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Long Term Deflection Analysis Using CSI SAFE

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 /  / 

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Step by Step – De ection Analysis Using CSI SAFE

Updated on 08/12/2016: Illustration of the 2nd method of computing Long Term Deflection

In case you missed the Step by Step series, Check it up below. It’s a MUST !

1. [Part 1] Step by Step Analysis Procedure of Seismic Loads Based on IBC2012/ASCE7­10

(http://kickmybrain.com/step­by­step­analysis­procedure­of­seismic­loads­based­on­ibc2012asce7­10/)
2. [Part 2] Step by Step Analysis Procedure of Seismic Loads Based on IBC2012/ASCE7­10

(http://kickmybrain.com/part­2­step­by­step­analysis­procedure­of­seismic­loads­based­on­ibc2012asce7­10/)
3. Step by Step – Deflection Analysis Using CSI SAFE (http://kickmybrain.com/step­by­step­deflection­analysis­

using­csi­safe/)
 

With reference to ACI 435R, §4.4:
“Because of the complexities involved in calculating two­way slab deflections, engineers have preferred to control
deflections by giving minimum slab thickness as a function of span length. Equations such as those in section 9.5 of
ACI318,  as  shown  in  Table  4.2,  are  based  on  experience  gained  over  many  years.  The  ACI  318  equations  express
minimum  thickness  in  terms  of  clear  span  between  columns,  steel  yield  strength,  and  flexural  stiffness  of  edge
beams. The minimum thickness values are modified for the effects of drop panels and discontinuous edges. ACI 318
permits to use of thinner slabs if deflections are computed and found to satisfy the specified maximum permissible
values.“

In this post, I’ll try to explain step by step how two way slabs deflections shall be computed using SAFE software:

1. Immediate Deflections – No Shrinkage & No Creep
2. Long Term Deflections – Sustained Load with Shrinkage &Creep
 

1­Immediate Deflections – No Shrinkage & No Creep
Here we have a simple slab of:

10.0m span in each direction
40 cm solid slab thickness
25 Mpa concrete compressive strength

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0.5 ton/m2 uniform loading under Super Imposed Dead load & 1 ton/m2 uniform loading of Live load
Supported on 4 edges by 80x80cm square columns.
This example is meant only to clarify how to compute the deflection using SAFE. However, there is more economical
solutions for such spans as post tension, hollow core slabs, etc.

Under Define – Load cases, we will define one load case called IMMEDIATE – ALL LOADS, where we will include of
load patterns ( Dead , Live & Super Imposed Dead loads) in one load case under Nonlinear (Cracked) analysis type.

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And  in  term  of  comparison,  we  will  define  a  load  combination  that  include  all  load  patterns  (Dead+Live+Super
Imposed Dead load). 
It will be linear (Non­Cracked) Elastic load combination.

Now we’ll define the cracking analysis options under the Run menu, here we have 3 options to choose from:

User Specified Rebar
From Finite Element Based Design
Quick Tension Rebar Specification
In this example, we will choose “From Finite Element Based Design”.

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After running the analysis, here below are the results that we get under:

IMMEDIATE – ALL LOADS case = Maximum Deflection is equal to 5.6cm 

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Elastic Load Combination = Maximum Deflection is equal to 2.8cm
 

Here we can notice that the deflection under Non­Linear Crack analysis is around 2 times the deflection under Elastic
Linear load combination.

2. Long Term Deflections – Sustained Load with Shrinkage &Creep
Now, we will elaborate the deflection for Long Term cracked Deflection – Sustained Load with Shrinkage &Creep.

Long­term cracked deflection, in which analysis is divided into the following two categories:

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Non­sustained  portion,  in  which  cracked­section  analysis  considers  only  the  non­sustained  portion  of  LIVE
load, solving for incremental deflection.
Sustained  portion,  in  which  long­term  cracked  analysis  considers  the  sustained  loading  from  DEAD,  SDEAD,
and a portion of the LIVE load. Creep and shrinkage are included only in this sustained portion of analysis because
these effects are only applicable under sustained loading.
Here I draw your attention that:

Short­term concrete modulus = Elastic concrete modulus Ec(to)
Long­term concrete modulus = Age­adjusted concrete modulus Ec(t,to), given as:

For example, assume that 25% of the LIVE load is sustained. Analysis proceeds as follows:

Case 1: Cracked analysis for short­term load with short­term concrete modulus is given as DEAD + SDEAD +
ΨsLIVE, in which Ψs = 1.0 

Case 2: Cracked analysis for permanent load with short­term concrete modulus is given as DEAD + SDEAD +
ΨLLIVE, in which ΨL = 0.25 (ΨL = 0 if 100% of the LIVE load is non­sustained)

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Case  3:  Long­term  cracked  analysis  (with  creep  and  shrinkage)  for  permanent  load  with  long­term  concrete
modulus is given as DEAD + SDEAD + ΨLLIVE, in which ΨL = 0.25  

The value of total long­term deflection is then the combination of Case 3 + (Case 1­ Case 2).
The difference between Case 1 and Case 2 represents the incremental deflection (without creep and shrinkage) due to
non­sustained loading on a cracked structure. 

