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critical level

zur

vorgelegt von

Johannes Kübel

aus Ulm

Als Dissertation genehmigt

Meinen Eltern

Zusammenfassung

Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Darstellungstheorie einer symmetri-

sierbaren Kac-Moody Algebra. Hierbei beschränken wir uns auf die Höchstgewichts-

moduln, deren Struktur durch die BGG Kategorie O gegeben ist. Im Falle einer

affinen Kac-Moody Algebra unterscheidet man zwischen Darstellungen mit posi-

tivem, kritischem und negativem Level. Eine wichtige Rolle zur Bestimmung von

Charakteren einfacher Höchstgewichtsmoduln spielen hierbei die Vermamoduln im

positiven und negativen Level. Im kritischen Level ist es hilfreich, die restringierte

Kategorie O, eine gewisse Unterkategorie der üblichen Kategorie O, einzuführen.

Dabei werden die üblichen Vermamoduln durch restringierte Vermamoduln ersetzt,

die als maximale restringierte Quotienten der Vermamoduln auftauchen.

Die Jantzen-Filtrierung liefert ein gutes Hilfsmittel zur Berechnung von einfachen

Subquotienten in einem Vermamodul. Im Falle eines Vermamoduls im positiven

Level zeigen wir, dass die Struktur der Subquotienten dieser Filtrierung durch Ko-

effizienten gewisser Kazhdan-Lusztig Polynome gegeben ist, indem wir sie mit der

Andersen-Filtrierung im negativen Level in Verbindung bringen.

Im kritischen Level definieren wir analog eine Jantzen-Filtrierung auf den restrin-

gierten Vermamoduln und beweisen eine alternierende Summenformel für diese. Als

Korollar hiervon erhalten wir das ‘Linkage Principle’, welches schon von Arakawa

und Fiebig bewiesen wurde. Ein Spezialfall der Summenformel für subgenerische,

restringierte Vermamoduln erlaubt es uns, das Zentrum eines deformierten Blocks

der restringierten Kategorie O zu berechnen.

1. J. Kübel, Centers for the restricted category O at the critical level over affine

Kac-Moody algebras, preprint 2013, arXiv: 1301.6016, erscheint in Mathematische

Zeitschrift.

2. J. Kübel, Jantzen sum formula for restricted Verma modules over affine Kac-

Moody algebras at the critical level, preprint 2012, arXiv: 1212.0150, erscheint in

Pacific Journal of Mathematics.

of Algebra 371 (2012), 559–576.

tica Scandinavica 110 (2012), no. 2, 161–180.

i

Abstract

The present thesis deals with the representation theory of a symmetrizable Kac-

Moody algebra. We restrict ourselves to the highest weight modules whose struc-

ture is given by the BGG category O. In the case of an affine Kac-Moody algebra,

one distinguishes between representations of positive, negative and critical level. An

important role for the calculation of characters of simple highest weight modules is

played by the Verma modules in positive and negative level. At the critical level, it

is helpful to introduce the restricted category O, a certain subcategory of the usual

category O. The usual Verma modules are then replaced by restricted Verma mod-

ules that appear as maximal restricted quotients of aforementioned Verma modules.

The Jantzen filtration provides a good tool for studying simple subquotients of a

Verma module. In case of a Verma module in positive level, we show that the struc-

ture of subquotients of this filtration is given by the coefficients of certain Kazhdan-

Lusztig polynomials, by associating it with the Andersen filtration in negative level.

At the critical level, we define an analogue of the Jantzen filtration for restricted

Verma modules and prove an alternating sum formula for it. As a corollary from this

we get the ‘Linkage Principle’, which was already proven by Arakawa and Fiebig. A

special case of the sum formula for subgeneric restricted Verma modules allows us

to calculate the center of a deformed block of the restricted category O.

1. J. Kübel, Centers for the restricted category O at the critical level over affine

Kac-Moody algebras, preprint 2013, arXiv: 1301.6016, accepted in Mathematische

Zeitschrift.

2. J. Kübel, Jantzen sum formula for restricted Verma modules over affine Kac-

Moody algebras at the critical level, preprint 2012, arXiv: 1212.0150, to appear in

Pacific Journal of Mathematics.

of Algebra 371 (2012), 559–576.

tica Scandinavica 110 (2012), no. 2, 161–180.

ii

Danksagung

Mein Dank richtet sich an erster Stelle an Peter Fiebig, der mich schon während

des Studiums in Freiburg betreute und mich in das Themenfeld der vorliegenden

Dissertation einarbeitete. Seine stets freundliche Betreuung und Hilfsbereitschaft

schufen ein äußerst angenehmes Arbeitsumfeld in Erlangen. Weiter danke ich den

Mitarbeitern des Emmy-Noether-Zentrums, die den Alltag im mathematischen In-

stitut bereicherten. Allen voran möchte ich hierbei Narendiran nennen, der sowohl

mathematisch als auch als Freund meine Zeit in Freiburg während des Studiums

und in Erlangen und Nürnberg während der Promotion erheblich prägte. Belinda

Echtermeyer möchte ich für ihre hilfreiche Unterstützung zu administrativen Fragen

während der Promotionszeit danken. Auf zahlreichen Konferenzen konnte ich mich

mit mehreren Mathematikern austauschen. Dabei hatten Diskussionen mit Wolf-

gang Soergel und Geordie Williamson indirekten Einfluss auf diese Arbeit. Durch

meine Familie und Shaniah erfuhr ich stets Unterstützung während der letzten drei

Jahre, was ich sehr zu schätzen weiß. Ein Auslandsaufenthalt in Amsterdam wäre

ohne das Einverständnis durch Eric Opdam nicht möglich gewesen. Dafür und für

seine Betreuung in Amsterdam danke ich ihm herzlich. Schließlich möchte ich mich

beim DFG Schwerpunkt 1388 Darstellungstheorie für die finanzielle Unterstützung

meiner Promotion bedanken.

iii

Contents

Introduction vi

1 Kac-Moody algebras 1

2 Deformed Category O 4

2.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.1.1 Duality on OA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.1.2 Deformed standard and costandard modules . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.1.3 Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2.1.4 Simple objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2.2 Projective objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.3 Block decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.4 Subgeneric blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.5 Tilting modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.6 Tilting equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.6.1 The semi-regular bimodule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.7 Description of blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

3.1 Jantzen filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

3.2 Andersen filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3.3 Connecting both filtrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

4.1 Combinatorics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

4.1.1 Moment graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

4.1.2 Sheaves on moment graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4.1.3 Localization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4.1.4 Sheaves on ordered moment graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

4.1.5 Braden-MacPherson sheaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

4.2 The link to representation theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

4.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

4.3.1 The affine case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

4.3.2 The finite case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

iv

5 Critical representations of affine

Kac-Moody algebras 43

5.1 Affine Kac-Moody algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

5.1.1 Affine roots, Weyl groups and bilinear forms . . . . . . . . . . 44

5.2 Restricted representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

5.2.1 Integral affine roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

5.2.2 Restricted category O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

5.2.3 Restricted projective objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

5.2.4 The restricted block decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

5.2.5 The generic and subgeneric cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

5.3 The center of OS,Λ

e for Λ critical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

5.3.1 The subgeneric case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

5.3.2 The general case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

5.4 Restricted Jantzen Sum Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

5.4.1 The Shapovalov determinant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

5.4.2 Restricted Jantzen filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

v

Introduction

For λ ∈ h∗ denote by ∆(λ) the Verma module with highest weight λ. Let Cλ ⊂ h∗ be

a curve through λ such that the Verma module ∆(µ) is simple for each µ ∈ Cλ \{λ}

in a small neighborhood of λ. A non-zero contravariant form on a Verma module is

a certain symmetric bilinear form with its radical being the maximal submodule of

the Verma module. The Jantzen filtration on ∆(λ) is a decreasing filtration which

‘measures’ the degeneracy of a contravariant form on ∆(µ) as µ tends to λ in Cλ .

It has proven to be a powerful tool to study the structure of submodules in ∆(λ).

For example, the subquotients of a Jordan-Hölder series of ∆(λ) over a semisimple

Lie algebra of rank 2 is completely determined by the Jantzen filtration and its

properties (cf. [Jan79]). Amongst other questions regarding this filtration, Jantzen

conjectured the semisimplicity of the subquotients of the Jantzen filtration. Further

work in this direction showed that the affirmation of these conjectures implies that

the multiplicities of simple modules in the subquotients of Jantzen’s filtration are

given by coefficients of certain Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials (cf. [GJ81]).

D-modules on the flag variety corresponding to g ⊃ b. In [BB93] it is shown that the

localization functor and Riemann-Hilbert correspondence map the Jantzen filtration

to a weight filtration on the associated perverse sheaves. Since this filtration is easier

to manage by a sophisticated geometric machinery, Beilinson and Bernstein were able

to prove Jantzen’s conjectures and confirmed the Kazhdan-Lusztig algorithm for the

computation of multiplicities in consecutive subquotients. A different but more direct

approach, which translates highest weight modules over a semisimple Lie algebra to

geometric objects associated to a flag variety, is given in [Soe90]. As a mediator

between projective objects in the highest weight category O over g and perverse

sheaves on the Langlands dual flag variety of g ⊃ b, the so-called category of Soergel

bimodules provides a bridge between the representation theoretic and the geometric

picture. Although the definition of the category of Soergel bimodules is very basic

in the sense that it is just a special subcategory of bimodules over a commutative

ring, its structure, which is more of combinatorial nature, is highly complicated at

the same time. Soergel’s approach is used in [Soe08] to relate the dimensions of the

subquotients of the Andersen filtration to coefficients of certain Kazhdan-Lusztig

polynomials. The Andersen filtration is defined in a very similar way to Jantzen’s

filtration and was introduced in [And97] for modules over an algebraic group. Let K

vi

be a tilting module of category O and denote by ∇(λ) the dual of ∆(λ) according

to the usual duality functor on O. The composition pairing defines a bilinear map

Homg (∆(λ), K) × Homg (K, ∇(λ)) → Homg (∆(λ), ∇(λ))

which essentially has values in C after identifying Homg (∆(λ), ∇(λ)) ∼ = C. Let Cλ

∗

again be a curve in h such that the pairing above is non-degenerate if we replace λ

by any µ ∈ Cλ \{λ} of a small neighborhood of λ. Then the Andersen filtration is a

decreasing filtration on the vector space Homg (∆(λ), K) that ‘counts’ the degree of

degeneracy of these forms as µ tends to λ in Cλ .

The relation between these two filtrations is given by the tilting functor which is a

self-equivalence of a certain subcategory of O. It is contravariant and sends Verma

modules to Verma modules and projective modules to tilting modules. Now, the

Jantzen filtration on a Verma module induces a filtration on the homomorphism

space between a projective object and the Verma module. Thus, the tilting functor

as a contravariant equivalence, induces an isomorphism between this Hom-space and

the space of homomorphisms between a Verma and a tilting module. In section 2.4

of [Soe08], Soergel raises the question whether it is possible to prove without using

Jantzen’s conjecture, that the isomorphism induced by the tilting functor identifies

the induced Jantzen filtration on the first Hom-space with the Andersen filtration on

the second. This was done in the author’s diploma thesis [Küb10] (cf. the published

version [Küb12a]) and with the main result of [Soe08] provides a Koszul dual proof

of the semisimplicity of subquotients in Jantzen’s filtration.

This thesis consists of three parts. The first part provides the preliminaries and

recalls the definition of a symmetrizable Kac-Moody algebra g in chapter 1 and

introduces the deformed category O over g with Borel subalgebra b and Cartan

subalgebra h in chapter 2. For this, let S be the symmetric algebra over the Cartan

subalgebra and denote by Se its localization at the maximal ideal generated by h.

The deformed category OSe is the full subcategory consisting of those g-S-bimodules

e

which decompose into deformed weight spaces and are locally finite over the Lie

algebra b ⊗C S.

e In chapter 2 we also repeat well-known properties about projective

objects in OSe, a deformed BGG-reciprocity, the center of OSe in the subgeneric case

and a deformed version of the aforementioned tilting functor (cf. [Fie03], [Fie06] and

[Soe98]). Furthermore, we adjust Soergel’s construction of tilting modules over the

complex numbers from [Soe98] to the deformed theory over S. e

The second part of this thesis should be seen as an extension of the author’s diploma

thesis and generalizes the situation discussed above to the case of a Kac-Moody al-

gebra with certain restrictions on the representations. It consists of chapters 3 and

4 and deals with the representation theory of a symmetrizable Kac-Moody algebra

outside the critical hyperplanes. The third chapter contains a straight forward gener-

alization of the relation between the Jantzen and Andersen filtration for Kac-Moody

algebras via the tilting functor, which we explained above. It contains more or less

the same ideas as the author’s diploma thesis (cf. [Küb12a]) where the semisimple

case was treated. Chapter 4 collects two applications of chapter 3 and constitutes

vii

the main results of the second part of this thesis. First we deal with the case when

g is of affine type. Let λ ∈ h∗ be a regular weight of positive level, i.e. ∆(λ) is con-

tained in a block of category O with a dominant weight, and let P (µ) be a projective

cover of the simple highest weight module L(µ). We assume that ∆(λ) and P (µ) lie

in the same block. Let ρ ∈ h∗ be an element that takes the value 1 on any coroot

associated to a simple root. Then the tilting functor maps ∆(λ) to ∆(−2ρ − λ) and

P (µ) to T (−2ρ − µ) where T (−2ρ − µ) denotes the indecomposable tilting module

with maximal weight −2ρ − µ. ∆(−2ρ − λ) and T (−2ρ − µ) lie in a block of negative

level and we consider the Andersen filtration on Homg (∆(−2ρ − λ), T (−2ρ − µ)).

Note that the choice of the blocks guarantees the existence of the projective and

the tilting module. Theorem 4.7 of [Fie12b] generalizes the geometric part of [Soe08]

to the affine case and implies that the dimensions of subquotients of the Andersen

filtration are given by coefficients of certain affine Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials. We

can now use the main result of chapter 3 to express the multiplicities in consecutive

subquotients of the Jantzen filtration on ∆(λ) in terms of the Kazhdan-Lusztig al-

gorithm. In [Sha12], Shan uses a generalization of Beilinson-Bernstein localization

to prove an analogous result about the Jantzen filtration on a (parabolic) Verma

module over an affine Kac-Moody algebra in negative level. In this sense, the first

part of chapter 4 complements Shan’s result. However, our approach has the advan-

tage that it might give a chance to prove the mentioned semisimplicity with purely

algebraic methods using recent work of Elias and Williamson (cf. [EW12]). But it

also has the disadvantage that we do not know how to treat the parabolic case in

this way. The second part of chapter 4 deals with the case when g is semisimple. We

repeat the main result of chapter 3 but this time in a more combinatorial manner.

We use Fiebig’s description of a block of the deformed category O as combinatorial

sheaves on a moment graph associated to this block. The main objects in this com-

binatorial category are the so-called Braden-MacPherson sheaves which correspond

to deformed projective objects in OSe and are constructed using the induced Bruhat

order on the moment graph. We prove, without using the tilting functor, that tilting

modules in OSe correspond to Braden-MacPherson sheaves constructed along the

reversed Bruhat order on the graph and give a combinatorial replacement of the

tilting functor which provides an analogous connection between the Andersen and

Jantzen filtration. However, we do not yet know how to apply this to the case of an

infinite-dimensional Lie algebra without using the tilting functor.

While the second part of this thesis is about non-critical representations, the third

part focuses on representations over an untwisted affine Kac-Moody algebra at the

critical level. Instead of working with the category O, the suitable framework for

chapter 5 is the subcategory of modules on which homogeneous elements of the

Feigin-Frenkel center of non-zero degree act trivially. For these elements, this ac-

tion is only non-trivial at the critical level. We repeat the construction and some

properties of the so-called restricted category O from [AF12b] in chapter 5. Recall

that an affine Kac-Moody algebra b g can be constructed as a central extension of the

loop algebra of a simple complex Lie algebra g. We view g as a subalgebra of b g and

also get an embedding h ⊂ h of the corresponding Cartan subalgebras. Denote by

b

viii

Sb (resp. S) the symmetric algebra of b h (resp. h) and let Se be the localization of S

at the maximal ideal generated by h. In contrast to the first part of this thesis, S

denotes the symmetric algebra over the finite Cartan h and not over b h. The deformed

category OSe is then analogously defined. We risk a confusion with the notation of

the first part of this thesis for the purpose of better accordance with the notation

in [AF12b]. The action of the Feigin-Frenkel center on the category O is compatible

with deformations and we denote by OSe the deformed restricted category O. It de-

composes into blocks of the form OS,Λ e where Λ parameterizes the highest weights

of simple objects in this block. Our first aim is to calculate the center of OS,Λ e . The

embedding of g in b g and of the corresponding Cartan subalgebras brings about an

embedding of two types of root systems R ⊂ R; b the finite and the affine root system.

Denote by R(Λ) the roots of R that are integral on elements of Λ. Recall that the

center Z of OS,Λ

e is the endomorphism ring of the identity functor. The first result

of the third part of this thesis is an isomorphism

Z∼

Y

= {(zµ ) ∈ Se | zµ ≡ zα↓µ mod α∨ , α ∈ R(Λ)}

µ∈Λ

group. We will give a more precise definition of this bijection in the main body of

this thesis. Fiebig already calculated the center of a non-restricted block outside the

critical hyperplanes in his PhD thesis (cf. [Fie03]). More generally, he considered an

arbitrary symmetrizable Kac-Moody algebra. As in Fiebig’s thesis the calculation of

the center reduces to the question how the center acts on indecomposable projective

objects in OS,Λ

e . The restricted projective objects in the deformed and non-deformed

case are well studied in [AF12b] and we make intense use of the main results therein.

While Fiebig needs his result for the connection to sheaves on a moment graph,

which we mentioned above, we do not see an application for the critical center

yet. The second result in the third part of this thesis is a Jantzen sum formula for

restricted Verma modules which are maximal restricted quotients of ordinary Verma

modules under the action of the Feigin-Frenkel center. They play the role of standard

modules in the restricted category O. Let ∆(λ) be such a restricted Verma module

with highest weight λ. As for non-restricted Verma modules we define a Jantzen

filtration

∆(λ) = ∆(λ)0 ⊃ ∆(λ)1 ⊃ ...

and proof a Jantzen sum formula

!

X X X

ch∆(λ)i = ch∆(α ↓2i−1 λ) − ch∆(α ↓2i λ)

i>0 α∈R(λ)+ i>0

where α ↓ λ is the notation from above and where ch denotes the character of a

weight module. As an immediate corollary we get the linkage principle. It states that

the multiplicity [∆(λ) : L(µ)] of a simple module with highest weight µ in a Jordan-

Hölder series of ∆(λ) can only be unequal to zero, if µ lies in the orbit of λ under the

dot-action of the affine Weyl group associated to the affine roots that are integral on

ix

λ. The linkage principle was already proven in [AF12b] using the structure of OSe.

In particular, the authors first describe the indecomposable projective objects in

the restricted deformed category O and prove a restricted BGG-reciprocity to relate

[∆(λ) : L(µ)] to the multiplicity of ∆(λ) in a restricted Verma flag of a projective

cover of L(µ) in O. Then they reduce the problem to generic and subgeneric cases,

which are covered by [AF12a] and [Fre05]. Our approach still relies on the generic

and subgeneric cases but does not need the structure of OSe. In this sense our proof

of the linkage principle is independent of [AF12b] but still relies heavily on the main

results of [AF12a] and [Fre05]. Moreover, the above sum formula is analogous to

the one for baby Verma modules over the small quantum group associated to g (cf.

[AJS94], chapter 6). Thus it supports a conjecture of Lusztig that a certain category

of representations over the small quantum group resembles the restricted category

O over the affine Kac-Moody algebra at the critical level.

x

1 Kac-Moody algebras

algebra. Let A = (aij )i,j=1,...,n be a generalized Cartan matrix of rank l. Recall that A

is called symmetrizable if there is an invertible diagonal matrix D = diag(1 , ..., n )

and a symmetric matrix B = (bij ) such that A = DB. Let (h, Π, Π∨ ) be a minimal

realization of A. Thus, h is a C-vector space of dimension 2n − l, Π = {α1 , ..., αn } is

a linearly independent subset of h∗ and Π∨ = {α1∨ , ..., αn∨ } is a linearly independent

subset of h such that αj (αi∨ ) = aij for all i, j.

Let g be the Kac-Moody algebra associated to A, i.e, g is the quotient of the Lie

algebra we get from the Serre relations of a set of Chevalley generators corresponding

to A, and its unique maximal ideal that intersects h trivially. We call the set Π the

simple roots and Π∨ the simple coroots. The vector space h inherits the structure of

a Cartan subalgebra of g and we get a root space decomposition

M

g= gα

α∈h∗

system by R = {α ∈ h∗ | gα 6= 0, α 6= 0} and the simple roots determine the set of

positive roots of R which we denote by R+ . This implies a partial order ≤ on h∗ given

by λ ≤ µ for λ, µ ∈L h∗ if µ − λ can be L

written as a sum of positive roots. Thereby,

we can define n := α<0 gα and n+ := α>0 gα and get a triangular decomposition

g = n ⊕ h ⊕ n+ .

roots Π. Let {e1 , ..., en }∪{f1 , ...., fn } be a set of Chevalley generators of g. We denote

by σ : g → g the Chevalley involution given by

P of α. Denote

by ht α the height ofPan element α in the Z-span of Π, i.e., if j kj αj = α for

kj ∈ Z, then ht α = j kj ∈ Z. This definition allows us to introduce a Z-grading

on g, namely the principal grading g = i∈Z gi where g0 = h and for i 6= 0

L

M

gi = gα .

