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Entomologische Blätter und Coleoptera

Ent. Bl. Col. (2015) 111: 005 - 010 ISSN 0013-8835 © Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Peks

A new species of the genus Vachinius Casale, 1984 from the Philippines (Coleoptera,
Carabidae, Chlaeniini)

Ingo Brunk, Technical University of Dresden, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Institute of Forest Botany
and Zoology, Chair of Forest Zoology, Pienner Straße 7, Postbox 1117, D-01735 Tharandt, e-mail: ingo.brunk@

Vachinius (Sphodromimus) luzoensis n. sp. is described from Philippines. Diagnostic morphological characters of the imago including the
female genitalia are provided. Relationships to other Vachinius species and some related species of the genus Chlaenius are discussed. An
updated overview of the distribution of Vachinius, including a catalogue of the known species, is given. A well-developed bifid mentum
tooth and the pubescent elytral intervals suggest that Vachinius luzoensis n. sp. should be included in the subgenus Sphodromimus Casale,
1984, but protibiae are not sulcate on dorsal side, a character corresponding to Vachinius s. str.

Vachinius (Sphodromimus) luzoensis n. sp. von den Philippinen wird beschrieben. Die für die Diagnose wichtigen morphologischen
Merkmale der Imago werden beschrieben und abgebildet. Verwandtschaftliche Beziehungen zu anderen Vachinius-Arten und ähnlichen
Arten der nahe verwandten Gattung Chlaenius werden diskutiert. Darüber hinaus wurde ein aktueller Katalog erstellt und die Verbreitung
der Gattung dargestellt. Der gut entwickelte zweispitzige Kinnzahn und die behaarten Flügeldeckenintervalle stellen die neue Art in das
Subgenus Sphodromimus Casale, 1984, allerdings sind die Vorderschienen dorsal nicht gefurcht. Dieses Merkmal würde mit Vachinius s. str.
korrespondieren, wurde aber für die meisten Taxa bislang nicht untersucht, so dass empfohlen wird es vorerst nicht mehr zur subgenerischen
Trennung zu verwenden.

Key words
Coleoptera, Carabidae, Vachinius, Chlaenius, new species, Philippines

The genus Vachinius belongs to the tribe Chlaeniini Brullé, 1834, subtribe Chlaeniina (Löbl & Smetana
2003, Lorenz 2005b) and was established by Casale (1984) for Pristonychus subglaber Andrewes, 1937, and three
other species. Currently this genus contains two subgenera: Vachinius Casale, 1984 and Sphodromimus Casale,
1984, with 12 species in total. The genus is widespread in Eastern Asia with a distribution range from India
to China and to the Tonkin Gulf (Kirschenhofer 2012). Almost all species are known from Asian mainland,
only one is known from Indonesia (Kirschenhofer 1998), but none yet from the Philippines. Herewith a new
Vachinius species from the Philippines is described.
As recently Kirschenhofer (2012) and Wrase (2012) pointed out, some species of the subgenera
Macrochlaenites Kuntzen, 1919 and Haplochlaenius Lutshnik, 1933 of genus Chlaenius Bonelli, 1810 share
many of the main characters of Vachinius. Thus Kirschenhofer (2012) transferred Chlaenius klapperichi
Jedlička, 1956 to Vachinius. Kirschenhofer based his decision on (not in detail specified) “ektoskelettale(n)”
characters and wrote that other species of Chlaenius (Haplochlaenius) have to be reexamined too. In contrast,
Wrase (2012) discussed Kirschenhofers taxonomic act, and reestablished Chlaenius klapperichi Jedlička,
1955 in its original sense. His decision will be followed here. In 2005 Deuve & Tian described Chlaenius
(Haplochlaenius) nanlingensis from Guangdong. This species also resembles Vachinius by its unicolorous black
colour, but can be separated by the shape of pronotum.

Material and Methods

A single female individual of the new Vachinius species was collected by the well-known native collector Mr.
Ismael Lumawig, who investigated Philippines islands for many years. The specimen was caught by chance as a
singleton, no additional circumstances can be provided here.
6 Ingo Brunk

Observations were made using a Zeiss Stemi V6, photographs were taken using a Canon D400. Figures were
drawn based on photographs of specific morphological features of several parts of body. Outlines of specific
structures were drawn using a transparent over a printed photograph. Fine details were added subsequently
after studying the structures under different light and contrast conditions.
The specimen is mounted on a cardboard, the female reproductive tract was dissected and abdominal
ventrites were dried and card-mounted.

