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षट याकाल

Kriyakala literally means 'time for action'.The Knowledge of


different stges for actions ( kriya kala) is essential for timely
diaonosis, progonosis and for adopting timely measures.

Stages for increased doshas:

स चय च कोप च सरं थानसं यम् ।


भेद यो वे , दोषाणां स भवे दभषक् ।।
(S.Su. 21/36)
Suśruta has mentioned six phases of the increased dosa (dosha
vriddhi)
1. Sañcaya = accumulation
2. Prakopa = provocation
3. Prasara = propagation
4. Sthāna samsraya = localization
5. Vyaktī = manifestation
6. Bheda = complication or chronicity.
Acharya Caraka has mentioned only two stages of increased
doshas. These are:
1. Sañcaya = accumulation
2. Prakopa = provocation
A physician instead of waiting and giving a chance for
the dosas to infiltrate into different tissues of the body, can check
them at a primary stage (i.e. in the first or second kriya kala) as
far as possible.
First three timings for actions viz. sañcaya, prokopa and prasara
are subclinical stages.
While the remaining three viz sthāna samśraya, vyakti and bheda
are the clinical stages of the phathogenesis.

1. संचय (Accumulation) :

सं चतानाम् खलु दोषाणाम् त धपूणको ता


पीतावभासता म दो मता चा ानाम् गौरवमाल यं चयकारण व े ष े त
ल ा न भव त । त थमः याकालः।
(S. ST. 21/15)
Increase of dosas in their own sites is called sañcaya
(accumulation). In the stage a perso develops aversion against
the संचय कारण of the vitiated doshas.
Symptoms regarding the sañcaya of various dosas may be
considered as follows:

Vāta doşa sañcaya


त धपूणको ता = Hypo-peristalsis of intestine.
Pitta doşa sañcaya
पीतावभासता= Yellowish, appearance over the skin in the eyes etc.
Sleśmā doșa sañcaya
म दो मता = Hypothermia
चा ानाम् गौरवमाल यं =feeling of heaviness and laziness
If the dosas are treated at this primary stage, the next stages like
prokopa (provocations)
etc. will not be developed, and if the primary stage is
neglected, the vitiated dosas will attains higher stages and
the treatment will be difficult.

2. कोप (Provocation) :
It is the second kriyākāla. In this stage the dosas are aggravated
as they leave their original sites.

तेषां कोपात् को तोद-संचरणा लका- पपासा-


प रदाहा े ष दयो लेदा जाय ते । त तीयः याकालः
(S.Su. 21/26)
Vāta prakopa
1. को तोद= Pricking sense in the abdomen.
2. संचरण= Sounds (movements) of flatus in the abdomen.
Pitta prakopa
1. अ लका=Acidity.
2. पपासा= Excessive thirst.
3. प रदाह = Burning sense.
Kapha prakopa
1. अ े ष= Aversion to food.
2. दयो लेद=Heaviness of the chest.

3. सर (propagation):
This stage follows Parkopa Avastha
Doshas vitiate by their concerned causes will leave their original
places and spread to other parts of the body.
If the causative factors are not withdrawn to normalcy the dosas
leave their normal sites and start spreading in the body through
srotas (channels) ordinarily in accordance with the pattern of
three rogamāragas viz
Sakha
Marmāsthisandhi
Kosth
In the advanced stage of the spreading of doșas, the channel is
disturbed.
Two forms of prasara have been described
1. Quantitative 2. Qualitative
In Quantitative situation the spread of dosas is propelled
more because of their massive increase in the quantity, which can
be compared
with the overflooded water tooded water of a river which breaks
the dam and spreads all over and around. This usually becomes
after sañcaya and prokapa.
In Qualitative condition, the increase in the quantity is
not too much, but the quality is highly altered leading to
frothing, bubbling, chemical effervescence etc.

एवं कु पतानां सरता वायो वमागगमनाटोपौ, ओषचोष प रदाह


धुमायना न प य, अरोचका वपाका सादा छ द े त े मणो ल ा न भव त ।
त तृतीयः याकालः।

Vāta Prasar
1. वमागगमन=Regurgitation.
2. आटोप = Flatulence and gurgling sounds in the bowels.

Pitta Prasara
ओष = Sense of boiling or acute burning.
चोष = Squeezing feeling
प रदाह= Feeling of burning all over the body.
धुमायन = Feeling as if the abdomen were full of smoke.
Kapha Prasara
अरोचक = Anorexia
अ वपाका = Indigestion
छद = Vomiting
अं साद = Inactivity of organs.

4. थानसं य( localization):

थान सं यः दोष य य सं यः।


(S.Suu. 21/30)

At the third Kriyakāla or prasarāvasthā, the morbidities are


somehow floating stage in the body and have not yet been
localized.
If the causative factors of the vitiation of the morbidities
are not yet withdrawn, they get an opportunity to remain in the
contact with the local tissue or dhātus, i.e. dūşaya and to disturb
them by interaction.

कृ नेऽ े ऽवयवे वाऽ प य ा े कु पतो भृशम् । |


दोषो वकारं नभ स मेघव वष त ।
(S. Su. 21/29)
The mechanism can be compared with the wandering clouds,
which, when obstructed by a mountain, rain in a particular area',
and if not obstructed, it may run away and rain somewhere else.
This stage is actual condition of the generation of a disease and
known as pūrva rūpa or primordial stage of the
disease.
This is called as Dosh-Dushy Sammurcahna.
It occurs if there is predefective site for the localization
(sthānsamśraya) of the morbid. Such a defect has been
described as kha vaigunya(ख वैगु य).

5. (Stage of manifestation):
This is the stage of manifestation.
If the causative factors are not withdrawn at the fourth kriyā kāla
i.e. the purva-rūpa stage, the disease assumes full bloom, and
characteristic stable clinical features of the disease appears,
which are known as rūpa and the stage of vyādhi darśana."
The treatment at this stage is particular for specific disease.
The clinical features of a disease depend upon the pattern of
dosa dūsya sammūrcchanā, which may be of two types:
A. Prakrti-sama-samaveta
B. Vikrti-visama-samavāya
A. Prakrti-sama-samaveta (According to nature)
Dosa and dusya involved in a particular disease continue to
maintain their identity in the resultant disease.
These diseases are named according to dosha or dushayas.
e.g Vataj Parmeha & Rakta pitta
B. Vikrti-visama-samavāya (Different from nature)
In this form, dosa-dūsyas mix-up is intensive and in resultant
disease, the signs and symptoms of dosa and dusyas responsible
for the disease couldn't be identified separately.
In such conditions the diseases are not classified in terms of
tridosas and a new clinical names such as asthila, mutrāghāta etc.
are given for these disease.
Suśruta describes this stage as.
शोफाबुद थ व ध वसप भृतीनाम् ल णता वरातीसार भृतीनाम् च।
त प चमः याकालः ।।
(S.Su. 21/34)

6. भेद (stage of complications the sixth kriyākāla):


When a disease is not treated properly even in the stage of vyakti
or full manifestation, the dosas will move towards the sixth and
the last stage of treatment i.e. bhedāvastha or the stage of
complication.
The term bheda also points out to the phenomenon of bursting
out of a disease into complications or upadrava leading to the
development of other associated ailments. This stage also refers
to the chronicity of a disease.'
अत ऊ वमेतेषामवद णानाम् णभावमाप ानाम् ष ः याकालः ।
वरा तसार भृतीना च द घकालानुब धः।
त ा त यमाणेऽसा तामुपयं त I
(S.Su. 21/35)
For example when an inflammatory condition is not treated
properly in the beginning, it may form an abscess and finally it
may burst out and a permanent scar, (which
will be too difficult to remove), will remain at that place for the
whole of life.
The non-inflammatory conditions like pyrexia, diarrhoea etc. also,
if not treated at an early stage
properly, may change into incurable (asāddhya) conditions.

Utility of knowledge of Kriyā kāla :


The object of Ayurveda i.e. positive and holistic health can be
achieved by the maintenance of the equilibrium of tissues
elements with various other factors.

धातुसा य याचो ा त या य योजनम्।।


(C.Su.1/53)
Pathogenic factors in the body are tridoșas viz. vāta, pitta, and
kapha and drugs, diet, activities etc. either alleviate, or vitiate or
maintain the balance of these dosas.
Diseases are produced by dosa and dhātu (tissue) vaişamya and
any disturbance in the equilibrium of these factors is known as
disease.
Thus doșas are closely related to disease as well as health, and
for proper treatment, good knowledge of the different stages of
doșas becomes essential.
By this knowledge treatment becomes easier, as the diseases
could have been diagnosed at an earlier stage.
The control of the dosas at early stages viz. sañcaya and
prokopa can be checked only by adopting a few changes in diet
and regimens.
If the vitiating process of dosas, is neglected it may spread into
various tissues as well as organs of the body gradually, become
deeprooted and the disease becomes chronic and may lead
towards uncurable stage. It proves the utility of the knowledge of
six states of the vitiation of dosas or kriyā kāla which provides
availability of more and better chances for treatment.