α∈R

ht α=i

1

Let h0 = i Cαi∨ be the subspace of h generated by the simple coroots and denote

P

by h00 a complementary subspace of h0 in h. If g is symmetrizable, we can define a

C-valued form (·|·) on h by setting

As usual, h·, ·i : h∗ ×h → C denotes the natural pairing of a vector space with its dual.

By induction on the degree of the principal grading of g, this form can be extended

to a form on g with the properties that (·|·) is a symmetric, non-degenerate bilinear

form which is also non-degenerate on h and invariant, i.e., ([x, y]|z) = (x|[y, z]) for

∼

all x, y, z ∈ g. The non-degeneracy of (·|·) on h defines an isomorphism h → h∗ and

allows us to define a non-degenerate symmetric bilinear form on h∗ which we denote

by (·|·) again. Note that in case of a semisimple Lie algebra, (·|·) is the normalized

Killing form.

by

si (λ) = λ − hλ, αi∨ iαi for λ ∈ h∗ .

The Weyl group W ⊂ Gl(h∗ ) is the subgroup generated by the fundamental re-

flections si , (i = 1, ..., n). We denote the real roots by Rre := W({α1 , ..., αn }), the

orbit of the set of simple roots under the standard action of the Weyl group, and

the imaginary roots by Rim := R\Rre . For the positive real (resp. imaginary) roots

we write Rre,+ := Rre ∩ R+ (resp. Rim,+ := Rim ∩ R+ ). Note that (α|α) > 0 for

any real root α ∈ Rre but it can happen that this value is negative for an imag-

inary root. Moreover, a root α is imaginary if and only if (α|α) ≤ 0. For a real

root α ∈ Rre the vector space [gα , g−α ] is one-dimensional and we denote by α∨ ∈ h

its coroot which is uniquely defined by the properties α∨ ∈ [gα , g−α ] and hα, α∨ i = 2.

We choose an element ρ ∈ h∗ such that hρ, αi∨ i = 1 for any simple coroot αi∨ ∈ Π∨ .

Note that ρ is only uniquely defined in the finite-dimensional case. The action of W

on h∗ preserves the form (·|·) and allows us to view the form on h as a W-invariant

form with the induced action. However, for the representation theoretic point of

view it is more convenient to work with an action of W that is shifted by −ρ. For

w ∈ W, λ ∈ h∗ we define

w · λ := w(λ + ρ) − ρ

and call this the dot-action of W. We say g is indecomposable if it is associated to

an indecomposable, symmetrizable, generalized Cartan matrix A. In this case we

have

able Kac-Moody algebra, g is either of finite, affine or indefinite type, which are

defined by the following:

2

2. g is of affine type if A is positive semidefinite of corank 1,

corank 1.

3

2 Deformed Category O

2.1 Definition

After giving an overview of the type of Lie algebra we are working with, we intro-

duce the representation theory of these objects. The main sources for this chapter

are [Fie03], [Soe08] and [Fie12a]. Let g be a symmetrizable Kac-Moody algebra.

We fix a Borel subalgebra b and a Cartan subalgebra h. We denote by S = S(h)

the symmetric algebra of the C-vector space h and call a unital, associative, com-

mutative, finitely generated and noetherian S-algebra a deformation algebra. Every

deformation algebra A has a structure map τ : S → A given by x 7→ x · 1A .

For an arbitrary Lie algebra a and A a deformation algebra we denote by U (a) the

universal enveloping algebra and define aA := a⊗C A, which has an induced structure

of a Lie algebra. We can identify the A-dual (hA )∗ of the extended Cartan subalgebra

with h∗ ⊗C A, which is the extension by scalars of the C-dual of the Cartan. Using

this identification, we view every element λ ∈ h∗ as an element λ ⊗ 1 ∈ h∗A .

In the following we discuss subcategories of g-mod-A, which is the category of g-

A-bimodules. By the commutativity of A we can equivalently view this category

as modules over the Lie algebra gA . We make use of both viewpoints. We call a

gA -module M locally bA -finite if for any m ∈ M the bA -submodule generated by m

is finitely generated over A. For λ ∈ h∗ we denote by

call M a weight module if M ∼

L

= λ∈h∗ Mλ .

Definition 2.1.1. The deformed category OA is the full subcategory of g-mod-A of

modules M , such that

map τ : S → k is unequal to zero and the Lie algebra is split. Note that the definition

of the deformed category O involves only weights which are a sum of the canonical

weight τ and elements h∗ . This implies that the category Ok can be viewed as the

direct summand of the usual BGG category O over the split Lie algebra gk which

4

consists of modules with weights lying in the affine complex subspace τ + h∗ of the

C-vector space h∗k . In particular, OC is the usual BGG category O over g if the

S-structure on C is given by S S/Sh.

2.1.1 Duality on OA

Recall the Chevalley automorphism σ : g → g from chapter 1. If M ∈ OA , we

define d(M ) := λ∈h∗ Mλ∗ where ∗ denotes the dual of an A-module. For f ∈ d(M ),

L

x ∈ g and m ∈ M we give d(M ) the structure of a g-module by setting (xf )(m) =

f (σ(x)m). One can check that this induces a contravariant functor d : OA → OA . For

M ∈ OA there is a natural homomorphism M → d(d(M )) which is an isomorphism

if M is free over the deformation algebra A with weight spaces of finite rank.

Let λ ∈ h∗ and denote by τ |h the restriction of the structure map of a deformation

algebra A to the subspace h ⊂ S. We define Aλ to be the b-A-bimodule which is free

of rank one as a right A-module and on which an element b + h ∈ b according to the

decomposition b = [b, b]⊕h acts from the left by multiplication with (λ+τ |h )(h) ∈ A.

With this, the deformed Verma module with highest weight λ ∈ h∗ is given by

Both, the left action of U (g) and the right action of A are given by multiplication.

Although the highest weight of ∆A (λ) is actually λ + τ , it is more practical in

the first and second part of this thesis to forget about the canonical weight τ in

the notation of the Verma module once we fixed the structure of a deformation

algebra. Nevertheless, in chapter 5 it will be important to distinguish between two

different S-structures on the same ring A. In this case we use the notation ∆A (λ+τ )

which emphasizes the dependence on the structure map τ . We denote by ∇A (λ) =

∇A (λ + τ ) := d(∆A (λ)) the deformed dual Verma module associated to λ ∈ h∗ which

we also call the deformed Nabla module.

Remark 2.1.3. ∆A (λ) and ∇A (λ) have a weight space decomposition, such that

∆A (λ)µ 6= 0 (resp. ∇A (λ)µ 6= 0) implies µ ≤ λ. Furthermore, since ∆A (λ) and

∇A (λ) are free over the deformation algebra A, we have d(∇A (λ)) ∼

= ∆A (λ).

Lemma 2.1.4. Let A be a deformation algebra and λ, µ ∈ h∗ .

(i) The restriction to the highest weight space induces an isomorphism

(

A if µ = λ,

HomOA (∆A (λ), ∇A (µ)) ∼=

0 otherwise.

Proof. The proof of [Soe08], Proposition 2.12, for g a semisimple Lie algebra gener-

alizes to our case.

5

Definition 2.1.5. Let M ∈ OA . We say M has a deformed Verma (resp. Nabla)

flag if M has a finite filtration

M = Mn ⊃ Mn−1 ⊃ ... ⊃ M0 = 0

such that for every i ∈ {1, ..., n} the subquotient Mi /Mi−1 is isomorphic to a de-

formed Verma (resp. Nabla) module.

Remark 2.1.6. Note that any direct summand of a module with a deformed Verma

(resp. Nabla) flag has again a deformed Verma (resp. Nabla) flag. Further, any

module with a deformed Verma or Nabla flag is free over the deformation algebra

A.

Remark 2.1.7. If A = Q is a field, then ∆Q (λ) has a simple head LQ (λ) which is

the socle of ∇Q (λ) for any λ ∈ h∗ . If the structure map τ : S → Q maps any coroot

α∨ ∈ h to an element which does not lie in Z ⊂ Q, the category OQ is semisimple

and the map onto the simple head induces an isomorphism ∆Q (λ) ∼ = ∇Q (λ) (cf.

[Soe08], section 2.14).

2.1.3 Characters

Let Z[h∗ ] be the group ring of the abelian group h∗ . To define characters for modules

in OA we need a certain completion of this [ ∗ ] ⊂ Z[[h∗ ]] be the

P ring. For

λ

this, let Z[h

∗

subring consisting of those formal sums λ∈h∗ aλ e ∈ Z[[h ]] with the property that

there exists a finite subset {λ1 , ...λn } ⊂ h∗ such that aλ 6= 0 implies λ ≤ λi for at

least one i ∈ {1, ..., n}.

Definition 2.1.8. If M ∈ OA has weights which are bounded from above and weight

spaces which are finitely generated and free over A, we define the character chM ∈

[

Z[h∗ ] of M by

X

chM = chA M = rkA Mλ · eλ

λ∈h∗

For M ∈ OA a module with a deformed Verma (resp. Nabla) flag we denote by

(M : ∆A (λ)) ∈ Z (resp. (M : ∇A (λ))) the multiplicity of ∆A (λ) (resp. ∇A (λ)) in a

deformed Verma (resp. Nabla) flag of M .

Remark 2.1.9. The character is additive in the sense that the characters of the

external modules of a short exact sequence of free A-modules in OA sum up to

the character of the module in the middle. Hence, the numbers (M : ∆A (λ)) and

(M : ∇A (λ)) are independent of the choice of a Verma (resp. Nabla) flag.

For A → A0 a homomorphism of deformation algebras, we get a functor · ⊗A A0 :

OA → OA0 that obviously maps ∆A (λ) to ∆A0 (λ) and ∇A (λ) to ∇A0 (λ) for any

λ ∈ h∗ . Let A be a local deformation algebra with maximal ideal m ⊂ A and residue

field K = A/m.

6

Lemma 2.1.10 ([Fie03], Proposition 2.1). The functor · ⊗A K : OA → OK induces

a bijection between isomorphism classes of simple objects in OA and those in OK .

We denote by LA (λ) the simple module in OA with highest weight λ ∈ h∗ . As in

the case of a deformed Verma module the actual highest weight of LA (λ) is λ + τ

for τ the structure map of the deformation algebra. However, we will only use the

notation LA (λ + τ ) if we have to distinguish between two different S-structures.

Remark 2.1.11. Let Se := S(0) be the localization of S at the maximal ideal generated

by h ⊂ S. If Q := Quot(S) is the quotient field of S, then Q fulfills the assumption

of Remark 2.1.7 and we have ∆Q (λ) ∼ = LQ (λ) ∼= ∇Q (λ) for any weight λ ∈ h∗ .

Thus, for any localization Sp of Se at a prime ideal p ⊂ Se and Kp the residue field

of Sp , the restriction of the above isomorphism to the Sp -lattice ∆Sp (λ) → ∇Sp (λ)

is injective and induces the composition ∆Kp (λ) LKp (λ) ,→ ∇Kp (λ) after base

change · ⊗Sp Kp .

Notation 1. If the deformation algebra is S/Sh ∼ = C we omit the subscripts of all

objects in O = OC we defined so far. For example, we write ∆(λ), ∇(λ) and L(λ)

instead of ∆C (λ), ∇C (λ) and LC (λ).

Definition 2.1.12 ([Soe98], Definition 4.1). For any simple object L in an abelian

category A and any object M ∈ A we define [M : L] ∈ N ∪ {∞} to be the supremum

over all finite filtrations of M of the multiplicity of L in these filtrations.

We recall the existence of projective covers in certain truncated subcategories of OA

where A is again a local deformation algebra. The proofs can be found in [Fie12a]

and [Fie03]. Denote by K the residue field of A. Since the category O over an infinite-

dimensional Lie algebra does not contain enough projective objects in general, we

need to introduce truncated subcategories of OA .

Definition 2.2.1. We call a subset J ⊂ h∗ an open and bounded subset if µ ≤ λ

and λ ∈ J implies µ ∈ J and if for any λ ∈ J the set {µ ∈ J | µ ≥ λ} is finite.

J

We denote by OA ⊂ OA the category of modules M ∈ OA such that Mλ 6= 0 implies

λ ∈ J.

J

P

The assignment M 7→ M/ λ∈J / U (g)Mλ induces a functor OA → OA that is left

J J

adjoint to the inclusion functor OA ⊂ OA . In OA the existence of projective objects

is guaranteed by

Theorem 2.2.2 ([Fie12a], Theorem 4.2, and [Fie03], Proposition 2.6). Let J ⊂ h∗

be an open and bounded subset and λ ∈ J . Then LA (λ) has a projective cover

J

PAJ (λ) in OA . Furthermore, PKJ (λ) ∼

= PAJ (λ) ⊗A K and for J 0 ⊂ J another open

and bounded subset with λ ∈ J 0 we have (PAJ (λ))J ∼

0 0

= PAJ (λ).

This theorem implies a one-to-one correspondence between projective isomorphism

J

classes of OA and OKJ via the functor · ⊗A K. The following lemma is called base

change and is an essential tool for the content of this thesis.

7

J

Lemma 2.2.3 ([Fie03], Proposition 2.4). Let P, M ∈ OA , P be projective and

0

A → A a homomorphism of (not necessarily local) deformation algebras. If P is

finitely generated, then the natural map

is an isomorphism.

Another important base change isomorphism is given in

Lemma 2.2.4 ([Soe08], Corollary 2.13). Let M, N ∈ OA where M has a Verma

and N a Nabla flag and A is a (not necessarily local) deformation algebra. Let

A → A0 be a homomorphism of deformation algebras. Then the space HomOA (M, N )

is projective over A and the natural map

is an isomorphism.

Proof. This is a direct consequence of Lemma 2.1.4.

Furthermore, we have a deformed version of the BGG-reciprocity:

Proposition 2.2.5 ([Fie03], Theorem 2.7). Let A be a local deformation algebra

with residue field K, J an open and bounded subset and λ ∈ J . Then PAJ (λ) admits

a deformed Verma flag and we have

(

[∆K (µ) : LK (λ)] if µ ∈ J ,

(PAJ (λ) : ∆A (µ)) =

0 otherwise.

Let A be a local deformation algebra with residue field K. We define ∼A =∼K as the

equivalence relation on h∗ that is generated by tuples (λ, µ) with the property that

[∆K (λ) : LK (µ)] 6= 0. We call an equivalence class Λ ⊂ h∗ of ∼A an A-block, K-block

or just block, if it is clear which deformation algebra we are working with. Recall the

bilinear form (·|·) : g × g → C introduced in chapter 1. We also denote by (·|·) the

induced form on h∗ . For A a deformation algebra with structure map τ : S → A we

denote by (·|·)A : h∗A × h∗A → A the induced A-bilinear form. Kac and Kazhdan gave

a description of the equivalence classes under ∼A =∼K .

Theorem 2.3.1 ([KK79], Theorem 2). ∼A is generated by the tuples (λ, µ) ∈ h∗ ×h∗

that satisfy 2(λ + ρ + τ |α)K = n(α|α)K for n ∈ N and α ∈ R, such that λ − µ = nα.

We define the integral root system corresponding to an element λ ∈ h∗ (and τ : S →

A) by

8

and the integral Weyl group by

Let Λ be an A-block with λ, µ ∈ Λ. One easily sees that RA (λ) = RA (µ) and

therefore it is well-defined to write RA (Λ) := RA (λ). If the deformation algebra is

C = S/Sh we omit the subscript and write R(λ) (resp. W(λ)) instead of RC (λ)

(resp. WC (λ)).

For an A-block Λ ∈ h∗ / ∼A we denote by OA,Λ ⊂ OA the full subcategory of

modules M such that for each open and bounded subset J ⊂ h∗ and each morphism

ϕ : PAJ (λ) → M we have that ϕ 6= 0 implies λ ∈ Λ. Denote by MΛ the submodule

of a module M ∈ OA which is generated by all images PAJ (λ) → M where λ ∈ Λ

and J is an open and bounded subset.

Theorem 2.3.2 ([Fie03], Proposition 2.8). The functor

Q

OA,Λ −→ OA

Λ∈h∗ /∼A

L

(MΛ ) 7−→ MΛ

is an equivalence of categories.

Recall the localization Se of S at the maximal ideal generated by h and let Sp be a

localization of Se at a prime ideal p ⊂ S.

e We assume that p is of height one. Then

the functor · ⊗Se Sp : OSe → OSp yields a decomposition of certain blocks of OSe into

generic (i.e., those containing one element) and subgeneric (i.e., those containing

two elements) Sp -blocks:

Lemma 2.4.1 ([Fie06], Lemma 3). Let Λ ∈ h∗ / ∼Se such that Λ has a maximal or

a minimal element and p ⊂ Se a prime ideal.

(i) If α∨ ∈/ p for all roots α ∈ RSe(Λ), then Λ splits under ∼Sp into generic

equivalence classes of ∼Sp .

e ∨ for a root α ∈ R e(Λ), then Λ splits under ∼Sp into generic and

(ii) If p = Sα S

subgeneric equivalence classes of ∼Sp of the form {λ, sα · λ}.

We want to recall the description of the endomorphism ring of the deformed an-

tidominant projective cover in the subgeneric case due to [Fie03]. Let Λ ∈ h∗ / ∼Sp

be subgeneric and p = Sαe ∨ for α ∈ R, i.e., Λ = {λ, µ} with µ < sα · µ = λ. We then

have a non-split short exact sequence

and every endomorphism f : PSp (µ) → PSp (µ) stabilizes the subspace ∆Sp (λ) since

λ > µ. Thus f induces a commutative diagram

9

0 −−−→ ∆Sp (λ) −−−→ PSp (µ) −−−→ ∆Sp (µ) −−−→ 0

f

f f

y λy y yµ y

0 −−−→ ∆Sp (λ) −−−→ PSp (µ) −−−→ ∆Sp (µ) −−−→ 0

Identifying fλ and fµ with the corresponding elements of Sp under isomorphisms

EndOSp (∆Sp (µ)) ∼

= Sp ∼

= EndOSp (∆Sp (λ)), we get a map

f 7−→ (fλ , fµ ).

e ∨.

We write Sα instead of Sp for p = Sα

Proposition 2.4.2 ([Fie03], Corollary 3.5). Let Λ ∈ h∗ / ∼Sα . If Λ = {λ, µ} and

λ = sα · µ > µ, the map χ from above induces an isomorphism

EndOSα (PSα (µ)) ∼

= {(tλ , tµ ) ∈ Sα ⊕ Sα |tλ ≡ tµ mod α∨ } .

Definition 2.4.3. Let Λ ∈ h∗ / ∼A be an A-block for A a deformation algebra. We

call an element λ ∈ Λ dominant if λ ≥ λ0 for all λ0 ∈ Λ. If there is an element µ ∈ Λ

for which µ ≤ λ0 for all λ0 ∈ Λ we call µ antidominant.

This chapter explains the construction of modules which admit both a Verma and

a Nabla flag. They were introduced and studied in [CI89] in the non-deformed,

finite-dimensional case. For the rest of this chapter we assume that the deformation

algebra A is local with maximal ideal m ⊂ A and residue field K = A/m. In the

author’s diploma thesis [Küb10], deformed tilting modules were defined in the case

of a semisimple Lie algebra using translation functors. In [Soe98] and [Soe99] Soergel

gives a construction of tilting modules over Kac-Moody algebras which avoids trans-

lation functors. Although Soergel works over a field, we are able to adopt most of his

arguments to the deformed case. But similarly to Fiebig’s construction of deformed

projective modules in [Fie06] for symmetrizable Kac-Moody algebras, it should also

be possible to construct deformed tilting modules using Fiebig’s deformed transla-

tion functors developed in [Fie03] in this case.

Definition 2.5.1. An object T ∈ OA is called a deformed tilting module if it has a

deformed Verma and a deformed Nabla flag.

Remark 2.5.2. Note that by definition, Verma and Nabla flags are finite filtrations.

This has the consequence that tilting modules might not exist in every block of OA

and is in contrast to [Soe98] where Verma and Nabla flags are allowed to be infinite.

Remark 2.5.3. Since the category of modules with a Verma (resp. Nabla) flag is

stable under taking direct sums and summands, the same is true for the category of

tilting modules.

10

Lemma 2.5.4. Let Λ ∈ h∗ / ∼A be an equivalence class containing an antidominant

weight and let M ∈ OA,Λ have a Verma flag. Then the following are equivalent:

(i) Ext1OA (∆A (λ), M ) = 0 for all λ ∈ h∗ ;

Remark 2.5.5. If A is a field, the statement of the lemma is true if we assume the

weaker property for M being finitely generated instead of having a Verma flag.

Proof. That (i) follows from (ii) is Lemma 2.1.4.

The other implication is a modification of the proof in the field case (cf. [AF12b],

Proposition 4.1). For this we prove the dual statement. By our assumption on the

block Λ, d(M ) is finitely generated and has a Nabla flag. Thus, there is a filtration

0 = M0 ⊂ M1 ⊂ ... ⊂ Mn = d(M ) such that each subquotient Mi /Mi−1 of this

filtration is a quotient of a certain deformed Verma module ∆A (µi ). We can choose

this filtration such that µi ≤ µj with i 6= j, implies j < i.

