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# 1.

How does a hydraulic crane compare with a mechanical crane that has the
same output?

## Hydraulic equipment such as hydraulic pumps, cylinders,

motors, etc., are able to provide a huge amount of power
from a very small machine by using high hydraulic
pressure.
For example, the boom elevation cylinder of a 50 ton
capacity hydraulic crane has an inner diameter of only
21 cm, but at a high pressure of 240 kg/cm2, it has
about 80 tons of output. If we put two cylinders together,
it can output a huge 160 tons of power to lift the boom.

## Because mechanical cranes use a lever, rod, link and

chain for the control system, the controls must be placed
close to the mechanism. For hydraulic cranes, it is only
necessary to connect the control valves to the
mechanism using pipes, so the controls can be placed far
away.
Easiy to Change Speed Steplessly

## Because mechanical cranes use a lever, rod, link and

chain for the control system, the controls must be placed
close to the mechanism. For hydraulic cranes, it is only
necessary to connect the control valves to the
mechanism using pipes, so the controls can be placed far
away.
2. The Principle of Hydraulics
(Pascal's Principle)

## A force applied to one section of

an enclosed liquid at rest will be
transferred to the entire liquid
with the same amount of force.

## If you press a syringe (area =

1cm2) with a force of 2kg, the
hydraulic pressure generated is
2kg/cm2. If this pressure flows
through a tube into a cylinder
with a 30 cm2 inner diameter,
the pressure on all of the
internal surfaces of the
cylinder(including the piston)
will be 2 kg/cm2. Therefore, the
movable piston can support a
60 kg object.
3. Flow

## Flow is the volume of

hydraulic oil that flows in
a given unit of time.
Generally, it is measured
as the amount of
hydraulic oil that flows in
one minute, in l / min.

## When moving cylinders

of the same diameter,
the one with higher flow
will rise faster.

## We can compare the

speeds at which the two
cylinders in figures A
and B moved in one
minute:
In the human body, the great pumps the blood, the lung keeps the blood clean,
and the arms and legs move accoring to the commands of the brain. To look at
this as a hydraulic system,

## *The heart is the pump ... it pumps the hydraulic oil.

*The lungs are filters ... they maintain the purity of the hydraulic oil.
*The arms and legs are actuators such as cylinders and mortors ... they respond
faithfully to the manipulation of the control valve.

Aside from these, just as the human body is composed of organs and tissues too
numerous to count, hydraulic systems are also composed of a large number of
parts, each with different functions.

In order to perform various movements such as raising and lowering the boom,
winding in the wire rope, swinging and extending or retracting the boom, a
hydraulic crane uses a hydraulic circuit that is made up of the following
devices: a hydraulic pump to generete force for motion, hydraulic cylinders and
mortors as drive devices, and various valves as control devices.

## It is a device that uses the

rotational energy provided
by an engine or electrical
motor to suck hydraulic
oil out of the tank and
pump it out at pressure
into the hydraulic circuit.
If the pump is driven directly by an engine, whenever the engine is running,
the pump is working.
When the pump is driven
with a PTO, the pump
only works when the PTO
is connected.

## *PTO is an abbreviation for

Power Take Off device. It
transfers the engine's
mechanical force by
attaching a gear to the
transmisission.

1. Gear Pump
This is used most often in hydraulic cranes.

[Features]
* Construction is simple but strong.
* It is small and light-weight.
* It does not break down often, and is easy to maintain.
* It is low in price.
* Many models from low pressure to high pressure are available.
External type pumps are used in hydraulic cranes. When
the gears inside the casing rotate, a vacuum is produced
at the point where the teeth disengage each other, and
fluid is drawn in through the intake. This fluid fills the
spaces between the teeth and is carried around the
circumference of the casing by the rotation of the gears.
It is then ejected through the outlet. The maximum output

## 2. Piston Pump(Plunger Pump)

[Features]
* It is highly efficient because there is little internal leakage.
* Some pumps are of variable volume type.
With the same speed of rotation, different flows can be obtained.
* It is appropriate for high pressure.
* It is high in price.
* The hydraulic pressure with less pulse can be provided.
Axial fixed cam plate pumps are often used in
hydraulic cranes.
In an axial pump, the piston (plunger) causes oil to
be sucked in and then discharged. In piton pumps,
the sliding portions of the cylinder and piston are
long. Because of this, there is little oil leakage, and
these pumps are well suited for high pressure
pumping.
A fixed cam plate works by rotating the drive axis
which is incorporated into the cylinder itself. This
rotating motion causes the piston to move away
from and closer to the cam plate, creating a
pumping action.
3. Vane Pump
[Features]
* It operates quickly.
* It is appropriate for low to middle pressure.
* It is low in price.
As the rotor rotates, the attached vanes enter and exit, and the volume of the
spaces between the vanes changes, creating a pumping action. Because vane
pumps are quiet, they are eventually used in steering circuits. There are fixed
volume and variable volume models for vane pumps as well.
An actuator is a device that converts the energy of hydraulic oil pressure into straight
line or rotational motion. They are like the muscles of the arms and legs in the
human body. Hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors are actuators.