Abbreviations and proportion ratios

BL Overall body length (from labrum to apex of elytra).
HL Length of head, measured on left side, from base of left mandible to posterior margin of
compound eye.
HW Width of head, maximum transverse distance across head, including eyes.
PL Length of pronotum along midline.
PWM Maximum width of pronotum.
PWB Width of pronotum at base.
EL Length of elytra from basal ridge to apex.
EWM Maximum width of elytra.
BL/EWM Ratio overall body length/maximum width of elytra.
EL/EWM Ratio length/width of elytra.
PWM/HW Ratio width of pronotum/width of head.
PWM/PL Ratio width/length of pronotum.
gnc1 Proximal gonocoxa of female genitalia.
gnc2 Distal gonocoxa of female genitalia.
ltg Laterotergite of female genitalia.
cIB collection I. Brunk, Dresden
MNHN Muséum national d‘Histoire naturelle Paris
SMTD Senckenberg Museum für Tierkunde Dresden
HT Holotype
AT Allotype
PT Paratype

Related Material studied (all cIB)

• Vachinius (Vachinius) pseudoglaber (Andrewes, 1937), Sikkim, 3 specimen,
• V. (Sphodromimus) holzschuhi Casale, 1984, Nepal, 2 specimen,
• V. (Sphodromimus) burmanensis Lasalle, 2001, Myanmar, 2 specimen (AT, PT),
• V. (Sphodromimus) laosensis Kirschenhofer 2012, Laos, 2 specimen,
• V. (Sphodromimus) luzoensis n. sp., Philippines, 1 specimen (HT),
• Chlaenius (Haplochlaenius) evae Wrase, 2012, Sichuan (locus typicus), 2 specimen.
• and several specimens of
• Chlaenius (Haplochlaenius) birmanicus Chaudoir, 1876,
• C. (H.) costiger Chaudoir, 1856,
• C. (H.) femoratus femoratus Dejean, 1826,
• C. (H.) femoratus philippinus Jedlicka, 1935,
• C. (H.) flavofemoratus Laporte, 1834a,
• C. (H.) peltastes Jedlicka, 1935,
• C. (H.) sabahensis Kirschenhofer, 1998,
• C. (H.) peterseni (Louwerens, 1967),
• C. (H.) tamdaoensis Kirschenhofer, 2003

Vachinius (Sphodromimus) luzoensis n. sp.

Holotype ‡ (cIB): “PHILIPPINEN, Mt. Province, North Luzon, October 2013, I. Lumawig leg.”
(computerprint black on white label), “HOLOTYPUS, Vachinius luzoensis n. sp., I. Brunk det. 2014“ (printed
black on red label, partly handwritten).
A new species of the genus Vachinius Casale, 1984 from the Philippines 7

