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Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

SOMMELIER I
Week 6
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

SOMMELIER I Week 6

6. Sparkling Wines
6.1 Different types of sparkling wines

6.2 Sparkling wines production methods

6.3 Main Sparkling Wines Regions

6.4 Main Grapes Varieties

6.5 Describing the label and opening a bottle of


sparkling wine

6.6 How to taste bubbles


Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.1 Types of sparkling wines

Types of
Sparkling
Wine

B) Level Of
A)Color C) Age
Sweetness
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.1 Types of sparkling wines


However, there are some definitions
that we have to bear in mind:

White, Rosé and Red is how we  Blanc de Blancs:


can classify sparkling wines
according to the color “White of whites”
White sparkling wine produced
solely from white Chardonnay
grapes

 Blanc de Noirs:

“White of reds”
White sparkling wine produced
solely from red grapes
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.1 Types of sparkling wines

The sweetness comes from a step in the sparkling making process called “dosage”
which is when a small amount of sugar or grape must is added back into the wine
before corking the bottle. Because sparkling wine is traditionally very acidic, the
purpose of this sweetness is to reduce the intensity of tartness.

Depending on the level of sweetness,


we can classify sparkling wines as:
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.1 Types of sparkling wines

Brut Nature: less than 3 grams per liter. Also known as Pas dosé or Dosage zéro, it is the
driest of the sparkling wines. ( there is no sugar added)

Extra-Brut: It is an extremely dry sparkling, which has a maximum of 6g/L of residual


sugar.

Brut: One of the most consumed types of sparkling wine in Brazil, with a sugar content
lower than 12 g/L.

Extra-dry: 12 to 17 g/L. Despite the contradiction of the term, it is possible to perceive a


slight residual sugar in the final sensation of the sparkling wine.

Sec or Dry: 17 to 32 g/L. Confused term where clearly, we perceive a relatively clear
sense of residual sugar.

Demi-sec: 32 to 50 g/L. It is equivalent to 1 to 2 teaspoons of sugar per 150 ml.

Doux: more than 50 g/L. This degree of sweetness is found in most of the sparkling wines
made by muscat grapes in Brazil
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.1 Types of sparkling wines

Champagne and sparkling wines don’t always need to


be aged like some other wines, as they will have
already been through an ageing process while in the
cellars. There are obviously a lot of different sparkling
wines and some are meant to be enjoyed straight away
as a young wine and will not age well.

Nevertheless, there are some terms that will help you


to understand some types of sparkling wines:

Non- Vintage (NV): it means that is a blend of different


years´ harvest . The winery is not required to release
information about the age of the blended wines

Vintage (V): made from grapes of only one


years´harvest
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.1 Types of sparkling wines

Depending on the sparkling wine region, the classification by aging


can be different

All Champagne wines must spend at least


15 months in the bottle before release

The minimum for vintage cuvees is three


years

In practice, most Champagne wines are


cellared:

NON-VINTAGE 2-3 years


VINTAGE 4-10 years
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.2 Sparkling wines production methods

Sparkling wine might just be the most technical of all wines in the world–even if it is
so easy to drink! The reason most sparkling wine is so complex is because of
the need for two fermentations; one to make wine and the other to make bubbles.

Since sparkling wines were first introduced (starting in the mid 1500’s), several
processes have been developed and each result in a unique sub-style of sparkling
wine.
There are 6 major methods by which sparkling wines are produced, each resulting in a
different carbonation level and, ultimately, a different style of bubbly!

We’ll focus on the two worth paying attention to the most are :

Traditional Method (used for Champagne, Cava,etc) and Tank Method (used for
Prosecco,Lambrusco)

1) Traditional Method
2) Tank Method
3) Transfer Method
4) Ancestral Method
5) Continuous Method
6) Carbonation
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.2 Sparkling wines production methods


6.2 Sparkling wines production methods
1) Traditional Method

1. Base Wine or “Cuvée”: grapes are picked (usually just a bit younger to preserve acidity) and fermented into
a dry wine. The winemaker then takes the various base wines and blends them together into what the French
call a “cuvée”, which is the final sparkling wine blend.

2. Tirage: Yeast and sugars are added to the cuvée to start the second fermentation and wines are bottled
(and topped with crown caps).

3. Second Fermentation: (inside the bottle) The second fermentation adds about 1.3% more alcohol and the
process creates CO2 which is trapped inside the bottle thus carbonating the wine. The yeast dies in a process
called autolysis and remain in the bottle.

4. Aging: Wines are aged on their lees (the autolytic yeast particles) for a period of time to develop texture in
the wine. Champagne requires a minimum of 15 months of aging and Cava requires a minimum of 9 months of
aging.

5. Riddling: Clarification occurs by settling the bottle upside down and the dead yeast cells collect in the neck
of the bottle.

6. Disgorging: Removing sediment from bottle. The bottles are placed upside down into freezing liquid which
causes the yeast bits to freeze in the neck of the bottle. The crown cap is then popped off momentarily which
allows the frozen chunk of lees to shoot out of the pressurized bottle.

7. Dosage: A mixture of wine and sugar (called Expedition liqueur) is added to fill bottles and then bottles are
corked, wired and labeled. (the amount of sugar will depend on the final product: if they want it to sell as brut,
brut nature…etc)
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.2 Sparkling wines production methods

https://www.youtube.com/wa
tch?v=29l9nTVJAB4
6.2 Sparkling wines production methods
2. Charmat/ Tank Method

The tank method came about during the industrial advancements made in the early
20th century and is the main process used for Prosecco and Lambrusco wines.

The major difference between the tank method and the traditional method is the
removal of the individual bottle as the vessel used to turn a still wine into a
sparkling one. Instead, base wines are added together with the sugar and yeast
mixture (Tirage) into a large tank.

