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Adca Training

Part 1

This presentation is only a guideline, that can only be completed by a trained personnel.
(This document’s total or partial use and/or reproduction is only allowed if the reference to the source is kept)
Part 1 Part 4
▪ Fundamentals of Steam ▪ Pressure Reduction
▪ Safety Relief Valves and Other Steam Valves
Part 2
▪ The Boiler Part 5
▪ Equipment Used on Boilers ▪ Control Valves
▪ Water Treatment ▪ Components of Control Valves
▪ Bottom Blow down ▪ Humidification
▪ TDS Control
▪ Energy Recovery
▪ Deaerators

Part 3
▪ Pipeline Sizing – Water Hammer
▪ Steam Trapping – Condensate Removal
Feedtank

Process
Feedwater

Steam

Condensate

Boiler
▪ A liquid given enough energy (heat) will break down the molecular bonds
between molecules to form a gas.

▪ For water this is the transition between water and steam.

▪ Steam is a convenient and economical way of conveying large quantities of


energy from one place to another.

▪ Steam is versatile and easy to control, made from a plentiful commodity:


water- to which heat is added to convert it to a vapour state.

▪ Other well-known heating fluids: hot water, high-pressure hot water (superheated),
low pressure high temperature heating fluids (thermal oils).
▪ Amount of heat

Large calorie (Kcal) – is the amount of heat required to raise of 1 ºC, 1 Kg of water
(from 14,5ºC to 15,5ºC).

1 Kcal = 4,1868 KJ ≈ 4,19 KJ

Joule (J) – The work done to produce the power of one watt continuously for one
second (or one watt second). So, a KW/h (Kilowatt hour) is 3600 000 J or 3600 KJ.

▪ Specific heat

Each body needs a different amount of heat to raise the same weight quantity by
the same temperature.

The amount of heat required to heat 1 Kg of a certain body by 1ºC is called the
specific heat of this body ( Kcal/Kg ºC or KJ/Kg ºC)
Vessel water volume
5000 l ≈ 5000 Kg

T=60ºC

Total Heat:
5000 Kg x1 Kcal/Kg ºCx60 ºC=300 000 Kcal
or
5000 Kg x 4,19 KJ/Kg ºC x 60 ºC=1 257 000 KJ = 349KW
▪ Heat content
The amount of heat contained (stored) in a body. For example, water at 60 ºC has a
heat content of 60 Kcal/Kg.
▪ Pressure and Temperature are directly proportional for saturated steam.

▪ Pressure and Specific Volume of steam are inversely proportional.

▪ Pressure and Specific Enthalpy ( latent heat ) of steam are inversely


proportional.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM

V he he r r hg hg
Pm Pa T
(m3/Kg (Kcal/ (KJ/Kg (Kcal/ (KJ/Kg (Kcal/ (KJ/Kg
(bar) (bar) (°C)
Pm – Gauge pressure; ) Kg) ) Kg) ) Kg) )

0,00 1,013 100,0 1,673 100,1 419,1 539,4 2258,4 639,5 2677,5

0,50 1,513 111,6 1,149 111,9 468,5 531,9 2227,0 643,8 2695,5
Pa – Absolute pressure;
1,00 2,013 120,4 0,881 120,8 505,8 526,0 2202,3 646,8 2708,0

1,50 2,513 127,6 0,714 128,1 536,3 521,1 2181,7 649,2 2718,1

T – Temperature; 2,00 3,013 133,7 0,603 134,4 562,7 517,0 2164,6 651,4 2727,3

3,00 4,013 143,7 0,461 144,7 605,8 509,9 2134,8 654,6 2740,7

4,00 5,013 152,0 0,374 153,1 641,0 503,8 2109,3 656,9 2750,3
V – Specific volume; 5,00 6,013 158,9 0,315 160,3 671,1 498,5 2087,1 658,8 2758,3

6,00 7,013 165,0 0,272 166,7 697,9 493,8 2067,4 660,5 2765,4

7,00 8,013 170,5 0,240 172,4 721,8 489,4 2049,0 661,8 2770,8
he – Specific enthalpy of
8,00 9,013 175,4 0,215 177,6 743,6 485,4 2032,3 663,0 2775,8
liquid;
9,00 10,013 180,0 0,194 182,3 763,3 481,6 2016,4 663,9 2779,6

10,00 11,013 184,1 0,177 186,8 782,1 478,0 2001,3 664,8 2783,4

r – Specific enthalpy of 12,00 13,013 191,7 0,151 194,8 815,6 471,4 1973,7 666,2 2789,2

13,00 14,013 195,1 0,141 198,5 831,1 468,3 1960,7 666,8 2791,8
vaporization;
14,00 15,013 198,3 0,132 202,0 845,7 465,3 1948,1 667,3 2793,9

15,00 16,013 201,4 0,124 205,3 859,6 462,5 1936,4 667,8 2795,9

hg – Specific enthalpy of 18,00 19,013 209,9 0,105 214,4 897,8 454,4 1902,5 668,8 2800,1

19,00 20,013 212,5 0,100 217,2 909,4 451,8 1891,6 669,0 2801,0
saturated steam.
20,00 21,013 215,0 0,095 220,0 921,1 449,4 1881,5 669,4 2802,6

25,00 26,013 226,1 0,077 232,3 972,6 437,7 1832,6 670,0 2805,2
▪ Sensible heat – (heat of the liquid) The heat required to raise the temperature of a
unit mass of water from freezing point to saturated temperature (boiling point).