Measurement: BL: 19.8 mm, EWM: 7.2 mm (at half of the EL), BL/EWM: 2.75
Colour and luster: unicolourous black, except for rufo-testaceus labrum, maxillary and labial palpomeres,
tibia and tarsus. Antennomeres 1 to 3 black, the remaining ones brownish. Legs unicolourous black to rufo-
testaceus (especially in forelegs). Luster dull (Fig. 2). Ventral side unicolorous black, more or less glabrous.
Gonocoxite IX black to rufo-testaceus sclerotized.
Head: smooth except for some very fine scattered punctures at base of head. Very fine punctures from hind
part of eyes to constriction of neck; additional fine punctuation from base of neck extended laterally toward
clypeus, otherwise glabrous. One supraorbital seta, laterally with sharp parallel keels from scapus to eye. Head
medium-sized (HL = 3.0 mm), maximum width (HW = 3.5 mm), somewhat narrower than pronotum at its
maximum width, but same width as the pronotum at base (PWB = 3.5 mm, ratio PWM/HW: 1.26). Temples
short, half of length of eyes (Fig. 1).
Clypeus: very fine and scattered punctuation, laterally unisetose.
Antennomeres: scapus twice as long as antennomere 2, antennomere 3 three times as long as antennomere
2 and twice as long as scapus, scapus with 1 dorsoapical seta, antennomere 2 with more than 4 apical setae,
antennomere 3 with many regular setae beginning at 1/5th of antennomere, 4th to 11th antennomeres densely
pubescent. Mentum and submentum: mentum tooth well developed, bifid, separated from mentum, mentum
bisetose, setae very close to anterior margin of mentum tooth, submentum with two deep grooves at base,
bisetose (Fig. 3).
Pronotum: cordiform, strongly narrowed towards base, PL = 4.1 mm, PWM = 4.4 mm, PWM/PL = 1.07,
very sparse setiferous punctuation in basal fovea only, somewhat expanding towards base of pronotum. Small
setiferous punctures bearing a small light brown setae, setae of different length, almost shortened, 50 setae
on right and 41 setae on left basal fovea, only a few as long as on elytrae. Setiferous punctures on pronotum
smaller than on elytrae. One lateral seta at posterior angles at 9/10 of pronotum length, anterior setae lacking.
Disc of pronotum weakly convex, median line fine, expanding in a depressed Y-shape towards anterior angles.
Median line not attaining apex nor base. Anterior angles of pronotum markedly protruding. Lateral margins of
pronotum well developed, only slightly narrowing towards base, visible up to end of base of pronotum (Fig. 1).
Elytrae: elongate ovate (EL = 12.3 mm, EL/EWM = 1.71, BL/EWM = 2.75). Shoulders flat and rounded.
Elytrae gradually broadened towards apex, maximum width almost at middle (EWM = 7.2 mm, EL/EWM =
1.71), from here width little shortened towards apex; but at last fifth very strongly shortened towards elytral
apex. Apex with a slightly concave subapical incision. Scutellar stria well developed, scutellary puncture small,
at base of stria 1. Elytral intervals flat, with a fine regular setiferous punctuation. Intervals 1 and 2 only with
outer row of setiferous punctures, inner row reduced. Intervals 3 - 6 with outer and inner row of setiferous
punctures, from interval 7 to marginal stria punctuation more scattered, with 3 or 4 irregular rows. Setiferous
punctures on elytrae larger than on pronotum. Striae as regular groves with inconspicuously non-setiferous
punctures, stria 8 and marginal stria considerably weaker. Epipleura crossed near apex. Sparse setae (of same
size and colour as the others) regularly erected on intervals 3, 5 and 7. Wings reduced.
Legs: femora and tibiae long and slender, trochanter simple and rounded, approximately 1/3 of femora
length, claws simple crescent-shaped. Protibia not sulcate on dorsal side (character of subgenus Vachinius s. str.).
Microsculpture: weakly engraved isodiametric meshes, causing a moderately shiny black surface, meshes
somewhat larger and more prominent at elytra, than on head and pronotum.
Ventral side: except for metasternum and first abdominal sternite bearing dense light-brown setiferous
punctuation. Other sternites bisetose, terminal sternite quadrisetose. Prosternal process flattened, apex rounded,
with brief emargination.
Female genitalia: proximal (gnc1) and distal (gnc2) gonocoxite separated by an articulating membrane, gnc2
smooth, Blade-like shaped (in lateral view), in ventral view broader, apex of gnc2 slightly bended. Gonosubcoxite
IX (gnc1) smooth, longer than wide, strongly sclerotized. Laterotergite IX (ltg) wide, strongly sclerotized in the
middle, lesser sclerotized laterally. Apex of ltg with a few small grooves, but asetose. Ltg laterally membranous
(Fig. 4). No setae at gonocoxite IX (gnc1 and gnc2) and laterotergite IX. Ventrite caudally with several small
setae. Terminal tergite strongly sclerotized, caudally membranous (Fig. 5).
Male genitalia: unknown.
Distribution: The new species is known only from the type locality. Luzon Island is situated far away from
continental East Asian countries where other species of Vachinius are known, but this locality fits well into the
large distribution area of the genus (Fig. 6).
Differential diagnosis: Due to the well-developed bifid mentum tooth and the pubescent elytral intervals
Vachinius luzoensis n. sp. should be assigned to subgenus Sphodromimus, as defined by Casale (1984).
The new species resembles to V. laosensis Kirschenhofer 2012 and V. wrasei Kirschenhofer 2012 due to
8 Ingo Brunk

the strongly cordiform pronotum with very faint punctuation, but can be separated from these species by the
protruding anterior angle of the pronotum. Vachinius luzoensis n. sp. differs from V. hajeki Kirschenhofer,
2012 and Chlaenius (Haplochlaenius) klapperichi (Jedlička, 1955) in the unichrome black colour of head and
pronotum, and the small and strongly cordiform pronotum. V. baehri Kirschenhofer, 1998 differs in the more
rectangular and weakly cordiform pronotum. The new species differs from V. holzschuhi Casale, 1984, V. pilosus
Casale, 1984, V. thailandensis, Morvan, 1991, V. deuvei Morvan, 1997, V. burmanensis Lasalle, 2001, and V.
hunanus Morvan, 1997 in the very sparse punctuation of pronotum and head.