If n = 1, there is µ ∈ Λ, such that ∆A (µ) d(M ). But since d(M ) has a deformed

Nabla flag, a comparison of the characters shows that d(M ) ∼ = ∇A (µ) and thus

d(M ) ∼ = ∆A (µ). This implies that µ is the antidominant element of Λ. (If A is

a field, the additional assumption for d(M ) having a deformed Nabla flag is not

necessary here.)

Now the rest of the proof follows by induction on the length of the highest weight

filtration with the same arguments as in the field case (cf. for example [AF12b],

Proposition 4.1). The authors of [AF12b] work with restricted Verma modules but

the methods of their proof can be applied to our situation as well.

Next we prove the existence of indecomposable deformed tilting modules in a block

OA,Λ with an antidominant weight.

Theorem 2.5.6. Let Λ ∈ h∗ / ∼A be a block with an antidominant weight. For any

µ ∈ Λ there exists an, up to isomorphism unique, indecomposable deformed tilting

module TA (µ) ∈ OA,Λ which has a deformed Verma flag starting with ∆A (µ) ,→ T .

Proof. We give a deformed version of Soergel’s proof of Proposition 5.6 in [Soe98].

Note first that the A-modules Ext1OA (∆A (λ), ∆A (µ)) and also HomOA (∆A (λ), ∆A (µ))

are finitely generated and Ext1OA (∆A (λ), ∆A (µ)) = 0 unless λ < µ. As modules over

a local ring they have a minimal set of generators and the number of generators is

unique in the sense that the number of elements in any other minimal set of gener-

ators is the same.

Since Λ has an antidominant weight λ, there are only finitely many elements be-

low any weight µ ∈ Λ. If µ = λ, we can take ∆A (µ) = TA (µ). If µ 6= λ, we

can assume by induction on the number of elements below µ, that we already

found an object T >λ (µ) which fulfills the second condition of the theorem and

Ext1OA (∆A (ν), T >λ (µ)) = 0 for any ν ∈ Λ with ν 6= λ.

If in addition Ext1OA (∆A (λ), T >λ (µ)) = 0, we can apply Lemma 2.5.4 to show that

T >λ (µ) is a deformed tilting module. Since direct summands of modules with a

deformed Verma flag have a deformed Verma flag again and since we assume that

11

Verma flags are finite, we can take an indecomposable direct summand of T >λ (µ)

with a Verma flag that starts with ∆A (µ). This yields the claimed object TA (µ).

Otherwise, we have a minimal set {e1 , ..., en } of generators of Ext1OA (∆A (λ), T >λ (µ)).

Let e1 be represented by a short exact sequence

T >λ (µ) ,→ T ∆A (λ).

Since Ext1OA (∆A (λ), ∆A (λ)) = 0 we get an exact sequence

Hom1OA (∆A (λ), ∆A (λ)) → Ext1OA (∆A (λ), T >λ (µ)) → Ext1OA (∆A (λ), T ) → 0

where the identity on the left maps to e1 . Thus Ext1OA (∆A (λ), T ) is generated by

the images of the elements {e2 , ..., en }. Applying the functor Ext1OA (∆A (ν), ·) to the

above short exact sequence for other ν ∈ Λ with ν 6= λ implies Ext1OA (∆A (ν), T ) = 0,

since Ext1OA (∆A (ν), ∆A (λ)) = Ext1OA (∆A (ν), T >λ (µ)) = 0. Thus we can use Lemma

2.5.4 and proceed in finitely many steps to get a tilting object T 0 with a deformed

Verma flag that starts with ∆A (µ). Again, we can take an indecomposable direct

summand of T 0 which contains ∆A (µ) in a Verma flag as the looked for tilting

module.

We now prove the uniqueness by tracing it back to the case where A is a field which

is already known by [Soe98]. Let T be a second indecomposable tilting module with

the same properties as TA (µ). We want to prove that both modules are isomorphic.

For this, we look at the following diagram

∆A (µ) ,→ TA (µ) coker

k

∆A (µ) ,→ T coker0

Since coker has a deformed Verma flag, we get ExtOA (coker, T ) = 0. Hence, we can

lift the identity on ∆A (µ) to get a map α : TA (µ) → T . With the same argument we

get a map β : T → TA (µ). Since all modules from the above diagram are free over

the deformation algebra, tensoring with · ⊗A K yields two maps αK = α ⊗ idK and

βK = β ⊗ idK which have the property that αK ◦ βK and βK ◦ αK induce the identity

on the submodule ∆K (µ). Hence, they are not nilpotent and therefore isomorphisms

by the Fitting lemma. Thus, by base change, Lemma 2.2.4, the maps α and β we

started with are inverse isomorphisms between T and TA (µ).

Notation 2. As in the case of Verma and Nabla modules we omit the subscript

for deformed tilting modules if the deformation algebra is C = S/Sh and proceed

similarly with indecomposable projective objects. Hence, we write T (λ) instead of

TC (λ) and P (µ) instead of PC (µ) whenever these objects exist.

Remark 2.5.7. Now assume that Λ is a block that contains a dominant but no

antidominant weight. Note that in this case the proof of the above theorem implies

that for ν, µ ∈ Λ we can also construct a unique indecomposable element TA≥ν (µ) in

OA with the properties

(i) Ext1OA (∆A (λ), TA≥ν (µ)) = 0 for all λ ν,

(ii) TA≥ν (µ) has a deformed Verma flag that starts with ∆A (µ) ⊂ TA≥ν (µ).

12

2.6 Tilting equivalence

The tilting equivalence was introduced by Arkhipov in [Ark97] as an algebraic ap-

proach to semi-infinite cohomology. In [Soe98] Soergel works on the tilting functor

for graded Lie algebras. In this context it is a contravariant self-equivalence of the

category of modules with a Verma flag which sends short exact sequences to short

exact sequences and projective modules to tilting modules. Soergel’s ideas were ex-

tended to Virasoro algebras in [IK06] and to Lie superalgebras in [Bru04]. A very

detailed overview of Soergel’s construction is given in [IK11], chapter 7.

For this chapter let K be a field of characteristic zero. We use the principal Z-grading

from chapter 1 to view the symmetrizable Kac-Moody algebra g over K as a graded

Lie algebra. With this grading we have h = g0 . For graded K-vector spaces V, W we

write M

grHomK (V, W ) = HomK (V, W )n

n∈Z

n

where HomK (V, W ) denotes the homogeneous homomorphisms between V and W

of degree n. For a, b two Z-graded Lie algebras and M, N two graded a-b-bimodules,

we have a left b-action defined by (bf )(m) = f (mb) and a right a-action defined

by (f a)(m) := f (am) for f ∈ grHomK (M, N ), m ∈ M , a ∈ a and b ∈ b. For

an a-subalgebra g, we denote by grHomg (M, N ) the subspace of grHomK (M, N ) of

homomorphisms which are compatible with the g-action.

Before we introduce the semi-regular bimodule we first need to state the definition of

a semi-infinite character. In a more general setting, a semi-infinite character should

be a character of g0 whose differential coincides with the critical 2-cocycle of g. In

our setting, however, we can use a weaker definition due to [Soe98]:

Definition 2.6.1. We call an element γ ∈ HomK (g0 , K) a semi-infinite character

of g, if

(i) g is generated as a Lie algebra by the homogeneous pieces g1 , g0 and g−1 ,

(ii) γ([x, y]) = tr(ad(x) ◦ ad(y) : g0 → g0 ) for all x ∈ g1 and y ∈ g−1 .

Proposition 2.6.2 ([Soe98], Lemma 7.1). −2ρ is a semi-infinite character for g.

Note that for i ∈ Z, dimK gi < ∞ implies that the semi-infinite character is unique.

In the following we will omit the subscript of the tensor product in case it is over the

field K, i.e., we write ⊗ instead of ⊗K . Denote by U (n)~ := grHomK (U (n), K) the

n-n-bimodule where K is the one dimensional K-vector space concentrated in degree

zero. The left and right action of n are given as before and U (n)~ is Z≥0 graded. We

define

S−2ρ := U (n)~ ⊗ U (b)

as vector spaces. We want to give S−2ρ a left and a right g-action. Denote by K−2ρ

the one dimensional graded b-module on which an element b + h ∈ b, decomposed

13

with respect to b = [b, b] ⊕ h, acts by multiplication with −2ρ(h). The isomorphism

∼

K−2ρ ⊗ U (b) → U (b), 1 ⊗ b 7→ b induces an isomorphism

∼

grHomb (U (g), K−2ρ ⊗ U (b)) → grHomK (U (n), U (b))

of left n-modules. We can compose this isomorphism with the natural isomorphism

∼

S−2ρ → grHomK (U (n), U (b))

and carry over the left g-module structure on grHomK (U (g), K−2ρ ⊗ U (b)) to get the

structure of a graded left g-module on S−2ρ .

∼

U (n)~ ⊗ U (b) ← U (n)~ ⊗U (n) U (g)

and we use the right g-module structure on U (n)~ ⊗U (n) U (g) to give S−2ρ a right g-

module structure. Note that the left g-structure on S−2ρ depends on the semi-infinite

character, but the right g-structure does not. Now a long calculation, which can be

found in the proof of Theorem 1.3 in [Soe98], shows that the two g-structures are

compatible, such that S−2ρ is in fact a g-g-bimodule. Furthermore, the same theorem

implies that the inclusion of n-n-bimodules U (n)~ ,→ S−2ρ , f 7→ f ⊗ 1 induces an

isomorphism

∼

U (g) ⊗U (n) U (n)~ → S−2ρ

of g-n-bimodules and also an isomorphism of n-g-bimodules

∼

U (n)~ ⊗U (n) U (g) → S−2ρ . (2.1)

If M is a g-module with a Verma flag, then M is a finitely generated and free module

over U (n). Thus, we find a finite dimensional K-vector space E such that

M∼

= U (n) ⊗ E

S−2ρ ⊗U (g) M ∼

= U (n)~ ⊗U (n) M ∼

= U (n)~ ⊗ E.

Now let

0→M →N →K→0

be a short exact sequence of modules with a Verma flag. Considered as n-modules,

the short exact sequence splits since all modules are free over U (n). Using the iso-

morphism (2.1), we get an isomorphism

S−2ρ ⊗U (g) X ∼

= U (n)~ ⊗U (n) X

14

0 → U (n)~ ⊗U (n) M → U (n)~ ⊗U (n) N → U (n)~ ⊗U (n) K → 0

considered as a sequence of n-modules, splits as well. But this implies that the

sequence

of g-modules is exact.

Denote by M the category of modules with a Verma flag and by K the category

of modules that are finitely generated and free over U (n)~ . Then Soergel proves in

[Soe98], Theorem 2.1, that

S−2ρ ⊗U (g) · : M → K

induces an equivalence of categories which sends short exact sequences to short exact

sequences. For M a graded g-module, we denote by M ~ its graded dual with the

g-action givenLby (xf )(m) = −f (xm) for f ∈ M ~ , x ∈ g and mL ∈ M . In our case,

we have M = λ∈h∗ Mλ and the graded dual is given by M = λ∈h∗ Mλ∗ with the

~

which sends short exact sequences to short exact sequences. Furthermore, for λ ∈ h∗

we have t(∆K (λ)) ∼= ∆K (−2ρ−λ). This and the Ext-vanishing property of projective

and tilting modules imply that projective modules are mapped to tilting modules

under t. In particular, t(PK (λ)) ∼

= TK (−2ρ − λ). We summarize the properties of the

tilting functor in

Theorem 2.6.3 ([Soe98], Corollary 2.3). The functor

is an equivalence of categories that maps short exact sequences to short exact se-

quences, projective objects to tilting objects and ∆K (λ) to ∆K (−2ρ − λ) for any

λ ∈ h∗ .

As in [Fie06], section 2.6, one can extend the definition of the tilting functor to a de-

formed version. Let A be a deformation algebra and denote by MA the subcategory

of OA that consists of modules with a deformed Verma flag. If A is a localization of

S at a prime ideal that is stable under the map that sends h ∈ h to −h ∈ h or a

quotient of S that corresponds to a subvariety of h∗ which is stable under the dual

of this map, the tilting functor extends to an A-linear equivalence

∼

tA = (S−2ρ ⊗U (g) ·)~ : MA → Mopp

A

where ~ is the similarly defined A-dual in the deformed setting. It has analogous

properties as the non-deformed tilting functor, i.e., it maps ∆A (λ) to ∆A (−2ρ − λ)

15

and PA (λ) to TA (−2ρ − λ).

Note that for A → A0 a homomorphism of deformation algebras that fulfill the sta-

bility condition under the map h 7→ −h from above, we have a natural isomorphism

of functors

tA0 ◦ (· ⊗A A0 ) ⇒ (· ⊗A A0 ) ◦ tA .

Thus the deformed version of the tilting module commutes with base change.

Remark 2.6.4. Recall that for A a local deformation algebra with residue field K, the

functor · ⊗A K : OA → OK induces a bijection between the isomorphism classes of

projective objects. Theorem 2.5.6 and the fact that the tilting functor interchanges

projective with tilting modules and commutes with base change, imply that · ⊗A K :

OA → OK induces an isomorphism between isomorphism classes of tilting modules

as well.

We give a description of blocks outside the critical hyperplanes following [KK79]

and [KT00]. For this we work over the complex numbers C. Let Rim be the set of

imaginary and Rre the set of real roots of the symmetrizable Kac-Moody algebra g.

Definition 2.7.1. Let Λ ∈ h∗ / ∼C be a block. We say that Λ lies outside the critical

hyperplanes if and only if R(Λ) ⊂ Rre .

Remark 2.7.2. Since any homomorphism Se → A of local deformation algebras leads

to a refinement of the block decomposition under the functor OSe → OA , we get

S

that the S-block

e Λ decomposes into i Λi where Λi are A-blocks. Thus we have

RA (Λi ) ⊂ R(Λ) (cf. [Fie03], Corollary 2.10). Note that by definition, Λ is outside

/ Z(β|β) for λ ∈ Λ and β ∈ Rim .

the critical hyperplanes if and only if 2(λ + ρ|β) ∈

If Λ is a block outside the critical hyperplanes, the Kac-Kazhdan Theorem 2.3.1

implies that Λ = W(Λ) · λ for any λ ∈ Λ.

Following [Fie06], we say a block Λ outside the critical hyperplanes is of positive

level if it contains a dominant weight. We say Λ is of negative level if Λ contains an

antidominant weight. Note that Λ is of positive level if and only if Λ0 := −2ρ − Λ is

of negative level. Thus the tilting equivalence

t : M → Mopp

induces equivalences between blocks of negative and those of positive level. More-

over, a block Λ can be both, of positive and of negative level.

We want to give a more detailed description of the different types of blocks over an

affine Kac-Moody algebra. Recall that in this case the imaginary roots are given by

Rim = {nδ | n ∈ Z\{0}} where δ is the smallest positive, imaginary root. Let g be an

affine Kac-Moody algebra and Λ a block. Then Λ is outside the critical hyperplanes

if and only if δ ∈

/ R(Λ). Set

C := {λ ∈ h∗ | (δ|λ + ρ) 6= 0},

16

C + := {λ ∈ C | (α∨ |λ + ρ) ≥ 0 for any α ∈ R+ (Λ)},

C − := {λ ∈ C | (α∨ |λ + ρ) ≤ 0 for any α ∈ R+ (Λ)}.

The following lemma tells us which cases can appear outside the critical hyperplanes

in the affine case.

that Λ satisfies R(Λ) 6= 0.

(i) If (δ|λ + ρ) ∈

has both, a dominant and an antidominant weight.

Λ = W(Λ) · λ has a dominant but no antidominant weight.

Λ = W(Λ) · λ has an antidominant but no dominant weight.

We will treat the case when Λ is of critical level, i.e., when (δ|λ + ρ) = 0 for any

λ ∈ Λ, separately in chapter 5. If g is of finite type or a semisimple Lie algebra, then

Rim = ∅ and all blocks have both, a dominant and an antidominant weight.

17

3 Andersen and Jantzen filtrations

In this chapter we generalize the main result of the author’s diploma thesis [Küb10]

(cf. the published version [Küb12a]) to the case of a symmetrizable Kac-Moody al-

gebra. Let g be a symmetrizable Kac-Moody algebra, Λ a block of positive level

and µ, λ ∈ Λ. Then the projective cover P (λ) of L(λ) exists and the Jantzen fil-

tration on the Verma module ∆(µ), which we define below, induces a filtration on

HomO (P (λ), ∆(µ)). Define Λ0 := −2ρ−Λ, λ0 := −2ρ−λ and µ0 := −2ρ−µ. Then Λ0

is of negative level and the indecomposable tilting object T (λ0 ) exists. There is a fil-

tration on the vector space HomO (∆(µ0 ), T (λ0 )) which is due to Andersen and whose

subquotients are related to Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials (cf. [Soe08] and [Fie12b]).

The main result of this chapter is that the tilting equivalence t : MΛ → Mopp Λ0 ,

0 0

which maps ∆(µ) to ∆(µ ), P (λ) to T (λ ) and which induces an isomorphism

∼

HomO (P (λ), ∆(µ)) → HomO (∆(µ0 ), T (λ0 )),

The content of this section can be found in [Jan79] and [KK79]. Recall the anti-

involution σ : g → g which maps h ∈ h to −h and gα to g−α . According to [KK79],

the universal enveloping algebra U (g) has a decomposition U (g) = U (h) ⊕ (nU (g) +

U (g)n+ ) and we denote by β : U (g) U (h) = S(h) the projection onto the first

summand. This induces an S(h)-bilinear form F : U (g) × U (g) → S(h) which is

defined by F (x, y) = β(σ(x)y). Viewed as a polynomial map on h∗ , F (x, y) can be

evaluated at any λ ∈ h∗ and since the Verma module ∆(λ) is free of rank one over

U (n), the map F descends to a bilinear form

(x, y) 7→ F (x, y)(λ)

which is contravariant with respect to σ, i.e., (x · v, w)λ = (v, σ(x) · w)λ for x ∈ U (g)

and v, w ∈ ∆(λ). Let Cλ be a curve in h∗ through λ such that ∆(µ) is simple for

µ ∈ Cλ \{λ} in a small neighborhood of λ. Intuitively, the Jantzen filtration

18

is counting the degree of degeneracy of the contravariant forms (·, ·)µ as µ tends

to λ along the curve Cλ . We want to formalize this viewpoint algebraically. Recall

the weight ρ ∈ h∗ with the property ρ(α∨ ) = 1 for all coroots associated to a

simple root α ∈ Π. Let λ ∈ h∗ and C[t] be the S-algebra with structure morphism

S := S(h) = C[h∗ ] C[Cρ] ∼ = C[t] being the restriction of polynomials on h∗ to

the curve given by t 7→ tρ. The deformed Verma module ∆C[t] (λ) can be seen as a

family of Verma modules parameterized by the curve t 7→ λ + tρ. The choice of the

curve implies that for C(t) the field of fractions of C[t], the Verma module ∆C(t) (λ)

is irreducible as a g ⊗ C(t)-module. Now we can extend the contravariant form

(·, ·)λ : ∆(λ)×∆(λ) → C to a C(t)-bilinear form (·, ·)λC(t) : ∆C(t) (λ)×∆C(t) (λ) → C(t)

which has the property that it is non-degenerate, since ∆C(t) (λ) is simple, and that

(∆C[t] (λ), ∆C[t] (λ))λC(t) ⊂ C[t].

For n ∈ Z>0 we set

∆C[t] (λ)n := {m ∈ ∆C[t] (λ) | (m, ∆C[t] (λ))λC(t) ∈ tn C[t]}

which forms a descending filtration on ∆C[t] (λ) of g-C[t]-bimodules by the contravari-

ance of the form. Further, the specialization map C[t] C[t]/tC[t] ∼ = C induces a

map ∆C[t] (λ) ∆C (λ) = ∆(λ). We can now define the Jantzen filtration

∆(λ) = ∆(λ)0 ⊃ ∆(λ)1 ⊃ ∆(λ)2 ⊃ ...

by taking the images of ∆C[t] (λ)n in ∆(λ) under the specialization map. By defini-

tion, ∆(λ)1 coincides with the radical of (·, ·)λ on ∆(λ) and by the contravariance

of (·, ·)λ the radical is also the maximal submodule of ∆(λ). This is a first indica-

tion that the Jantzen filtration contains a lot of information about the submodule

structure of ∆(λ). For example, in [Jan79] it is shown that in case of a semi-simple

Lie algebra of rank two, the multiplicities [∆(λ) : L(µ)] are fully determined by this

filtration and the associated sum formula we will recall in chapter 5.

a filtration of C-vector spaces on HomO (P, ∆(λ)). Since most of the constructions

of chapter 2 needed a local deformation algebra, we now work with the ring of

power series in one variable C[[t]] instead of the polynomial ring C[t]. Hence, the

structure map τ : S C[t] ,→ C[[t]] factors through the localization S. e Using the

completion C[[t]] for the definition does not change the Jantzen filtration on ∆(λ).

Let PC[[t]] ∈ OC[[t]] be a projective C[[t]]-lift of P , which exists by Theorem 2.2.2. The

field of formal Laurent series C((t)) fulfills the properties of Remark 2.1.7. Hence,

we get an isomorphism ∆C((t)) (λ) ∼ = ∇C((t)) (λ) which restricts to an injective map

∆C[[t]] (λ) ,→ ∇C[[t]] (λ). Taking homomorphisms from the projective lift yields an

injective map

jC[[t]] : HomOC[[t]] (PC[[t]] , ∆C[[t]] ) ,→ HomOC[[t]] (PC[[t]] , ∇C[[t]] (λ))

of finitely generated free C[[t]]-modules of the same rank. We define a filtration on

HomOC[[t]] (PC[[t]] , ∆C[[t]] (λ)) by setting

−1

HomOC[[t]] (PC[[t]] , ∆C[[t]] (λ))(i) := jC[[t]] (ti · HomOC[[t]] (PC[[t]] , ∇C[[t]] (λ))).

