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CENTRE FOR MANAGEMENT STUDIES

Online Submission of Assignments-1,2 & 3

MBA-Full Time

Semester-II (2020)

Subject: INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR MANAGEMENT

Paper Code : MBA (FT) CP- 207

Roll No: 26

Submitted by: Submitted to:


Imran Alam Dr. Aleem Ali

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Your Roll No...26....... Name: Imran Alam
Centre for Management Studies
MBA-Full Time
Semester-II (2020)
Online Submission of End-Term Assignments
Subject: Information Systems for Management
Paper Code : MBA (FT) CP- 207

Assignment 1 Page 2 - 8
Assignment 2 Page 9 - 16
Assignment 3 Page 17 - 27

Attempt any two Questions from each assignment. Each question carries equal marks.
Max. Marks: 25 for each assignment

Assignment 1
Attempt any two Questions. Submit latest by 28th April 2020

Q2. Discuss some common benefits of Artificial Intelligence (AI)? Suggest


some applications of AI?

Ans2. Artificial intelligence (AI) is wide-ranging branch of computer science concerned with
building smart machines capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence.
AI is an interdisciplinary science with multiple approaches, but advancements in machine
learning and deep learning are creating a paradigm shift in virtually every sector of the tech
industry.

Machine with the ability to perform cognitive functions such as perceiving, learning, reasoning
and solve problems are deemed to hold an artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence exists
when a machine has cognitive ability. The benchmark for AI is the human level concerning
reasoning, speech, and vision.

Some common benefits of Artificial Intelligence (AI) are:


1) Reduction in Human Error:

The phrase “human error” was born because humans make mistakes from time to time.
Computers, however, do not make these mistakes if they are programmed properly. With
Artificial intelligence, the decisions are taken from the previously gathered information

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applying a certain set of algorithms. So errors are reduced and the chance of reaching accuracy
with a greater degree of precision is a possibility.

Example: In Weather Forecasting using AI they have reduced the majority of human error.

2) Takes risks instead of Humans:

This is one of the biggest advantages of Artificial intelligence. We can overcome many risky
limitations of humans by developing an AI Robot which in turn can do the risky things for us.
Let it be going to mars, defuse a bomb, explore the deepest parts of oceans, mining for coal and
oil, it can be used effectively in any kind of natural or man-made disasters.

Example: Have you heard about the Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion in Ukraine? At
that time there were no AI-powered robots that can help us to minimize the effect of radiation
by controlling the fire in early stages, as any human went close to the core was dead in a matter
of minutes. They eventually poured sand and boron from helicopters from a mere distance.AI
Robots can be used in such situations where intervention can be hazardous.

3) Available 24x7:
An Average human will work for 4–6 hours a day excluding the breaks. Humans are built in
such a way to get some time out for refreshing themselves and get ready for a new day of work
and they even have weekly offed to stay intact with their work-life and personal life. But using
AI we can make machines work 24x7 without any breaks and they don’t even get bored, unlike
humans.

Example: Educational Institutes and Helpline centers are getting many queries and issues which
can be handled effectively using AI.

4) Helping in Repetitive Jobs:


In our day-to-day work, we will be performing many repetitive works like sending a thanking
mail, verifying certain documents for errors and many more things. Using artificial intelligence
we can productively automate these mundane tasks and can even remove “boring” tasks for
humans and free them up to be increasingly creative.

Example: In banks, we often see many verifications of documents to get a loan which is a
repetitive task for the owner of the bank. Using AI Cognitive Automation the owner can speed
up the process of verifying the documents by which both the customers and the owner will be
benefited.

5) Digital Assistance:
Some of the highly advanced organizations use digital assistants to interact with users which
saves the need for human resources. The digital assistants also used in many websites to provide
things that users want. We can chat with them about what we are looking for. Some chatbots
are designed in such a way that it’s become hard to determine that we’re chatting with a chatbot
or a human being.

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Example: We all know that organizations have a customer support team that needs to clarify
the doubts and queries of the customers. Using AI the organizations can set up a Voice bot or
Chatbot which can help customers with all their queries. We can see many organizations already
started using them on their websites and mobile applications.

6) Faster Decisions:
Using AI alongside other technologies we can make machines take decisions faster than a
human and carry out actions quicker. While taking a decision human will analyze many factors
both emotionally and practically but AI-powered machine works on what it is programmed and
delivers the results in a faster way.

Example: We all have played Chess games in Windows. It is nearly impossible to beat CPU in
the hard mode because of the AI behind that game. It will take the best possible step in a very
short time according to the algorithms used behind it.

7) Daily Applications:

Daily applications such as Apple’s Siri, Window’s Cortana, Google’s OK Google are
frequently used in our daily routine whether it is for searching a location, taking a selfie, making
a phone call, replying to a mail and many more.

Example: Around 20 years ago, when we are planning to go somewhere we used to ask a person
who already went there for the directions. But now all we have to do is say “OK Google where
is Visakhapatnam”. It will show you Visakhapatnam’s location on google map and the best path
between you and Visakhapatnam.

8) New Inventions:
AI is powering many inventions in almost every domain which will help humans solve the
majority of complex problems.

Example: Recently doctors can predict breast cancer in the woman at earlier stages using
advanced AI-based technologies.