As the wine has a second fermentation, the CO2 released from the fermentation
causes the tank to pressurize, whereafter wines are then filtered, dosed (with
Expedition liqueur) and bottled without aging.

Tank method sparkling wines have a much more freshly made character with
stronger secondary (yeasty) flavors.

Some may argue that the tank method is not as high-quality of a production method
as the traditional method of sparkling wine. While the process is more affordable (and
thus is popular with lower quality wines), it is still used for fine sparkling
winemaking.
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.2 Sparkling wines production methods


Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.2 Sparkling wines production methods

https://www.youtube.com/watch
?v=5qtL8w_Rb8Y
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.3 Main sparkling wine regions


Sparkling wines, can be
Main Sparkling produced all around the
world.
Wines Regions Each region names their
sparkling wine in a different
way. Please remember that
“a Champagne” is a
sparkling wine from the
Spain France Italy region of Champagne
(FRANCE)

Cava Champagne Prosecco


Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.3 Main sparkling wine regions

Sparkling Wine Champagne Prosecco Cava

Region Champagne Veneto Catalonia &


(France) (Italy) other regions
(Spain)
Grapes Chardonnay Macabeu
Pinot Noir Glera Xarello
Pinot Menieur Parellada
Production Traditional Charmat / Tank Traditional
Method Method Method Method

Primary Flavors Pear, toast, Green apple, Pear, melon ,


almond honey, cream toast, spice
Bubbles
Consistency Ultra Fine Coarse Fine
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.3 Main sparkling wine regions


The Cava Region comprises a total of 159
municipalities in the provinces of:

Barcelona (63)
Tarragona (52)
Lleida (12)
Girona (5)
La Rioja (18)
Alava (3)
Zaragoza (2)
Navarra (2)
Valencia (1)
Badajoz (1)

Together conform the delimited Cava


producing area and are therefore the only
ones with the full legal capacity to produce
this type of sparkling wine and market it
under this name
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.3 Main sparkling wine regions

5 sub-regions can be
identified :

 Aube
 Côte des Blancs
 Côte de Sézanne
 Montagne de Reims
 Vallée de la Marne

The main cities of the


Champagne Region are
Reims and Epernay

The mention of “Champagne” is submitted to a strict


regulation and the term Champagne can only be used
for wines produced in this region

Champagne wine region is located in


the Northeastern part of France
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.3 Main sparkling wine regions

The Prosecco DOC area of production is located in North East Italy, and more
precisely in territories falling within 4 provinces of Friuli Venezia Giulia (Gorizia,
Pordenone, Trieste and Udine) and 5 provinces of Veneto (Belluno, Padua, Treviso,
Venice, Vicenza), one of the most beautiful territories in the whole of Italy.
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.4 Main Grape Varieties

Pinot
Macabeo Xarello Parellada Pinot Noir Menieur
Chardonnay Glera

Main Elegance
Light Grape Fruitfulness
Robust Mineral Before
Finesse Variety Roundness
Fruity Powerful touches Named
Floral Structure and Prosecco
depth Aging
balance
Body Potential

Neutral
High Smooth Floral and
Well Full of red High
Acidity wines with Low Citric Dry
balanced fruits acidity
Full body moderate Acidity Wines
acidity aroma Full bodied
wines acidity Easy
Drinking
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.5 Describing the label and opening a bottle of


sparkling wine

When we read a sparkling wine label, it is


very important that at least we can identify:

1. Type of sparkling: champagne, cava..

2. Region where it comes from

3. Grape/s varieties

4. Production method

5. Level of Sweetness: extra brut, brut…

6. Vintage or Non-Vintage
6.5 Describing the label and opening a bottle
of sparkling wine

1) Tilt the bottle slightly, always pointing the bottle safely away from yourself or any other person; then untwist the
metal loop to loosen the wire cage

2) Remove the wire cage and foil wrapping, meanwhile keeping a firm grip on the cork

3) Still holding the cork firmly, gently rotate the bottle (NOT the cork) with your other hand so the cork comes
sliding – not popping – out

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B
VykSBtW6NU&has_verified=1
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.6 How to taste sparkling wines

Generally, in terms of tasting


sparkling wines , we will
follow the same steps
tasting as in stills wines,
with the slightly difference
that we will describe the
bubbles (appearance &
taste):

 Ultra fine
 Fine
 Coarse
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.6 How to taste sparkling wines

• Dark rooms do not help to taste


LIGHT

• Avoid using parfums other strong aroma lotions


PARFUM

• Do not smoke before tasting


SMOKING

CHEWING
• Avoid eating chewing
GUM
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.6 How to taste sparkling wines


LOOK SMELL TASTE
1.Appearance 1. Aroma Intensity 1.Body
Bright /clean Light-bodied
Cloudy/clarity Low/ Medium/ High Medium-bodied
Full-bodied

2.Bubbles 2. Flavor Aroma


Refer to families of
Ultra fine 2.Aroma: flavors (floral, fruity,
Fine dairy…)
Coarse a) Primary Flavor intensity

a) Secondary
3.Color intensity: 3. Bubbles
Pale/ moderate/ deep a) Tertiary Ultra fine/ fine/ Coarse

4.Acidity
Soft
4. Wine Color Crisp
Straw, gold, …
5. Sweetness
Dry/ off-dry/ sweet
6.Finish
Short/ médium/ long
Patricia Cano Argamasilla "Sommelier Lecturer"

6.6 How to taste sparkling wines

Cava Vs Champagne

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=RWQGd8Qj1BQ

Prosecco Tasting

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=CnUS2WAZNA4
THANKS!

Patricia Cano Argamasilla


pc@schellhammerbusinessschool.com
Freepik /