 Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998)


Figure 14 - Part-Time Members Of Staff Employed

47% 51%
32%
44%
60%

50%

40%
Proportion
None 9% of
30%
Sub-sample
1-4 6%
20% (Gender)
1%
5-9
10%
1%
10-19 0%

20-49 FEMALE

MALE

BUSINESS CHARACTERISTICS The female businesses were much more likely


to employ no full-time staff (67% vs. 10% for
Women’s businesses were likely to have males, Figure 13) but to employ slightly larger
smaller financial turnovers than those of their numbers of part-timers than their male
male counterparts. Figure 12 indicates the counterparts (Figure 14). The ‘no employees’
number of outlets reported according to band for the female data in Figure 13 (67%)
gender in our sample. Given cursory study, it are all Health ‘n’ Beauty franchisees.
would be logical to conclude that women’s
businesses tend to be larger than men’s. Three out of four women tended to employ no
However, the nub of the problem lies in the family members (76%) compared to two out of
meaning of ‘outlet’. The distribution of three men (65%, Figure 15). Only 13% of
multiple outlets amongst the female sample women employed 1-4 relatives compared to
here is dominated by the Health ‘n’ Beauty 24% of their male counterparts.
franchisees. But the employment levels for the
respondents working within this franchise
system are predominantly single-person
enterprises. This leads us to believe that the
‘outlet’ described by the female franchisees in
question is not always the franchisee’s
territory, but sometimes the location of
commercial activity, of which there may be
several within a franchise territory.

Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998) 13


Figure 15 - Number Of Staff Employed Who Are Family Members

76%

65%

80%

70%

60%

50% Proportion
24% 13% of
40%
Sub-sample
None 30% (Gender)
2% 20%
1-4
1% 10%
5-9 0%
4%
10-19 FEMALE

MALE

SALES TURNOVER AND PROFITS by the distribution of the Health ‘n’ Beauty
franchisees where many were combining work
Figure 16 shows the responses regarding with domestic commitments (e.g. all of the
franchise sales turnover. The data for the female FastCopy franchisees have a turnover
females is strongly influenced at the lower end over £100k), but in fact there is little difference

Figure 16 - Franchise Gross Sales Turnover (1997)

68%

54%

70%
22%
0% 18% 60%

50%
Proportion
< £30k 40%
of
15%
30% Sub-sample
£30k -£99k 12%
(Gender)
20%
£100k - £499k
2% 10%
1%
£500k - £999k 0%
1%
£1m - £4.99m MALE

FEMALE

14 Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998)


Figure 17 - Gross Profit Remaining After Payment Of Franchisor Fees
(After Drawing A Salary)

54%

60%

50%
26%
51% 40%
18% Proportion
of
30%
Sub-sample
16% 22%
20% (Gender)
Greater than fee
10%

About the same as fee 0%

FEMALE
Less than fee

MALE

between the sexes for the FastCopy and Fast- gross profit, as measured against franchisor
Kleen systems. Further contrasts between the fee, than men, but there is a cluster of Health
sexes arise out of the rewards generated from ‘n’ Beauty franchisees in the ‘greater’ band
their respective businesses (Figure 17). More who are skewing the data. A similar trend
women seem to be doing better in terms of emerges in Figure 18, when respondents

Figure 18 - Franchisor's Predictions Of Likely Profit For Franchise


Outlet

41% 41%
30%

31%
45%
40%
21%
35%
19% 30%
Proportion
Grossly overestimated 25% of
20% Sub-sample
Slightly overestimated
5% 15% (Gender)

Accurately estimated 7% 10%


5%
2%
Slightly underestimated 0%

Grossly underestimated FEMALE

MALE

Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998) 15


Figure 19 - Frequency Of Contact With Franchisor

57%

28% 60%

22% 31% 50%

5%
14% 40%
Proportion
Weekly
of
10% 30%
Fortnightly Sub-sample
9% (Gender)
Monthly 20%

