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Online Submission of Mid-Term Assignment-II

MBA-Full Time

Semester-II (2020)


Paper Code : MBA (FT) CP- 205

Roll No: 26

Research Proposal

Title: The transference of consumer buying behaviour with respect to

innovation, technological change and existing marketing factors.

Submitted by: Submitted to:

Imran Alam Dr. Furqan Qamar
Research Proposal

The transference of consumer buying behaviour with respect to innovation, technological
change and existing marketing factors.

Consumer buying behaviour : This refers to the patterns displayed by customers when making
purchase decisions. The patterns displayed by various consumers differ based on a number of
factors that affect the buying decisions. Hans Baumgartner, EM Steenkamp and Jan-Benedict
(April,1996) noted that the various factors lead to constant changes in the consumer buying
behavior. The paper purposes a two-factor conceptualization of exploratory consumer buying
behavior in which exploratory acquisition of products is distinguished from exploratory
information seeking. A scale for measuring individual differences in consumers tendencies to
engange in exploratory buying behaviour is based on this conceptualization and the instrument is
related to several other constructs and actual exploratory behaviours.

Literature review
Before analyzing the secondary source to get deep knowledge about various terminologies there
is need of gaining the understanding about the product innovation. In very simple terms the
product innovation represents the improvement within the existing product or introducing the
new product range that has advanced and amazing features. It means something which is beyond
the expectations and near to excellence within the product perfectly defines the product
innovation. There are various regions that why companies are following the factors related to
product innovation. Some major components are huge potential in the market, nature of product
and intense competition.1

The most significant and influencing factor towards the product innovation is the availability of
intense competition. The fundamental porter’s five forces model suggest that when any industry
has huge rivalry ratios then the bargaining power of customers increases and they can switch to
any other brand very easily. Thus, product is required for the purpose of retaining the customers.
Therefore, these are certain features which promote the product innovation within the industry.2

Rafinejad, D. (2007). Innovation, product development and commercialization. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J.
Ross Pub.

Brown, T. and Kātz, B. (2009). Change by design. New York: Harper Business.
Innovation in product plays an important part in influencing the buying intentions of the
customer as per the view of Rafinejad (2007). The major importance of product innovation is
that buyer behavior could be molded in positive manner. Further with the help of product
innovation it is clear that brand value could be increased immensely and customer loyalty could
be developed automatically (Rafinejad, 2007). Here at the same juncture the example of Apple
could be taken. The Apple is most innovative company in history and the major advantage which
they have availed is that customer waits for their product to be launched and customer loyalty is
at pinnacle for company’s products. This is one of the benefits that could by other mobile
manufacturing companies. Further the product innovation is helpful in retaining the customers
and returning full value for their investment. Thus, this factor is helpful on the ground of both
customer loyalty and retention. Ahead the expectations of customers have been increased
tremendously and they wait for such features which are amazing and stunning. Thus, it put
psychological impacts as well.3 Thus more the product is innovative it is easier to achieve the
organizational goal related to maximum customer acquisition.

On the basis of above discussion, it could be sated that there is positive link between product
innovation and consumer buying behavior. But the management experts have given their views
about the fact that what kind of innovation has been introduced within the product? Actually it is
one of the major factors which influenced people to buy product. Thus, it is one of the major
factors which are required to be assessed properly. Here the law of economy comes into
existence that willingness and utility both work together while taking the positive purchase
decision. Hence the product innovation is positively associated to customer buying behavior if
the expectations of customers are the base of product development phases. But other than this the
mindset and the category of customers could also needed to be assessed effectively. Overall the
linkage is possible but other marketing elements also work simultaneously.4

Factors influencing consumer buying behaviour

• Promotional mix used in marketing
• Price of specific product
• Quality of product or service
• Innovativeness of the product
• Technological advancement in the products or services

The result of the studies with subjects from two different countries shows that the scale has good
psychometric properties and that its relationship with other constructs and actual exploratory
behavior conform to theoretical expectations.