Except for Vachinius holzschuhi Casale, 1984 the female genitalia of Vachinius species were not described and
figured yet. The female genitalia of the new species are similar to those of Vachinius holzschuhi Casale, 1984,
especially the shape of the distal gonocoxa, but differ in lacking of any setae at gonocoxa and laterotergite.
Similar shapes of gonostyli can be found in some Chlaenius species as well as in Chlaeniellus species (Ortuño et
al. 1992) and in Lithochlaenius species (Liu et al. 2011), but these differ in the presence of setae or spines.
The subgenus Vachinius s. str. differs from subgenus Sphodromimus in the very small mentum tooth, the
smooth intervals of elytra, the lack of a dorsal sulcus of protibia and the lack of a denticulated apex of
aedoeagus. The new species has a well-developed bifid mentum tooth and strongly punctate intervals of elytron,
both typical characters of subgenus Sphodromimus, but the protibia lacks the dorsal sulcus.
As most Vachinius specimens seem to be very rare and are known only in few (almost female) specimens,
and some of the descriptions are insufficient, thus the systematic positions of many of the known species are
preliminary. Therefore the discussion of the validity of Vachinius as a discrete genus has to be postponed. Some
of the taxa need a careful revision and redescription of important characters (male and female genitalia, shape
of protibia, mentum tooth). Except for characters of the aedoeagus, the elongated shape of the pronotum of
Vachinius specimens, in contrast to the more rectangular pronotum of Chlaenius (Haplochlaenius) specimens,
seems to be a suitable character to separate both genera.

Catalogue of Vachinius Casale, 1984 (in alphabetical order)

Vachinius Casale, 1984

Subgenus Vachinius Casale, 1984
V. (Vachinius) pseudoglaber Casale, 1984 (India)
V. (Vachinius) subglaber (Andrewes, 1937) (Sikkim) (type species of the genus)
Subgenus Sphodromimus Casale, 1984
V. (Sphodromimus) baehri Kirschenhofer, 1998 (Sulawesi)
V. (Sphodromimus) burmanensis Lasalle, 2001 (Myanmar)
V. (Sphodromimus) deuvei Morvan, 1997 (China: Guangxi)
V. (Sphodromimus) hajeki Kirschenhofer 2012 (Laos)
V. (Sphodromimus) holzschuhi Casale, 1984 (Nepal) (type species of the subgenus)
V. (Sphodromimus) hunanus Morvan, 1997 (China: Hunan)
V. (Sphodromimus) laosensis Kirschenhofer 2012 (Laos)
V. (Sphodromimus) luzoensis n. sp. (Philippines)
V. (Sphodromimus) pilosus Casale, 1984 (Vietnam)
V. (Sphodromimus) thailandensis Morvan, 1991 (Thailand)
V. (Sphodromimus) wrasei Kirschenhofer, 2003 (China: Guangdong)

Close related species of the genus Chlaenius

Chlaenius (Haplochlaenius) klapperichi Jedlička, 1955; sensu Wrase (2012)

= Vachinius (Sphodromimus) klapperichi (Jedlička, 1955) (Fujian); sensu Kirschenhofer (2012)
Chlaenius (Haplochlaenius) evae Wrase, 2012 (Sichuan)
Chlaenius (Haplochlaenius) nanlingensis Deuve & Tian, 2005

I thank David W. Wrase (Berlin) for providing some literature and advice and the serious discussions, Prof.
A new species of the genus Vachinius Casale, 1984 from the Philippines 9

Dr. Achille Casale (Sassari) for his comments and suggestions, for photographs of the type specimen of V.
holzschuhi Casale, 1984, and valuable notes on literature, Olaf Jäger and Ute Eulitz (SMTD) for comments,
the possibility to work and to photograph in the collections of the SMTD, Julia Fält (Dresden & Turku) for
her comments, B. Lasalle (Boissy-lès-Perche) for his comparison with the type specimens of V. burmanensis
Lasalle, 2001, Dr. Thierry Deuve (MNHN) for his help in literature, Erich Kirschenhofer (Perchtoldsdorf),
Prof. Dr. Jose Serrano (Murcia), Dr. Vicente M. Ortuño (Alcalá) and two anonymous reviewers for some
useful advice.