Quarterly
1% 9% 10%
6%

6 monthly 0%
1%
Annually FEMALE

MALE

were asked about the profit estimates In terms of support groups and networks
provided by their franchisor prior to aiding respondents in their business ventures,
commencement. Overall, one in three such as Business Links, trade associations,
franchisees (35%) reported that the professional, community, social, and political
franchisors had grossly over-estimated the groups, men and women quoted similar
likely profit of their outlet. Conversely, it could usage. Women were more likely to look to
be argued that two out of three (65%) had close friends, and men, to more formal
received reasonably acceptable forecasts. organisations (Figure 21). Use of the
This improved to 72% when considering just CopyShop franchisee association was made
the Health ‘n’ Beauty and the Supa-Kleen by between 40-50% of their franchisees,
franchisors, which happened to be the regardless of gender. No-one reported using a
systems with a bias towards females. political group. Examples of ‘other’ sources of
support are:
SUPPORT
Male
Male and female franchisees also reported
very different patterns of contact with their ● Accountant
franchisors (Figure 19). However, the ‘weekly’ ● Bank
contact noted by many Health ‘n’ Beauty ● Business breakfast club
female franchisees probably exaggerates the ● Enterprise Trust
regularity of contact of female franchisees ● Other CopyShop franchisees
overall.
Female
Figure 20 shows franchisee perspectives of
contact frequency with their franchisor after ● Franchisor
training and launch. Again, the Health ‘n’ ● Golf
Beauty franchisees influenced the pattern, ● Local Training & Enterprise Council (TEC)
whereby they were the only females to report ● Spouse
an increase in the frequency of contact.

16 Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998)


Figure 20 - Change In Frequency Of Contact With Franchisor Since
Launch Of Outlet

57%

34%
46% 60%

50%

32% 40%
Proportion
of
30%
Sub-sample
17% 20% (Gender)
Generally decreased
10%

Stayed about the same 0%


9%

FEMALE
Generally increased

MALE

Figure 21 - Support Groups And/Or Networks Aiding Business Venture

44%

41%
22%
16%

45%
14%
10% 40%
13%
Close friends 7% 35%
Other 30%
10% 7% Proportion
Professional groups
25% of
Franchisee association
7% 3% 20% Sub-sample
Business Link 21% (Gender)
2% 15%
Social groups 3% 10%
6%
Trade association 5%
Community groups 0%

Chamber of Commerce
FEMALE
MALE

Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998) 17


OBSTACLES & SOLUTIONS ● Finding/retaining good employees:
- being more selective when recruiting
Respondents were asked to identify the - selection by ‘trial and error’
biggest obstacle they had encountered in - training
running their franchise and also the
corresponding solution. Many responses ● Lack of retained profit:
related to problems experienced by any type - “can’t resolve; the franchisor takes too
of business, but others were franchising- much”
specific. Some franchisors emphasise that - “harder work”, reduced borrowing
‘franchisees are in business for themselves, - increase turnover
but not by themselves’, yet many
respondents noted that their problem was still ● Better time management:
‘not overcome’ or was ‘ongoing’. A tiny - recruit more staff
number of respondents noted that they had - learn to delegate
discussed the issue with other franchisees,
and, occasionally, with the franchisor. It Females
therefore seems reasonable to enquire
whether or not franchisees are sufficiently ● Coping with a home as well as working:
aware of the valuable resource that others - “Work better with husband. Get a cleaner
within the same system represent ? in. Ask children to help”
- help with the housework
A notable difference between the sexes was a
predominance of ‘finance’ and ‘cashflow’ ● Finding staff ‘to do the job properly’:
issues amongst male franchisees, and family - an on-going problem
and domestic issues amongst females. Care
should be taken, though, to avoid stereotyping ● VAT Registration (franchisees’ turnover
either sex because of this observation. For below the VAT registration threshold, all
instance, some women were concerned about Health ‘n’ Beauty franchisees)
financial issues, and, alternatively, one male
franchisee noted the problem of “working with ● ‘Paperwork’:
my wife and sons alongside: human - contracted out
understanding differs from normal employee
relationships”, for which the solution had been ● Building the business up and having
“Give and take = 100% results”. very little income:
- additional loans from friends
A common problem throughout - regardless of
gender - was the problem of attracting and Franchising-related issues
keeping employees. This was particularly (more generally)
prevalent amongst Supa-Kleen franchisees
(perhaps reflecting a labour market ● Convincing colleagues of the necessity to
traditionally paying low wage rates). For many, adhere to franchise formula unless there is
the underlying staff problem appears to be compelling reason not to do
ongoing. ● Fear by the franchisor that the franchisee
may grow too big (fearing undue influence
Examples of the variety of the problems within the system ?)
mentioned, with their solutions (when offered), ● Franchisor’s lack of understanding of the
are shown below: changing market
● Lack of knowledge in some areas - solved
Males by contact with other franchisees, training
● Lack of support from the franchisor
● Cashflow: ● Misleading information about the business
- delay payments to self from the previous franchisee
- improved credit control ● Purchased a poorer territory - overcome
- increased support from bank by purchasing adjoining “better paid area”
- invoice factoring