19

The base change map π : HomOC[[t]] (PC[[t]] , ∆C[[t]] ) HomO (P, ∆(λ)) from Lemma

2.2.3 allows us to define a filtration on HomO (P, ∆(λ)) by taking the images of

HomOC[[t]] (PC[[t]] , ∆C[[t]] (λ))(i) under the map π. It is now easy to see that this filtra-

tion coincides with the filtration induced by the Jantzen filtration and, in particular,

that it does not depend on the choice of the projective lift we chose. (Cf. [Soe08],

section 4.6, for this paragraph.)

The references for the second filtration we mentioned above are [And97] and [Soe08].

Let T ∈ O be a tilting module, λ ∈ h∗ and A a local deformation algebra. By

Theorem 2.5.6 and Remark 2.6.4 we can choose a lift TA of T in OA . Recall that we

have an isomorphism HomOA (∆A (λ), ∇A (λ)) ∼ = A by Lemma 2.1.4. Thus, we can

view the composition pairing

HomOA (∆A (λ), TA ) × HomOA (TA , ∇A (λ)) → HomOA (∆A (λ), ∇A (λ))

(ϕ, ψ) 7→ ψ◦ϕ

as an A-bilinear map with values in A. Let A be such that over the quotient field Q :=

Quot(A) the tilting module TQ decomposes into a direct sum of Verma modules.

Since all Verma and dual Verma modules are simple in OQ , this is a non-degenerate

pairing of finitely generated free A-modules of the same rank. Thus it induces an

injective map

where ∗ denotes the A-dual of an A-module. Again, we take A = C[[t]] to be the

completion of the coordinate ring of Cρ ⊂ h∗ along the maximal ideal associated to

0 ∈ h∗ . We can then define a filtration

C[[t]] (t · HomOC[[t]] (TC[[t]] , ∇C[[t]] (λ)) ) (3.1)

Definition 3.2.1. The Andersen filtration on the C-vector space HomO (∆(λ), T ) is

defined as the image of the filtration from (3.1) under the map

Recall Se the localization of S at the maximal ideal generated by h. Let Λ ∈ h∗ / ∼C

be a block of positive level, i.e., Λ contains a dominant weight. For λ, µ ∈ Λ we

define λ0 := −2ρ − λ and µ0 := −2ρ − µ and for any local deformation algebra A we

20

∼

denote by tA : HomOA (PA (µ), ∆A (λ)) → HomOA (∆A (λ0 ), TA (µ0 )) the isomorphism

induced by the deformed tilting functor tA . Note that PA (µ) and TA (µ0 ) exist since

µ is of positive and µ0 of negative level. Furthermore, we denote the injective maps

given in sections 3.1 and 3.2 by

aA : HomOA (∆A (λ0 ), TA (µ0 )) ,→ HomOA (TA (µ0 ), ∇A (λ0 ))∗

∗

where denotes the dual of an A-module.

Theorem 3.3.1. Let λ, λ0 , µ, µ0 be as above. There is a natural isomorphism

∼

γ = γSe : HomOSe (PSe(µ), ∇Se(λ)) → HomOSe (TSe(µ0 ), ∇Se(λ0 ))∗

S

je

HomOSe (PSe(µ), ∆Se(λ)) −−−→ HomOSe (PSe(µ), ∇Se(λ))

t

y Se

γ e

yS (3.2)

aSe ∗

HomOSe (∆Se(λ0 ), TSe(µ0 )) −−− → HomOSe (TSe(µ0 ), ∇Se(λ0 ))

∼

t = tC : HomO (P (µ), ∆(λ)) → HomO (∆(λ0 ), T (µ0 ))

identifies the filtration induced by the Jantzen filtration on the left with the Andersen

filtration on the right.

Proof. (cf. [Küb12a], Corollary 4.4) Recall the S-structure on C[[t]] coming from

the inclusion Cρ ⊂ h∗ . The structure map factors through a map Se → C[[t]] of local

deformation algebras. Since the diagram in Theorem 3.3.1 is compatible with the

base change maps from Lemma 2.2.3 and Lemma 2.2.4, the theorem implies that

the filtrations on HomOC[[t]] (PC[[t]] (µ), ∆C[[t]] (λ)) and HomOC[[t]] (∆C[[t]] (λ0 ), TC[[t]] (µ0 ))

defined by jC[[t]] and aC[[t]] are identified by the isomorphism tC[[t]] . But then, again

by base change, the two filtrations on HomO (P (µ), ∆(λ)) and HomO (∆(λ0 ), T (µ0 ))

are identified by tC .

Sketch of proof for Theorem 3.3.1. We only give a sketch of the prove since it is

more or less the same as in the semi-simple case, which is Theorem 4.3 in [Küb12a].

Denote by P(S) e the set of all prime ideals of Se of height one and for p ∈ P(S)

e let

Sp be the localization of Se at p. Note that we have a decomposition in OSp :

n

PSe(µ) ⊗Se Sp ∼

M

= PSp (µi )

i=1

e Λ decomposes into Sp -

blocks Λ = i∈I Λi for some index set I. We have seen in Lemma 2.4.1 that if

21

α∨ ∈/ p for all α ∈ R(Λ), then Λi consists of only one element for all i ∈ I and if p

is generated by the coroot of α ∈ R(Λ), Λi consists of at most two elements.

We have a similar decomposition for TSe(µ0 ) ⊗Se Sp which is compatible with the one

for PSe(µ), i.e., we have

n n

∼ ∼

M M

0

TSe(µ ) ⊗Se Sp = tSp ( PSp (µi )) = TSp (µ0i )

i=1 i=1

The homomorphisms jSe, aSe and tSe of diagram (3.2) respect the above decompositions

and base change isomorphisms. Thus, after applying · ⊗Se Sp , diagram (3.2) splits

into the direct sum of diagrams of the form

jSp

HomOSp (PSp (µ), ∆Sp (λ)) −−−→ HomOSp (PSp (µ), ∇Sp (λ))

tS

y p (3.3)

aSp

∗

HomOSp (∆Sp (λ0 ), TSp (µ0 )) −−−→ 0 0

HomOSp (TSp (µ ), ∇Sp (λ ))

Tensoring with the quotient field Q := Quot(S) of S over Sp , these diagrams can be

embedded for any p in a diagram of isomorphisms of Q-vector spaces. If Λi contains

only one element µi , then either µi 6= λ and all appearing maps are zero, or µi = λ

and all appearing maps are isomorphisms of Sp -modules. Hence, in this case we get

the claimed isomorphism γSp as the composition of jS−1 p

, tSp and aSp .

Now assume we have an isomorphism γSp for every prime ideal p of height one

which makes the diagram (3.3) commutative. Then each γSp is the restriction of the

isomorphism

−1 ∼ ∗

γQ = aQ ◦ tQ ◦ jQ : HomOQ (PQ (µ), ∇Q (λ)) → HomOQ (TQ (µ0 ), ∇Q (λ0 ))

since jSp , aSp and tSp are restrictions of the isomorphisms of Q-vector spaces jQ ,

aQ and tQ to the corresponding Sp -lattices. So all localized maps come from the

same isomorphisms over Q. But this implies that we get back the morphisms of the

theorem by intersecting over all prime ideals of height one. In particular, we get an

isomorphism

∼ ∗

γSe : HomOSe (PSe(µ), ∇Se(λ)) → HomOSe (TSe(µ0 ), ∇Se(λ0 ))

once we have isomorphisms γSp for every prime ideal p of height one. The last

isomorphism follows from the freeness of all S-modules

e appearing in diagram (3.2),

the fact that

\

= HomOSp (PSe(µ) ⊗Se Sp , ∇Sp (λ))

p∈P(S)

e

22

∗

and an analogous equation for HomOSe (TSe(µ0 ), ∇Se(λ0 )) .

The localized modules over Sp resemble the representation theory over the Lie alge-

bra sl2 and are therefore much easier to handle. If Λi has only one element, we have

seen, that we get the map γSp very easily. If Λi has two elements and λ, µi ∈ Λi ,

then there are four cases to be discovered:

1. λ = µi and λ is antidominant in Λi ,

2. λ = µi and λ is dominant in Λi ,

3. λ < µi ,

4. λ > µi .

Since all four cases work as in the finite dimensional case, we refer for these cases

to the proof of Theorem 4.3 in [Küb12a], which is the main result of the author’s

diploma thesis.

Remark 3.3.3. Note that if µ lies in a block of negative level, there is no projective

cover of L(µ) in O. However, for any ν ∈ h∗ we can construct the object P ≤ν (µ) as

in Theorem 2.2.2. Note further, that there is no tilting module with maximal weight

0

µ0 = −2ρ − µ in O either. But for ν 0 = −2ρ − ν we can take T ≥ν (µ0 ) from Remark

0

2.5.7. It is then easy to see that the tilting functor maps P ≤ν (µ) to T ≥ν (µ0 ) and

thus induces an isomorphism

0

HomO (P (µ)≤ν , ∆(λ)) → HomO (∆(λ0 ), T ≥ν (µ0 )).

Since there should also be deformed versions and base change results in this case,

the proof of Theorem 3.3.1 should imply that the filtration on the left, induced by

the Jantzen filtration, is identified with the analogous Andersen filtration on the

right.

Remark 3.3.4. The progress report [And12] extends the main result of [Küb12a] to

generalize the connection between Andersen’s and Jantzen’s filtration in case of a

generic quantum group over a semisimple Lie algebra. Instead of working with the

tilting functor, Andersen relates the homomorphism space between a tilting and a

Verma module to the space of homomorphisms between a tilting and a dual Verma

module via the twisting functor corresponding to the longest element of the Weyl

group. The pairing of section 3.2 can also be used to define an Andersen filtration

on the second space of homomorphisms. In this setting, the same arguments from

[Küb12a] can be used to show that the filtration induced by Jantzen’s filtration

on the first space of homomorphisms is identified with the alternative version of

the Andersen filtration on the second space via the twisting functor. However, as

Andersen mentions in the end of his report, these ideas fail in the case that the

parameter of the quantum group is a root of unity.

23

4 Combinatorics of modules with a

Verma flag

In this section we recall the connection between a block of deformed category O and

sheaves on the moment graph associated to this block as developed in [Fie08a]. We

then apply this to get a combinatorial viewpoint of Theorem 3.3.1 and, in particular,

give a purely combinatorial description in the case of a finite dimensional semisimple

Lie algebra. This allows us to view the objects of Theorem 3.3.1 as graded objects

and the isomorphism identifying the Andersen and Jantzen filtration as a homoge-

neous map of degree zero. In the case of an affine Kac-Moody algebra in positive level

we are able to apply the main result of chapter 3 to relate multiplicities in consec-

utive subquotients of Jantzen’s filtration to coefficients of certain Kazhdan-Lusztig

polynomials.

4.1 Combinatorics

We recall the theory of sheaves on a moment graph which is based on [BM01],

[Fie08a] and [Jan08].

For us, a graph is given by a tuple (V, E) of vertices V and edges E. Thus, V is a

countable set and E ⊂ P(V) is a subset of the power set of V such that each element

of E consists of exactly two vertices. This definition implies that a graph has no

double edges.

Definition 4.1.1. Let V be a finite dimensional complex vector space. An unordered

moment graph G = (V, E, α) over V is a graph (V, E) which is equipped with a labeling

map α : E → P(V ) which associates to any edge E ∈ E a line αE := α(E) in V .

We call a subset Y ⊂ V ∪ E open if the following holds:

x ∈ Y ∩ V ⇒ {E ∈ E | x ∈ E} ⊂ Y.

Hence, Y is open if with any vertex x ∈ Y it contains all edges which are adjacent

to x. The system {Y ⊂ V ∩ E | Y open} forms a topology on the set V ∪ E and we use

this to view the moment graph G as a topological space while we ignore the labeling

map.

24

4.1.2 Sheaves on moment graphs

Let S := S(V ) be the symmetric algebra of the finite dimensional complex vector

space V and let G = (V, E, α) be a V -moment graph. Let A be either S, which we

view as a graded ring such that deg(V ) = 2, or a localization Sp of S at a prime

ideal p. If p is the maximal ideal of S associated to 0 ∈ V , we write Se := Sp as

before. For x ∈ V we define x0 := {x} ∪ {E ∈ E | x ∈ E} to be the fundamental open

set associated to x. Note that by definition each edge E ∈ E is open. In contrast

to topological sheaf theory we follow [Fie08a] and indicate the stalk of a sheaf on

a moment graph at a point x by putting x as a superscript instead of a subscript.

Since x0 is the smallest open subset of G containing x ∈ V, the stalk of a sheaf M

of A-modules on G is given by its sections of x0 , i.e., Mx = M(x0 ). The stalk of the

open point E ∈ E is clearly given by ME = M({E}). For {E} ⊂ x0 we denote the

restriction map by ρx,E : Mx → ME .

quotient map for x ∈ V and E ∈ E, we obtain a sheaf A = AA of rings on G which

we call the structure sheaf of G. As a sheaf on a topological space, we can take

the global sections Γ(AA ) = Γ(A) of the structure sheaf and get the global section

functor

Γ : AA −mod −→ Γ(AA )−mod

which has a left adjoint functor, namely the localization functor L : Γ(AA )−mod →

AA −mod. The aim of the rest of this section is to explain the relation between Γ

and L when we restrict both functors to a certain category of sheaves on a moment

graph, which we will connect to the representation theoretic side. For this, it is

convenient to switch from the sheaf-theoretic to a more combinatorial description

of sheaves on moment graphs. In [BM01], Proposition 1.1, the authors show that

an AA -module M is uniquely characterized by its stalks at the edges and vertices

of the moment graph and by the corresponding restriction maps between them. By

this means, we can view an AA -module as a tuple ({Mx }, {ME }, {ρx,E }) with the

properties

Y

ZA = ZA (G) := {(zx ) ∈ A | zx ≡ zy mod αE ∀E = {x, y}}.

x∈V

The structure algebra can be identified with the global sections of the structure

sheaf, i.e., ZA (G) ∼

= Γ(AA ) and the global section functor can be identified with the

functor

Γ : AA −mod −→ ZA (G)−mod

25

given by

Y

Γ(M) = {(mx ) ∈ Mx | ρx,E (mx ) = ρy,E (my ) ∀E = {x, y} ∈ E}

x∈V

are working with in the rest of this chapter.

Let I ⊂ G be a subgraph, i.e., a subset which contains with any edge E = {x, y} also

both vertices x, y ∈ V. We further assume that any subgraph I is also a full subgraph,

i.e., if I contains two vertices x, y ∈ V such that there is an edge E = {x, y} in G,

then E is an edge of I. This definition implies that the subgraph I is already

determined by its set of vertices and we will use this to identify I with the set of

vertices of I. For M a sheaf of A-modules on G and I ⊂ G a subgraph, we define

the sections of M over I by

Y

M(I) = Γ(I, M) := {(mx ) ∈ Mx | ρx,E (mx ) = ρy,E (my ) ∀E = {x, y} ∈ I}

x∈I

and also

A | zx ≡ zy mod αE ∀E = {x, y} ∈ I} ∼

Y

ZA (I) := {(zx ) ∈ = AA (I).

x∈I

S-algebras, we get a functor

0

x,E = ρMx,E ⊗idA0

for M ∈ AA -mod. For A = S and A = Sp where p ⊂ S is a prime ideal, we define Gp

0

to be the graph we get from G by canceling all edges with a labeling which is invert-

ible in Sp . For M ∈ AS -mod, M ⊗S Sp can then be viewed as a sheaf of Sp -modules

on the reduced graph Gp and if Gp decomposes into a disjoint union of subgraphs,

the sheaf M ⊗S Sp decomposes into a direct sum of sheaves on the corresponding

connected components.

in general. We denote by ZAI = ZA (G)I the image of this map. Furthermore, for an

A-sheaf M on G we define its support by supp(M) := {x ∈ V | Mx 6= 0}.

Definition 4.1.2. We define SHA (G) to be the full subcategory of AA -mod that

consists of sheaves M with finite support, and such that for each x ∈ V the A-module

Mx is finitely generated and torsion free.

Definition 4.1.3. We denote by ZA −modf the full subcategory of ZA -mod that

consists of modules M which are finitely generated and torsion free as A-modules

and for which there exists a finite subgraph I ⊂ G such that the action of ZA on M

factors through ZAI .

26

By [Fie08a], the global section functor restricts to a functor

assumption on the graph G. For γ ∈ V and I ⊂ G a subgraph, we define Zγ (I) :=

ZSγ (I) where Sγ is the localization of S at the prime ideal generated by γ. For any

finite subgraph I ⊂ G the map S ,→ Sγ induces a map ZS (G)I ,→ ZS (I) ,→ Zγ (I).

This defines an injective map ZS (G)I ⊗S Sγ ,→ Zγ (I).

Zγ (I) is surjective for any finite subgraph I ⊂ G and any γ ∈ V \{0}.

‘local information’ of the module M at any vertex x ∈ V which is guaranteed by the

quasi-finiteness condition.

4.1.3 Localization

For the rest of this section, G will always be a quasi-finite moment graph. We also

omit the subscript of the structure sheaf in case A = S. Let Q = L Quot(S) be the

quotient field of S. We get a natural decomposition Z(G)I ⊗S Q ∼ = x∈I Q for any

finite subgraph I ⊂ G. Let M ∈ Z−modf and I be a finite subgraph of G such that

the action of Z on M factors over Z(G)I . Since M is torsion free over L

S, we get an

inclusion M ,→ M ⊗SPQ. We can decompose 1 ⊗ 1 ∈ Z(G)I ⊗S Q ∼ = x∈I Q into

idempotents 1 ⊗ 1 = x∈I ex and set

M

M x := ex M ⊂ M ⊗S Q = ey (M ⊗S Q).

y∈I

M (E) := (ex + ey )M + αE ex M ⊂ ex (M ⊗S Q) ⊕ ey (M ⊗S Q)

for E = {x, y} ∈ E. The projections onto the stalks induce surjective maps πx :

M (E) → M x , m 7→ ex m and πy : M (E) → M y , m 7→ ey m. We use these to define

the stalk L(M )E by the push out diagram

x π

M (E) −−−→ L(M )x

πy ρx,E

y y

ρy,E

L(M )y −−−→ L(M )E .

This construction also works for any localization A of S and defines a functor L :

ZA −modf → SHA (G).

27

Theorem 4.1.5 ([Fie08a], Proposition 3.5). The functors Γ and L induce a pair of

adjoint functors

SHA (G) o

Γ / ZA −modf

L

and the canonical maps Γ(M) → ΓLΓ(M) and LΓL(M ) → L(M ) are isomorphisms.

We denote by ZA −modloc the essential image of L and by SHA (G)glob the essential

image of Γ. Then the theorem implies that (L, Γ) is a pair of mutual inverse equiv-

alences between the categories ZA −modloc and SHA (G)glob . We set CA = CA (G) =

ZA −modloc and get a global (as ZA -modules) and a local (as sheaves on G) point of

view on the category CA .

Remark 4.1.6. Let A = S. Recall that we view S as a graded ring with the usual

grading doubled, i.e., deg(V ) = 2. We call an S-sheaf M on a quasi-finite moment

graph G graded if for each vertex x and each edge E the S-modules Mx and ME are

graded and each restriction map ρx,E : Mx → ME is homogeneous of Qdegree zero.

Note that Z = ZS (G) inherits a grading from S, where the product x∈V S in the

definition of Z is meant to be taken degree wise. As in [Jan08], chapter 2.19, one

can show that for M ∈ SHS (G)glob a graded S-sheaf, the Z-module Γ(M) is graded.

On the other hand, for M ∈ Z−modloc , there is a unique structure of a graded sheaf

on L(M ), such that the map M → L(M )x is a homogeneous map of degree zero for

any x ∈ V.

In case A = S we redefine the category C = CS as the respective category of graded

Z-modules. Thus, we view an object in C either as a graded Z-module or a graded

S-sheaf and both graded pictures are compatible with the functors Γ and L. Further-

more, all homomorphisms of graded S-modules are considered to be homogeneous

of degree zero.

For what follows we need an ordering on the set of vertices of the moment graph G.

Definition 4.1.7. A(n) (ordered) moment graph G = (V, E, α, ≤) is an unordered

moment graph G = (V, E, α) with a partial order on the set of vertices such that

two vertices, which are joined by an edge, are comparable. This implies that the

underlying directed graph associated to this order has no cycles.

Let M ∈ ZA −modf and I ⊂ G be a full subgraph. We define

M

MI := M ∩ ex (M ⊗A Q)

x∈I

and M

M I := Image(M ,→ M ⊗A Q ex (M ⊗A Q)).

x∈I

We recall some notions from [Fie08a] which are partly inspired by topological sheaf

theory and which depend on the order on the moment graph.

28

Definition 4.1.8. We call a subgraph I ⊂ G F-open if, identified with its set of

vertices, is downwardly closed, i.e., if y ∈ I and x ≤ y then x ∈ I.

