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Raj. K. Gorkhali

Objective is certainly going to stand by you in gates of IC-1 produce a clean rectan-
The objective of this construction pro- whatever mode or configuration you gular pulse from the pulse produced by
ject is to build simple and easy to use may try it. Also, if you clearly under- pressing the microswitch. Resistor R3,
test gadget that can be used to identify stand the capabilities of this gadget Capacitor C1 and the Diode D1 ensure
good and bad IC TIMERS from a given and theory responsible for these fea- that the trigger terminal of timer IC 555
lot. Like opamps, an IC timer is another tures, you will be in a position to think of (pin-2 is the trigger terminal) gets the
widely used electronic device and it many more different modes in which desired Vcc-to-ground trigger pulse.
finds its place in almost every project of you can use an IC timer. And moreover, This differentiator circuit also ensures
hobbyists’ interest. This gadget not only it is going to be an excellent project for that the width of the trigger pulse is less
enables you test the IC timer 555, it will the students at diploma or an equiva- than the expected monoshot output
also give you an opportunity to appre- lent academic level. pulse. The monoshot output pulse
ciate the tremendous functional poten- width here depends upon the resistance
tial of the various terminals of this truly Circuit Description offered by series combination of R4
versatile IC. Most of the circuits The two basic configurations in which and potentiometer VR1 and the capaci-
appearing in various magazines or the IC timer 555 can be used are the (i) tor C3. These values have been so
books to test IC timers do the same by Astable mode of operation and (ii) chosen that even for the minimum
wiring the IC in one particular configu- Monostable mode of operation. When output pulse width, the trigger pulse
ration only. Testing the IC timer with the the DPDT switch (SW2) is in position 1- width (trigger pulse width depends
gadget being described here not only 1, the timer under test automatically upon the differentiator time constant)
tests the IC in all basic configurations, it gets wired as a monostable remains less than that. Remember! the
practically test the functionality of each multivibrator. In this case, the trigger pulse width to be less than the
and every terminal of the timer with the monoshot can be triggered by the expected monoshot output pulse width
result that a timer declared fit by this microswitch (SW1). The Debouncing is an essential requirement of this mode
gadget is; healthy in the true sense and Circuit constituted by the two NAND of operation.