18 Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998)


Figure 22 - Franchisee's Highest Qualification

24%

21% 21%

22% 30%
22% 28%
10% 11% 25%

20%
9% Proportion
GCSE
of
15%
'A' Level Sub-sample
9% (Gender)
HNC/HND 1% 10%
10%
Degree 5%

Postgraduate Degree 0%

Professional Qualification FEMALE

MALE

HIGHEST QUALIFICATION PRESENTATION OF DATA

Questions were also included on franchisee Occasionally the percentages for the full range
qualifications. Figure 22 considers franchis- of options shown in the figures will not exactly
ees themselves. Men appear to be more total 100%. This may be explained by one or
highly qualified than women, other than in the more of: a) rounding errors, b) multiple
professional category. choices being allowed, and, c) by response
options which have been omitted for the sake
THE IMPORTANCE OF GENDER DIFFERENCES of clarity (typically where responses have not
IN FRANCHISING been provided by respondents).

The preceding analysis has highlighted areas The wording used in figures (charts) is usually
of similarity and difference between existing an abbreviated version of the original text.
male and female franchisees. These However, the exact wording can be found in
differences are likely to become more the survey questionnaire, appended.
important for franchisors to consider, as the
market for franchisees begins to include more Our previous report, Franchisee Success:
women. Perceptions & Barriers (1998), complements
the analysis presented here, although slight
variations in % calculations are evident,
primarily due to a marginally different sample
base.

Lloyds Bank plc/IFRC Franchising: The Gender Dimension (1998) 19


INTERNATIONAL
FRANCHISE RESEARCH
CENTRE SURVEY
To be completed by the Franchisee - CONFIDENTIAL
PLEASE TICK JUST ONE ANSWER UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED

1 Is your present business your first 4a Would you be in business on your own
entrepreneurial venture ? account if it were not for franchising ?
Yes.............................................................................................. ❏A
No............................................................................ ❏B Yes .......................................................................... ❏A
No............................................................................ ❏B
1a If No, which venture is it ? Don’t know .............................................................. ❏C
2nd.......................................................................... ❏A
3rd .......................................................................... ❏B 5 Please rate the following in terms of their influence
4th .......................................................................... ❏C upon you before becoming involved in your
More........................................................................ ❏D present venture. 1=Extremely Important, 2=Important
3= Neither Important or Unimportant 4=Unimportant,
2 What was your occupation immediately 5=Extremely Unimportant
prior to your present venture ? ......................................................1 2 3 4 5
Personal achievement.................... ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏❏ A
Professional ............................................................ ❏A Job satisfaction ............................ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏❏ B
Managerial .............................................................. ❏B Opportunity ( Free Enterprise ) ...... ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏❏ C
Supervisory.............................................................. ❏C Status/Prestige.............................. ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏❏ D
Clerical/Administrative ............................................ ❏D Independence................................ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏❏ E
Manual .................................................................... ❏E Power............................................ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏❏ F
Unemployed ............................................................ ❏F Money (Wealth).............................. ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏❏ G
Student.................................................................... ❏G Economic Security ........................ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏❏ H
Retired .................................................................... ❏H Flexibility to fit with
Other (please state) __________________________ ❏I domestic commitments ................ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏❏ I
Lifestyle ........................................ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏❏ J
3 Did you have prior relevant experience in Peer Recognition............................ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏❏ K
the field of your present franchise ? Something to leave to children ...... ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏❏ L
Other (please state) ...................... ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏❏ M
Yes .......................................................................... ❏A __________________________________________
No............................................................................ ❏B
5a How important are these issues to you now ?
4 What was main catalyst which prompted you to 1=Extremely Important,2=Important
become involved in your present franchise ? 3= Neither Important or Unimportant 4=Unimportant,
5=Extremely Unimportant
Made redundant ...................................................... A ❏ ......................................................1 2 3 4 5
Early retired ............................................................ B ❏ Personal achievement .................. ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ A
Dismissed................................................................ C ❏ Job satisfaction ............................ ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ B
Job frustration ........................................................ D ❏ Opportunity (Free Enterprise) ........ ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ C
Children became older/left home ............................ E ❏ Status/Prestige.............................. ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ D
Inherited money ...................................................... F ❏ Independence................................ ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ E
Inherited franchise .................................................. G ❏ Power............................................ ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ F
Interested in the area of business............................ H ❏ Money ( Wealth ) .......................... ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ G
Change or threatened change in spouses Economic Security ........................ ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ H
employment circumstances .................................... I ❏ Flexibility to fit with
Divorce/relationship split.......................................... J ❏ domestic commitments ................ ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ I
Other (please state) .................................................. K ❏ Lifestyle........................................ ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ J
____________________________________________ Peer Recognition .......................... ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ K
____________________________________________ Something to leave to children...... ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ L
____________________________________________ Other (please state) ...................... ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ M
____________________________________________ __________________________________________
____________________________________________ __________________________________________
1 2 3 4 5
6 What do you most like about franchising ? 8c My business: ........................................
__________________________________________ Is just what I do to make a living ........ ❏❏❏❏❏ A
__________________________________________ Is an intrinsic part of my total life plan .... ❏❏❏❏❏ B
Provides me with the domestic
7 What do you least like about franchising ? flexibility I need .................................... ❏❏❏❏❏ C
__________________________________________
__________________________________________ 9 Running a franchised outlet is like:
( please tick the answer which most accurately
8a Please indicate your level of agreement with the describes your feelings )
following statements
1=Strongly agree, 2=agree, 3=neither agree or disagree Running your own independent small business....... ❏A
4=disagree, 5= strongly disagree Running your own independent business,
Buying a franchise: but with a few more strings attached. .................... ❏B
......................................................1 2 3 4 5 Half-way between running your own
Enabled me to get into independent small business and running
business faster.............................. ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ A a managed outlet of a large company .................... ❏C
Reduced the likelihood Running a managed outlet of a large
of my business failing .................. ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ B company, but with fewer strings attached .............. ❏D
Provides a sufficient amount Running a managed outlet
of commercial independence........ ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ C of a large company. ................................................ ❏E
Enabled me to become a
respected member of 10 Which of the following most accurately describes
the small business community...... ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ D your decision process before going into franchising ?
Allowed me to start a business
which otherwise I would Chose the type of industr y, then the
not have done .............................. ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ E franchising route. .................................................. ❏A
Has meant that my home Chose the franchising route, then
life has suffered............................ ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ F the type of industry. .............................................. ❏B
Provides a known tradename........ ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ G Industry type and the franchise route
Allowed me to enter a line of were equally important. .......................................... ❏C
work which otherwise would Chose a particular franchise. .................................. ❏D
have been closed to me. .............. ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ H
Meant all the training I needed 11 When originally taking a franchise, by
was provided ................................ ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ I way of prior research, did you ?
Helped me to avoid problems ....................................................................Yes No
I may have encountered alone ...... ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ J Attend a franchise exhibition ............................ ❏ ❏A
Provides a proven business Read franchise magazines ................................ ❏ ❏B
❏❏ ❏ ❏❏
system.......................................... K Read books on franchising ................................ ❏ ❏C
Gives independence and the Read about franchising in newspapers .............. ❏ ❏D
chance to be your own boss.......... ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏❏ L Other (please state) ______________________ ❏E
8b In my business I: 11a Did you become aware of your franchise by:
Need to let everyone (PLEASE TICK ALL THAT APPLY)
know who’s boss .......................... ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ A
Try to involve everyone Working for it .......................................................... ❏A
when an important Using it .................................................................... ❏B
decision needs to be made .......... ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ B Other (please state) ________________________ ❏C
Believe the general
business environment 12 Which best describes your ‘official’ role in your
to be out of my control.................. ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ C franchise ? At Formation Currently
Gauge success by how much Sole Franchisee.............................................. ❏ ❏A
money I make .............................. ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ D Joint franchisee with
Plan to accommodate domestic friend(s)/associate(s)...................................... ❏ ❏B
commitments................................ ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ E Joint franchisee which spouse(s) .................. ❏ ❏C
Delegate responsibility as Joint franchisee with relative(s)...................... ❏ ❏D
much as possible.......................... ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ F Provided moral support.................................. ❏ ❏E
Measure progress by Provided financial investment ........................ ❏ ❏F
how much I learn.......................... ❏❏ ❏ ❏❏ G Not involved .................................................. ❏ ❏G
Other (please state ) __________________ ❏ ❏H
13 Please mark the statement which best describes your 19 How much understanding do you think banks have of
position in the day to day management of the franchising ?
franchise. (Please tick just one answer in each case)