Casale, A. (1984): The new Asiatic genus Vachinius (Carabidae: Callistinae) with three new species. – Bollettino
del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino 2: 371–382.

Deuve, Th. & M.-I. Tian (2005): Nouveaux Leistus et Haplochlaenius de Chine (Coleoptera, Caraboidea). –
Coléoptères 11 (11): 109–121.

Jedlička, A. (1956): Přispěvek k poznání palearktických Carabidů. [Beitrag zur Kenntnis der palaearktischen
Carabiden. (Coleoptera)]. – Sborník Entomologické ho Oddělení Národnίho Musea v Praze 30 [1955]: 207–220.

Kirschenhofer, E. (1998): Neue Chlaeniinae der palaearktischen und orientalischen Region (Coleoptera,
Carabidae). – Entomofauna 19 (20): 317–332.

Kirschenhofer, E. (2003): Über neue und wenig bekannte Carabidae aus der äthiopischen und orientalischen
Region (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Chlaeniinae, Pterostichinae). – Entomofauna 24 (3): 29–60.

Kirschenhofer, E. (2012): Neue Arten der Gattung Vachinius Casale, 1984 von Laos (Coleoptera: Carabidae).
– Mitteilungen des internationalen entomologischen Vereins Frankfurt am Main 37 (1/2): 83–90.

Lasalle, B. (2001): Chasses en Birmanie (Coleoptera Carabidae). – L’Entomologiste 57 (6): 23–243.

Liu, Y., Kavanaugh, D. H., Shi, H. & H. Liang (2011): A key to species of subgenus Lithochlaenius (Coleoptera,
Carabidae, Chlaeniini, Chlaenius), with descriptions of three new species. – ZooKeys 128: 15–52.

Löbl, I. & A. Smetana (2003, Ed.): Catalogue of Palearctic Coleoptera Vol. 1: Archostemata-Myxophaga-
Adephaga. Apollo Books, Stenstrup: 819pp.

Lorenz, W. (2005a): Nomina Carabidarum - a Directory of the Scientific Names of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera
“Geadephaga”: Trachypachidae and Carabidae, incl. Paussinae, Cicindelinae, Rhysodinae). Second edition.
– Eigenverlag, Tutzing: 993 pp.

Lorenz, W. (2005b): Systematic list of extant ground beetles of the world (Insecta, Coleoptera “Geadephaga”:
Trachypachidae and Carabidae incl. Paussinae, Cicindelinae, Rhysodinae). Second edition. – Eigenverlag,
Tutzing: 530 pp.

Morvan, P. D. (1991): Contribution à la connaissance des coléoptères Carabidae de Thaïlande. – Elytron 5:


Morvan, P. D (1997): Etude faunistique des coléoptères du Népal avec extension aux provinces chinoises du
Yunnan et du Sichuan. Genre Andrewesius Jedlicka et Vachinius Casale. – Loened Aziad Amprevaned
Feuraskelleged C’Hwiledig 2: 1–23.

Ortuño, V.M., Outerelo, R. & J. Alonso (1992): Estudio taxonomico comparativo de las especies ibericas de
Chlaeniellus Reitter, 1908 (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Callistidae). – Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de
Historia Natural (Sección de Biología) 88 (1-4): 147-163.

Wrase, D.W. (2012): A new species of genus Chlaenius Bonelli, 1810, subgenus Haplochlaenius Lutshnik,
1933 from China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Chlaeniini) and notes on two species previously described. – Linzer
biologische Beiträge 44 (2): 1195–1205.
10 Ingo Brunk

1 4

3 2 5

Figs 1-5: Vachinius (Sphodromimus) luzoensis n. sp. (1) Pronotum, base of head and base of elytron, (2) Habitus, (3) Mentum
and submentum, (4) Genital shield (gonocoxite IX, gonosubcoxite IX and laterotergite IX), (5) Terminal tergite

Fig. 6. Distribution of Vachinius species.

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