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CHAPTER 3

WELL TEST OBJECTIVES

Setting the well test objectives requires consideration of the requirements of different
departments. It is important to ensure that the viewpoints of all interested parties are collected
and considered before setting the objectives. Once this is done it is equally important that the
objectives are documented and distributed to the interested parties.

The requirements of the following parties should normally be considered:


• Senior Management
• Explorationists
• Petroleum and Reservoir Engineers
• Production, Process and Facilities Engineers
• Drilling Engineers
• Oil and Gas Trading
• Partners
• Regulatory Authorities

The statement of Well Test Objectives will be a significant part of the final audit trail.

A Well Test Planning - Input Data Sheet, such as the one at the end of this chapter, should be
completed by the Asset group Explorationists, for each zone to be tested, in conjunction with
the Petroleum and Drilling Engineering groups. This sheet should be completed as soon as a
decision has been reached to drill a well. This will identify the most appropriate offset data to
be used in the test planning. In addition, this will initiate dialogue between group on such
items as the test objectives, type of test, perforation technique, environmental considerations,
drilling rig details, logistics and much more.

Recommended Practice:

1. The well test objectives and testing AFE/AFC should be set before or at the time of
developing the well drilling programme and may be included as part of the drilling
programme documentation.
12 Operational Aspects of Oil and Gas Well Testing

3.1 The Decision to Test

Within each operating company a clear statement should be produced specifying those
parties who need to be involved in making the decision to test a well.

In general the decision to test will also require consideration of the views of other
partner companies.

The decision to test will also involve considerations of the zones to be tested, the
objectives of each individual test and the method of testing that best meets the
objectives.

The decision to test must be made within the context of the well test objectives.

It is normally required that a formally signed off document is produced detailing the
results of the decision to test, the test zones, the objectives of each individual test and
an outline of the test method to be used.

This document will be signed off by those parties responsible for the decision to
test. The document will be a significant part of the final audit trail.

Before the well is drilled a testing philosophy should be devised as part of a


"Formation Evaluation Programme", this normally covers the requirements for mud
logging, coring, open hole logging, well bore seismic and well testing. The formation
evaluation programme would also be used as the basis for an "Outline Drilling
Programme" and an "Outline Testing Programme" (OTP).

The OTP is written before the well is spuded, and develops the testing philosophy
under the categories of testing objectives, detailed testing philosophy, outline test
sequence, well data, test data, etc. When referring to equipment it may be generic or
specific if contractors have been selected. Preparation of the OTP is very useful for
flagging potential problems, showing compromises of well design and for identifying
long lead items.

Finally the OTP itself is expanded into a "Detailed Testing Programme", before and
during the drilling of the well. Naturally, before the well is drilled to TD, several
testing options will need to be allowed for, to cover all the potential target horizons.

Once TD logging is complete, a formal recommendation can be written for


Management (and subsequently for Partners, if appropriate) which gives a summary
of the well evaluation (mud logging, coring and logging). This recommendation
confirms the test objectives, described the testing methodology and outlines the testing
sequence and asks for sanctioning of the testing Authorisation For Expenditure
(AFE).

When the reservoir is of questionable quality, the decision to test is often difficult. It
may be based on a consideration of political and commercial issues, as well as those
Well Test Objectives 13

purely technical. It is essential that all salient facts relating to the wells evaluation are
clearly communicated to Management in a recommendation jointly written by
Petroleum Engineering, Geoscience and Drilling Staff.

To a certain extent, some of the uncertainty relating to the performance of some


poorer reservoirs can be reduced by the adoption of high resolution logging techniques
and extensive formation pressure pre-tests (RFT/ MDT) targeted on the better
intervals.

3.2 Mobilising Test Equipment

Within each operating company a clear statement should be produced specifying those
parties who are responsible for the decision to mobilise well testing equipment.

For many wells the equipment will need to be mobilised before the well has reached
total depth. In some extreme cases, where the well is very remote, the surface test
equipment may have to be mobilised with the rig. However for most wells it should be
possible to delay mobilising the equipment until a firm decision has been taken to test
the well. The timing of the decision to mobilise test equipment must minimise the risk
of lost rig time but balance this risk against the cost of mobilising the equipment too
soon.
14 Operational Aspects of Oil and Gas Well Testing

ESPRIT PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY LTD.