Chief manager or executive officer .......................... ❏ A 1=A very high level. 2=Quite a lot.
Share management 3=No more or less than any other type of business.
responsibilities with others equally .......................... ❏ B 4=Not much. 5=Totally in the dark.
Help manage, but report to others............................ ❏ C ............................................................1 2 3 4 5
Do not take any active a) At Branch level .............................. ❏❏❏❏❏ A
part in management ................................................ ❏ D b) At central level .............................. ❏❏❏❏❏ B
Other (please state) ________________________ ❏ E
____________________________________________ 20 How long is it since you purchased your (first)
franchised outlet ?
14 What is the current legal form of your business ?
Less than 1 year ...................................................... ❏A
Sole Trader .............................................................. ❏A 1 - 2 Years................................................................ ❏B
Partnership .............................................................. ❏B 3 - 5 Years................................................................ ❏C
Limited Company .................................................... ❏C 6 -10 Years .............................................................. ❏D
Co-operative............................................................ ❏D 11 Years or more...................................................... ❏E
Other (please state).................................................. ❏E
21 How many outlets do you have?
15 Do you have a controlling interest in your business ?
(Greater than 50% ) ❏A
One ..........................................................................
Two..........................................................................❏B
Yes .......................................................................... ❏A Three........................................................................❏C
No............................................................................ ❏B Four or more ............................................................ ❏D
16 What were your sources for financing your franchise 22 How many members of staff do you employ ?
during start up ? Please list for each categor y, although there may be some
(Please give rough percentages which add up to a total of duplication.
100%) 1=Full-time ( >30 hrs/week )
2=Part-time (<30 hrs/week )
Personal Savings ______________________________ A 3=Family
Funds from family/friends ______________________ B ..............................................................1 2 3

Disposal of personal assets ____________________ C None .................................................... ❏ ❏ ❏A


1 - 4 ....................................................❏ ❏ ❏ B
Redundancy funds __________________________ D

5 - 9 ....................................................❏ ❏ ❏ C
Home mortgage ____________________________ E
Bank finance ______________________________ F
Franchisor finance scheme ____________________ G 10 -19 ..................................................❏ ❏ ❏ D
Other (please state) __________________________ H 20 -49 ..................................................❏ ❏ ❏ E
50 -99 ..................................................❏ ❏ ❏ F
100 + ..................................................❏ ❏ ❏ G
17 Did you stay with the bank you already had ?

Yes .......................................................................... ❏A
No .......................................................................... ❏B 23 Please can you estimate the gross turnover
(in £’000s) of your franchise ?
18 Do you think banks are sympathetic to franchising
1=This Year, 2= Next Year,3=Last Year
Yes ........................................................................ ❏A ..............................................................1 2 3
No .......................................................................... ❏B Less than £30,000................................ ❏ ❏ ❏A
❏C
£30,000 - £99,999 ..............................❏ ❏ ❏ B
Don’t Know ..............................................................

