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LENOVO (acquisition of IBM)

 In December 2014, Lenovo acquired IBM’s personal computer (PC) worth $1.75
billion. Lenovo was acquiring the IBM division that invented the PC in 1981.
 China’s largest PC maker
 Founded with $25,000 of seed capital from the Chinese Academy of Sciences
 Lenovo was the best known brand in China and had some brand presence in Asia, it
was virtually unknown to the rest of the world.
 In 2004, over 90% of Lenovo’s revenues came from China
 With IBM acquisition, Lenovo aimed to become a global technology giant.
 Annual revenues would triple to $12 billion, making Lenovo the third-largest PC
maker in the world after Dell and Hewlett-Packard.
 20.000 employees
 138 countries
 Lenovo needed a global marketing and branding strategy to match its new reach.
 Lenovo was preparing for the February 2006 Turin Winter Olympics, planned to
introduce a Lenovo-branded product line designed from the bottom up for small and
medium enterprises.


 In 1970 introduced its first PC.
 Role for small computers in its businesses.
 IBM relied on key technological contributions from third parties to quickly launch
its own first desktop computer.
 These partnerships were nonexclusive, allowing the vendors to engage with other
companies who might build similar PCs.
 The IBM brand gave the PC instant credibility in the business marketplace.

 Founded in 1982
 Three former executives invested $1.000
 First year made $111 million in 1982.
 In 1983, they raised $67 million in an IPO (Initial Public Offering; salir a bolsa;
venta de un activo de tu empresa).
 In 1984, introduced a PC with Intel’s new and more powerful microprocessors.
(Beating IBM to market).
 In 1984, began building IBM-compatible computers in his college dormitory.
 Sold directly to customers (No physical retail store)
 Customers could configure their PC’s to their individual needs, lower price.
 In 1989, Dell took his company public.
 In 1999, Dell’s sales got over Compaq’s.
 Dell sourced components from Taiwan, Malaysia, and other global locations, it
continued to assemble computers for domestic customers in U.S. factories.
 Dell also established a manufacturing operation in China to supply completed
computers to customers in Asia. (Like HP did in China)
 Became Lenovo’s greatest competitor.

Hewlett-Packard (HP)
 Founded in 1939 (Produced sophisticated electronic instruments)
 In 1980, entered in computer market.
 Expanded to new markets, such as, medical and computational devices.
 In 1984, introduced inkjet and laser printing technologies.
 HP established a joint venture in China
 Company model: U.S.-based companies but designs and manufacturing in China.

Microsoft and Intel

 In 1990, set the basic standard for the PC.

More Info
 IBM, HP, and Gateway—moved their entire manufacturing operations offshore.
(trasladaron todas sus operaciones de fabricación al exterior)
 The Internet boom drove demand.