Definition 4.1.9. We say that M ∈ ZA −modf admits a Verma flag if the mod-

ule M I is free (graded free in case A = S) for any F-open subgraph I ⊂ G. We

denote the full subcategory of Z−modf consisting of modules with a Verma flag by

ZA −modV erma .

is quasi-finite and if for any pair E, E 0 ∈ E with E 6= E 0 and E ∩ E 0 6= ∅ we

have α(E) 6= α(E 0 ), i.e., the labels attached to edges containing the same vertex are

pairwise distinct.

any F-open subgraph I the module M I is reflexive.

and we can view each of these categories as respective categories of sheaves on the

moment graph. Therefore, we denote them by

Ux := {E ∈ E | E = {x, y}, y ∈ V, x ≤ y} and Dx := {E ∈ E | E = {x, y}, y ∈ V, x ≥

y}.

M

M[x] := ker((ρx,E )E∈Dx : Mx → ME ).

E∈Dx

\

Mx := ker(ρx,E )

E

skyscraper sheaf VA (x) as the sheaf on G given by VA (x)x = A and VA (x)y =

VA (x)E = 0 for any vertex y 6= x and any edge E ∈ E.

29

The global sections Γ(VA (x)) of the skyscraper sheaf can be identified with the ZA -

module A on which any tuple (zu )u∈V ∈ ZA acts by multiplication with zx .

category ZA −modf . We call a sequence A → B → C in ZA −modf exact if for any

F-open subgraph I ⊂ G, the sequence 0 → AI → B I → C I → 0 is short exact

in the category of abelian groups. By [Fie08a], Theorem 4.1, this induces an exact

structure (cf. [Qui73]) on ZA −modf . Any subcategory of ZA −modf , which is stable

under extensions, inherits an exact structure from ZA −modf . Since an extension

of two reflexive (resp. free) A-modules is reflexive (resp. free) over A, we get that

C V erma and C ref are exact categories. Recall that an object P in an exact category A

is called projective if the functor HomA (P, ·) : A → AB into the category of abelian

groups takes exact sequences to short exact sequences.

Proposition 4.1.14 ([Fie08a], Proposition 5.1). Let P ∈ CAref and P = L(P ). Then

P is projective if

(i) for any vertex x of G, the A-module Px is projective, and

(ii) for any edge E = {x, y} with y ≤ x, the restriction map ρy,E : Py → PE

induces an isomorphism Py /αE Py → PE .

The next definition is needed for a more detailed description of projective sheaves

in section 4.3.2.

Definition 4.1.15. A sheaf M ∈ SHA (G) is called F-flabby if for any F-open sub-

graph I ⊂ G the restriction map Γ(M) = M(G) → M(I) is surjective.

An element M ∈ ZA −modf is called F-flabby if for any F-open subgraph I we have

M I ∈ ZA −modloc , i.e., M I is ‘generated by local relations’.

Note that by [Fie08a], Proposition 4.2, a sheaf M ∈ SHA (G)glob is F-flabby if and

only if the corresponding ZA -module Γ(M) is flabby.

The next theorem classifies the indecomposable projective objects in C ref from the

local point of view. We also sketch the proof of their existence since it provides

an algorithm to construct them. Furthermore, we need to assume that the moment

graph is bounded from above, i.e., for any vertex x ∈ V of the moment graph G the

set {y ∈ V | y ≥ x} is finite. Recall the support supp(M) = {x ∈ V | Mx 6= 0} for M

a sheaf on G.

Theorem 4.1.16 ([FW08], Theorem 6.4, and [Jan08], section 3.5). (i) For any

vertex x ∈ V of the ordered moment graph G there exists a graded S-sheaf

B(v) ∈ CSref with the properties

• supp(B(v)) ⊂ {x | x ≥ v} and B(v)v ∼

= S.

30

(ii) If P is a graded projective S-sheaf in CSref , then there are vertices v1 , ..., vn ∈ V,

integers l1 , ..., ln ∈ Z and an isomorphism of graded S-sheaves of degree zero

P∼

= B(v1 )[l1 ] ⊕ ... ⊕ B(vn )[ln ].

e , there exist vertices v1 , ..., vn ∈ V

and an isomorphism of S-sheaves

e

P∼

= B(v1 ) ⊗S Se ⊕ ... ⊕ B(vn ) ⊗S S.

e

Sketch of proof. We give the algorithm to construct B(v) in the first part of the

theorem starting at the vertex v. The uniqueness and the other properties can be

found in [Fie08a], [Jan08] and [BM01].

Of course, we have to set B(v)v = S and B(v)x = 0 for x v. Proposition 4.1.14

implies that if E = {x, y} is an edge with x ≤ y then B(v)E and ρx,E are already de-

termined by the stalk B(v)x and the label of E. Using induction, we can assume that

we already constructed all stalks and restriction maps of B(v) on the subgraph {< y}

for a given vertex y ∈ V. We only have to construct B(v)y and the L restriction maps

ρy,E : B(v)y → B(v)E for all E that end in y. We define B(v)δy ⊂ E∈Dy B(v)E to

be the image of the following composition of maps

M M ⊕ρx,E M

B(v)({< y}) ⊂ B(v)x −→ B(v)x −→ B(v)E

x<y {x,y}∈Dy E∈Dy

and define B(v)y to be the projective cover of B(v)δy in the category of graded S-

modules. A restriction map ρy,E : B(v)y → B(v)E for E = {x, y} with x ≤ y is then

defined as the composition B(v)y → B(v)δy → B(v)E .

This section recalls the main result of [Fie08a] and explains how the deformed cate-

gory OSe is related to the moment graph picture. We fix a block Λ outside the critical

hyperplanes and recall the category MS,Λ e of modules in OS,Λ

e that admit a Verma

flag. We want to associate a moment graph GΛ with the block Λ. For this, let us first

assume that Λ has an antidominant weight γ ∈ Λ. Recall the integral Weyl group

WSe(Λ) = W(Λ) and denote by Wγ the stabilizer of γ in W(Λ). Let V := W(Λ)/Wγ

be the set of vertices of the moment graph GΛ , which we identify with a set of mini-

mal representatives according to the length function given by the Bruhat order. We

connect two vertices x, y ∈ V with x 6= y by an edge E = {x, y} if there is a reflec-

tion sα ∈ W(Λ) associated to a root α ∈ R(Λ) such that x = sα y. Then we label

the edge E with the corresponding coroot α∨ ∈ h. These data define an unordered

moment graph over the vector space h. We now equip GΛ with the induced Bruhat

order on W(Λ)/Wγ to get an ordered moment graph GΛ = (V, E, α, ≤).

We can associate a second moment graph with Λ by defining the set of vertices to

be Λ and connect two elements λ, µ ∈ Λ by an edge E = {λ, µ} if there exists a

31

reflection sα ∈ W(Λ) such that λ = sα · µ and then label E with the associated

coroot α(E) = α∨ ∈ h. We now equip this moment graph with the ordering induced

by the ordering on h∗ which is defined through the set of positive roots.

Viewed as unordered moment graphs over h these two graphs are isomorphic, since

Λ∼ = W(Λ)/Wγ . However, the ordering on Λ in the second definition is in general a

refinement of the induced Bruhat order on the vertices of the first moment graph.

But the underlying directed graph is the same, i.e., if there is an edge E = {x, y} in

GΛ , then x ≤ y in the induced Bruhat order if and only if x · γ ≤ y · γ in the ordering

on Λ. Since the categories of sheaves on GΛ we are working with, only depend on the

underlying directed moment graph, we can use both definitions in the following. In

[Fie08a], Lemma 3.2, it is shown that GΛ is a GKM-graph. For the moment graph

GΛ and A a localization of S we define

VA (GΛ ) := ZA −modV erma

to be the category of ZA -modules with a Verma flag.

in the same way, but we reverse the order on the set of vertices. For an arbitrary

moment graph G we denote its tilted moment graph by t(G) and define it to be the

same unordered moment graph but with the order reversed. For A a localization

of S at a prime ideal and M ∈ ZA −modf , denote by DA (M ) := HomA (M, A) its

A-dual. It has a natural structure of a ZA -module. For z ∈ ZA , f ∈ D(M ) and

m ∈ M it is given by

(z.f )(m) := f (z.m).

In case A = S and M is a graded ZS -module, D = DS (M ) := i∈Z HomS (M, S)i is

L

again a graded ZS -module, where HomS (M, S)i are the graded homomorphisms of

degree i. In [Fie08a] it is shown that the functor DA : ZA −modf → (ZA −modf )opp

induces an equivalence

DA : VA (GΛ ) −→ VA (t(GΛ ))opp

on the corresponding sheaves with Verma flag. For ν ∈ Λ we define Λ≤ν := {µ ∈

Λ | µ ≤ ν} (resp. Λ≥ν := {µ ∈ Λ | µ ≥ ν}) and denote by GΛ≤ν (resp. GΛ≥ν ) the full

subgraph of GΛ with vertices corresponding to Λ≤ν (resp. Λ≥ν ).

{≤ν}

Let PSe≤ν (λ) = PSe (λ) be a projective cover of ∆Se(λ) in the truncated category

J

OS,Λ

e corresponding to the open and bounded subset J = {≤ ν}. For each pair

0

(ν 0 , ν) ∈ h∗ × h∗ with ν 0 ≥ ν we have a natural surjection PSe≤ν (λ) PSe≤ν (λ). In the

category U (g)-S-Bimod

e we can define the inverse limit

PSe∞ (λ) := lim PSe≤ν (λ).

←−

Note that PSe∞ (λ) is not an object of OS,Λ

e in general. However, Fiebig proves in [Fie06]

S,Λ

e

S

e S

e

32

a module over the categorical center Z(OS,Λ

e ). This structure is given by the action

of the center on the truncated projective objects PSe(λ)≤ν . In [Fie03] it is proven

that Z(OS,Λ

e ) coincides with the structure algebra ZS e(GΛ ) of the moment graph GΛ .

Hence, we get a functor VΛ := HomgSe (PSe∞ (λ), ·) : OS,Λ

e → ZSe(GΛ )−mod. Now the

main result of [Fie08a] is

Theorem 4.2.1 ([Fie08a], Theorem 7.1 and Proposition 7.2). The functor VΛ re-

stricts to an equivalence

∼

V = VΛ : MS,Λ

e → VS

e(GΛ )

e inherits the exact structure from OS,Λ

e . Further-

≤ν ≤ν ≤ν

more, if PSe (µ) ∈ MS,Λ

e is a projective cover of ∆Se(µ) in OS,Λ e (µ)) is

e , then V(PS

isomorphic to the global sections of the Braden-MacPherson sheaf B≤ν

e (x) ∈ VS

S e(GΛ )

≤ν

at the vertex given by µ = x · λ on the moment graph GΛ .

Remark 4.2.2. Let Λ contain a dominant weight. Then Fiebig’s proof of the above

Theorem implies that the composition of functors

opp

tSe opp VΛ0 De

MS,Λ

e −→ MS,Λ

e 0 −→ VSe(GΛ0 )opp −→

S

VSe(GΛ )

0

also defines an equivalence between MS,Λ e and VSe(GΛ ), where Λ := −2ρ − Λ and GΛ

is identified with t(GΛ0 ). In this case, Theorem 7.1 of [Fie08a] implies that indecom-

posable projective objects correspond to Braden-MacPherson sheaves. If Λ contains

both, a dominant and an antidominant weight, then Fiebig proved in [Fie06], Re-

mark 6, that there is a natural equivalence between the composition of the above

functors and the functor associated to the homomorphisms of the antidominant

projective.

4.3 Applications

4.3.1 The affine case

We first recall a hard Lefschetz theory on Braden-MacPherson sheaves (cf. [Fie12b]

and [Soe08]) before we give applications of the preceding chapters. As before, let

C[t] be the polynomial ring in one variable coming from the embedding Cρ ⊂ h∗

and denote by C[[t]] its completion with respect to the ideal generated by t. Let

Λ be a block of negative level with an antidominant weight γ ∈ Λ. We denote

by GΛ the moment graph associated to Λ and by Gt(Λ) the one associated to the

block t(Λ) = −2ρ − Λ of positive level. Recall that Gt(Λ) can be identified with the

same moment graph but with reversed order, which we denote by t(GΛ ). We further

assume that Λ is regular, i.e., the stabilizer Wγ of the antidominant weight γ ∈ Λ

or any other weight in Λ is trivial and we can identify Λ = W(Λ). Let x, y ∈ W(Λ)

and define µ = x · γ and λ = y · γ. Let ZS be the structure algebra of GΛ and

M ∈ ZS − modf . For x ∈ GΛ a vertex of GΛ recall the definitions

M x = Image(M ,→ M ⊗S Q → ex (M ⊗S Q))

33

and

Mx := M ∩ ex (M ⊗S Q).

We get a natural inclusion

Mx ,→ M x

of graded S-modules. Define B(x) := Γ(B(x)) to be the global sections of the

Braden-MacPherson sheaf associated to the vertex x on the tilted moment graph

t(GΛ ). We define µ0 := −2ρ − µ and λ0 := −2ρ − λ. By Theorem 4.2.1 we see that

Fiebig’s equivalence maps the projective cover PSe(µ0 ) to B(x)⊗S S,

e i.e., V(P e(µ0 )) =

S

B(x) ⊗S S,e which is viewed as an object in V(t(GΛ )). Further, the tilting module

TSe(µ) is mapped to DSe(B(x) ⊗S S)

e viewed as an object of V(GΛ ).

i.e.,

DS (B(x)) ∼

= B(x)[2l(x)]

where l(x) denotes the length of the element x ∈ W(Λ) according to the Bruhat

order.

We get a chain of isomorphisms

= HomZ(GΛ ) (V∆Se(λ), VTSe(µ))

∼

= HomZ(GΛ ) (VS (y), DS (B(x))) ⊗S S.

e

Thus, by self-duality we can naturally identify HomOSe (∆Se(λ), TSe(µ)) with the costalk

B(x)y ⊗S Se at y. Similarly, we can identify the S-module

e HomOSe (TSe(µ), ∇Se(λ))∗ with

the stalk B(x)y ⊗S Se (cf. the proof of Proposition 7.1 (3) in [Fie08b]). The pairing

we used to define the Andersen filtration led to an injective map

HomOSe (∆Se(λ), TSe(µ)) ⊗Se C[[t]] ,→ HomOSe (TSe(µ), ∇(λ))∗ ⊗Se C[[t]]

where C[[t]] is again the completion of the S-algebra C[t] from above. To define the

filtration on B(x)y ⊗S C that corresponds to the Andersen filtration under the above

identification, we can alternatively look at the map

and the Andersen filtration on the vector space HomO (T (µ), ∆(λ)) can be identi-

fied with the filtration on B(x)y ⊗S C which we get by first taking the preimages of

ti (B(x)y ⊗S C[t]) under the above inclusion and then taking the images in B(x)y ⊗S C

of this filtration under · ⊗C[t] C.

The S-modules B(x)y and B(x)y inherit gradings from the underlying Braden-

MacPherson sheaf which induce gradings on the vector spaces B(x)y ⊗S C and

34

B(x)y ⊗S C. The moment graph we associated to Λ corresponds to the one Fiebig

works with in [Fie12b]. Thus, Theorem 4.7 of loc. cit. (which is Theorem 4.4 in

[Soe08] in the finite case) shows that the cokernel of the inclusion of the graded

C[t]-modules B(x)y ⊗S C[t] ,→ B(x)y ⊗S C[t] fulfills the Lefschetz condition, i.e., the

resulting short exact sequence splits into the direct sum of short exact sequences of

the form

ti+1

C[t][−i − 2] ,→ C[t][i] (C[t]/(ti+1 ))[i].

This implies, that the Andersen filtration on B(x)y ⊗S C and the grading filtration

on this graded vector space coincide. By [Fie12b], Theorem 4.6, the subquotients of

this filtration are given by coefficients of affine Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials. Let

hy,x be the normalized Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomial associated to x, y ∈ W(Λ) in

i

the notation of [Soe97] and let Aµ,λ denote the i-th subquotient of the Andersen

filtration on HomO (∆(λ), T (µ)). Recall the definition µ = x · γ and λ = y · γ from

above. Then, in formulas, Fiebig’s theorem says

i

dimC Aµ,λ = hiy,x

Now let ∆(λ0 )i /∆(λ0 )i+1 be the i-th subquotient of the Jantzen filtration. Since the

functor HomO (P (µ0 ), ·) : O → C−mod is exact, the dimension of the vector space

HomO (P (µ0 ), ∆(λ0 )i /∆(λ0 )i+1 ) coincides with the dimension of the i-th subquotient

of the filtration on the vector space HomO (P (µ0 ), ∆(λ0 )) induced by the Jantzen

filtration on ∆(λ0 ). Furthermore, we have

dimC HomO (P (µ0 ), ∆(λ0 )i /∆(λ0 )i+1 ) = [∆(λ0 )i /∆(λ0 )i+1 : L(µ0 )].

Theorem 4.3.2. [∆(λ0 )i /∆(λ0 )i+1 : L(µ0 )] = hiy,x .

Remark 4.3.3. Note that we proved Theorem 4.3.2 only for regular weights of positive

level. This is due to the fact that Fiebig only considers the moment graph of a regular

block in Theorem 4.6 of [Fie12b]. However, since the proof of Fiebig’s theorem is just

a straight forward generalization to affine Kac-Moody algebras of the main result in

[Soe08], and since Soergel treats the singular case as well, it should not be difficult

to treat the singular affine case of Theorem 4.3.2 in a similar manner, but still only

in positive level.

Remark 4.3.4. In [Sha12] Shan generalizes the Beilinson-Bernstein localization of

[BB93] to affine Kac-Moody algebras and gets an analogous version of Theorem

4.3.2 for regular weights of negative level. Her methods are thus very different from

ours but her approach has the advantage of being able to treat the parabolic case as

well. In [SVV11] the authors consider a certain truncated subcategory of a block of

category O over an affine Kac-Moody algebra. In case the block is of negative level,

the subcategory corresponds to a truncated category O as we defined it above. If the

block is of positive level, the subcategory corresponds to a truncation from below,

i.e., only Verma modules with highest weight in a truncated subset of the block are

35

allowed to appear in a Verma flag. Further, the authors of loc. cit. state a possible

Koszul-duality result between truncated singular blocks of negative (resp. positive)

level and truncated parabolic blocks of positive (resp. negative) level. In this vague

context one could view Theorem 4.3.2 as a Koszul dual result to Shan’s approach.

The content of this subsection can be found as published version in [Küb12b]. We

consider a semisimple Lie algebra g. Since we always have an antidominant weight

in each block Λ ∈ h∗ / ∼Se we do not need the tilting functor to define Fiebig’s equiv-

alence in Theorem 4.2.1. The aim of this section is to prove directly that tilting

modules correspond to Braden-MacPherson sheaves constructed along the reversed

order and repeat the result about the Andersen-Jantzen filtrations in a purely com-

binatorial manner without using Arkhipov’s tilting functor. We then show how this

fits in the Koszul-duality result of [BGS96].

weights λ ∈ Λ, we write OA,λ := OA,Λ . We fix an antidominant weight λ ∈ h∗ for

the rest of this chapter. In this case the structure functor is given by

f

e −→ ZS

V := HomOSe (PSe(λ), ·) : OS,λ e(GΛ )−mod

e −→ VS

e(GΛ )

where again GΛ denotes the moment graph associated to Λ. For this chapter we take

the definition of GΛ where the set of vertices V of GΛ is given by W(Λ)/Wλ and the

order is the induced Bruhat order. Note that with this convention, projective objects

in OSe correspond to Braden-MacPherson sheaves on GΛ . Let A be a localization of

S at a prime ideal and denote by Q the field of fractions of S.

e

= L(V∇A (w · λ)) ∼

= VA (w).

(ii) Let M ∈ OA,λ admit a Verma or a Nabla flag. Then VM is a free A-module

of finite rank.

We are now going to prove that tilting modules correspond to Braden-MacPherson

sheaves associated to the moment graph with reversed order. For this we first repeat

some reformulations of [Jan08] from [Fie08a].

if the map Γ(M) → Mx is surjective for every x ∈ V. (Here we use the notation of

[Jan08].)

36

Due to [Jan08] an equivalent description of an F-projective sheaf P on the GKM-

graph G is then given by the properties

A-modules (if A = S).

Proposition 4.3.7 ([Jan08], Proposition

Let M ∈ ZA −modf and define eI := x∈I ex for any subgraph I ⊂ G. Suppose in

addition, that eI M is a reflexive A-module for any F-open subgraph I of G. Then

L(M ) is F-flabby on G and we have an isomorphism

∼

eI M −→ Γ(I, L(M )).

module M ∈ OA . Let D be a subset of h∗ with the property: If λ ∈ D and µ ∈ h∗

with µ ≤ λ, then µ ∈ D. Set for M ∈ OA

X

OD M := U (gA )Mµ and M [D] := M/OD M.

µ∈D

/

OD M and M [D].

(ii)

∆A (λ) if λ ∈

/ D, 0 if λ ∈

/ D,

O ∆A (λ) ∼

D

= and ∆A (λ)[D] ∼

=

0 else ∆A (λ) else.

the block OA,λ we call an F-open subgraph ↑-open and a subgraph which is F-open

according to the moment graph with the reversed order, we call ↓-open. A subgraph

I with set of vertices V 0 is ↑-open if and only if I c is ↓-open, where I c is the full

subgraph of G with vertices V c := V − V 0 . For I an ↓-open subgraph, set D equal to

c

the set of all ν ∈ h∗ , such that there exists x ∈ V c with ν ≤ x · λ. Set OI M := OD M

and M [I c ] = M [D].

the localization of A at p for the rest of this section.

eI VM ∼

c

= V(d(OI M )).