▪ Latent heat – (heat of the vapour) The heat required to convert a unit mass of water
at saturated temperature to dry steam at the same temperature.

▪ Super heat – The heat required to raise a unit mass of dry steam at saturation
temperature to any greater specified temperature.

▪ Total heat – The total heat in the steam at any time, it is the total of the sensible
heat, the latent heat and the superheat.
ºC Saturated
Temperature Saturated Super Heated
(Boiling point) Steam Steam
Temperature

Water

Heat content

Sensible Latent heat Super heat


heat
Total heat
Boiling temperature in ºC
(Saturated temperature)

Absolute pressure in bar

Boiling temperatures increase with rising pressures and drop with


decreasing pressures.
▪ According to previous information and at atmospheric pressure:

If 1 Kg of water is heated, it’s heat content and it’s temperature increase


simultaneously up to 100 Kcal and 100ºC , after this point if further heat is added,
the heat content and temperature of the water no longer increase but the water will
start to boil. Adding more heat to the water , the water is transformed from the liquid
state to the gaseous state : boiling water becomes steam.

From steam tables we can see that if we add 540 Kcal to the boiling water at 100ºC
(100Kcal) it will became one Kg of steam with 640 Kcal heat content ( 100 + 540 ).

▪ We can state:
Heat content of water – 100 Kcal
Heat content of vaporization – 540 Kcal
Heat content of steam – 640 Kcal
▪ As far as steam yields it’s heat, it is being retransformed from the gaseous into the
liquid state, or, in other words, the steam condenses !
Cold Water

Steam
Volume

Condensate

Energy
For the efficient use of saturated steam it is the latent heat that does the work!
Vessel volume = 5000l ≈5000Kg
Initial Temperature = 10ºC
Required Temperature = 60ºC

Steam Coil
Q  5000 Kg x 1 Kcal/Kg º C x 60º-10º  
Q  250 000 Kcal/h
Steam
If it is required to heat the vessel content
in 20 minutes, we have:

Condensate
5000 Kg x 1 Kcal/Kg º C x 60º-10º  x 60'
Q 
20'
Q  750 000 Kcal/h

How much steam?


NOTE: Radiation losses and vessel mass heating have been neglected.
How much steam?

Pm – Steam Pressure: 6 bar g


r – Latent Heat: 493,8 Kcal/Kg

750000 Kcal/h
 1518,8Kg/h
493,8 Kcal/Kg

Q  5000 Kg x 1 Kcal/Kg º C x 60º-10º  


Q  250 000 Kcal/h Steam 1518,8 Kg/h
If it is required to heat the vessel content
in 20 minutes, we have:

Condensate
5000 Kg x 1 Kcal/Kg º C x 60º-10º  x 60'
Q 
20'
Q  750 000 Kcal/h

1518,8 Kg/h
▪ Pressure is the force that acts on a surface of 1 cm2. Under normal conditions the air
pressure at sea level is 1, 033 Kgf/cm2 or 1 physical atmosphere or 1 bar.

▪ For our considerations and for simplicity reasons we will accept :


1 Kgf/cm2 as normal air pressure and 1 bar = 1 Kgf/cm2.

▪ Steam is a gas and subject to the same laws as all gases. When water is being
evaporated in an enclosed limited space like a steam boiler and if it can not blow off
into the open, the pressure of this steam will rise above atmospheric pressure. The
pressure can be maintained at a desired level if, after having reached the required
value, the heat is throttled (by firing cut off or heat source control) so that no more
water is being evaporated.
100ºC >100ºC

▪ On the open cooker the water boils at 100ºC – slowly cooking process.

▪ The closed pressure cooker aloud a more rapid cooking with a higher temperature
>100ºC, consequence of the overpressure created by the formation of steam.
▪ Example 1:

Water to Water Heat Exchanger

We need to heat 2000 Kg/h of water from 20º to 30ºC (2000 x 1 x 10 = 20000 Kcal/h).

➢ If we use hot water from a water boiler with outlet 85ºC and return at 65ºC, it means
that the water yields 20 Kcal per Kg to the secondary water through the heat
exchanger. In this case we need 1000 kgs of heating water every hour to replace the
necessary energy

(20 000 Kcal/h : 20Kcal/kg = 1000 Kgs/h)


▪ Example 1:

Steam to Water Heat Exchanger

We need to heat 2000 Kg/h of water from 20º to 30ºC (2000 x 1 x 10 = 20000 Kcal/h).

➢ If steam were used as heating fluid instead, at the given pressure of one bar abs, to
cover the same energy demand, we would then need 20000 Kcal/h : 540 Kcal/Kg =
37 Kgs/h of steam !

➢ There would remain 37 Kgs of condensate with a heat content of 100 Kcal/Kg
corresponding to a temperature of 100ºC, which returned to the steam boiler will be
retransformed into steam.

➢ Going deeper to pipe sizing, different steam operating pressures, unit heater sizing,
etc, more surprising differences will be found...
Primary Water
from Boiler
1000Kg/h 2000Kg/h 30ºC
85ºC Water to water
20000 Kcal/h

Heat Exchanger
65ºC 20ºC
Water
Primary Water
return to Boiler

Steam from 37Kg/h 2000Kg/h 30ºC


Boiler
Steam to water 100ºC

20000 Kcal/h

Heat Exchanger 37Kg/h


100ºC 20ºC
Condensate
Return
Water
From the steam tables we will take the following data:

▪ At 12 barg the heat content from the boiling water is ≈195Kcal/Kg

▪ At 0,5 barg the heat content of the boiling water is ≈112Kcal/Kg

▪ This means that at 12 barg each Kg of boiling water contains 83kcal more than at 0,5
barg and at a 0,5 barg the water can not hold more than 112Kcal/Kg !

▪ This liberated energy (83Kcal/Kg) produce the same effect as if an external source of
energy have been added and vaporization will occur.

▪ Again, from steam tables the energy required to vaporize 1 Kg of water at 0,5 barg is
532Kcal/Kg, and so, the liberated energy will produce 83: 532= 0,156Kg
(approximately 16% of the boiling water to be retransformed into steam): this is
FLASH STEAM !
Pressure on traps in bar Kg
Kg 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Flash in Kg per Kg of condensate

0,20 0,20

0,18 0,18
Rising steam pressure in bar
0,16 0,16
0,156 Kg
0,14 0,14
(given ex.)
0,12 0,12

0,10 0,10

0,08 0,08

0,06 0,06

0,04 0,04

0,02 0,02

0 0

Flash Steam %   100 %


he High Pressure - he Low Pressure
r Low Pressure

NOTE: Available software SFW.FV


▪ From the steam tables we can check the great volume difference between steam and
water (condensate).

▪ When a heat exchanger, jacketed pan or other steam process equipment cools down
there are therefore conditions for the formation of vacuum and consequently the
equipments may be destroyed by implosion.
ICE

Barrel
200l
Steam (0,2m3)
Water (condensate)

• 1,5 bar a • 1bar a


(V=1,149m3/Kg)
• 0,174Kg of water
• 0,174Kg of steam ≈0,000174 m3
≈ 0,2 m3

0,2 m3 0,000174m3
▪ When the steam is turned off, air fills the void that is generated due to the
condensing of the steam (otherwise vacuum will be formed).

▪ When the system is turned back on line, it is crucial that air is removed from
pipes and equipment.

▪ Disadvantages of air presence on steam systems:


-Air reduces the temperature of steam
-Air reduces the heat transfer rate
-Air and CO2 mixes with water and can cause serious corrosion problems.
Heating steam
Air Barrier

Condensate Barrier

Heat Flow
Scale Barrier

Metal Heat Transfer Wall

Scale Product Barrier


Heat Transfer Layers

Product Barrier
Heated
Product or
Medium Being
Steam Temperature

T1

Heat Flow
Heating steam
Air Barrier

Condensate Barrier

Scale Barrier

Metal Heat Transfer Wall

Scale Product Barrier

Product Barrier
Heated
Temperature Gradients Across Heat Transfer Layers

Product or
Medium Being

T1 > T2

Product Temperature
T2
▪ Barriers will substantially reduce heat transfer.

Air, condensate and scale barriers will blanket heat transfer surface, however, air is by
far the one that offer a greater resistance to heat flow.
As mentioned before air enters a steam system during shut-down but it is also
released when water is boiled. Since it’s density it’s closed to the steam under the
same conditions, the air is then pushed along with steam.

In any mixture of gases, each gas exerts only a portion of the total pressure based on
the amount of each gas present. If we have 1/3 of air and 2/3 of steam and if the
system pressure is 3 bar the steam is at 2 bar and air at 1 bar. If the system is
designed for 3 bar, we can read 3 bar on the pressure gauge, but the real temperature
corresponds to steam at 2 bar!

To improve heat transfer efficiency it is imperative to:


- Eliminate the air;
- Have good condensate drainage;
- Use adequate water treatment;
- Have a correct equipment flow design.
▪ It is evident that the condensate, air and non-condensable gases must be
removed from the process equipments to assume process efficiency, keeping the
heating surfaces blanked with steam.

▪ Steam naturally flows toward the cooler heat transfer surfaces, condenses into water
and is carried to the drain by gravity.

▪ It is crucial to find a way to discharge the condensate (and remaining gases) without
steam waste, in other words, we need “to catch” the steam, and for that we need a
trap.
Steam
P1=0,5 bar g

Steam trapped
inside the heat Heat Exchanger
exchanger

h2 = 1m
Condensate
(1 m.c.a. = 0,1 bar g)
h1 = 5 m
5 m.c.a.
Siphon

P2 = 0,5 bar g

ΔP = (P1+h2) - P2

- PERHAPS NOT PRATICAL, BUT THE SIPHON IS FOR NOW OUR STEAM TRAP!