£100,000 - £499,000 ..........................❏ ❏ ❏ C


£500,000 - £999,000 ..........................❏ ❏ ❏ D
£1,000,000 - £4,999,999 ....................❏ ❏ ❏ E
Over £5,000,000 ..................................❏ ❏ ❏ F
24 After you have taken out what you consider to be a 28 What type of planning do you practice in your
reasonable salary from your business, is the business ?
remaining gross profit
None........................................................................ ❏A
Greater than the gross fees Annual budget.......................................................... ❏B
paid to the franchisor .............................................. ❏A Medium term .......................................................... ❏C
About the same as the gross 2-5 year (budget, forecasted profits)........................ ❏D
fees paid to the franchisor........................................ ❏B 6 - 10 years + (long term strategic planning) .......... ❏E
Less than the gross fees 5. Other (please state) ______________________ ❏F
paid to the franchisor .............................................. ❏C
25 If you were to compare your business (in terms of 29 What has been your biggest obstacle in running your
turnover, profitability and number of employees) with business and how have you overcome it ?
others in your franchise network, how would you rate ________________________________________
it’s performance ? ________________________________________
________________________________________
Among the best in the network ................................ ❏A ________________________________________
Above average.......................................................... ❏B
Average....................................................................❏C 30 Who has been your biggest moral supporter in your
Lower than average.................................................. ❏D business venture ?
Among the lowest in the network ............................ ❏E
Spouse/Life Partner.................................................. ❏A
26 When you first took your outlet, did your franchisor Boy/Girlfriend .......................................................... ❏B
Business Associate .................................................. ❏C
Grossly overestimate your likely profit...................... ❏A Child........................................................................ ❏D
Slightly overestimate your likely profit...................... ❏B Mentor .................................................................... ❏E
Accurately estimate your likely profit........................ ❏C Friend...................................................................... ❏F
Slightly underestimate your likely profit.................... ❏D Relative .................................................................. ❏G
Grossly underestimate your likely profit.................... ❏E Franchisor................................................................ ❏H
Other (please state) ________________________ ❏I
27 How often do you have any contact with your
franchisor ? 31 What support groups and/or networks have aided
you in your business venture ?
❏A
Weekly...................................................................... (please tick all that apply)
Fortnightly................................................................❏B
Monthly....................................................................❏C Franchisee association ............................................ ❏A
❏D
Quarterly .................................................................. Trade association .................................................... ❏B
6 monthly ................................................................ ❏E Professional groups.................................................. ❏C
Annually ..................................................................❏F Community Groups .................................................. ❏D
Other (please state) ________________________ ❏G Social Groups .......................................................... ❏E
Close Friends .......................................................... ❏F
27a What percentage of these contacts do you initiate ? Political Groups........................................................ ❏G
Chamber of Commerce............................................ ❏H
____________________________________________ Business Link .......................................................... ❏I
Other (please state) ________________________ ❏J
27b After your initial training and launch, has contact with
your franchisor 32 What type of support do you receive from your
network and/or support groups ?
Generally increased.................................................. ❏A (please tick all that apply)
Stayed about the same ............................................ ❏B
Generally decreased ................................................ ❏C Moral and emotional................................................ ❏A
Business guidance .................................................. ❏B
Other (please state)________________________ ❏C
33a Did you have a mentor to support and guide you 37 Which area represented the greatest risk to you when
(other than the franchisor) in planning for your you began you entrepreneurial venture ?
franchise ?
Yes .......................................................................... ❏A Financial .................................................................. ❏A
No .......................................................................... ❏B Social ......................................................................❏B
Family ......................................................................❏C
33b If Yes, what is ? Psychic (fear of failure) ............................................ ❏D
Their age ................................................................ ❏A Other (please state) ________________________ ❏E
Their gender............................................................ ❏B
Yes No 38 Given your experience, what would you change to
Have they ever been self-employed .................. ❏❏ A make it easier for franchisees of the future generally ?
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

34 Which of the following were your ‘top three’ 39 While growing up, with whom do you feel you
sources of buisness guidance before taking up your had the closest relationship ?
franchise ?
(please tick three options only) Mother...................................................................... ❏A
Franchisor................................................................ ❏A Father ......................................................................❏B
Bankers.................................................................... ❏B Neither .................................................................... ❏C
Mentor .................................................................... ❏C ❏D
Both..........................................................................
Experts in their fields................................................ ❏D
Fellow franchisees.................................................... ❏E 40 Of your family members, whose personality bears
Fellow entrepreneurs................................................ ❏F closest similarity to yourself ?
Lawyers .................................................................. ❏G
Accountants ............................................................ ❏H Mother...................................................................... ❏A
Suppliers.................................................................. ❏I Father ......................................................................❏B
Other industry associates ........................................ ❏J Neither .................................................................... ❏C
Other (please state) ________________________ ❏H ❏D
Both..........................................................................