37

Proof. (cf. the proof of Lemma 4.16 of [Jan08]) Let V 0 be the set of vertices of I.

Dualizing the short exact sequence

c

OI M ,→ M M [I c ]

we get, by self-duality of M and the freeness of all modules over A, a short exact

sequence

c

d(OI M ) M ←- d(M [I c ]).

Then the exactness of V yields a short exact sequence

c

V(d(OI M )) V(M ) ←- V(d(M [I c ])).

c

Denote by ϕ : V(M ) V(d(OI M )) the surjective map from the above short exact

sequence. Then ker(ϕ) ∼ = V(d(M [I c ])) and we want to show that ker(ϕ) coincides

with the set X := {f ∈ V(M ) | eI f = 0}. Since d(M [I c ]) ⊗A Q is the direct sum of

Verma modules of the form ∆Q (x·λ) ∼ = ∇Q (x·λ) with x ∈/ V 0 , we get ew f = 0 for any

c 0

f ∈ V(d(M [I ])) and w ∈ V . But this implies eI f = 0 which proves ker(ϕ) ⊂ X.

So let f ∈ X. Then the map f ⊗ idQ is zero on the direct summands of PA (λ) ⊗A Q

that are isomorphic to ∆Q (w · λ) with w ∈ V 0 . Thus the image of f ⊗ idQ lies in

d(M [I c ]) ⊗A Q. Now the short exact sequence

c

d(OI M ) M ←- d(M [I c ])

f ∈ V(d(M [I c ])) and we get a natural isomorphism eI VM ∼

c

= V(d(OI M )).

Definition 4.3.10. A sheaf M on G is called ↓-flabby (resp. ↓-projective) if it is

F-flabby (resp. F-projective) according to the moment graph G with reversed order.

We call it ↑-flabby (resp. ↑-projective) if it is F-flabby (resp. F-projective) according

to the usual order on G.

Proof. For any ↓-open subgraph I we get that eI VM is a free A-module by Lemma

4.3.9. Now Proposition 4.3.7 tells us that L(VM ) is ↓-flabby.

Notation 3. For x ∈ V we denote by B↑ (x) the BMP-sheaf B(x) for the moment

graph with the original order. For the moment graph with reversed order we denote

the BMP-sheaf at the vertex x by B↓ (x).

In the following we want to show that the indecomposable deformed tilting module

TA (x · λ) with highest weight x · λ corresponds to B↓ (x) ⊗S A under L ◦ V (A = S).

e

For this we need some preparation.

and k ∈ N. If g : (∆C (µ))k → M is a morphism which induces an injective map

gµ : (∆C (µ))kµ → Mµ on the µ-weight spaces, then g is injective.

38

Lemma 4.3.13. Let T ∈ OA,λ be a tilting module. Then for any w ∈ V the stalk

L(VT )w is free over A of rank r := (T : ∆A (w · λ)).

Proof. (cf. the proof of Lemma 4.18 of [Jan08]) We want to construct an isomor-

∼

phism ew (VT ) = L(VT )w − → V(∇A (w · λ)r ). Using base change, Lemma 2.2.4, and

the fact that over the residue field C we have dimC HomOC (∆C (w · λ), T ⊗A C) =

dimC HomOC (T ⊗A C, ∇C (w · λ)) = (T ⊗A C : ∆C (w · λ)), we can deduce that

HomOA (∆A (w · λ), T ) is a free A-module of rank r. Now choose an A-basis f1 , ..., fr

of HomOA (∆A (w · λ), T ). Dualizing yields a basis df1 , ..., dfr of HomOA (T, ∇A (w · λ)).

Consider the map

f : ∆A (w · λ)r −→ T, (v1 , ..., vr ) 7→

P

fi (vi ).

df : T −→ ∇A (w · λ)r , v 7→

P

(dfi (v)).

Applying the functor V gives a map

which factors through ew (VT ), since V∇A (w · λ)r has support {w}. So this implies

a well-defined map

(Vdf )w : ew VT −→ V∇A (w · λ)r

which is injective, since it becomes an isomorphism after applying · ⊗A Q. We now

want to prove that (Vdf )w is surjective. For this, by Nakayama’s lemma and by

exactness of V, it is enough to prove that

df ⊗ idC : T ⊗A C −→ ∇A (w · λ)r ⊗A C

we get the surjectivity of the dual map df : T ⊗A C → ∇C (w · λ)r . Since V∇A (w · λ)r

is free of rank r over A we get the result.

Theorem 4.3.14. Let T ∈ OA,λ be a tilting module (A = S).

e Then L(VT ) is

↓-projective as an A-sheaf on GΛ .

Proof. (cf. the proof of Proposition 4.20 of [Jan08]) By [Jan08] section 2.12.(A)

L(VT ) is generated by global sections and ↓-flabby by Proposition 4.3.11. Further-

more, the lemma above shows that (L(VT ))w is free over A for every w ∈ V. Hence,

we only have to prove that for any edge E := {x, y}, x > y and α(E) = α∨ where

x, y ∈ W(Λ)/Wλ and α∨ the coroot of a root α ∈ R(Λ), the map ρx,E : L(VT )x →

L(VT )E induces an isomorphism

∼

L(VT )x /α∨ L(VT )x −→ L(VT )E .

Since α∨ L(VT )x ⊂ kerρx,E , we only have to prove kerρx,E ⊂ α∨ L(VT )x . For this it

is enough to show that

39

for every prime ideal p ⊂ A of height 1. For α∨ ∈

/ p, (4.1) follows since α∨ is invertible

in Ap . So we have to prove (4.1) for p = Aα∨ . Since ρx,E is a push-out map, we can

identify kerρx,E with the set ex {u|u ∈ VT (E), ey u = 0}. An element u ∈ VT (E) is

of the form u = (ex + ey )v + α∨ ex w for v, w ∈ VT . Thus, we have to show that

= ∆Ap (y ·λ) and it is easy to see that in this subgeneric

∼

case we also have TAp (x·λ) = PAp (y·λ). Now we can identify (ex +ey )(VT ⊗A Ap ) with

a direct sum of Ap -modules of the form M := HomgAp (PAp (y · λ), ∆Ap (y · λ)) ∼ = Ap

and N := HomgAp (PAp (y · λ), TAp (x · λ)). But by Proposition 2.4.2 we get N ∼ =

∨

Ap (ex + ey ) + Ap α ex .

If f ∈ M , we get ex f = 0 which is equal to α∨ ex f . If f ∈ N , ey f = 0 implies

ex f ∈ α∨ Ap ex . But with our identification we get ex f ∈ α∨ ex (VT ⊗A Ap ).

= B↓ (w) ⊗S A for all w ∈ W(Λ).

Proof. The proof is essentially the same as the one for Theorem 4.22 of [Jan08] and

relies on the facts that L(VTA (w · λ)) is ↓-projective and indecomposable. Now the

description of the indecomposable ↓-projective sheaves by BMP-sheaves gives the

corollary.

Let w◦ ∈ W(Λ) be the longest element according to the Bruhat order. Then the

multiplication from the left

pull-back functor ([Lan12], Definition 3.3)

Proof. Let M ∈ VA (t(GΛ )). Using Lemma 4.8 of [Fie08a], we have to show that

w◦∗ (M) is ↑-flabby and (w◦∗ (M))[x] is free over A for x ∈ V.

Let I be ↓-open. Then w◦ I is ↑-open and we get that

Γ(M) ∼

= Γ(w◦∗ (M)) → Γ(I, w◦∗ (M)) ∼

= Γ(w◦ I, M)

is surjective since M is flabby. As (w◦∗ (M))[x] = M[w◦ x] the claim follows. Note that

the definitions of (·)[x] and (·)[w◦ x] differ from each other in the sense that the first

underlies the graph t(GΛ ) and the second GΛ .

40

We get an equivalence of categories

with the properties: w◦∗ (B↑ (x) ⊗S A) ∼ = VA (w◦ x).

Hence, using the self-duality of Braden-MacPherson sheaves and of the sky scraper

sheaves in this case, the composition

= B↓ (w◦ x) ⊗S A and F (VA (x)) ∼

= VA (w◦ x)

which are isomorphisms of graded sheaves if A = S.

Now we can lift the functor FA via Fiebig’s equivalence to a functor tA on the

representation theoretic side such that the following diagram of functors commutes:

V

MA,λ −−−→ VA (GΛ )

tA y

F

y A

Vopp

Mopp

A,λ −−−→ VA (G)

opp

the longest element. Denote by A = Se the localization of S at 0. There exists an

isomorphism l = lA (x, y) which makes the diagram

j

HomOA (PA (x · λ), ∆A (y · λ)) −−−−→ HomOA (PA (x · λ), ∇A (y · λ))

yt yl

a

HomOA (∆A (w◦ y · λ), TA (w◦ x · λ)) −−−−→ (HomOA (TA (w◦ x · λ), ∇A (w◦ y · λ)))∗

◦ y·λ

(TA (w◦ x · λ)) denote the

inclusions defined in chapter 3 and t = tA denotes the isomorphism induced by the

functor tA from above.

Proof. The proof is essentially the same as the one for Theorem 3.3.1 (cf. Theorem

4.3. in [Küb12a]), where we proved the analogous result for tA the tilting functor.

∼

Denote by tC : Homg (P (x · λ), ∆(y · λ)) → Homg (∆(w◦ y · λ), T (w◦ x · λ)) the isomor-

phism we get from tA ⊗A idC after base change. The next corollary now follows in

the same way as Corollary 3.3.2.

∼

tC : Homg (P (x · λ), ∆(y · λ)) → Homg (∆(w◦ y · λ), T (w◦ x · λ))

identifies the filtration induced by the Jantzen filtration with the Andersen filtration.

41

Now we consider C ∼

= S/Sh as a simple graded S-module living in degree 0. The

map

∼

tC : Homg (P (x · λ), ∆(y · λ)) → Homg (∆(w◦ y · λ), T (w◦ x · λ))

can then be identified with

∼

FS ⊗ idC : HomVS (GΛ ) (B↑ (x), VS (y)) ⊗S C → HomVS (GΛ ) (VS (w◦ y), B↓ (w◦ x)) ⊗S C

which is now an isomorphism of graded C-vector spaces. But using the proof of

Proposition 7.1. (3) in [Fie08b] this isomorphism becomes a graded isomorphism

between certain costalks of the Braden-MacPherson sheaves, namely an isomorphism

∼

ϕ : B↑ (x)y ⊗S C → B↓ (w◦ x)w◦ y ⊗S C.

Remark 4.3.20. As before, the filtration on B↓ (w◦ x)w◦ y ⊗S C induced by the Ander-

sen filtration coincides with the grading filtration we get from the grading on the

Braden-MacPherson sheaf B↓ (w◦ x). Since the graded isomorphism ϕ interchanges

the filtration on B↑ (x)y ⊗S C, which is induced by the Jantzen filtration, with the

filtration on B↓ (w◦ x)w◦ y ⊗S C, which is induced by the Andersen filtration, we get

that the Jantzen filtration coincides with the grading filtration coming from the

grading on L the Braden-MacPherson sheaf B↑ (x). Let λ ∈ Λ ⊂ h∗ be antidominant

and Pλ := P (w · λ) be a minimal projective generator of Oλ . Then there is an

equivalence of categories

where Mof − EndO (Pλ ) denotes the category of finitely generated right modules over

EndO (Pλ ). In [BGS96] it is shown that E := EndO (Pλ ) is a non-negatively graded

algebra with E0 being semisimple. It turns out (see e.g. [Str03]) that this grading

coming from the geometric description of Oλ essentially coincides with the grading on

EndO (Pλ ) we get from the direct sum of Braden-MacPherson sheaves corresponding

to Pλ . For ∆(µ) ∈ Oλ , HomO (Pλ , ∆(µ)) is a graded E-module and the filtration

on HomO (Pλ , ∆(µ)) induced by the Jantzen filtration coincides with the grading

filtration on this space. But since E0 is semisimple and E non-negatively graded,

the subquotients of the grading filtration are semisimple and so are the Jantzen

filtration layers of ∆(µ).

42

5 Critical representations of affine

Kac-Moody algebras

In this chapter we work over an untwisted affine Kac-Moody algebra. In the preced-

ing chapters of this thesis we mainly focused on the non-critical representations. In

the critical case it is important to emphasize on the particular structure of an affine

Kac-Moody algebra as a central extension of the loop algebra of a finite-dimensional

simple complex Lie algebra. Distinguishing between the root systems corresponding

to the finite and the affine Lie algebra is very important for this chapter. For this

reason, we recall the construction of an affine Kac-Moody algebra here, although it

would also have made sense to place it in chapter 1. We redefine some notation from

chapter 2 as well to make it suitable for the purpose of this chapter. After having

recalled the restricted category O and, in particular, restricted Verma modules, we

will prove the main results of this chapter, which is the calculation of the center of

the deformed, restricted category O (Theorem 5.3.12) and a Jantzen sum formula

for restricted Verma modules (Theorem 5.4.1). The first result can be found in the

preprint [Küb13]. The result about the restricted Jantzen filtration is content of the

preprint [Küb12c].

References for this section are [Kac90] and [AF12b]. Let g be a simple Lie algebra

with a Borel subalgebra b and a Cartan subalgebra h. We denote by R the finite

root system with positive roots R+ and by Π the simple roots. Moreover, denote by

W the finite Weyl group and by κ : g × g → C the Killing form. We take a non-split

g of the loop algebra g ⊗C C[t, t−1 ]. As a vector space, e

central extension e g is the

−1

direct sum (g ⊗C C[t, t ]) ⊕ CK, where K is a central element.

∂

Adding a derivation operator D with the property [D, ·] = t ∂t , we get the affine Kac-

Moody algebra b g associated to g. As a vector space, we have b g = (g ⊗C C[t, t−1 ]) ⊕

CK ⊕ CD and the Lie bracket is given by

g] = {0}

[K, b

[D, x ⊗ tn ] = nx ⊗ tn

[x ⊗ tn , y ⊗ tm ] = [x, y] ⊗ tm+n + nδm,−n κ(x, y)K

43

where x, y ∈ g and n, m ∈ Z. The Borel subalgebra of b

g corresponding to b ⊂ g is

given by

b = (g ⊗C tC[t] + b ⊗C C[t]) ⊕ CK ⊕ CD

b

g is

while the corresponding Cartan subalgebra of b

h = h ⊕ CK ⊕ CD.

b

g from chapter

In our new notation for this section the triangular decomposition of b

1 becomes

g=b

b n⊕b h⊕bn+

where again b n+ the direct sum of positive root

n is the direct sum of negative and b

g.

spaces of b

For a vector space V we denote by h·, ·i : V ∗ × V → C the natural pairing with its

dual space. The projection b h = h ⊕ CK ⊕ CD → h induces an embedding h∗ ⊂ b h∗ .

h∗ . We define two

By this embedding we can consider all finite roots as elements of b

h∗ by the relations

weights Λ◦ , δ ∈ b

hδ, Di = 1

hΛ◦ , h ⊕ CDi = {0}

hΛ◦ , Ki = 1

h are given by R

g with respect to b

Then the roots of b bre ∪ R

b=R bim where

bre := {α + nδ | α ∈ R ⊂ R,

R b n ∈ Z}

are the real roots, and

bim := {nδ | n ∈ Z, n 6= 0}

R

b+ , i.e., the roots of b

the imaginary roots. The positive roots R b with respect to b

h are

then given by

b+ = R+ ∪ {α + nδ | α ∈ R, n > 0} ∪ {nδ|n > 0}.

R

Denote by θ the highest root of R. Then the set of simple affine roots is given by

b+ .

b = Π ∪ {−θ + δ} ⊂ R

Π

b and identify

the finite Weyl group W with the subgroup of W c generated by the reflections sα :

∗ ∗

h → b

b

P to finite roots α ∈ R. Then W stabilizes the subspace

h corresponding

∗ ∗ 1

h ⊂ h . Let ρ := 2 α∈R+ α be the half sum of positive finite roots. We then set

b

ρ := ρ + h∨ Λ◦

44

where h∨ is the dual Coxeter number of g. Then hρ, α∨ i = 6 0 for all α ∈ Rbre and

hρ, Ki =

6 0 as well. Recall the ρ-shifted dot-action of W h∗ from chapter 1 defined

c on b

by

w · λ := w(λ + ρ) − ρ

where w ∈ W h∗ .

c and λ ∈ b

The Killing form κ on the simple Lie algebra g extends to a bilinear form (·|·) :

g×b

b g → C which is given by the following equations

(D|g ⊗C C[t, t−1 ] ⊕ CD) = {0},

(K|d) = 1,

∼

for x, y ∈ g, m, n ∈ Z. As in chapter 1 it induces an isomorphism ν : b

h→b h∗ which

∼

coincides with the isomorphism h → h∗ induced by the Killing form when restricted

to the finite Cartan subalgebra, and which sends K to δ and D to Λ◦ . Thus, the

induced form on b h∗ is given by

(α|β) = κ(α, β)

(δ|h∗ ⊕ Cδ) = {0},

(Λ◦ |δ) = 1,

for α, β ∈ h∗ and κ the induced Killing form on h∗ . Note that this definition of the

bilinear form only coincides with the one from chapter 1 up to a non-zero scalar.

Denote by Sb the symmetric algebra S(b h) over the affine Cartan subalgebra and write

S := S(h) for the symmetric algebra over the finite Cartan subalgebra. As in chapter

2 let A be a deformation algebra of the affine Kac-Moody algebra b g. If not otherwise

stated, we will always assume for the rest of this chapter that the structure map

τ : Sb → A of a deformation algebra A factors through the natural surjection Sb S

induced by the embedding h∗ ⊂ b h∗ from above.

The deformed category OA defined in chapter 2 is always considered to be associated

to the affine data (b

g, b

b, b

h).

45

5.2.1 Integral affine roots

Let M ∈ OA and λ ∈ b h∗ . The central element K ∈ bg acts on the weight space Mλ by

λ(K) ∈ C. We denote by Mk the eigenspace of the action of K on M with eigenvalue

k ∈ C. If M = Mk we call M a module of level k. The category OA decomposes L into

the direct sum of subcategories of modules with equal level, i.e., OA = k∈C OA,k ,

where OA,k consists of those modules which are of level k.

For A a local deformation algebra with canonical weight τ : b hA → A and residue

∗

h∗A × b

field K, we can extend the form (·|·) on h to an A-bilinear form (·|·)A : b

b h∗A → A.

Note that for the imaginary root δ ∈ R b we have (δ|δ) = 0. For λ ∈ bh∗ recall the set

of integral roots (with respect to λ and A) from chapter 2 which becomes

bA (λ) := {α ∈ R

R b | 2(λ + ρ + τ |α)K ∈ Z(α|α)K }

W

cA (λ) := hsα | α ∈ R bre i ⊂ W.

bA (λ) ∩ R c

R

bA (λ) as before and omit the subscripts in this definition if A = C (or A = S, e

since RSe(Λ) = RC (Λ)). Furthermore, for λ, µ ∈ Λ, we have λ(K) = µ(K) and can

b b

therefore define the complex number λ(K) to be the level of Λ in a well-defined way.

We call the special value crit := −ρ(K) the critical level.

Lemma 5.2.1 ([AF12a], Lemma 4.2). For Λ ∈ b

(iii) We have nδ ∈ R

bA (Λ) for all n 6= 0.

We recall the action of the Feigin-Frenkel center on OA as explained in [AF12a] and

[AF12b]. Let A be a local deformation algebra with residue field K. In chapter 3.1

of [AF12b] the authors introduce an equivalence

T : OA −→ OA

defined by T := L(δ) ⊗C · where L(δ) is the one dimensional simple b

g-module with

−1

highest weight δ. The inverse functor of T is given by T = L(−δ) ⊗C ·. Denote by

T n the n-fold composition of T .

Lemma 5.2.2 ([AF12b], chapter 3.1). A block OA,Λ with Λ ∈ bh∗ / ∼A is preserved

by the functor T if and only if Λ is of level k(Λ) = crit.

46

Let V crit (g) be the universal affine vertex algebra of g at the critical level and denote

by z its center. On any M ∈ OA,crit the center z induces the structure of a module

over the polynomial ring (of infinite rank)

M

Z := Zn = C[p(i)

s , i = 1, ..., rkg, s ∈ Z].

n∈Z

functor on OA . Hence, for any M ∈ OA we get a homomorphism z M : T n M → M .

This action respects base change, i.e., for A → A0 a homomorphism of deformation

algebras, the base change functor · ⊗A A0 : OA,crit → OA0 ,crit induces a natural

isomorphism z M ⊗A A ∼

0

= z M ⊗A idA0 .

Definition 5.2.3. Let M ∈ OA,crit . We call M restricted if for all n 6= 0 and all

z ∈ Zn , the homomorphism z M : T n M → M is zero. Then the restricted deformed

category OA,crit is the full subcategory of OA,crit of all restricted modules.

J J

h∗ open and bounded set OA,crit := OA,crit ∩ OA

For J ⊂ b . As in the non-restricted

J

case we get a truncation functor (·)J : OA,crit → OA,crit . Denote by Zn M the sub-

module of M generated by the subset {z M (m) | m ∈ T n M, z ∈ Zn } ⊂ M . The

functor (·)res : OA,crit → OA,crit given by

X

M 7→ M res := M/ Zn M

n∈Z\{0}

is well defined and left adjoint to the inclusion functor OA,crit ⊂ OA,crit .

Definition 5.2.4. Let λ ∈ b

defined by

∆A (λ) := ∆A (λ)res .