Goessl, L., (2010). Understanding the Importance of Consumer Behavior in Marketing. [Online].
Available through: <

D'Esopo, M. and Almquist, E., (2007). An approach to mastering the marketing mix. Business Strategy
Series. 8 (2). pp.122 – 131
Statement of research problem
As a result of the constant changes experienced on the consumer buying behavior, the research is
based. Consumers tend to keep on changing their buying habits in different market segments at
different time intervals. This results in both positive and negative effects to the various firms
directly selling the products in the various market segments.The research aims at coming up with
possible answers as to why consumers change their buying patterns. It also aims at establishing
the various factors that result from the changes in consumer buying behavior.

Research philosophy

This study is quiet interpretive in nature where the psychological aspects of customers is
required to be identified. The positivism research philosophy is completely unsuitable in current
perspective as the consumer can never behave in same way in all the situations. Thus in order to
measure the difference in their behavioral set in diverse conditions there is huge requirement of
applying the interpretive research philosophy that provides the opportunity to understand the
subject matter from various dimensions (Hjorland, 2005). Research approach: Here in this study
the deductive research approach will be applied as the situation is based on the already
propounded theories and opinions of common people. There is no need of applying the inductive
approach as the researcher doesn’t have any intentions to focus on giving the new theory.
Deductive approach can help in identifying the impact of product innovation on consumer
buying behavior in proper way. Thus deductive approach will be suitable in current scenario
(Muijis, 2010).

Research questions
1. What are the effects of price changes on consumer buying behavior?
2. What are the effects of promotional mix on consumer buying behavior?
3. What are the effects of product quality on consumer buying behavior?
4. What are the effects of innovation on consumer buying behaviour?
5. What is the impact of technological change in consumer buying behaviour?

Research objectives
• General objective
1. To identify factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
2. To determine the effects of changes in consumer buying behavior.

• Specific objectives
1. To investigate how price change affect consumer buying behaviour.
2. To determine how promotional mix affect consumer buying behaviour.
3. To identify the effect of product quality on consumer buying behaviour.
4. To determine how innovation and technological advancement has brought a change in
consumer buying behaviour.

1. Innovation strategy is pivotal for the positive influence on consumer behaviour.
2. A significant relationship exists between brand behaviour, quality, impulsiveness buying
and consumer buying behaviour.

Data collection
Various methods were used to aid the data collection process from the respondents. Some of the
methods used included interviewing respondents so as to get relevant information. Also
questionnaires were administered to the respondents to aid data collection process. The
information will be gathering from two major sources. One is from primary sources and the
extensive usage of secondary sources will also prioritized by the researcher. Here the secondary
source of data collection is online articles and published books as well as the previous resources
and various magazines so that the level of technological innovation within the mobile industry
could be identified. Ahead the primary sources of data collection will be questionnaire technique.
The questionnaire will consist of various aspects related to the product innovation and
psychological understanding of customers. The questionnaire will be filled through digital
platforms with the help of Google doc. It could provide more relevant and useful piece of
information and the mindset of people could also understandable.

Data analysis
The method used to analyze the data depends on the nature of the research design. The technique
used to analyze the data enables one to come up with long term solutions to put in place to
counter changes in consumer buying behavior that negatively impact on the performance of the
organization. Data analysis: It is another priority factor which will be taken into special
consideration by the researcher. While selecting the appropriate research data analysis technique
the researcher needs to focus on variety of factors. The first thing is the nature of study and
information that is going to be used within the report. Here as mentioned above that the research
nature is qualitative and information type is subjective so the researcher needs to rely upon
thematic analysis. It will be most suitable and reliable technique in current scenario. Through
thematic analysis various relevant themes could be constructed and the relevant research
outcomes could be provided. Accessibility issues: The major accessibility issue could be related
to approaching the people for data collection process. But this issue will be managed through
applying the professional approach of conducting the research.
Tools of data collection

It is important to decide the tools for data collection because research is carried out in different
ways and for different purposes. The objective behind data collection is to capture quality
evidence that allows analysis to lead to the formulation of convincing and credible answers to the
questions that have been posed. The data collection tool to be used for the quantitative research
would be questionnaires consisting of a series of questions and prompts to receive a response
from individuals it is administered to. Questions involved would be open-ended as well as close-
eneded nature.