Hydraulic Cylinder
This converts the energy of pressure into straight line motion.

Hydraulic Motor
This converts the energy of pressure into rotational motion.

1) Hydraulic Cylinders
These are broken down into two types depending on what kind of motion they can
perform. The two types are "single-acting cylinders" and "double-acting cylinders".
Single-acting Cylinders

## These cylinders have only one

intake/outlet hole. and are moved in one direction by hydraulic pressure, returning by
their own weight or by a spring.

Double-acting Cylinders

## These cylinders have two intake/outlet holes, and are

extended and retracted using hydraulic pressure.
The components of these cylinders include the cylinder, piston rod, oil seal, packing,
o-ring and dust seal.

Output

The output value is equal to the product of the hydraulic pressure multiplied by the
area of the rod on which the pressure is acting.

The output of a cylinder F is proportional to the pressure P and the pressurized area
A.

2) Hydraulic Motors
Hydraulic motors are actuators that convert hydraulic pressure into continuous
rotational movement. Their continuous is very similar to the construction of
hydraulic pumps.
The only difference between the two devices is that a hydraulic pump converts
mechanical energy, while a hydraulic motor converts fluid energy into mechanical
(rotational) energy.
Types of Hydraulic Motors
Gear motor

## Piston motors(plunger motors)

Axial piston motor

## Features of Hydraulic Motors

These are the same as for hydraulic pumps.
The oil tank is also sometimes called the oil reservoir.

## 1 The Job of the Oil Tank

1) It stores hydraulic oil, and, when
necessary, it supplies the oil to the
hydraulic circuit.
2) It removes dirt or air bubbles from the
hydraulic oil.
3) It separates water from the hydraulic
from the hydraulic oil. The water that is
separated falls to the bottom of the tank,
and it must be removed at regular
intervals.
4) It dissipates the heat generated by the
hydraulic devices.

## The oil level in the oil tank decreases when

the cylinder expands, and increases when the
cylinder retracts. When checking the amount
of oil in the oil tank of a hydraulic crane,
you must be careful to check it while the
crane is in traveling mode.

## *The standard oil level for the oil tank of a

hydraulic crane in traveling mode is
indicated on the oil level meter.
3 Air Breather

## The air breather allows air to enter and

leave the tank as the oil level rises and
falls, but it prevents any contaminants
from entering the tank with the air. If the
air breather becomes clogged, air cannot
enter and leave the tank, so the resistance
acting on the pump increases. In some
cases, the tank ruptures. Therefore, it is
necessary to replace the element with a
new one regularly.

## The air breather also functions as an oil fill

hole.

The oil filter removes foreign matter (metal particles, iron filings) from the hydraulic
oil.
The oil filter protects the various devices in the hydraulic system from
contamination, to which they are extremely susuceptible.
There are two types: those installed in the tank, and those installed in the hydraulic
circuit.
1 Suction Filters

2 Line Filters

## These are used in the primary pressure circuit.

Unlike suction filters, there filters mostly are
extreamly fine-mesh filter elements(5-20
microns).
These filters are always inserted in the brake
circuit, clutch circuit, and automatic cutout
circuit.

3 Return Filters

## These filter remove contaminants

at the return side of the oil tank.
Some are installed inside the
tank, while others are installed in
the return line.
Hydraulic oil performs many different functions in order to help the hydraulic devices
work smoothly. Aside from acting as a medium to transmit the force of pressure and
motion, it also lubricates parts that undergo friction, it seals, cools and prevents rust.

## 1 Climate and Design Conditions

Generally speaking, the type of hydraulic oil to be used is selected based on two
conditions; the climate of the location where the equipment will be used, and the
design of the various devices in the hydraulic system.

Note that sometimes the synthetic materials used in the packing seals, etc. will
chemically react with the hydraulic oil, so always use the recommended brand
names.

2 Viscosity
Once you have chosen the type of hydraulic oil, in order to set the temperature range
in which it can be used, you must select a viscosity (ISO viscosity grade).

## * The ISO viscosity grade indicates the kinematic viscosity at 40°C.

For example, hydraulic oil VG46 has a kinematic viscosity of 46 cst (centistokes)
at 40°C (oil temperature).