Some applications of AI are:


Artificial intelligence today is not just a theory. It, in fact, has many practical applications.
A 2016 Gartner research shows that by 2020, at least 30% of companies globally will use AI
in at least one fragment of their sales processes. Today business across the globe are leveraging
artificial intelligence to optimize their process and reap higher revenues and profits. We
reached out to some industry experts to share their outlook on the applications of artificial
intelligence. Here are the insights we received:

1.Chatbots:
AI-powered chatbots in enterprises will also see an influx of people get more comfortable with
how AI can actually benefit businesses versus, say, take away their jobs. From an analytical

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standpoint, AI can be incorporated into interfaces to change how they receive and understand
data.

2. Artificial Intelligence in e-Commerce:


Artificial Intelligence technology provides a competitive edge to e-commerce businesses and
is becoming readily available to companies of any size or budget. Leveraging machine learning,
AI software automatically tags, organizes and visually searches content by labeling features of
the image or video.

3. AI to Improve Workplace Communication:


Current business communication is overloaded with content, channels, tools, and so-called
solutions, depriving individuals (and companies) from hitting targets while also harming work-
life balance. Artificial Intelligence will help businesses improve communication internally and
externally by enabling individual personalization for each professional, allowing for enhanced
focus and increased productivity.

4. Human Resource Management:

AI and Machine learning are going to drastically and irrevocably change how HR and
recruitment work in every company and this is going to be awesome. In fact, HR is likely to be
one of the first areas of business that will benefit from AI for two simple reasons. Firstly there
are tons of top quality data in HR, and secondly, HR is one part of any company that is both
essential and yet feels the pressure of time.

5. AI in Healthcare:

In the year ahead, and particularly in the next five to ten years, artificial intelligence is going
to have a big impact on the healthcare industry and the ways in which healthcare related
companies utilize AI. Here is a short note from Dr. Jeff Dunn, CEO of Redivus Health. Redivus
Health is a transformative mobile app used by healthcare providers to prevent medical errors
by offering both clinical decision support during critical medical events as well as documenting
those events electronically in real time.

6. Intelligent Cybersecurity:
In regard to cybersecurity, Artificial Intelligence is making great strides. Although AI is
considered to be in its infancy in cybersecurity and cannot always effectively address all issues,
it works successfully in data protection. AI allows companies to detect vulnerabilities or
anomalous user behavior in such business applications as ERP or Financial systems.

7. Artificial Intelligence in Logistics and Supply Chain:


When combined with customer data and analytics, physical artificial intelligence removes
friction from the customer experience. Artificial intelligence empowers businesses to act on
consumer data to drive improvements throughout many areas of supply chain operations.
Mobile technology and the “Uberization” of things have made consumers hungry for AI.

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Consumers demand shorter delivery waits from retailers and retailers will expect the same from
manufacturers and distribution centers.

8. Sports betting Industry:

In its article Sports trading and AI: Taking the human out of sports betting, Gambling
Insider argues that, “Just as more scientific analysis of sport is changing how coaches, trainers,
and clubs play their respective games, greater analysis of sporting events is helping odds
making database operators evaluate the potential permutations of each sporting event,
increasing the accuracy of that respective odd and thereby making the subsequent odds
determination easier.”

9. Retail:

Shopping online creates rich data footprints regarding the individual preferences, spending
habits and preferred channels of individual consumers. Feeding these digital breadcrumbs into
an AI-engine helps bring curated shopping journeys to mass audiences. Automated bots can
create lifelike, seamless customer service experiences, addressing the consumer on their
purchase history and known preferences.

Q3. What are MIS reporting tools? Discuss the implications of


Organizational Structure for MIS?
Ans3. Organizations use MIS (Management Information Systems) to make executive
decisions in all spheres and phases of the business. Using a management information system,
the organization is able to procure, analyze and document facts and figures on all of its
strategic business functions. Once an analysis is done, the company top management then
bases its decisions on the reports generated by an MIS. Whenever there are tweaks in the
functioning, the management is able to take corrective action immediately.
Reporting Software connects with data sources, gather information and provide insights in the
form of graphs and charts based on the input data so the user can find useful information. This
application usually comes in a business intelligence suite.
The reporting tools help in the decision-making process. Detailed insights will give you more
visibility over data. Reporting tools present the data in an attractive manner. By representing
the data in an attractive manner, these tools make data more readable, useful, and presentable.

Few MIS reporting tools are:

1) HubSpot Marketing Analytics


You can measure the performance of your complete marketing funnel in one place with robust
built-in analytics, reports, and dashboards. HubSpot Marketing Analytics everything you need
to be a smarter marketer. You can make quick and smarter decisions backed with integrated
analytics.

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2) Microsoft Power BI

Power BI is a collection of software services, applications and connectors that help you import,
process and report data in the form of compelling and easy-to-digest reports and visuals.

The Microsoft Power BI platform includes a range of products, which are tailored to certain
business needs i.e. Power BI Desktop, Power BI Pro, Power BI Premium, Power BI Mobile,
Power BI Report Server, and Power BI Embedded.

3) Answer Rocket

Answer Rocket is suitable for any business. As this tool is made for business people, no
technical skills are required. Anyone from the team can generate reports and analytics. It is a
web-based tool, hence it can work with any operating system.