Well Test Planning - Input Data Sheet

Country Spud Date {AAJmmlyy)


Field Time to Drill ( days) 1
Well Name Test Date (dd/mm/yy) 1
1 Location TD (ft. m )
AFE No. Deviation ( degrees) 1
Water Depth ( ft . m)

\ofhti Data

Well Name Well Name


1 Operator Operator
Drilled (dd/mm/yy) Drilled (dd/mm/yy)
1 Offset ( miles . km) Offset (miles . km)
Data Attached (Yes/No) Data Attached (Yes/No)

Well Name Well Name


[Operator Operator
Drilled (dd/mm/yy) Drilled (dd/mm/yy)
1 Offset ( miles . km) Offset (miles . km)
Data Attached (Yes/No) Data Attached (Yes/No) |

1 Formation Properties ( Best Offset:


) 1
Formation Name Porosity ( % )
1 Formation Type Permeability ( mD) 1
Formation Top TVD ( ft . m) Water Saturation ( %) |
1 Formation Thickness ( ft . m) |
|Pore Pressure ( ppg . psi) Consolidated ( Yes/No ) 1
1 Fracture Pressure ( ppg . psi) Comments: |
[Formation Temperature ( F . C ) i

Fluid Properties ( Best Offset:


) 1
Oil Gravity (deg API) Gas Gravity 1
1 Viscosity ( cp ) H2S
Pour Point ( F . C ) C02
Bubble Point (psi) GOR 1
1 Formation Volume Factor ( rb/stb ) 1

iRate Information ( Best Oflfeet:


) 1
Oil (bopd) Comments: I
Gas ( MMscf/d ) 1
1 Condensate ( bcpd ) |
Water (bwpd )
Artifical Lift ( Yes / No) Method 1
Well Test Objectives 15

ESPRIT PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY LTD.

Well Test Planning - Input Data Sheet

Perforation ( current well)

Liner / Casing Size ( " ) Preferred Perforation Technique: 1


Liner/Casing Weight (#)
W/L Casing Gun
W/L Thru Tubing Gun
TCP

Gun Size ( " ) Estimated Perf Interval (ft)


IShot Density Underbalance (psi)
Shot Phasing

1 Basic Test Objectives


(Identify which of the following are requirements of the test: Yes / No )

Initial Reservoir Pressure SRO Required


Initial Reservoir Temperature
Bottom Hole Samples Quantity
Surface Samples Quantity
Oil Assay Details
Measure Contaminants (H2S/CO2)

Reservoir Permeability Downhole Shutin Reqd.


Skin
Well Bore Storage

High Rate Details


Extended Well Test Details
[Boundary Information Details

Well Site Chemistry Details

1 Detailed Test Objectives 1


16 Operational Aspects of Oil and Gas Well Testing

ESPRIT PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY LTD.

Well Test Planning - Input Data Sheet

iTest Type ( Complete the following )

Yes/No
Single Rate
[Short Initial Flow Duration (min)
Initial PBU Duration (hr) 1
[Main Flow Duration (hr)
PBU Duration (hr)
Additional Sampling Flow Period Duration (hr)

Flow after Flow


[Short Initial Flow Duration (min)
Initial PBU Duration (hr)
Main Flow Number of Flow Periods
Duration (hr) of Flow
PBU Duration (hr)
Additional Sampling Flow Period Duration (hr)

Isochronal
Short Initial Flow Duration (min)
Initial PBU Duration (hr)
Main Flow Number of Flow Periods
Duration (hr) of Flow
PBU Duration (hr)
Additional Sampling Flow Period Duration (hr)

Modified Isochronal
Short Initial Flow Duration (min)
Initial PBU Duration (hr)
iMain Flow Number of Flow Periods
Duration (hr) of Flow
PBU Duration (hr)
[Additional Sampling Flow Period Duration (hr)

Limit Test
First Boundary ( ft )
Second Boundary ( ft )
Third Boundary ( ft )
Fourth Boundary ( ft )

Extended Well Test Flow Duration ( days )


Shut in Duration ( days )

Comments: Choke sizes etc.


Well Test Objectives 17

ESPRIT PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY LTD.

Well Test Planning - Input Data Sheet

IStimulation 1
Comments:

Environmental Considerations / Licence Conditions

( Yes / No )
Flaring Permitted
Green Burners Mandatory
1 Crude Offloading Permitted
Burning of Pits Permitted ( onshore )
lOil Spill Contingency Plan Required Details:

1 Rig Details
( Yes / No )
|Name Type
iRig Inspection Undertaken Date 1
By Whom
Comments
eg. Burner booms, fixed pipework

H2S Procedures Required


[Cascade System Required Contractor
HAZOP to be Carried Out Date 1

1 Logistics / Infrastructure

[Base Office Location Supply Base Location


Distance to Well Site Distance to Well Site
1 Driving Time ( hrs ) Driving Time ( hrs )
1 Sailing Time ( hrs/days ) Sailing Time ( hrs/days )
[Flying Time( h r ) Flying Time( h r )

Service Company Base


Contractor Contact
Contractor Contact
Contractor Contact

Signed Asset Drilling

Res. Eng Pet. Eng.