And here below how becomes our load combination under which will be conducted the long term cracked deflection
result.

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And the maximum deflection will be around 7.8cm

So now as a summary, here below are the maximum deflection results that we got for the time being:

Elastic (Linear) = 2.8cm
Immediate Deflections – No Shrinkage & No Creep = 5.6cm (50% increment from Elastic)
Long Term Deflections – Sustained Load with Shrinkage &Creep = 7.8cm (40% increment from
Immediate Deflections)

The  procedure  indicated  above  (Long  Term  Deflections)  results  on  total  long  term  deflection  over  time.  Most
engineers simply check this values against ACI 318 Table 9.5(b), since this will always result in safe and conservative

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design. In order to remove portion of dead load deflection occurring before attachment of nonstructural elements, the
following procedure can also be used: 

Case 4= Cracked analysis for permanent load with short­term concrete modulus is given as DEAD + ΨDSDEAD,  in
which ΨD = percentage of super imposed dead load present before attachment of non structural elements

Or  Case  4=  Cracked  analysis  for  permanent  load  with  long­term  concrete  modulus  creep  and  shrinkage  is  given  as
DEAD + ΨDSDE
 D, in which ΨD = percentage of super imposed dead load present before attachment of non structural elements, and
say using a creep factor for 3 months. 

The value of total long term deflection to occur after attachment of nonstructural elements is then the combination of
Case 3 + (Case 1­ Case 2)­ Case 4

In our case we will define Case 4 like the following:

The deflection load combination will become like the following:
 

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And we get the following final deflection result:
 

Shares
Maximum deflection will be equal to around 5.8cm
 

Updated on 08/12/2016: Illustration of the 2nd method of computing Long Term De ection

Even though this method is not recommended by the CSI, but I’ll explain it and we will check together the results:

A single load pattern is applied in a load case, then another case is set to continue From State at End of Nonlinear
Case. 

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Add a DEAD load case using the Nonlinear (Cracked) option, starting with a Zero Initial Condition. 

   

Add a SDEAD load case using the Nonlinear (Cracked) option, starting From State at End of Nonlinear Case DEAD.

Add a LIVE load case using the Nonlinear (Cracked) option, starting From State at End of Nonlinear Case SDEAD.
Shares

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The DEAD load case predicts cracking from a zero initial condition, in which no load is present, then computes
cracking due to DEAD load­pattern application. Adding SDEAD then uses the stiffness at the end of DEAD load case,
and contributes additional deflection.

And the maximum deflection will be conducted under the load case Live­LT = 5cm

But with reference to CSI this method is not recommended since  the deflection result reports the total deflection
from both DEAD and SDEAD cases, however, the increase in DEAD load deflection due to additional cracking from
SDEAD load application is not recognized.

Shares

Summary:

Elastic (Linear) = 2.8cm
Immediate Deflections – No Shrinkage & No Creep = 5.6cm (50% increment from Elastic)

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Long Term Deflections – Sustained Load with Shrinkage &Creep 
(Case1 +Case3 ­Case2) = 7.8cm (40% increment from Immediate Deflections)
Long Term Deflections – Sustained Load with Shrinkage &Creep 
(Case1 +Case3 ­Case2 ­Case4) = 5.8cm (less than 5% increment from Immediate Deflections)
Long Term Deflections – Sustained Load with Shrinkage &Creep 
(2nd Method)=  5.0cm

Hopefully we could clarify properly how to compute the long term cracked analysis. If you have any question please
do not hesitate to drop it by comment below.

And  in  case  you  have  any  query  in  the  structural  engineering,  drop  it  by  the  Handy  Forum
(http://kickmybrain.com/handy­forum/) and we’ll assist you as soon as possible !
 