R7 R9

N1 VR1
2 8
7 SW3

D1 4
R3 D2 R5
1 1 IC
Socket 9V
N2 6 R11
5 R8
8 C1
2 2 2

SW2 1
SW1 C3 C4

N1,N2= 1/2 IC1

When the DPDT switch is in position 2- The circuit operates from 9V COMP NE TS LI
2, the timer gets connected in the battery which makes the gadget
astable mode of operation. The output portable. SEMICONDUCTORS
is a pulse train with the HIGH time The test gadget can thus be used IC1 CD 4011 B
determined by the total resistance to carry out the following tests D1-D2 1N4001
offered by the series combination of with given timer IC 555. LED1-LED3 Preferably of different
1. The timer IC can be checked color
R4,R5, VR1 and capacitor C3 whereas
the LOW time is determined by resistor in the astable configuration.
2. The timer IC can be checked RESISTORS
R5 and capacitor C3. R1, R2 22k, 1/4W
The RESET terminal of IC timer (pin-4) in the monostable configuration.
R3 10k, 1/4W
should be tied to Vcc in the normal 3. The capability of the RESET
R4 150k, 1/4W
circumstances. More precisely, voltage terminal to override all functions
R5 47k, 1/4W
at pin-4 should be greater than 0.8V. A and rest the output to LOW can R6 1K, 1/4W
voltage of less than that resets the out- be checked. R7 4.7K, 1/4W
put. Whether you have connected the 4. The function of the control R8 47 W, 1/4W
timer in the monoshot or astable mode terminal to change the ON-time R9, R10, R11 3.3, 1/4W
of operation, the output goes LOW the or the HIGH-time of the output VR1, VR2 100k (Preset)
moment you bring the RESET terminal waveform in case of astable VR3 1k (Preset)
below 0.8V. mode of operation and the out-
The CONTROL TERMINAL (pin-5) can put pulse width in case of mono- CAPACITORS
be used to change the HIGH-time or stable mode of operation can be C1, C4 0.01µF (ceramic disc)
the ON-time of the output pulse train in verified. C2 0.1µF (ceramic disc)
C3 10µF, 25V (electrolytic)
the astable mode and the pulse width at
the output in the monoshot mode by C o n s t r u c t i o n
applying an external voltage. This Guidelines 8-pin Dual-in-Line IC Socket
external voltage basically changes the The components layout and the Fuse with holder, 1Amp.
reference voltage levels of the com- PCB layout as seen from compo- Switch SW1 (Microswitch)
parators inside the IC. The levels are set nent side are respectively shown Switch SW2 (DPDT switch) SW3 (Mains
by three identical resistors of usually 5K in Figs.2 and 3. However the ON/OFF switch)
inside the IC connected from Vcc to project can also be assembled
ground setting the levels at 2/3 (Vcc) for on a general purpose PCB. Note : All resistors mentioned above are
pin-5 and 1/3 (Vcc) for pin-2. These of carbon film or composition variety.
levels can be changed by connecting Testing Guidelines
an external resistance from pin-5 to 1. Insert the IC under test in the the LED-2 glows this time for a longer
ground. Resistor R6 and potentiometer socket. or a smaller time period depending
VR2 have been connected for the same 2. Set the DPDT switch in position 1-1.
upon whether you increased or
purpose. 3. Switch on the power supply.
decreased VR1 resistance. While carry-
The pule width in the monoshot mode is 4. LED-1 glows if the IC is healthy. LED-
ing out this step-4, test, keep the pre-
given by : 1 glows because the IC is presently
1.1 x (total charging resistance) x sets VR2 and VR3 in the maximum
wired as a monoshot and in the
(charging capacitance). resistance position.
absence of any trigger, the output is
This expression is valid when there is no 6. Trigger the monoshot again and
external resistance connected from pin- before the expected HIGH-time is over,
5. Give trigger pulse by pressing and
5. The pulse width can be reduced by quickly decrease preset VR3 resistance
releasing the switch SW1 once. You will
connecting an external resistance. so as to bring the voltage at pin-4
observe the LED-1 getting extinguished
The HIGH and LOW times in the below O.8V. You will observe the output
and in turn the LED-2 becoming ON.
astable mode are given by : to go LOW (indicated by a glowing
This confirms that the output of the
HIGH-time=0.69 x (charging resis- LED-1 and an extinguished LED-2).
monoshot has gone HIGH. You will
tance) x (charging capacitance) 7. Set preset VR3 resistance again in the
observe the LED-2 going OFF and
LOW-time = 0.69 x (discharge resis- maximum resistance position. Set the
LED-1 again becoming ON after some
tance) x (capacitance) preset VR2 in the minimum resistance
time. This L; will happen when the
Again the expressions are for no exter- position. Trigger the monoshot. You will
monoshot output goes LOW again.
nal resistance from pin-5. The HIGH- observe the monos hot going HIGH for
Vary the preset VR1 so as to change the
time can be made to decrease by con- a time period that is much less than
resistance offered by the pot. Trigger
necting an external resistance from pin- what is dictated by the resistance
the monoshot again. You will find that
5 to ground. offered by the series combination of R4



C2 R11






Fig. 2: Actual - size, solder-side PCB layout. Fig. 3: Component layout for the PCB.

and preset VR1 and capacitor C3. 8. Set the DPDT -switch in position 2- CONTROL pins can be seen in this
Intact for a fixed setting of this series 2.The LED1 and LED2 will start glowing configuration too in a similar fashion
combination, the output pulse width alternately with the timings determined like the one discussed above in the case
can be observed to vary for different by resistances in charge and discharge of monoshot configuration.
values of VR2 resistance by triggering paths. The timer IC is now in astable
the monoshot several times, once for mode.
each setting of VR2. 9. The functions of RESET and