These are many quality requirements for hydraulic for hydraulic oil, but the most
important of these is that the oil has an appropriate viscosity not changing much with
changes in temperature.
If the viscosity is too high???

International friction is
increased, heat is generated,
and energy loss is great.

## Resistance within the circuit

increases, and pressure loss
increases.

## Leakage within the pump

increases, volume efficiency
is diminished, and the
required pressure cannot be
achieved.

## Due to internal leakage in

the control valve actuator, the
cylinder is retracted by the
produce the required output.
3 Standard Hydraulic Oils Depending on Destinations
The standard hydraulic oil is decided based on the part of the world to which the
crane is being shipped, as shown in the figure. For extremely cold areas, a specially
selected hydraulic oil is used.
VG46 VG32
VG22

## Temperate Zones - Temperate Zones -

Arctic Zones
Tropical Zones Arctic Zones
* VG68 is only used where air temperature is too high for continuous operation.
4. Manufacturer Recommended Properties and Brand Names for
Crane Hydraulic Oil
Standard or Class Antiwear Hydraulic Oil

-15C°

## Permissible Oil 0 C°to 80 -15C°to

-10C°to 80C° -25C°to 60C°
Temperature Range C° 70C°

## Viscosity Grade VG68 VG46 VG32 VG22 or VG15

Specific Gravity
0.86 to 0.88 0.86 to 0.88 0.86 to 0.88 0.85 to 0.88
15/4 C°

Flashing Point C° over 220 over 220 over 220 over 160

## Recommended Kinematic 40C° 68 46 32 22 or 15

Characteristics Viscosity
(cst) 100C° above 9 above 7 above 5 above 3

Viscosity Index above 100 above 100 above 100 above 100

Pour Point below -25 below -25 below -25 below -40

Daphne Daphne
Super Daphne Super Super Daphne Super
IDEMITSU
Hydraulic Hydraulic Fluid 46 Hydraulic Hydro 22WR
Fluid 68 Fluid 32

## KYOSEKI Hydlux 68 Hydlux 46 Hydlux 32

Super Super
Recommended
NISSEKI Hydrando Super Hydrando 46 Hydrando Super Hydrando 15
Brand Names
68 32

## Tellus Oil Tellus Oil

SHELL Tellus Oil 46
68 32

## MOBIL DTE26 DTE25 DTE24 DTE11

5. Managing Viscosity and Temperature
The degree to which the temperature of the hydraulic oil increases depends on the
length of time the system is in operation, and the type of work that is being done.
If the operation is going to last a long time, or if the work is extremely strenuous, the
temperature will rise, so you must either pause the operation or change the hydraulic
oil to one with a higher viscosity grade.
1. Valves Used in Hydraulic Circuits
Valves are used in hydraulic circuit in order to control hydraulic pressure, direction of
flow and amount of flow.
1) Relief Valves

## If there is no escape route for

the hydraulic oil that is
continuously pumped out of
the hydraulic circuit can burst.
A relief valve is a valve that
allows the oil in the circuit to
escape back into the tank
when the pressure exceeds a
certain limit in order to
prevent the kind of
malfunction described above.

## 2) Pressure Compensated Flow Control Valve

These are flow control valves that maintain a constant pressure difference between
the intake and the outlet, so that even if the pressure changes, the flow is constant.
These are used in winches, and make more precise inching operation possible.

## 3) Directional Control Valve

In order to expand the cylinder in the figure, oil is pumped into A; to contract it, oil is
pumped into B. The valve that changes the direction of this oil is called a directional
control valve.

A directional control valve is a valve that changes the direction in which the oil
flows by moving a spool. By changing the direction of oil flow, the direction of a
hydraulic cylinder's motion can be changed, or the direction of rotation of a hydraulic
motor can be changed.

In a crane, the operator uses a control lever to manipulate the valve. There is also a
type of directional control valve called a solenoid valve that is controlled with a
magnet(solenoid).
Operation of the crane is performed by using the directional control valve to
control the flow of oil. The speed of operation of the actuators changes with the flow
of oil.
4) Check Valves

## This is a value that allows oil to flow freely in one

direction, but stops it from flowing in the opposite
direction (directional control valve). A check valve that
has the function of disengaging the return flow prevention
is called a pilot check valve. These are installed in the jack
cylinder of the outrigger.

## When oil flows from left to right,

the spring is contracted, the poppet
opens and the oil flows freely. The oil
cannot flow from right to left.

## This valve can be opened and closed as

necessary. When there is no pilot pressure, it
works just like a regular check valve,
allowing flow only in one direction, from the
intake to the outlet. When pilot pressure is
applied, the spool is raised, the poppet opens,
and oil can then flow from the outlet to the
intake.