Please rate yourself on the following 41 In the sequence of births of any sisters/brothers
35 management skills where were you born (i.e. if you were one of three
1=poor. 2=fair. 3=good. 4=very good. 5=excellent children and the eldest tick 1)
............................................................1 2 3 4 5
Finance.............................................. ❏❏❏❏❏ A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10+
Dealing with staff .............................. ❏❏❏❏❏ B ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏
Marketing/sales ................................ ❏❏❏❏❏ C
Business operations .......................... ❏❏❏❏❏ D 41a Please give the number of your brothers
Organising & planning........................ ❏❏❏❏❏ E 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Older ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏
Younger ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏
36 In each case please tick the number that you feel best
describes your personality characteristics, on the 41b Please give the number of your sisters
scale from left to right 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Older ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏
1 2 3 4 5 Younger ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏
Passive ❏❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ Energetic
Affiliative ❏❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ Independent
Non-competitive ❏❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ Competitive
Private ❏❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ Social
Realistic ❏❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ Idealistic
Unsure ❏❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ Self-confident
Tolerant ❏❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ Perfectionist
Relaxed ❏❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ Anxious
Rigid ❏❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ Flexible
Uncertain ❏❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ Goal Oriented
Specialist ❏❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ Generalist
42 Please state whether any of the following family 46 Age
members had their own business before you became
involved in your current venture. Under 25.................................................................. ❏A
(please tick all that apply) 25 - 34.................................................................... ❏B
35 - 44.................................................................... ❏C
Father...................................................................... A ❏ 45 - 54.................................................................... ❏D
Mother .................................................................... B ❏ 55 - 64.................................................................... ❏E
......................................1 2 3 4 5 6 Over 65.................................................................... ❏F
Brother.......................... ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ C ❏ ❏
Sister .......................... ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ D ❏ ❏ 47 Gender
Uncle ............................ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ E ❏ ❏
Aunt ............................ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ F ❏ ❏ Male ........................................................................ ❏A
Grandfather .................. ❏ ❏ G Female .................................................................... ❏B
Grandmother ................ ❏ ❏ H

43 What do perceive your social class to have been when 48 Finally, thank you for helping with our research.
you were growing up and now ? If you would be willing to take in a follow up study,
......................................................................Growing Up Now please complete the following.
Lower ............................................................ ❏ ❏ A
Upper Lower .................................................. ❏ ❏ B Dr/Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms ( Delete as appropriate)
Lower Middle ................................................ ❏ ❏ C Surname ______________________________________
Middle............................................................ ❏ ❏ D First name ____________________________________
Upper Middle.................................................. ❏ ❏ E Address ______________________________________
Upper ............................................................ ❏ ❏ F ______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
44 Current annual gross income from all sources ? ______________________________________________
______________________________________________
.................................................. You Spouse/Partner ______________________________________________
No income................................................ ❏ ❏ A ______________________________________________
£ 9999 or less.......................................... ❏ ❏ B Daytime telephone no: ________________________
£10,000 - £19,999 .................................. ❏ ❏ C
£20,000 - £29,999 .................................. ❏ ❏ D
£30,000 - £39,999 .................................. ❏ ❏ E
£40,000 - £49,999 .................................. ❏ ❏ F © University of Westminster, 1997
Over £50,000 .......................................... ❏ ❏ G MLN/10/1
Re-set DP 20-Nov-2003
45 Highest Qualification Obtained Vol_3_2_Questionnaire.p65
................................................................................
Spouse/
..............................................................................You Partner Mother Father

GCSE ............................................ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ A
A Level.......................................... ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ B
HNC/HND ...................................... ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ C
Degree .......................................... ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ D
Postgraduate Degree .................... ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ E
Professional Qualification ............ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ F