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Part 1
A. The Human Person Flourishing in Terms of Science and Technology
“The essence of technology is by no means anything technological.”
- Martin Heidegger
Martin Heidegger
- German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition of philosophy
- best known for contributions to phenomenology, hermeneutics, and existentialism
- Born: 26 September 1889, Messkirch, Germany
- Died: 26 May 1976, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
- Spouse: Elfride Petri (m. 1917–1976)
- Influenced by: Friedrich Nietzsche, Immanuel Kant, MORE
- Education: University of Freiburg (1914–1916), Berthold-Gymnasium (1906–1909)
- Children: Hermann Heidegger, Jörg Heidegger
 Human Flourishing - an effort to achieve self-actualization and fulfillment within the
context of a larger community of individuals, each with the right to pursue his or her
own such efforts.
- encompasses the uniqueness, dignity, diversity, freedom, happiness, and holistic well-
being of the individual within the larger family, community, and population.
- achieving human flourishing is a life-long existential journey of hopes, achievements,
regrets, losses, illness, sufferings, and coping
- revolutionary socialist, posits that in our daily lives we take decisions that have
unintended consequences, which then combine to create large-scale social forces that
may have an utterly unpredicted effort.
- states that humans are naturally social beings, and therefore, society is the essential
“unity of man in nature.”
- The decisions we make as a society should take into account the nature of social
relations and the potential consequences
ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.)
- the fountain head behind every achievement of science, technology, political theory,
and aesthetics, especially romantic art in today’s world.
- He explains that the purpose of life is earthly happiness or flourishing that can be
achieved via reason and the acquisition of virtue.
- Human beings have a natural desire and capacity to know and understand the truth, to
pursue moral excellence, and to instantiate their ideals in the world through action.
Technology is therefore no mere means. It is a way of revealing. If we need to this, then
another whole realm for the essence of technology will open itself up to us. It is the realm of
revealing, that is the truth
- Martin Heidegger
The Question Concerning Technology
- Essay written by Martin Heidegger which addresses modern technology and its essence
as an instrumental way of revealing the world.
Heidegger’s understanding of technology was based on its essence.
1. The essence of technology is not something we make; it is a mode of being or revealing.
2. Technology even holds sway over beings that we do not normally think of as
technological, such as gods and history.
3. It is primarily a matter of modern and industrial technology.
4. Modern natural science can understand nature in the characteristically scientific manner
Two characteristics of Modern Technology as a Revealing Process
 Mode of revealing nature could be sharply contrasted to “Physis”, which is the
arising of something from itself, a bringing forth or poieses.
 The revelation has its own autonomy, and at best, man can only witness.
 New world ordering - best described as “artificial” in contrast to “natural
- sees as nature as an object of manipulation and not anymore as an
autonomous reality demanding respect and admiration
 to hasten the movement of something
 process of revealing in as much as it “unlocks” and “exposes” something
En-framing - the “essence” of modern technology
- putting into the frame of modern technology everything in nature
“Frame” of modern technology – the network or interlocking things standing in reserve
- world centered on man’s caprices and demands
‘’Every man must decide whether he will walk in the light of creative altruism or in the
darkness of destructive selfishness.”

-Martin Luther, Jr.

Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία [eu̯ dai ̯moníaː])
-sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia /juːdɪˈmoʊniə/,
- Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare
_ "human flourishing or prosperity" and "blessedness" have been proposed as more accurate
For both Plato and Aristotle, it means not only good fortune and material prosperity, but a
situation achieved through:
1. Virtue
2. Excellence
3. Knowledge
Learning to be human - central to Confucianism
humanism and its “creative transformation” of the self through an ever-expanding
network of relationships encompassing the family, community, nation, world, and
REPUBLIC- a Socratic dialogue, authored by Plato around 375 BC, concerning justice , the order
and character of the just city-state, and the just man
Three motivating parts of soul and mind
2. spirited or emotional
3. appetitive
Nicomachean Ethics - a philosophical inquiry into the nature of the good life for a human
Aristotle, in the Nichomachean Ethics
-states that Eudaimonia is constituted by honor or wealth power but by rational activity in
accordance with excellence in the virtues of character, courage, honesty, pride, friendliness,
and wittiness as well as mutually beneficial friendships and scientific knowledge, particularly of
things that are fundamental and unchanging
According to Aristotle- all humans seek to flourish
4 Aspects of Human Nature
1. Physical 3. Social
2. Emotional 4. Rational
 also known as personal flourishing
 involves the rational use of one’s individual potentialities including:
• talents
• Abilities
• Virtues (in the pursuit of his freely) and
• Rationally chosen values and goals


“The purpose of life is a life of purpose.”
-Robert Byrne
- being connected and contributing in a meaningful way to the communities you value
Big part of good life
- It is how you participate in different places such as:
• Place of worship
• Work
• Part of the neighborhood
• Friendship
• Affiliation
 In its simplest form, a good life is a series of never-ending satisfaction that only
grows more powerful as time goes on.
• Ex. Wanting to get out of the bed every morning, excited to take
on whatever each day has in store for you.
 It has nothing to do with the material possessions or artificially induced
 The good life is based on:
• Compassionate deeds you perform
• Personal goals you strive to achieve
Legacy you decide to leave behind because of the mark you have made on the world around

SOCRATES - a classical Greek philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western

philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher of the Western ethical tradition of thought
 “the unexamined life is not worth living.”
 did not endorse a life of private self-reflection; which means that “an individual become
a master of himself”, using his reason to reign in his passions, as well as doing what he
can to help promote the stability of his community
by Michael Soupios and Panos Mourdoukoutas
1. Examine life, engage life with vengeance; always search for new pleasures and new
destinies to reach with your mind.
2. Worry only about the things that you are in control, the things that can be influenced
and changed by your actions, not about the things that are beyond your capacity to
direct or alter.
3. Treasure Friendship, the reciprocal attachment that fills the need for affiliation.
4. Experience Treasure Pleasure.
5. Master yourself.
6. Avoid Excess.
7. Be a Responsible Human Being.
8. Don’t be a Prosperous Fool.
9. Don’t Do Evil to Others.
10. Kindness toward others tend to be rewarded.
1. Sensation
2. Intellect
3. Desire
Five qualities through which the mind achieves truth in affirmation or denial
1. Art or Technical Skill
2. Scientific Knowledge
3. Prudence
4. Wisdom
5. Intelligence
All art deals with bringing something into existence.
-To pursue an art means to study how to bring into existence a thing that may either exist or
not, and the efficient cause of which lies in the maker and not in the thing made.
Scientific knowledge- can be communicated by teaching, and that what is scientifically known
must be learned
Prudence - an excellence or virtue, not an Art
Wisdom - a combination of intuition and scientific knowledge, involving a deep understanding
of the natural world
Sophia- Greek word for wisdom which in philosophy literally means “lover of wisdom”.
Wisdom- the highest of all intellectual virtues because it involves a profound understanding of
the eternal truths of the universe.
Why we are here?
What is life all about ?
What is the purpose of existence?
Meaning of life – derived from its philosophical and religious contemplation, and scientific
inquiries about
 existence
 societies
 consciousness and
 happiness.
PLATO – pupil of Socrates
- one of the earliest , most influential Philosophers
- his reputation comes from his idealism of believing in the existence of universals
- His Theory of Forms proposes that universals do not physically exist, like objects, but a
heavenly form
Platonism – the meaning of life is attaining the highest form of knowledge, which is the Idea
(Form) of the Good, from which all good and just things derive utility and value
ARISTOTLE - teaches that man’s life has a purpose and that the function of one’s life is to attain
that purpose
- explains that the purpose of life is earthy happiness or flourishing that can be achieved via
reason and the acquisition of virtue
- states that each human being should use his abilities to their fullest potential and should
obtain happiness and enjoyment through the exercise of their realized capacities
- human beings have a natural desire and capacity to know and understand the truth, to
pursue moral excellence, and to instantiate their ideals in the world through action
 It is a product that one individual can consume without reducing its availability to
another individual, and from which no one is excluded.
 Almost all public goods are considered to be:

◦ Nonrivalry goods – any product or service that does not reduce availability as
people consume it.

◦ Nonexcludability goods – any product or service that is impossible to provide

without it being available for many people to enjoy.
 A public good must be available for everyone and not be limited in quantity.
Quasi-public goods- goods and services that have characteristics of being nonrivalrous and
nonexcludable but are not pure public goods
Ex. Roads
- Filipino philosopher
- argues that the concept of the public good carries largely the politico-ethical sense, which
subsumes the politico-economic sense
Human flourishing – personal flourishing
– an effort to achieve self-actualization and fulfillment within the context of a larger
community of individuals, each with the right to pursue his or her own such efforts
- involves the rational use of one’s individual human potentialities, including talents, abilities,
and virtues in the pursuit of his freely and rationally chosen values and goals
- the reward of the virtues and values, and happiness is the goal and reward of
human flourishing
Self-direction - involves the use of one’s reason and is central and necessary for the possibility
of attaining human flourishing, self-esteem, and happiness.