## If there is no pilot check valve...

The hydraulic oil in the outrigger
would flow out and the outrigger
would retract.
When a pilot check valve is
installed..
The check function keeps the hydraulic
oil from flowing out. The outrigger
remains extended as it is. Even if there
is a leak in the circuit, the crane will be
prevented from lowering itself due to
its own weight.

5) Counterbalance Valve
The counterbalance valve is a flow control valve that controls the fluid returning from
an actuator such as a cylinder, so that the actuator does not make, due to the load, any
undesired motions exceeding what corresponds to the oil flow from the directional
control valve.

Just like the pilot check valve, this valve prevents the crane from lowering itself
due to its own weight. In order to stress this function, this valve is also sometimes
called a "holding valve".
If there is no
The
counterbalance
counterbalance
valve, when
valves are also
used in circuits
for boom
accelerate due to
elevation, boom
its weight, and
telescoping and
the speed cannot
winch operation.
be controlled.

6) Solenoid Valve
When an electrical signal is input
to a solenoid valve(magnetic
changeover valve), the drawing
force of the solenoid moves the
spool, changing the direction of
flow. Because the electrical
signal is switched at the valve,
remote control and automatic
control are simple.
The pipes of the circuit carry hydraulic oil from the hydraulic pump to the hydraulic
devices. The pipes that carry pressurized oil are as important as arteries and veins are
to the human body.
These are many different kinds of, Pipes and rubber hoses that can withstand
pipes such as steel pipes and high the maximum hydraulic pressures in the
pressure rubber hoses. relative circuit are used.

## (1) Composition of the Hydraulic Hoses

Tube Rubber This prevents leakage of the fluid during use.
Wire-reinforced This prevents expansion and bursting of the inner surface rubber
Layer due to pressure.
This prevents friction between the wires and strengthens the
Inter-layer Rubber
This prevents damage to the wire layer from outside, and also
String Braid
prevents rusting.

(2) Joints
There are flare joints and flareless joints.
Flare Joints
The tip of pipe is expanded in a lap shape, creating a flare. Then the tapered end of the
joint is inserted into the flare and tightened.

Flareless Joint
The sleeve that is installed on the pipe is pulled into the other pipe and tightened shut.
If the temperature of the hydraulic oil
becomes too hot, many different problems
can arise. In order to prevent these problems,
when the temperature exceeds a set point, the
fluid is cooled by the oil cooler.

## Examples of Problems Caused by High Temperature

1) Internal leakage in
hydraulic devices (especially
pumps and motors) increases,
and volume efficiency is
diminished.

## 2)Sealing materials used in the

packing and oil seals can
The precision of hydraulic
change their properties.
operations ins diminished due to oil
leakage in the control valves and
3)The hydraulic oil will
actuators.
degenerate more quickly.
In case of operation in a hot climate or continuous operation for a long time, the
oil cooler prevents temperature increase and mitigating power loss.
An air-cooled oil cooler is used in hydraulic cranes.
Generally, the maximum permissible temperature for hydraulic oil is 80C°.
When equipment is used in tropical areas, an appropriate hydraulic oil must be
chosen.
If the temperature of the hydraulic oil gets too high, the packing can also be
TADANO uses materials that are safe up to 110C° for its packing and seals.

Seals are an important part of hydraulic devices.They prevent leakage of oil and
contamination by water and foreign matter. Types of seals include o-rings, oil
1 Packing
Packing prevents oil form leaking out or foreign matter from coming in through small
openings that occur as a result of heat expansion or small manufacturing inaccuracies
in parts that move against each other.
Types of Packing
Packing composed of cotton cloth or asbestos cloth with rubber added
Packing composed of synthetic rubber or leather
Section Shape
U shaped, V shaped and L shaped

Seal [packing]
An important part that prevents oil leakage.

2 O-Rings

## These are pieces of synthetic rubber in a ring

shape. O-rings with a round section are widely used. They are used in fixed and
sliding parts.

## Type Shape Features / Uses

1) Used in internal and external sliding surfaces
U-Shaped
2) Used for low and high pressure
Packing
3) Low resistance to sliding motion

## 1) Used in internal and external sliding surfaces

V-Shaped 2) Used for low and high pressure
Packing (Depending on pressure, several are applied together.)
3) High resistance to sliding motion

## 1) Used in external sliding surfaces

L-Shaped
2) Used for low pressure
Packing
3) Low resistance to sliding motion

## 1) Used in internal and external sliding surfaces

O-ring 2) Used for low and high pressure
3) Low resistance to sliding motion