As in the non-restricted case, we omit the subscript of the restricted Verma modules

if the deformation algebra is C ∼ = S/Sh and write ∆(λ) instead of ∆C (λ). We collect

some results which can be found in [AF12b] and which we need for the calculation

of the center of a critical restricted block.

Lemma 5.2.5. Restricted Verma modules respect base change, i.e., for any homo-

morphism A → A0 of deformation algebras we have ∆A (λ) ⊗A A0 ∼

= ∆A0 (λ).

Proof. The claim is obvious for non-restricted Verma modules. Since the action of

the center respects base change it is also true for restricted Verma modules.

h∗ be critical,

Lemma 5.2.6 ([AF12b], Lemma 3.8, Lemma 3.3, Lemma 3.4). Let λ ∈ b

J ⊂bh∗ open and bounded, A → A0 a homomorphism of local deformation algebras

and M ∈ OA . Then

h∗ the weight space ∆A (λ)µ is a free A-module with

(i) for any µ ∈ b

47

(ii) (M res )J ∼

= (M J )res ,

(iii) the canonical map

(M ⊗A A0 )res → M res ⊗A A0

is an isomorphism.

Remark 5.2.7. Note that in [AF12b], Lemma 3.4, the isomorphism in part (iii) of

the above lemma is formulated by

∼

(M ⊗A A0 )res → (M res ⊗A A0 )res .

But since M res ⊗A A0 is an object of OA0 already, we do not have to restrict again.

We recall the construction of projective covers from [AF12b]. Let A be a local

deformation algebra with residue field K, J ⊂ b h∗ an open, bounded subset and let

λ ∈ J be of critical level. Recall the projective cover PAJ (λ) LA (λ) from chapter

J

2. Define P A (λ) := PAJ (λ)res . We say a module M ∈ OA has a restricted Verma flag

if it has a finite filtration with subquotients isomorphic to restricted Verma modules.

As in the non-restricted case, we denote by (M : ∆A (λ)) the multiplicity of ∆A (λ)

as a subquotient in a restricted Verma flag of M .

Theorem 5.2.8 ([AF12b], Theorem 4.9, and [Fie12a], Theorem 4.3). Let A be a

local deformation algebra with residue field K, J an open and bounded subset of bh∗

J

and let µ ∈ J be of critical level. Then P A (µ) admits a restricted Verma flag and

we have (

J [∆K (λ) : LK (µ)], if λ ∈ J

(P A (µ) : ∆A (λ)) =

0, otherwise

J J

h∗ . Furthermore, P A (µ) is a projective cover of LA (µ) in OA .

for all λ ∈ b

case, we have

J

M, P ∈ OA and P be a finitely generated projective object. Then the canonical map

HomOA (P , M ) ⊗A A0 −→ HomOA0 (P ⊗A A0 , M ⊗A A0 )

is an isomorphism of A0 -modules.

J

Proof. By Theorem 5.2.8 we find a finitely generated projective object P ∈ OA , s.t.

res ∼ res J J

P = P . Since (·) is left adjoint to the inclusion functor OA ,→ OA and since

M ⊗A A0 is an object of OA0 , we get

∼

HomOA (P res , M ) ⊗A A0 −→ HomOA (P, M ) ⊗A A0

48

and

∼

HomOA0 ((P ⊗A A0 )res , M ⊗A A0 ) −→ HomOA0 (P ⊗A A0 , M ⊗A A0 )

By Lemma 5.2.6, we have (P ⊗A A0 )res ∼

= P res ⊗A A0 . Thus, the claim follows from

Lemma 2.2.3.

Remark 5.2.10. The Feigin-Frenkel conjecture claims that for λ, µ ∈ J the multi-

J

plicities (P A (µ) : ∆A (λ)) are given by certain periodic Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials

evaluated at one. These values only depend on the relative position between λ and

µ, and if λ and µ are ‘far away’ from each other these polynomials are zero. Thus, if

J

the Feigin-Frenkel conjecture was true, the projective cover P A (µ) would stabilize

J

for J big enough and P A (µ) would also be a projective cover of LA (µ) in the bigger

non-truncated category OA for each big enough J .

We let bh∗crit := {λ ∈ bh∗ | λ(K) = crit} be the critical hyperplane. We want to define

an equivalence relation on b h∗crit . We write µ A λ if there exists an open and bounded

J

subset J ⊂ b h∗ such that LA (µ) appears as a subquotient of P A (λ). This defines a

partial order on b h∗ and we denote by ∼res b∗

A the equivalence relation on hcrit that is

res

generated by this order. We call the equivalence classes of ∼A restricted A-blocks

or just restricted blocks. For an equivalence class Λ ∈ b h∗crit / ∼res

A let O A,Λ ⊂ O A,crit

be the full subcategory of objects M , such that [M : LA (λ)] 6= 0 implies λ ∈ Λ.

Theorem 5.2.11 ([AF12b], Theorem 5.2). The functor

Q

OA,Λ −→ OA,crit

h∗crit /∼res

Λ∈b A L

(MΛ ) 7−→ MΛ

is an equivalence of categories.

We want to recall a more detailed description of the restricted critical blocks. Denote

h∗ → h∗ , λ 7→ λ the projection with respect to the decomposition b

by · : b h = h⊕

CD ⊕ CK and denote by Λ ⊂ h the image of a subset Λ ⊂ h . For Λ ∈ h∗crit / ∼res

∗ b∗ b

A

and λ ∈ Λ we define the finite integral root system (with respect to Λ and A) by

RA (λ) := {α ∈ R | 2(λ + ρ + τ |α)K ∈ Z(α|α)K }

and the finite integral Weyl group by

WA (λ) := hsα | α ∈ RA (Λ)i ⊂ W.

As usual we can write RA (Λ) = RA (λ) and WA (Λ) = WA (λ) and omit the subscripts

in case A = C or A = S.

e

h∗crit / ∼res

Lemma 5.2.12 ([AF12b], Lemma 5.3). Let Λ ∈ b A be a critical restricted

equivalence class. Then, for all λ ∈ Λ

Λ = WA (Λ) · λ.

49

5.2.5 The generic and subgeneric cases

For the calculation of the center we will need the description of the generic and

subgeneric equivalence classes (cf. [AF12a]). In the rest of this paper, Se will as usual

be the localization of S = S(h) at the maximal ideal generated by the finite Cartan

subalgebra h and if p ⊂ Se is a prime ideal, we denote by Sp the localization of Se at

p. Note that S is defined over the finite Cartan. We will work with the symmetric

algebra over the affine Cartan in the last section of this chapter.

Now let A be such a localization of S. e We need some more notation: Let Λ ∈

∗ res

hcrit / ∼A . For a root α ∈ RA (Λ) and λ ∈ Λ we define α ↓ λ (resp. α ↑ λ) to be the

b

element in the set {sα · λ, s−α+δ · λ} which is smaller (resp. larger) than or equal to λ.

We then define inductively α ↓n λ := α ↓ (α ↓n−1 λ) and α ↑n λ := α ↑ (α ↑n−1 λ).

h∗crit / ∼res

Definition 5.2.13. Let Λ ∈ b A be a critical restricted equivalence class. We

call Λ

Lemma 5.2.14 ([AF12b], Lemma 5.5). Let p ⊂ Se be a prime ideal of height one

h∗crit be an equivalence class for ∼res

and let Λ ⊂ b Sp .

(i) If α∨ ∈

/ p for all α ∈ R, then Λ is generic.

(ii) If α∨ ∈ p for some α ∈ R, then RSp (Λ) ⊂ {α, −α} and Λ is either generic or

subgeneric.

We finish this chapter with the main results of [AF12b] which in our setting becomes

h∗crit / ∼res

Theorem 5.2.15 ([AF12b], Theorem 5.6). Let Λ ∈ b b∗

A , λ ∈ Λ and J ⊂ hcrit

an open and bounded subset.

J

P A (λ) ∼

= ∆A (λ)

if λ ∈ J .

(ii) Suppose that Λ is subgeneric and that Λ = {λ, sα · λ} for some α ∈ R. Then

there is a non-split short exact sequence

J

0 → ∆A (α ↑ λ) → P A (λ) → ∆A (λ) → 0

0 → LA (α ↓ λ) → ∆A (λ) → LA (λ) → 0.

50

(iii) If Λ is subgeneric with RA (Λ) = {±α} and λ ∈ Λ, we have

Λ = {..., α ↓2 λ, α ↓ λ, λ, α ↑ λ, α ↑2 λ, ...}.

The second short exact sequence in (ii) follows from the first one and the restricted

BGGH-reciprocity.

Remark 5.2.16. Note that the first part of the theorem implies that for λ generic

and A = K a field, the restricted Verma module ∆K (λ) is simple. This fact was

already proven in [Fre05], Theorem 4.8.

e for Λ critical

The content of this chapter can be found in the preprint [Küb13]. It mainly follows

the ideas of the PhD thesis [Fie01] and its published version [Fie03] and should be

seen as a supplement to the first part of [Fie03].

Recall that the center of a category is the ring of endo-transformations of the identity

functor. Let A be a deformation algebra and fix a critical equivalence class Λ ∈

h∗crit / ∼res

b b∗

A . For an open, bounded subset J ⊂ hcrit denote by ZA (Λ, J ) the center of

J

OA,Λ and by ZA (Λ) the center of OA,Λ . We first consider the case A = S. e Thus, we

have

J

ZSe(Λ, J ) := Z(OS,Λ

e ) = End(idOJ ).

S,Λ

e

We want to describe the center by observing its action on projective objects. Since

in general we only have enough projective objects in the truncated categories, we

have to express the center of OS,Λ

e as a limit of the centers ZA (Λ, J ) which runs

over open and bounded subsets J ⊂ b h∗ . The main result is then

crit

h∗crit / ∼res

and Λ ∈ b e . Then we have an isomorphism of rings

S

( )

ZSe(Λ) ∼

Y

= (zµ )µ∈Λ ∈ Se zµ ≡ zα↓µ (mod α∨ ) ∀ α ∈ R(Λ) .

µ∈Λ

We use Lemma 5.2.9 and a localization process to split the problem into generic and

subgeneric situations. Following [Fie03], we first relate the center to the endomor-

phism rings of a generating set of projective objects.

Remark 5.3.2. Let A be a localization of Se at a prime ideal and Γ an equiva-

J

lence class under ∼res

A . The block O A,Γ is generated by the set of projective covers

J

{P A (λ)}λ∈Γ∩J . By the same arguments as given in [Fie03], chapter 3.1, we get that

evaluating on indecomposable projective objects induces an injective map

Y J

ZA (Γ, J ) ,→ EndOA (P A (µ))

µ∈Γ∩J

51

and the image of this map is given by the subset

(

Y J

(zµ )µ∈Γ∩J ∈ EndOA (P A (µ))zµ ◦ f = f ◦ zλ

µ∈Γ∩J

)

J J

∀ λ, µ ∈ Γ ∩ J , f ∈ HomOA (P A (λ), P A (µ)) .

Lemma 5.2.9, for the endomorphism rings of restricted projective objects induces a

map

ZA (Γ, J ) −→ ZA0 (Γ, J )

(cf. the proof of Proposition 3.1 in [Fie03]).

For another open, bounded subset J 0 ⊂ b h∗ with J ⊂ J 0 the restriction of the iden-

J J0

tity functor to the subcategory OA,Γ ⊂ OA,Γ induces a map ZA (Γ, J 0 ) → ZA (Γ, J ).

This defines a directed system. Since for every finitely generated module M of OA,Γ

J

there exists an open and bounded subset such that M lies in OA,Γ , and since the

center is already uniquely defined by its action on the finitely generated objects, we

have

ZA (Γ) ∼

= lim Z (Γ, J ).

←− A

The base change maps ZA (Γ, J ) → ZA0 (Γ, J ) then induce a base change map

ZA (Γ) → ZA0 (Γ) (cf. [Fie03]), by the universal property of inverse limits.

restricted Verma modules induces an injective map

Y Y

ZA (Γ) ,→ = A

µ∈Γ µ∈Γ

Proof. (cf. [Fie01], proof of Proposition 5.10) Let Q := Q(A) be the quotient field

of A. Then by Theorem 5.2.15 (i) and Remark 5.2.16, all Verma modules ∆Q (λ) are

projective and irreducible and we have HomOQ (∆Q (µ), ∆Q (λ)) = 0 for µ 6= λ. But

by the description of the center from above and by base change for the center we

get a commutative diagram

Q Q

ZA (Γ) −−−→ µ∈Γ = µ∈Γ A

y y

∼

ZQ (Γ) −−−→ µ∈Γ EndOQ (∆Q (µ)) ∼

Q Q

= µ∈Γ Q

where the lower horizontal is an isomorphism and the verticals are injective. But

then the upper horizontal is injective as well.

52

Remark 5.3.4. We want to describe the image of the map

Y

ZSe(Γ) ,→ S.

e

µ∈Γ

∨

prime ideals p of height one. So let p ⊂ Se be such an ideal. If αQ ∈/ p for all

∼

α ∈ R(Γ) = RSe(Γ), all ∆Sp (µ) are projective and we get ZSp (Γ) → µ∈Γ Sp which

is the generic situation. We will deal with the subgeneric case in the next chapter.

Let Sα be the localization of Se at the prime ideal generated by α∨ . We fix an

h∗crit under ∼res

equivalence class Γ ⊂ b Sα , which is not generic. Let λ ∈ Γ. Then, Lemma

5.2.14 and Theorem 5.2.15 (iii) imply Γ = W cα · λ = {..., α ↓ λ, λ, α ↑ λ, α ↑2 λ, ...},

where Wcα ⊂ W c is the affine subgroup generated by the reflections sα+nδ with n ∈ Z.

Recall that by Theorem 5.2.15 we have a short exact sequence

J

∆Sα (α ↑ λ) ,→ P Sα (λ) ∆Sα (λ)

J J 0

if α ↑ λ, λ ∈ J . This implies that for J 0 ⊃ J we have P Sα (λ) ∼

= P Sα (λ) in OSα .

Thus, for any µ ∈ Γ we will always assume that the open, bounded subset Jµ we

Jµ

are working with is big enough, such that we can write P Sα (µ) = P Sα (µ).

for every µ ∈ Γ induces a surjective map

Q Q

µ∈Γ EndOSα (P Sα (µ)) µ∈Γ EndOSα (∆Sα (µ))

(fµ ) 7→ (fµ |∆Sα (α↑µ) ).

Proof. Since EndOSα (∆Sα (µ)) = Sα · id∆Sα (µ) , every endomorphism of the restricted

Verma module lifts to an endomorphism of P Sα (α ↓ µ).

Q Q

Identifying µ∈Γ EndOSα (∆Sα (µ)) with µ∈Γ Sα and using the naturality of the ac-

tion of the center, we get a commutative diagram

ZSα (Γ) v /

Q

Sα

66 µ∈Γ

Q (

µ∈Γ EndOSα (P Sα (µ)).

The aim is now to describe the image of the composition of the down- with the

up-going arrow in this diagram.

53

Proposition 5.3.6. Let λ, µ ∈ Γ, then HomOSα (P Sα (µ), P Sα (λ)) is a free Sα -module

and we have

1 if µ = α ↓ λ or µ = α ↑ λ,

rkSα HomOSα (P Sα (µ), P Sα (λ)) = 2 if µ = λ,

0 otherwise.

HomOSα (P Sα (µ), P Sα (λ)) is a finitely generated Sα -module. Let K be the residue

field and Q the quotient field of Sα . By Lemma 5.2.9 we get

= HomOK (P K (µ), P K (λ))

and

= HomOQ (P Sα (µ) ⊗ Q, P Sα (λ) ⊗ Q).

But by [Fie13], chapter 6.2, the dimension of the right hand side of the first equality

is given by

1 if µ = α ↓ λ or µ = α ↑ λ,

dimK HomOK (P K (µ), P K (λ)) = 2 if µ = λ,

0 otherwise.

= ∆Q (α ↑ µ) ⊕ ∆Q (µ) and P Sα (λ) ⊗Sα

Q∼= ∆Q (α ↑ λ) ⊕ ∆Q (λ) into simple Verma modules we also get

1 if µ = α ↓ λ or µ = α ↑ λ,

dimQ (HomOSα (P Sα (µ), P Sα (λ)) ⊗Sα Q) = 2 if µ = λ,

0 otherwise.

But then by [AF12b], Lemma 3.7, HomOSα (P Sα (µ), P Sα (λ)) is a free Sα -module with

1 if µ = α ↓ λ or µ = α ↑ λ,

rkSα HomOSα (P Sα (µ), P Sα (λ)) = 2 if µ = λ,

0 otherwise.

EndOSα (P Sα (λ)),

HomOSα (P Sα (λ), P Sα (α ↓ λ)).

54

We follow the notation of [Fie13]. Clearly, we can take the identity in EndOSα (P Sα (λ))

as the first basis element. Over the residue field K we have a composition

We can lift this composition via base change to a map P Sα (λ) → ∆Sα (α ↑ λ) which

is unequal to 0. Composing this map with the inclusion ∆Sα (α ↑ λ) ,→ P Sα (λ) yields

an endomorphism nλ : P Sα (λ) → P Sα (λ) which is unequal to 0 and, after applying

· ⊗Sα K, corresponds to the composition

nK

Since the identity and nλ are linearly independent, {id, nλ } ⊂ EndOSα (P Sα (λ)) is a

basis.

Taking the map P Sα (λ) → ∆Sα (α ↑ λ) from above and the projectivity of P Sα (λ)

we get a morphism bλ : P Sα (λ) → P Sα (α ↑ λ) as the dotted arrow in the diagram

P Sα (λ) / P Sα (α ↑ λ)

&

∆Sα (α ↑ λ).

This morphism is unequal to 0 after applying · ⊗Sα K. We conclude that bλ is a basis

of HomOSα (P Sα (λ), P Sα (α ↑ λ)).

Finally, we have the composition

which is unequal to 0 after base change · ⊗Sα K with the residue field. Thus it is a

basis of HomOSα (P Sα (λ), P Sα (α ↓ λ)).

Remark 5.3.7. Since α ↑ λ ≥ λ, the endomorphism nλ : P Sα (λ) → P Sα (λ) restricts

to an endomorphism ∆Sα (α ↑ λ) → ∆Sα (α ↑ λ) and thus induces an endomorphism

on the cokernel ∆Sα (λ) of the inclusion ∆Sα (α ↑ λ) ,→ P Sα (λ).

Proposition 5.3.8. Up to an invertible element of Sα , nλ induces the map α∨ · id

on ∆Sα (α ↑ λ) and the zero map on ∆Sα (λ).

Before we prove this proposition we need a result which we will state in the next

chapter a second time, but with a slightly different proof.

Recall the Shapovalov form for Kac-Moody algebras introduced in chapter 3. It

induces a contravariant form (·, ·)Sα on ∆Sα (µ) for any µ ∈ Γ. As in chapter 3 we

define a filtration on ∆Sα (µ) by setting

55

where ∆Sα (µ) ∆K (µ) is the map induced by · ⊗Sα K. We will recall the Jantzen

filtration on a restricted Verma module in general in the next section. Recall that a

restricted Sα -block is either subgeneric or generic. But we assumed for this section

that µ lies in a subgeneric Sα -block.

∆K (µ) ⊃ LK (α ↓ µ) ⊃ 0.

Proof. We give a proof which is adapted from [Jan79], chapter 5.14, to our situation.

Since, by construction, ∆K (µ)1 coincides with the maximal submodule of ∆K (µ), we

get, by Theorem 5.2.15, that ∆K (µ)1 ∼ = LK (α ↓ µ). We have to prove ∆K (µ)2 = 0.

Let m ∈ ∆K (µ)1α↓µ be a generator of highest weight α ↓ µ. We just have to prove

m∈ / ∆K (µ)2 . Let us assume m ∈ ∆K (µ)2 . Thus, there is an element m0 ∈ ∆Sα (µ)2

such that m0 7→ m under specialization ∆Sα (µ) ∆K (µ). Since for ν > α ↓ µ we

have ∆K (µ)1ν = 0, we conclude

and

∆Sα (µ)2ν ⊂ (α∨ )2 · ∆Sα (µ)ν .

The generalized Casimir operator C can be split into a sum C = C1 +C2 of operators

L the following properties: For γ a weight of ∆(µ), we have C1 (∆Sα (µ)γ ) ⊂

with

η>γ ∆Sα (µ)η , C2 (∆Sα (µ)γ ) ⊂ ∆Sα (µ)γ and C2 acts on ∆Sα (µ)γ by multiplication

with (γ + τ + ρ|γ + τ + ρ)Sα − (ρ|ρ)Sα ∈ Sα . Since C commutes with the b

g-action, we

get that C acts on ∆Sα (µ) by multiplication with (µ + τ + ρ|µ + τ + ρ)Sα − (ρ|ρ)Sα

where τ is the canonical weight associated to Sα . Thus, applying C to m0 yields

Therefore, by W-invariance

c of (·|·)Sα and a little calculation we get

(δ|τ )Sα = 0, we get (µ − α ↓ µ|τ )Sα = kα∨ with k ∈ C\{0}. But then, specializing

α∨ 7→ 0 yields km = 0 which is a contradiction. Thus m ∈/ ∆K (µ)2 .