Related

(http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/step-by- (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/step-by- (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/part-2-


step-how-to-compute-temperature-in-slabs- step-how-to-compute-p-delta-effect-using- step-by-step-analysis-procedure-of-seismic-
design-safe-csi/) etabs/) loads-based-on-ibc2012asce7-10/)
Step by Step - How to Compute Temperature in Step by Step - How to Compute P-Delta effect [Part 2] Step by Step Analysis Procedure of
Slabs Design SAFE CSI using ETABS according to ASCE 7-10 Seismic Loads Based on IBC2012/ASCE7-10
(http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/step-by- (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/step-by- (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/part-2-
step-how-to-compute-temperature-in-slabs- step-how-to-compute-p-delta-effect-using- step-by-step-analysis-procedure-of-seismic-
design-safe-csi/) etabs/) loads-based-on-ibc2012asce7-10/)
December 28, 2016 December 12, 2016 September 2, 2016
In "Engineering" In "Engineering" In "Earthquake"

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8 thoughts on “Step by Step – De ection Analysis Using CSI SAFE”


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8 thoughts on “Step by Step – De ection Analysis Using CSI SAFE”

Reply (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/step-by-step-de ection-analysis-using-csi-safe/?replytocom=7700#respond)


Murali (December 12, 2016 - 7:48 PM)

Dear all, I would like to receive all posts from this site. Thanks in advance.

Step by Step – How to Compute P-Delta e ect using ETABS according to ASCE7-10 | KickMyBrain (http://kickmybrain.com/step-by-
step-how-to-compute-p-delta-e ect-using-etabs/)
(December 12, 2016 - 9:31 AM) Reply (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/step-by-step-de ection-analysis-using-csi-safe/?replytocom=7687#respond)

[…] Step by Step – De ection Analysis Using CSI SAFE […]

Reply (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/step-by-step-de ection-analysis-using-csi-safe/?replytocom=7669#respond)


Faris (December 11, 2016 - 12:33 AM)

Hello Zahi,

Thanks for posting this article. Where does CSI mention that the other method is not recommended? I’ve always used that method with no issues. If it’s not
recommended, I don’t see a reason why they have the “continue from state at end of non-linear case” option to begin with.

Regards,
Faris

Zahi Baroudi (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/members/zahibaroudi/) (December 11, 2016 - 12:40 AM)

Reply (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/step-by-step-de ection-analysis-using-csi-safe/?replytocom=7670#respond)


Hello Faris,

It’s stated here :https://wiki.csiamerica.com/display/safe/Cracked-section+analysis (https://wiki.csiamerica.com/display/safe/Cracked-section+analysis)


However, this does not mean that the results are wrong. It only does not re ect properly the real case scenario because the increase in DEAD load
de ection due to additional cracking from SDEAD load application is not recognized.
And the option of “continue from state at end of non-linear case” it’s not limited only for de ection computation. It may be useful for other purposes.

Reply (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/step-by-step-de ection-analysis-using-csi-safe/?replytocom=7671#respond)


Faris (December 11, 2016 - 1:05 AM)

Thanks for your quick reply, Zahi!

I just read what they wrote and I agree that the way they did it does not recognize the additional super-imposed DL. The way I typically do it is different
and I believe it does encompass all de ections, I wish I can share an image. Thanks again for sparking the discussion.

Zahi Baroudi (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/members/zahibaroudi/) (December 11, 2016 - 1:12 AM)

Reply (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/step-by-step-de ection-analysis-using-csi-safe/?replytocom=7672#respond)


Your Welcome Faris.
Sure you may explain/ Illustrate your method to admin@kickmybrain.com (mailto:admin@kickmybrain.com) and we’ll review it accordingly.

Engr. Ahmed (http://ahmed.gamal.mahmoud@hotmail.com) (December 8, 2016 - 9:42 AM)

Hi , thanks for the illustration , its very Reply (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/step-by-step-de ection-analysis-using-csi-safe/?replytocom=7376#respond)


helpful .

I have a question about why you didn’t


use the option “Continue from state at
end of non-linear case ” instead of
subtracting the de ection values
manually as you did .

Shares Sincerely ,

Zahi Baroudi (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/members/zahibaroudi/) (December 8, 2016 - 7:03 PM)

Hello Ahmed, Reply (http://siteground360.com/~zahib604/step-by-step-de ection-analysis-using-csi-safe/?replytocom=7560#respond)


Good to hear that you found this
article helpful.
However, We did not use this
method because it’s not

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recommended from CSI. As the
de ection results reports the total
de ection from both DEAD and
SDEAD cases, however, the increase
in DEAD load de ection due to
additional cracking from SDEAD
load application is not recognized.
Anyway, upon your query, We have
updated the post above and
illustrate this second method of
computation for long term
de ection. You may check it above.

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