Research methodology
This section has huge importance on the ground of providing the overview about the thought
process of researcher towards the content. The possible selected research trajectories in current
scenarios have been explained below.

Research design
Being an exploratory research, the use of an exploratory research design would be effective and
most efficient. This report is exploratory in nature. There is need of gaining the detailed
knowledge about the subject matter. The scope is very wide so exploratory research design can
facilitate the researcher to dig out content more effectively. Ahead the product innovation and
consumer buying behavior related aspects could be understandable in proper manner. To
establish relationship the researcher will try to focus on variety of factors and exploratory study
will definitely helps on the ground of increasing the intellect about content.

Research nature
In order to put shed more light on the research nature there is need of understanding the subject
matter at very large scale. Here in this perspective the nature of study is qualitative as the
information of data is completely subjective in nature. There is no usage of numerical
information and most importantly the lengthy information will be included within the study. The
nature of the study is not quantitative as the study is highly inclined towards the subject
information and it has relevancy with measuring the mindset and behavior of people which can
never be measured in terms of numbers. Sampling: Probabilistic sampling technique will be
taken into special consideration. Here the researcher will definitely gather the information from
those people who took their mobile phones seriously and understand the changing technology
within their mobiles. The respondent’s can give their opinions freely and express their views
with respect to product innovation. The researcher will gather the information from 50 customers
and will try to identify the relevancy of their purchasing decision with the product innovation
Sampling method and sample size
The sampling method used is simple random probability based sampling where the respondents
are randomly chosen to provide relevant information to be used in the study. Sample would be of
the required size in order to have the required degree of accuracy in the results as well as to be
able to identify any significant difference/association that may be present in the study
population. Determining the minimum required sample size for achieving the main objectives of
the study is of prime importance of the studies. Selecting a sample of 50 individuals depending
upon the time and resources available.

A questionnaire on factor influencing consumer buying behavior.

Answer all questions appropriately.

Section A

Name: Gender:

Age: Occupation:

Section B

1.Do you think price affects consumer buying process?



If yes, how?

2.Does product promotion affect consumer buying behavior?



( If yes, give reason)

3.How does lifestyle affect consumer buying behavior?

4.Does purchasing power influence consumer buying behavior?



(If yes, give a reason.)

5.State how age affects consumer buying behavior.

6. Why do you think consumers keep on changing their buying patterns?

(give reasons to support your answers above)


Brown, T. and Kātz, B. (2009). Change by design. New York: Harper Business.

D'Esopo, M. and Almquist, E., (2007). An approach to mastering the marketing mix. Business
Strategy Series. 8 (2). pp.122 – 131.

Flick, U., (2009). An Introduction to Qualitative Research. 4th ed. SAGE.

Goessl, L., (2010). Understanding the Importance of Consumer Behavior in Marketing. [Online].
Available through: <

Hjørland, B., (2005). Empiricism, rationalism and positivism in library and information science.
Journal of Documentation. 61(1). pp.130 – 155.

Hoy, K.W., (2009). Quantitative Research in Education: A Primer. SAGE.

Merriam, B.S., (2009). Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation. 3rd ed.
John Wiley & Sons., (2015). Compare The Best Deals. [online] Available at:

Muijis, D., (2010). Doing Quantitative Research in Education with SPSS. SAGE.

Rafinejad, D. (2007). Innovation, product development and commercialization. Ft. Lauderdale,

FL: J. Ross Pub.

Trott, P. (2008). Innovation management and new product development. Harlow, England:
Financial Times/Prentice Hall.

Vieceli, J. And Valos, M., (2000). Marketing Management. Atlantic Publishers & Distri.