Proof of Proposition 5.3.8. Over the residue field K, we get the following diagram

of short exact sequences in the horizontals

56

∆K (α ↑ λ) / P K (λ) // ∆K (λ)

∆K (λ)

_

y·id x·id

∆K (α _ ↑ λ)

∆K (α ↑ λ) / P K (λ) // ∆K (λ)

where the composition nK λ in the middle is induced by nλ : P Sα (λ) → P Sα (λ) and

x, y ∈ K are the scalars induced by the induced maps on the restricted Verma

modules. Since the composition ∆K (α ↑ λ) ,→ P K (λ) ∆K (λ) is zero, we get that

both scalars, x and y, are zero.

Over Sα the composition

is zero, so nλ induces the zero map on ∆Sα (λ). But the composition ∆Sα (α ↑ λ) ,→

P Sα (λ) → ∆Sα (α ↑ λ) is unequal to zero since otherwise we would have a factoriza-

tion over the cokernel, in formulas

∆Sα (α ↑ λ) / P Sα (λ) / ∆Sα (αO ↑ λ)

∃!

&&

∆Sα (λ).

But ∆Sα (λ) → ∆Sα (α ↑ λ) is the zero map, because it is zero after applying · ⊗Sα Q,

while P Sα (λ) → ∆Sα (α ↑ λ) is unequal to zero. Now, after multiplying nλ with an

appropriate invertible element of Sα , nλ induces (α∨ )n · id on ∆Sα (α ↑ λ). We want

to show n = 1.

Assume n ≥ 2. Then im(nλ ) ⊂ ∆Sα (α ↑ λ)2 ⊂ P Sα (λ) by definition of the Jantzen

2

filtration. But after base change · ⊗Sα K, we have im(nK λ ) ⊂ ∆Sα (α ↑ λ) ⊗Sα K.

2

Since ∆Sα (α ↑ λ) ⊗Sα K is the second step of the Jantzen filtration on ∆K (α ↑ λ)

which is zero by Lemma 5.3.9, this contradicts nK λ 6= 0 and we conclude n = 1.

Let us fix a short exact sequence ∆Sα (α ↑ λ) ,→ P Sα (λ) ∆Sα (λ) and let nλ :

P Sα (λ) → P Sα (λ) be the map from above, normalized, s.t. it induces α∨ · id on

∆Sα (α ↑ λ) and 0 on ∆Sα (λ).

Lemma 5.3.10. (i) We have nλ ◦ aα↑λ = aα↑λ ◦ (α∨ · id − nα↑λ ).

Proof. (i) This part of the lemma is clear by definition of the map nλ and the

effect it has on restricted Verma modules.

57

(ii) Applying · ⊗Sα Q, identifies

bλ

P Sα (λ) / P Sα (α ↑ λ)

nλ α∨ ·id−nα↑λ

P Sα (λ) / P Sα (α ↑ λ)

bλ

∆Q (λ) ⊕ ∆Q (α ↑ λ) / ∆Q (α ↑2 λ) ⊕ ∆Q (α ↑ λ)

g1 g2

∆Q (λ) ⊕ ∆Q (α ↑ λ) / ∆Q (α ↑2 λ) ⊕ ∆Q (α ↑ λ)

0 0

.

0 (α∨ ·)

But this diagram certainly commutes. Then the diagram above over Sα com-

mutes as well.

By the description of the center in Remark 5.3.2, and by what we have discovered

above, the image of the inclusion

Y

ZSα (Γ) ,→ EndOSα (P Sα (λ))

λ∈Γ

is generated by the tuples (idP Sα (µ) )µ∈Γ and the set of tuples {(δλµ )µ∈Γ }λ∈Γ where

nλ if µ = λ,

µ

δλ = α∨ · id − nα↑λ if µ = α ↑ λ,

0 otherwise.

Y Y Y

φ: EndOSα (P Sα (µ)) → = Sα

µ∈Γ µ∈Γ µ∈Γ

are φ((idP Sα (µ) )µ∈Γ ) = (1)µ∈Γ and φ((δλµ )µ∈Γ ) = (κµλ )µ∈Γ with

(

µ α∨ if µ = α ↑ λ

κλ = . As a conclusion we have

0 else

Proposition 5.3.11.

( )

ZSα (Γ) ∼

Y

= (zµ )µ∈Γ ∈ Sα zµ ≡ zα↑µ (mod α∨ ) .

µ∈Γ

58

5.3.2 The general case

In this chapter we want to collect our results in the subgeneric and generic cases to

prove the main theorem. Let Λ be an equivalence class under ∼res e .

S

Theorem 5.3.12.

( )

Y

ZSe(Λ) ∼

= (zµ )µ∈Λ ∈ Sezµ ≡ zα↓µ (mod α∨ ) ∀α ∈ R(Λ) .

µ∈Λ

e we have a base

change map

ZSe(Λ) ,→ ZSe(Λ) ⊗Se Sp ⊂ ZQ (Λ) ∼

Y

= Q.

µ∈Λ

S

Note that Λ splits into a disjoint union Λi of generic and subgeneric Sp -blocks and

we get a decomposition

ZSe(Λ) ⊗Se Sp ∼

Y

= ZSp (Λi ).

i

We also have \Y

ZSe(Λ) = ZSp (Λi )

p∈P i

Q

in the Q-vector space µ∈Λ Q (cf. the proof of Proposition 5.11 in [Fie01]). Here, P

denotes the set of all prime ideals of Se of height one. If α∨ ∈

/ p for all α ∈ R(Λ), then

∼

Q restricted deformed Verma modules are projective and we have ZSe(Λ) ⊗Se Sp =

all

µ∈Λ Sp .

If p is generated by α∨ for α ∈ R(Λ), ZSe(Λ) ⊗Se Sp decomposes into the product

of

Q modules of the form described in Proposition 5.3.11 and in modules of the form

µ∈Λi Sp , if Λi is generic. Putting these together in the above intersection proves

the claim.

In [AJS94], chapter 6, the authors establish a Jantzen sum formula for baby Verma

modules over a small quantum group. It relates the sum of the characters of the

Jantzen filtration to an alternating sum of characters of baby Verma modules with

smaller highest weights. We deduce a similar formula for the restricted Verma mod-

ules at the critical level. We state the main result of this section in

Theorem 5.4.1. Let λ ∈ b

59

(i) ∆(λ)1 is the maximal submodule of ∆(λ)

(ii) !

X X X

ch∆(λ)i = ch∆(α ↓2i−1 λ) − ch∆(α ↓2i λ) .

i>0 α∈R(λ)+ i>0

Note that the sum is taken over all finite, positive, integral roots α ∈ R(λ)+ .

For this chapter we need an alternative definition of restricted Verma modules. Let

λ∈b h∗ and τ : Sb → A be a deformation algebra which is an integral domain. Denote

by Q(A) its field of fractions and assume that both structure maps factor through the

restriction map Sb → S. This implies that τ (c) = τ (d) = 0. We define ∆− A (λ+τ ) to be

the submodule of ∆A (λ + τ ) which is generated by the images of all homomorphisms

∆A (λ − nδ + τ ) → ∆A (λ + τ ) for n ∈ N>0 . Since τ (c) = τ (d) = 0, we have (τ |δ) = 0

and by Theorem 2.3.1 there is an injective map ∆Q(A) (λ−nδ +τ ) ,→ ∆Q(A) (λ+τ ) for

every n > 0 and λ critical. But by our assumption on A, this also induces an injective

map ∆A (λ − nδ + τ ) ,→ ∆A (λ + τ ). If λ is non-critical, we get ∆− A (λ + τ ) = {0}.

The restricted Verma module can now be described as the quotient

∆A (λ + τ ) = ∆A (λ + τ )/∆−

A (λ + τ ).

A result by Frenkel and Gaitsgory (cf. [FG06]) shows that for any critical weight

λ∈b h∗ and n < 0 there is a surjective map Zn → Hombg (∆(λ + nδ), ∆(λ)). Thus, the

old definition of restricted Verma modules in the preceding section coincides with

this one.

Recall the Shapovalov form F : U (b g) × U (b

g) → S(bh) with F (x, y) = β(σ(x), y)

from chapter 3. Recall that for u, x, y ∈ U (g) we have F (σ(u)x, y) = F (x, uy). For

b

η ∈ NR b+ we denote by Fη the restriction of F to the weight space U (b n)−η . Recall

∼ b∗

the isomorphism ν : h → h induced by the bilinear form (·|·) on h and define

b b

hα := ν −1 (α) for any root α ∈ R.

b

n)−η × U (b

Fη : U (b n)−η → S(b

h)

∞ mult(α)·P(η−nα)

Y Y (α|α)

detFη = hα + ρ(hα ) − n

2

b+ n=1

α∈R

gα ).

60

We equip the polynomial ring C[t] in one variable with two different structures of

a deformation algebra. The first one is given by the map τ1 : Sb C[t], where τ1

is induced by the inclusion of the line Cρ ⊂ b h∗ . The second S-module

b structure

∗ ∗

τ2 : S C[t] is given by the inclusion Cρ ⊂ h . Recall that ρ ∈ h which implies

b b

that τ2 factors through the restriction map Sb S while τ1 does not factor through

this map in general. For a more intuitive notation, we follow [Jan79] and define

∆C[t] (λ + tρ) := ∆C[t] (λ + τ1 ) and ∆C[t] (λ + tρ) := ∆C[t] (λ + τ2 ).

Note that for λ ∈ bh∗crit critical and since τ2 (c) = τ2 (d) = tρ(c) = 0, we can construct

the restricted Verma module ∆C[t] (λ + tρ). Let C(t) be the quotient field of C[t].

Lemma 5.4.3. Let λ ∈ b

Proof. If we prove that RC(t) (λ) = ∅, the lemma follows from Theorem 5.2.15 and

Remark 5.2.16. But since (ρ|α) 6= 0 for all α ∈ R+ we get 2(λ + ρ + tρ|α)C(t) ∈/

Z(α|α)C(t) ⊂ C(t) for all α ∈ R+ .

The Shapovalov form induces symmetric, contravariant bilinear forms on ∆Sb(λ + 0 )

and ∆S (λ + ) where we denote by 0 ∈ b h∗Sb the canonical weight induced by b

h ,→ Sb

and by ∈ b h∗S its composition with Sb S. Moreover, it induces contravariant

forms on all Verma modules ∆C[t] (λ + tρ), ∆C[t] (λ + tρ), ∆C[t] (λ + tρ), ∆(λ) and

∆(λ) we have to deal with in the rest of this paper. The contravariance of the forms

implies for ∆(λ) and ∆(λ) that the radicals of the forms coincide with the maximal

submodules of ∆(λ) and ∆(λ).

Denote by (·, ·) the contravariant form on ∆C[t] (λ + tρ) induced by the Shapovalov

form. As in the previous section we define a filtration on ∆C[t] (λ + tρ) by

where the second map is specialization t 7→ 0. In the same way, we get the Jantzen

filtration on ∆(λ) as it is defined in chapter 3 using the deformed Verma module

∆C[t] (λ + tρ).

forms on the µ-weight spaces ∆C[t] (λ + tρ)µ , ∆C[t] (λ + tρ)µ and ∆C[t] (λ + tρ)µ by

Dλ+tρ (µ + tρ), Dλ+tρ (µ + tρ) and Dλ+tρ (µ + tρ).

tn+1 - P .

61

Lemma 5.4.4 ([Jan79], Lemma 5.1). For the Jantzen filtrations of the µ-weight

spaces of the non-restricted and restricted Verma modules we have the formulas

X

dimC ∆(λ)iµ = ordt (Dλ+tρ (µ + tρ))

i>0

and X

dimC ∆(λ)iµ = ordt (Dλ+tρ (µ + tρ)).

i>0

First, we want to recall the Jantzen filtration of a restricted Verma module with a

highest weight, which has critical level and is subgeneric. The next proposition is

Lemma 5.3.9. Here, however, we call it a proposition since it has a higher impact

on the main result of this section. We give an alternative proof which only works in

type A.

Proposition 5.4.5. Let λ ∈ b h∗crit be subgeneric, i.e., R(λ) = {±α} for a finite

+

positive root α ∈ R and α ↓ λ 6= λ. Then the Jantzen filtration of ∆(λ) is

∆(λ) ⊃ L(α ↓ λ) ⊃ 0

and we have the alternating sum formula

X

ch∆(λ)i = chL(α ↓ λ) = ch∆(α ↓ λ) − ch∆(α ↓2 λ) + ch∆(α ↓3 λ) − ...

i>0

Proof. The statement of the first part is identical with Lemma 5.3.9 and is proved

there already. However, we give an alternative proof in case g is of type A.

From Theorem 5.2.15 we see that L(α ↓ λ) is the maximal submodule of ∆(λ). By

the definition of the Jantzen filtration we conclude that ∆(λ)1 coincides with the

radical of the contravariant form on ∆(λ) induced by the Shapovalov form. Thus,

∆(λ)1 ∼= L(α ↓ λ).

We are left to prove ∆(λ)2 = {0}. For β ∈ R b+ and n ∈ N set µβ,n := λ − α ↓

λ − nβ. Then, by Theorem 5.4.2, the polynomial Dλ+tρ (α ↓ λ + tρ) ∈ C[t] is, up to

multiplication with a non-zero complex number, given by the product

∞ mult(β)·P(µβ,n )

Y Y (β|β)

(α ↓ λ)(hβ ) + tρ(hβ ) + ρ(hβ ) − n

2

+

β∈R

b n=1

∞ mult(β)·P(µβ,n )

Y Y (β|β)

(α ↓ λ)(hβ ) + tρ(hβ ) + ρ(hβ ) − n .

2

+

β∈R

b n=1

Note that ρ(hβ ) = 0 for β ∈ R

β = mδ with m ∈ N\{0} we have P(λ − α ↓ λ − nβ) = 0 (here we use that g is of

type A). Now we conclude

ordt (Dλ+tρ (α ↓ λ + tρ)) = ordt (Dλ+tρ (α ↓ λ + tρ)).

62

But since α ↓ λ does not appear as a weight in the submodule ∆(λ)− ⊂ ∆(λ), we

have

Dλ+tρ (α ↓ λ + tρ) = Dλ+tρ (α ↓ λ + tρ).

Thus, by Lemma 5.4.4, we have

X X

dimC ∆(λ)iα↓λ = dimC ∆(λ)iα↓λ .

i>0 i>0

Pthat the character

of the simple module L(α ↓ λ) only appears once in the sum i>0 ch∆(λ)i . Since

1

P weight of i∆(λ) the character 2of L(α ↓ λ) can also only appear

α ↓ λ is a maximal

once in the sum i>0 ch∆(λ) which implies ∆(λ) 6= L(α ↓ λ) and thus ∆(λ)2 = 0.

The second part of the proposition follows inductively from Theorem 5.2.15 since

chL(α ↓ λ) = ch∆(α ↓ λ) − chL(α ↓2 λ).

hS → S induced by b

Recall the canonical weight : b h ⊂ Sb S and for ν ≥ 0 denote

by D−ρ ( − ρ − ν) the determinant of the contravariant form on ∆S ( − ρ)−ρ−ν . Let

φ : S C[t] be the algebra homomorphism given by φ(H) := (λ + ρ)(H) + tρ(H)

for all H ∈ h. If p ∈ S is a prime element and a ∈ S, we denote by ordp (a) the

integer n ∈ N such that pn | a but pn+1 - a. By [Jan79], chapter 5.6, we get for a ∈ S

X

ordt (φ(a)) = ordp (a)ordt (φ(p)) (5.1)

p

where p runs over all classes of associated prime elements of S. As in Lemma 5.4.3

we see that, for the quotient field Q = Q(S) of S, the restricted Verma module

∆Q ( − ρ) ∼

= ∆S ( − ρ) ⊗S Q is simple. We conclude that D−ρ ( − ρ − ν) 6= 0 and

also φ(D−ρ ( − ρ − ν)) 6= 0 for all ν ∈ NRb+ . Combining equation (5.1) with Lemma

5.4.4, we get

X X X

ch∆(λ)n = eλ ordt (φ(p)) ordp (D−ρ ( − ρ − ν))e−ν . (5.2)

n>0 p b+

ν∈NR

We are now able to prove the general case. We follow [Jan79], chapter 5.7.

/ Z\{0} for any finite positive

+

root α ∈ R , then λ is a generic weight and ∆(λ) is simple, by Theorem 5.2.15 and

Remark 5.2.16. The evaluation of the polynomial D−ρ ( − ρ − ν) ∈ S at λ + ρ

for ν ∈ NR b+ can be viewed as the determinant of the contravariant form on the

weight space ∆(λ)λ−ν induced by the Shapovalov form. Since the weight spaces are

orthogonal to each other according to the contravariant form, D−ρ (−ρ−ν)(λ+ρ) is

unequal to zero for all ν ∈ NR b+ . Otherwise we could construct a proper submodule

of ∆(λ), which would be a contradiction. D−ρ ( − ρ − ν) decomposes into a product

of linear factors and it follows that all prime divisors of D−ρ ( − ρ − ν) are of the

63

form α∨ − r where α ∈ R+ and r ∈ Z\{0}.

[

For α ∈ R+ and r ∈ Z we define να,r ∈ Z[bh∗ ] by

X

να,r = ordα∨ −r (D−ρ ( − ρ − η))e−η .

b+

η∈NR

Since hρ, α∨ i =

6 0 for any α ∈ R+ , the restriction of α∨ −r to the curve (λ+ρ)+Cρ ⊂

h∗ is unequal to zero, i.e., in formulas we have

b

φ(α∨ − r) = hλ + ρ, α∨ i − r + thρ, α∨ i =

6 0.

we have ordt (hλ + ρ, α∨ i − r + thρ, α∨ i) = 1. Now α∨ − hλ + ρ, α∨ i can only be a

prime divisor of D−ρ ( − ρ − η) if α ∈ R(λ)+ . Applying formula (5.2) we conclude

X X

ch∆(λ)i = να,hλ+ρ,α∨ i eλ . (5.3)

i>0 α∈R(λ)+

Let α ∈ R(λ)+ . Perturbing the weight λ in the hyperplane that contains λ and is par-

h∗crit such

allel to the reflection hyperplane corresponding to α, we find a weight µ ∈ b

∨ ∨ ∨ +

that hµ + ρ, α i = n = hλ + ρ, α i and hµ + ρ, β i ∈

/ Z for all β ∈ R(λ) \{α}. Thus,

we found a subgeneric weight µ with R(µ) = {±α} and να,hµ+ρ,α∨ i = να,hλ+ρ,α∨ i . But

by Proposition 5.4.5, the Jantzen filtration of ∆(µ) is given by

∆(µ) ⊃ L(α ↓ µ) ⊃ 0.

X

να,n eµ = chL(α ↓ µ) = ch∆(α ↓2i−1 µ) − ch∆(α ↓2i µ) .

i>0

Now the choice of µ implies that eλ−µ ch ∆(α ↓n µ) = ch ∆(α ↓n λ). Thus, we

conclude X

να,n eλ = ch∆(α ↓2i−1 λ) − ch∆(α ↓2i λ) .

i>0

Since we can apply this to any root β ∈ R(λ)+ we can use equation (5.3) once more

to get the formula in Theorem 5.4.1.

As a consequence of Theorem 5.4.1 we get the linkage principle for restricted Verma

modules at the critical level in the same way as in [AJS94], chapter 6, or [KL97],

Theorem 10.3. The linkage principle was already proven in [AF12b] by using re-

stricted projective objects of the restricted category O over the Lie algebra b

g. Our

proof, however, avoids the rather complicated construction of restricted projective

objects.

h∗crit and µ ∈ b

Corollary 5.4.6 ([AF12b], Theorem 5.1). Let λ ∈ b h∗ . Then [∆(λ) :

L(µ)] 6= 0 implies µ ∈ W(λ)

c · λ and µ ≤ λ.

64

Proof. The statement is obvious for λ = µ and it is also clear that [∆(λ) : L(µ)] 6= 0

implies µ ≤ λ. We use induction on λ − µ and assume µ < λ. If [∆(λ) : L(µ)] 6=

0, then also [∆(λ)1 : L(µ)] 6= 0 since ∆(λ)1 ⊂ ∆(λ) is the maximal submodule.

But then the restricted Jantzen sum formula implies that L(µ) has to appear as

a subquotient in some ∆(α ↓n λ) where α ∈ R(λ)+ and n > 0. Our induction

c ↓n λ) · (α ↓n λ) and the definition of α ↓ λ yields

assumption implies µ ∈ W(α

c ↓n λ) · (α ↓n λ) = W(λ)

W(α c · λ.

Remark 5.4.7. As mentioned above, a baby Verma module over a small quantum

group or a modular Lie algebra in positive characteristic has a Jantzen filtration with

an analogous sum formula as the one of Theorem 5.4.1 (cf. [AJS94], chapter 6, or

[KL97], Theorem 10.1). A conjecture of [Lus90] and [Lus91] states a much stronger

relation between critical representations of affine Kac-Moody algebras and quantum

groups at roots of unity and claims that the restricted category O resembles the

category considered in [AJS94]. By this means, it makes sense to conjecture that

restricted projective objects are also tilting modules in O. The dual of a restricted

Verma module ∆(λ) is again restricted (cf. [AF12b]) and we denote it by ∇(λ). Let

P ∈ O be projective. Since we conjecture that P is also tilting, we can define an

Andersen filtration on the space HomO (∆(λ), P ) in a very similar way as in chapter

3 by a deformed version of the composition pairing

denote the Andersen filtration by Fλ (P )j and conjecture the equation

where ∆(λ)j denotes the Jantzen filtration on ∆(λ) which we defined above. This

conjecture is motivated by Theorem 3.8 of [AK01] where an analogous result is

proven in the case of G1 T -modules and small quantum groups at roots of unity.

65

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