4) SAP Crystal Reports

It is a business intelligence and reporting tool. It provides design interface and efficient
workflows. The tool will ensure data security and it can be used by small and medium-sized
companies.

5) Izenda Reports

Izenda Reports is a business intelligence and reporting tool. Its users can decide when and how
to access the data using this self-service reporting. It can be used by software companies and
development teams to place the BI and reporting functionality into their application. It is
accessible on a desktop using web-browser and mobiles. It can also be deployed on-premise.

6) DBxtra

DBxtra is a business intelligence and reporting tool for ad-hoc reporting. It is a web-based
reporting interface, which also provides free desktop report viewer. Its Dashboard designer
helps in creating web-based dashboards. It is a cloud-based solution for companies to create
and distribute web-reports.

7) Datadog

Datadog is a monitoring and analytics software. It provides application performance


management, log management, dashboards, and alerts functionalities. It includes full API
access.

8) BIRT
BIRT is an open source tool for data visualization and reports. This tool is used by development
teams to include the reporting functionality in web applications. Mostly it is used in Java and
Java EE projects. It can be used by all types of organizations.

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9) KNIME

KNIME is an open source analytics platform. It is used for creating data science applications
and services. It supports Windows, Mac, and Linux operating systems. KNIME is used for
financial data analysis, business intelligence, and pharmaceutical research.

10) GoodData

It is a cloud-based solution. The tool can give you visibility for sales, marketing, social and
customer service efforts. Using this tool you can deliver fully-managed insights.

Implications of Organizational Structure for MIS


MIS is appropriate for the organization because it makes the flow of information easy within
an organization from bottom to up hierarchy and vice versa. In MIS, three primary resources
like people, technology and information are involved that are used by all level of managers to
analyze the operational activities in organization. So, it reduces the need of dependency on
different people for similar working activities.
MIS contains all valuable and important informational data that could be helpful for the
strategy maker to make further and improved strategy-making process, so it reduces the
activities and involvement of first line managers. The “tall” management structure is not
effective in current business environment because of changing nature of external and internal
environment. In tall management structure, the flow of information could be effective with the
use of different techniques, but the decision making process will take much time due to
involvement of different people at different levels.

MIS ensures that an appropriate data is available against problems by the use of technology for
effective decision making and decision could come within time with accuracy without
involvement of external operational managers.

MIS is effective in tracking and monitoring to employees with the help of different electronic
instruments that could reduce the working of different functional managers. So, the use of MIS
in organization effectively reduces the structure of an organization.

The nature of organisations determine their activities, the information support they need and
type of information system they use. MIS has been described as a pyramidal structure, with
four levels of information resources. The level of information would depend upon
organisational structure.

The top level supports strategy planning and policy making at the highest level of management.
The second level of information resources aid tactical planning and decision making for
management control. The third level supports day to day operations and control. The bottom
level consists of information for transaction processing. It then follows since decision making
is specific to hierarchical levels in an organisation, the information required at each level vary
accordingly.

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Assignment 2
Attempt any two Questions. Submit latest by 6th May 2020

Q1. What is the scope of data mining in industry? Discuss some advantages
of data mining?
Ans1. Data mining is a process used by companies to turn raw data into useful information.
By using software to look for patterns in large batches of data, businesses can learn more about
their customers to develop more effective marketing strategies, increase sales and decrease
costs. Data mining depends on effective data collection, warehousing, and computer
processing.
Example : Grocery stores are well-known users of data mining techniques. Many supermarkets
offer free loyalty cards to customers that give them access to reduced prices not available to
non-members. The cards make it easy for stores to track who is buying what, when they are
buying it and at what price. After analyzing the data, stores can then use this data
to offer customers coupons targeted to their buying habits and decide when to put items on sale
or when to sell them at full price.

The Scope of Data Mining:


Data mining derives its name from the similarities between searching for valuable business
information in a large database, for example, finding linked products in gigabytes of store
scanner data and mining a mountain for a vein of valuable ore. Both processes require either
sifting through an immense amount of material, or intelligently probing it to find exactly where
the value resides.

Given databases of sufficient size and quality, data mining technology can generate new
business opportunities by providing these capabilities:

i. Automated prediction of trends and behaviors: Data mining automates the


process of finding predictive information in large databases. Questions that
traditionally required extensive hands-on analysis can now be answered directly
from the data — quickly. A typical example of a predictive problem is targeted
marketing. Data mining uses data on past promotional mailings to identify the
targets most likely to maximize return on investment in future mailings. Other
predictive problems include forecasting bankruptcy and other forms of default, and
identifying segments of a population likely to respond similarly to given events.

ii. Automated discovery of previously unknown patterns: Data mining tools


sweep through databases and identify previously hidden patterns in one step. An
example of pattern discovery is the analysis of retail sales data to identify seemingly
unrelated products that are often purchased together. Other pattern discovery

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problems include detecting fraudulent credit card transactions and identifying
anomalous data that could represent data entry keying errors.

Data mining techniques can yield the benefits of automation on existing software and hardware
platforms, and can be implemented on new systems as existing platforms are upgraded and
new products developed. When data mining tools are implemented on high performance
parallel processing systems, they can analyze massive databases in minutes. Faster processing
means that users can automatically experiment with more models to understand complex data.
High speed makes it practical for users to analyze huge quantities of data. Larger databases, in
turn, yield improved predictions.

Advantages of data mining are as follows:

1. Marketing/Retails
In order to create models, marketing companies use data mining. This was based on history to
forecast who’s going to respond to new marketing campaigns such as direct mail, online
marketing, etc. This means that marketers can sell profitable products to targeted customers.

2. Finance/Banking
Since data extraction provides information to financial institutions on loans and credit
reports, data can determine good or bad credits by creating a model for historic customers. It
also helps banks to detect fraudulent transactions by credit cards that protect the owner of a
credit card.

3. Researchers
Data mining can motivate researchers to accelerate when the method analysis the data.
Therefore, they can work more time on other projects. Shopping behaviors can be detected.
Most of the time, you may experience new problems while designing certain shopping
patterns. Therefore data mining is used to solve these problems. All the information on these
shopping patterns can be found by mining methods. This process also creates an area where
all the unexpected shopping patterns are calculated. This data extraction can be beneficial
when shopping patterns are identified.

4. Determining Customer Groups


We are using data mining to respond from marketing campaigns to customers. It also
provides information during the identification of customer groups. Some surveys can be used
to begin these new customer groups. And these investigations are one of the forms of data
mining.

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5. Increases Brand Loyalty
In marketing campaigns, mining techniques are used. This is to understand their own
customers ‘ needs and habits. And from that customers can also choose their brand’s clothes.
Thus, you can definitely be self-reliant with the help of this technique. However, it provides
possible information when it comes to decisions.

6. Helps in Decision Making


These data mining techniques are used by people to help them in making some sort of
decisions in marketing or in business. Today, with the use of this technology, all information
can be determined. Also, using such technology, one can decide precisely what is unknown
and unexpected.

7. Increase Company Revenue


Data mining is a process in which some kind of technology is involved. One must collect
information on goods sold online, this eventually reduces product costs and services, which is
one of the benefits of data mining.

8. To Predict Future Trends


All information factors are part of the working nature of the system. The data mining systems
can also be obtained from these. They can help you predict future trends and with the help of
this technology, this is quite possible. And people also adopt behavioral changes.

9. Increases Website Optimization


We use data mining to find all kinds of unseen element information. And adding data mining
helps you to optimize your website. Similarly, this data mining provides information that may
use the technology of data mining.

Q2. List out the OLAP operations and explain the same with an example?
Ans2. Online analytical processing, or OLAP, is an approach to answer multi-dimensional
analytical (MDA) queries swiftly in computing. OLAP is part of the broader category
of business intelligence, which also encompasses relational databases, report writing and data
mining.
Typical applications of OLAP include business reporting for sales, marketing, management
reporting, business process management (BPM),budgeting and forecasting, financial
reporting and similar areas, with new applications emerging, such as agriculture. The
term OLAP was created as a slight modification of the traditional database term online
transaction processing (OLTP).
OLAP tools enable users to analyze multidimensional data interactively from multiple
perspectives. OLAP consists of three basic analytical operations: consolidation (roll-up), drill-
down, and slicing and dicing. Consolidation involves the aggregation of data that can be

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accumulated and computed in one or more dimensions. For example, all sales offices are rolled
up to the sales department or sales division to anticipate sales trends. By contrast, the drill-
down is a technique that allows users to navigate through the details. For instance, users can
view the sales by individual products that make up a region's sales. Slicing and dicing is a
feature whereby users can take out (slicing) a specific set of data of the OLAP cube and view
(dicing) the slices from different viewpoints. These viewpoints are sometimes called
dimensions (such as looking at the same sales by salesperson, or by date, or by customer, or by
product, or by region, etc.)
Databases configured for OLAP use a multidimensional data model, allowing for complex
analytical and ad hoc queries with a rapid execution time. They borrow aspects of navigational
databases, hierarchical databases and relational databases.
OLAP is typically contrasted to OLTP (online transaction processing), which is generally
characterized by much less complex queries, in a larger volume, to process transactions rather
than for the purpose of business intelligence or reporting. Whereas OLAP systems are mostly
optimized for read, OLTP has to process all kinds of queries (read, insert, update and delete).

Basic analytical operations of OLAP


Four types of analytical operations in OLAP are:

1. Roll-up
2. Drill-down
3. Slice and dice
4. Pivot (rotate)

1) Roll-up:

Roll-up is also known as "consolidation" or "aggregation." The Roll-up operation can be


performed in 2 ways

1. Reducing dimensions
2. Climbing up concept hierarchy. Concept hierarchy is a system of grouping things
based on their order or level.

Roll-up is performed by climbing up a concept hierarchy for the dimension location.


Initially the concept hierarchy was "street < city < province < country".
On rolling up, the data is aggregated by ascending the location hierarchy from the level of
city to the level of country.
The data is grouped into cities rather than countries.
When roll-up is performed, one or more dimensions from the data cube are removed.

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Consider the following diagram:

• In this example, cities New jersey and Lost Angles and rolled up into country USA
• The sales figure of New Jersey and Los Angeles are 440 and 1560 respectively. They
become 2000 after roll-up
• In this aggregation process, data is location hierarchy moves up from city to the country.
• In the roll-up process at least one or more dimensions need to be removed. In this
example, Quater dimension is removed.

2) Drill-down

In drill-down data is fragmented into smaller parts. It is the opposite of the rollup process. It
can be done via

• Moving down the concept hierarchy


• Increasing a dimension

Drill-down is performed by stepping down a concept hierarchy for the dimension time.
Initially the concept hierarchy was "day < month < quarter < year."
On drilling down, the time dimension is descended from the level of quarter to the level of
month.
When drill-down is performed, one or more dimensions from the data cube are added.
It navigates the data from less detailed data to highly detailed data.

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Consider the diagram above:

• Quater Q1 is drilled down to months January, February, and March. Corresponding


sales are also registers.
• In this example, dimension months are added.

3) Slice:

Here, one dimension is selected, and a new sub-cube is created. Following diagram explain
how slice operation performed:

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• Here Slice is performed for the dimension "time" using the criterion time = "Q1".
• It will form a new sub-cube by selecting one or more dimensions.

A Slice represents two-dimensional view of an OLAP Cube that arranges data in a grid, similar
to a spreadsheet; a Slice functions much like a report or a query in an RDBMS in that it returns
data based on a request for what to see. In an Cube, a Slice can, optimally, be created through
drag-and-drop of Dimensions and their Members; optimally, the Slice view will refresh
instantaneously.

4)Dice:

This operation is similar to a slice. The difference in dice is you select 2 or more dimensions
that result in the creation of a sub-cube.

The dice operation on the cube based on the following selection criteria involves three
dimensions.

• (location = "Toronto" or "Vancouver")


• (time = "Q1" or "Q2")
• (item =" Mobile" or "Modem")

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5) Pivot

The pivot operation is also known as rotation. It rotates the data axes in view in order to provide
an alternative presentation of data. Consider the following diagram that shows the pivot
operation.

Pivot table is a data summarization tool that is used in the context of data
processing. Pivot tables are used to summarize, sort, reorganize, group, count, total or average
data stored in a database. It allows its users to transform columns into rows and rows into
columns. It allows grouping by any data field.

In Pivot, you rotate the data axes to provide a substitute presentation of data.

In the following example, the pivot is based on item types.

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Assignment 3
Attempt any two Questions. Submit latest by 15th May 2020

Q1. What is machine learning? Why must machine learning be performed?


Explain its types.
Ans1. Machine learning is the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly
programmed. In the past decade, machine learning has given us self-driving cars, practical
speech recognition, effective web search, and a vastly improved understanding of the human
genome. Machine learning is so pervasive today that you probably use it dozens of times a
day without knowing it. Many researchers also think it is the best way to make progress
towards human-level AI. Machine learning is enabling computers to tackle tasks that have,
until now, only been carried out by people.

it is a core sub-area of Artificial Intelligence (AI). ML applications learn from experience


(well data) like humans without direct programming. When exposed to new data, these
applications learn, grow, change, and develop by themselves. In other words, with Machine
Learning, computers find insightful information without being told where to look. Instead,
they do this by leveraging algorithms that learn from data in an iterative process.While the
concept of Machine Learning has been around for a long time (think of the WWII Enigma
Machine), the ability to automate the application of complex mathematical calculations to
Big Data has been gaining momentum over the last several years.

At a high level, Machine Learning is the ability to adapt to new data independently and
through iterations. Basically, applications learn from previous computations and transactions
and use “pattern recognition” to produce reliable and informed results.

From driving cars to translating speech, machine learning is driving an explosion in the
capabilities of artificial intelligence - helping software make sense of the messy and
unpredictable real world.

Working of machine learning

Machine Learning is, undoubtedly, one of the most exciting subsets of Artificial Intelligence.
It completes the task of learning from data with specific inputs to the machine. It’s important
to understand what makes Machine Learning work and, thus, how it can be used in the
future. The Machine Learning process starts with inputting training data into the selected
algorithm. Training data being known or unknown data to develop the final Machine
Learning algorithm. The type of training data input does impact the algorithm, and that
concept will be covered further momentarily.

To test whether this algorithm works correctly, new input data is fed into the Machine
Learning algorithm. The prediction and results are then checked.

If the prediction is not as expected, the algorithm is re-trained multiple numbers of times until
the desired output is found. This enables the Machine Learning algorithm to continually learn

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on its own and produce the most optimal answer that will gradually increase in accuracy over
time.

Why machine learning must be performed

Machine learning has several very practical applications that drive the kind of real business
results – such as time and money savings – that have the potential to dramatically impact the
future of your organization. At Interactions in particular, we see tremendous impact occurring
within the customer care industry, whereby machine learning is allowing people to get things
done more quickly and efficiently.

Through Virtual Assistant solutions, machine learning automates tasks that would otherwise
need to be performed by a live agent – such as changing a password or checking an account
balance. This frees up valuable agent time that can be used to focus on the kind of customer
care that humans perform best: high touch, complicated decision-making that is not as easily
handled by a machine. At Interactions, we further improve the process by eliminating the
decision of whether a request should be sent to a human or a machine: unique Adaptive
Understanding technology, the machine learns to be aware of its limitations, and bail out to
humans when it has a low confidence in providing the correct solution.

Machine learning has made dramatic improvements in the past few years, but we are still
very far from reaching human performance. Many times, the machine needs the assistance of
human to complete its task. At Interactions, we have deployed Virtual Assistant solutions that
seamlessly blend artificial with true human intelligence to deliver the highest level of
accuracy and understanding.

Top reasons why machine learning be performed are as follows:

1)Image Recognition
The image recognition is one of the most common uses of machine learning applications. It
can also be referred to as a digital image and for these images, the measurement describes the
output of every pixel in an image. The face recognition is also one of the great features that
have been developed by machine learning only. It helps to recognize the face and send the
notifications related to that to people.

2) Voice Recognition
Machine learning (ML) also helps in developing the application for voice recognition. It also
referred to as virtual personal assistants (VPA). It will help you to find the information when
asked over the voice. After your question, that assistant will look out for the data or the
information that has been asked by you and collect the required information to provide you
with the best answer. There are many devices available in today’s world of Machine learning
for voice recognition that is Amazon echo and googles home is the smart speakers. There is
one mobile app called Google allo and smartphones are Samsung S8 and Bixby.

3) Predictions
It helps in building the applications that predict the price of cab or travel for a particular
duration and congestion of traffic where can be found. While booking the cab and the app

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estimates the approximate price of the trip that is done by the uses of machine learning only.
When do we use GPS service to check the route from source to destination, the app will show
us the various ways to go and check the traffic on that moment for the lesser number of
vehicles and where the congestion of traffic is more that is done or retrieved by the uses of
machine learning application.

4) Videos Surveillance
It helps to detect the crime or any miss happening that is going to happen before it happens. It
helps in tracking the unusual behavior of people like napping on benches and standing still
from a long time, stumbling etc. and it will create an automatic alert to the guards or people
who all are posted there and they can help to avoid any issues or problems.

5) Social Media Platform


Social Media is being used for providing better news feed and advertisement as per the user’s
interest is mainly done through the uses of machine learning only. There are many examples
like friend suggestions, page suggestions for Facebook, songs, and videos suggestion on
YouTube. It mainly works on the straightforward concept on the basis of the user’s
experience, with which they are getting connected and visit the profiles or websites very
often, suggestions are providing to the user accordingly. It also provides the technique to
extract useful information from images and videos.

6) Spam and Malware


Email clients use a number of spam filtering and these spam filters are continuously getting
updated and these are mainly done by the uses of machine learning. Rule-based, multi-layer
and tree induction are some of the techniques that are provided by machine learning.
Similarly, a number of malware are detected and these are detected mainly by the system
security programs that are mainly helped by machine learning only.

7) Customer Support
Most of the reputed companies or many websites provide the option to chat with a customer
support representative. So, after asking any query by the customer, it is not compulsory that
the answer is given by the human only, sometimes the answers are given by the chatbot
which extracts the information from the website and provides the answer to customers. Now
they are better and understand the queries quickly and faster and also provides a good result
by giving appropriate result and it is done by the uses of machine learning only.

8) Search Engine
There are search engines available while searching to provide the best results to customers.
There are many machine learning algorithms created for searching the particular user query
like for google. Whatever the page is being opened by the users for a particular topic
frequently that will remain at the top of the page for a long time.

9) Applications/Companies
There are many applications and companies that used machine learning for doing their day to
day process as it is being more accurate and precise than manual interventions. These
companies are Netflix, facebook, google maps, Gmail, Google search etc.

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10) Fraud and Preference
It is being used by the companies to keep track of money laundering like Paypal. It uses the
set of tools to help them to check or compare the millions of transactions and make secure
transactions.

Types of Machine Learning

Machine Learning is complex in itself, which is why it has been divided into two main areas,
supervised learning and unsupervised learning. Each one has a specific purpose and action
within Machine Learning, yielding particular results, and utilizing various forms of data.
Approximately 70 percent of Machine Learning is supervised learning, while unsupervised
learning ranges from 10-20 percent. Another method that is used less often is reinforcement
learning.

1. Supervised Learning

In supervised learning, we use known or labelled data for the training data. Since the data is
known, the learning is, therefore, supervised, i.e., directed into successful execution. The
input data goes through the Machine Learning algorithm and is used to train the model. Once
the model is trained based on the known data, you can use unknown data into the model and
get a new response

In this case, the model tries to figure out whether the data is an apple or another fruit. Once
the model has been trained well, it will identify that the data is an apple and give the desired
response.

The top algorithms currently being used for supervised learning are:

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• Polynomial regression

• Random forest

• Linear regression

• Logistic regression

• Decision trees

• K-nearest neighbors

• Naive Bayes

2. Unsupervised Learning

In unsupervised learning, the training data is unknown and unlabeled - meaning that no one
has looked at the data before. Without the aspect of known data, the input cannot be guided to
the algorithm, which is where the unsupervised term originates from. This data is fed to the
Machine Learning algorithm and is used to train the model. The trained model tries to search
for a pattern and give the desired response. In this case, it is often like the algorithm is trying
to break code like the Enigma machine but without the human mind directly involved but
rather a machine.

In this case, the unknown data consists of apples and pears which look similar to each other.
The trained model tries to put them all together so that you get the same things in similar
groups.

The top algorithms currently being used for unsupervised learning are:

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• Partial least squares

• Fuzzy means

• Singular value decomposition

• K-means clustering

• Apriori

• Hierarchical clustering

• Principal component analysis

3. Reinforcement Learning

Like traditional types of data analysis, here, the algorithm discovers data through a process of
trial and error and then decides what action results in higher rewards. Three major
components make up reinforcement learning: the agent, the environment, and the actions.
The agent is the learner or decision-maker, the environment includes everything that the
agent interacts with, and the actions are what the agent does.

Reinforcement learning occurs when the agent chooses actions that maximize the expected
reward over a given time. This is easiest to achieve when the agent is working within a sound
policy framework.

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Q2. Discuss some of the important benefits of Cloud Computing.
Ans2. Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources,
especially data storage and computing power, without direct active management by the user.
The term is generally used to describe data centers available to many users over the Internet.
Large clouds, predominant today, often have functions distributed over multiple locations
from central servers. If the connection to the user is relatively close, it may be designated
an edge server.
Clouds may be limited to a single organization (enterprise clouds), or be available to many
organizations (public cloud).
Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale.

Cloud computing allows companies to avoid or minimize up-front IT infrastructure costs.


Proponents also claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to get their applications up
and running faster, with improved manageability and less maintenance, and that it enables IT
teams to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable
demand, providing the burst computing capability: high computing power at certain periods
of peak demand.
Cloud providers typically use a "pay-as-you-go" model, which can lead to
unexpected operating expenses if administrators are not familiarized with cloud-pricing
models.
The availability of high-capacity networks, low-cost computers and storage devices as well as
the widespread adoption of hardware virtualization, service-oriented
architecture and autonomic and utility computing has led to growth in cloud computing.
By 2019, Linux was the most widely used operating system, including in Microsoft's
offerings and is thus described as dominant. The Cloud Service Provider (CSP) will screen,
keep up and gather data about the firewalls, intrusion identification or/and counteractive
action frameworks and information stream inside the network.

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Important benefits of cloud computing
i. Cost Savings:
If you are worried about the price tag that would come with making the switch to cloud
computing, you aren't alone 20% of organizations are concerned about the initial cost of
implementing a cloud-based server. But those who are attempting to weigh the advantages and
disadvantages of using the cloud need to consider more factors than just initial price they need
to consider ROI. Once you're on the cloud, easy access to your company's data will save time
and money in project startups. And, for those who are worried that they'll end up paying for
features that they neither need nor want, most cloud-computing services are pay as you go.
This means that if you don't take advantage of what the cloud has to offer, then at least you
won't have to be dropping money on it. The pay-as-you-go system also applies to the data
storage space needed to service your stakeholders and clients, which means that you'll get
exactly as much space as you need, and not be charged for any space that you don't. Taken
together, these factors result in lower costs and higher returns. Half of all CIOs and IT leaders
surveyed by Bitglass reported cost savings in 2015 as a result of using cloud-based
applications.

ii. Security:
Many organizations have security concerns when it comes to adopting a cloud-computing
solution. After all, when files, programs, and other data aren't kept securely onsite, how can
you know that they are being protected? If you can remotely access your data, then what's
stopping a cybercriminal from doing the same thing? Well, quite a bit, actually.
For one thing, a cloud host's full-time job is to carefully monitor security, which is significantly
more efficient than a conventional in-house system, where an organization must divide its
efforts between a myriad of IT concerns, with security being only one of them. And while most
businesses don't like to openly consider the possibility of internal data theft, the truth is that a
staggeringly high percentage of data thefts occur internally and are perpetrated by employees.
When this is the case, it can actually be much safer to keep sensitive information offsite. Of
course, this is all very abstract, so let's consider some solid statistics.
Rapid Scale claims that 94% of businesses saw an improvement in security after switching to
the cloud, and 91% said the cloud makes it easier to meet government compliance
requirements. The key to this amped-up security is the encryption of data being transmitted
over networks and stored in databases. By using encryption, information is less accessible by
hackers or anyone not authorized to view your data. As an added security measure, with most
cloud-based services, different security settings can be set based on the user. While 20% of
cloud user claim disaster recovery in four hours or less, only 9% of cloud users could claim the
same.

iii. Flexibility:
Your business has only a finite amount of focus to divide between all of its responsibilities. If
your current IT solutions are forcing you to commit too much of your attention to computer
and data-storage issues, then you aren't going to be able to concentrate on reaching business

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goals and satisfying customers. On the other hand, by relying on an outside organization to
take care of all IT hosting and infrastructure, you'll have more time to devote toward the
aspects of your business that directly affect your bottom line.

The cloud offers businesses more flexibility overall versus hosting on a local server. And, if
you need extra bandwidth, a cloud-based service can meet that demand instantly, rather than
undergoing a complex (and expensive) update to your IT infrastructure. This improved freedom
and flexibility can make a significant difference to the overall efficiency of your organization.
A 65% majority of respondents to an InformationWeek survey said “the ability to quickly meet
business demands” was one of the most important reasons a business should move to a cloud
environment.

iv. Mobility:
Cloud computing allows mobile access to corporate data via smartphones and devices, which,
considering over 2.6 billion smartphones are being used globally today, is a great way to
ensure that no one is ever left out of the loop. Staff with busy schedules, or who live a long
way away from the corporate office, can use this feature to keep instantly up to date with
clients and co-worker.
Through the cloud, you can offer conveniently accessible information to sales staff who
travel, freelance employees, or remote employees, for better work-life balance. Therefore, it's
not surprising to see that organizations with employee satisfaction listed as a priority are up
to 24% more likely to expand cloud usage.

v. Insight:
As we move ever further into the digital age, it's becoming clearer and clearer that the old
adage “knowledge is power” has taken on the more modern and accurate form: “Data is
money.” Hidden within the millions of bits of data that surround your customer transactions
and business process are nuggets of invaluable, actionable information just waiting to be
identified and acted upon. Of course, sifting through that data to find these kernels can be
very difficult, unless you have access to the right cloud-computing solution.
Many cloud-based storage solutions offer integrated cloud analytics for a bird's-eye view of
your data. With your information stored in the cloud, you can easily implement tracking
mechanisms and build customized reports to analyze information organization wide. From
those insights, you can increase efficiencies and build action plans to meet organizational
goals. For example, the beverage company Sunny Delight was able to increase profits by
about $2 million a year and cut $195,000 in staffing costs through cloud-based business
insights.

vi. Increased Collaboration:


If your business has two employees or more, then you should be making collaboration a top
priority. After all, there isn't much point to having a team if it is unable to work like a team.
Cloud computing makes collaboration a simple process. Team members can view and share

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information easily and securely across a cloud-based platform. Some cloud-based services
even provide collaborative social spaces to connect employees across your organization,
therefore increasing interest and engagement. Collaboration may be possible without a cloud-
computing solution, but it will never be as easy, nor as effective.

vii. Quality Control:


There are few things as detrimental to the success of a business as poor quality and
inconsistent reporting. In a cloud-based system, all documents are stored in one place and in a
single format. With everyone accessing the same information, you can maintain consistency
in data, avoid human error, and have a clear record of any revisions or updates. Conversely,
managing information in silos can lead to employees accidentally saving different versions of
documents, which leads to confusion and diluted data.

viii. Disaster Recovery:


One of the factors that contributes to the success of a business is control. Unfortunately, no
matter how in control your organization may be when it comes to its own processes, there will
always be things that are completely out of your control, and in today's market, even a small
amount of unproductive downtime can have a resoundingly negative effect. Downtime in your
services leads to lost productivity, revenue, and brand reputation.

But while there may be no way for you to prevent or even anticipate the disasters that could
potentially harm your organization, there is something you can do to help speed your recovery.
Cloud-based services provide quick data recovery for all kinds of emergency scenarios, from
natural disasters to power outages. While 20% of cloud users claim disaster recovery in four
hours or less, only 9% of non-cloud users could claim the same. In a recent survey, 43% of IT
executives said they plan to invest in or improve cloud-based disaster recovery solutions.

ix. Loss Prevention:


If your organization isn't investing in a cloud-computing solution, then all of your valuable data
is inseparably tied to the office computers it resides in. This may not seem like a problem, but
the reality is that if your local hardware experiences a problem, you might end up permanently
losing your data. This is a more common problem than you might realize computers can
malfunction for many reasons, from viral infections, to age-related hardware deterioration, to
simple user error. Or, despite the best of intentions, they can be misplaced or stolen
(over 10,000 laptops are reported lost every week at major airports).
If you aren't on the cloud, you're at risk of losing all the information you had saved locally.
With a cloud-based server, however, all the information you've uploaded to the cloud remains
safe and easily accessible from any computer with an internet connection, even if the computer
you regularly use isn't working.

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x. Automatic Software Updates:
For those who have a lot to get done, there isn't anything more irritating than having to wait for
system updates to be installed. Cloud-based applications automatically refresh and update
themselves, instead of forcing an IT department to perform a manual organizationwide update.
This saves valuable IT staff time and money spent on outside IT consultation. PCWorld lists
that 50% of cloud adopters cited requiring fewer internal IT resources as a cloud benefit.

xi. Competitive Edge:


While cloud computing is increasing in popularity, there are still those who prefer to keep
everything local. That's their choice, but doing so places them at a distinct disadvantage when
competing with those who have the benefits of the cloud at their fingertips. If you implement
a cloud-based solution before your competitors, you'll be further along the learning curve by
the time they catch up. A recent Verizon study showed that 77% of businesses feel cloud
technology gives them a competitive advantage, and 16% believe this advantage is significant.

xii. Sustainability:
Given the current state of the environment, it's no longer enough for organizations to place a
recycling bin in the breakroom and claim that they're doing their part to help the planet. Real
sustainability requires solutions that address wastefulness at every level of a business. Hosting
on the cloud is more environmentally friendly and results in less of a carbon footprint.

Cloud infrastructures support environmental proactivity, powering virtual services rather than
physical products and hardware, and cutting down on paper waste, improving energy
efficiency, and (given that it allows employees access from anywhere with an internet
connection) reducing commuter-related emissions. A Pike Research report predicted data
center energy consumption will drop by 31% from 2010 to 2020 based on the adoption of cloud
computing and other virtual data options.

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