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Students' Book answer key

01 A good aim (n.) – something you want to

influence higher education (n. phr.) – education
at a college or university, rather than at a
Reading 1 p.8 school
carry out (phr. v.) – to do something that
has been planned or discussed, or that
2a 1 Generally at the beginning, someone has told you to do
although some writers put it later (as in 1b 1 carry out 2 higher education
paragraph 2, where it appears second). 3 single-sex education 4 benefits
2 examples 5 positive 6 homeschooling
2b However, this is not always in ways 7 negative 8 support 9 institutions
we might expect. (The first introduces an 10 reward 11 punish 12 aims
idea, but the key point is made in the 2 1 attend 2 identify 3 particular
second sentence.) 4 academic 5 invest 6 well-educated
2c 2 and 3 3a 1 with 2 with 3 on 4 to 5 in
3a 3 3b 2 noun, A 3 noun, F
3b 2 4 noun, E 5 noun, B 6 verb, D
4 C – Motivation is important in 3c 1 challenging 2 socialise 3 effort
education because it has several effects 4 encourage 5 effect
on students’ learning and behaviour. It
encourages students to work towards a
particular goal, increases the amount of Speaking 1 p.11
effort and energy the student invests,
makes students more likely to begin and 1b 1 Education,// in its modern form,//
continue with activities, … motivation appeared at the same time as the
produces improved performance.’ industrial revolution.
5 1 A was the opposite. 2 The invention of the printing press,//
2 B and D, which suggest a value which was necessary for schools to
judgement, aren’t mentioned. exist,// changed the way knowledge
3 the general idea could be reproduced forever.
2a 1 With industrialisation,// factories
Academic vocabulary 1 p.10 needed a population that could read and
count,// skills which were unnecessary
for an economy which was based on
1a benefit (n.) – an advantage or farming.
improvement that you get from 2 Teaching the population to respect
something rules was also a key goal,// and even
homeschooling (n.) – the practice of learning knowledge was secondary to
teaching your own children at home this.// No lesson was ever considered so
instead of sending them to school important that it could continue after the
negative (adj.) – bad or harmful bell.
single-sex education (n. phr.) – a Help
school with only boys or only girls - Commas and full stops indicate a
positive (adj.) – hopeful and confident pause in the sense groups.
institution (n.) – a large important 5 1 (natural) sciences
organisation, such as a university, 2 degree/bachelor’s degree
religious faith or bank 3 head teacher/head master/head
support (n.) – emotional and practical mistress/principal
help 4 single-sex (education)
reward (v.) – if you are rewarded for 5 higher/tertiary (education)
something you have done, something 6 psychologist
good happens to you or is given to you
punish (v.) – to do something
unpleasant to someone because they Listening 1 p.12
have done something wrong


2b 2 Summary writing 1 p.14
3b Dr Wagner mentions 1, 3 and 5.
4 The main ideas in each paragraph 1 1 words which are important to
are: communicate meaning
A People who are involved in education 2 a mixture of both – If one word
need to think about the way they teach. efficiently and clearly expresses
B Schools must work harder to train meaning, then it’s best to write just the
students to become good managers so one. At times, a phrase will be necessary
that they can lead and influence other to keep the clarity.
people. 3 No, because these do not
C Young people need to know how to communicate meaning and would waste
talk to people around the world. time.
D Young people are being taught just 4 The words are in the same order, but
seven key workplace skills and one selected.
expert believes they will find it difficult to 2a that, of, the, in, a, through
get work in the future as a result. 2b (Suggested answer)
Answer – A 36% st’s – online learning → inc. time
5 1B 2C 3D work/study
½ sts – tech nec. to educ.
Language development 1 But 78% st's → easier to learn in trad.
p.13 3a and b (Suggested answer)
St's pref trad clsrms – But think ed →
1a 1 skills, workplace 2 do 3 must more virt. n fut. 19% – soc med will be
4 teach, change 5 useful 6 always used int st's in clsrm
7 for 8 this 9 the 10 but
1b 1 I work well first thing in the
Listening 2 p.15
2 I try to write in English every day.
3 I think I have a bad understanding of 1 social media (n. phr.) – websites
English verb forms. and other means of communication that
4 I enjoy meeting new people and are used by large groups of people to
speaking English with them. share information and to develop
2 Noun Verb Adjective personal and business contacts (e.g.
2 definition define defining Facebook or LinkedIn)
3 creation create creative brand (n.) a product that a particular
4 motivation motivate motivating company makes
5 society socialise sociable/social recruitment (n.) – the process of finding
6 education educate educational new people to work in a company
educated sales (n.) – the total number of products
7 development develop developing/ that are sold at a particular time
developed 2 C
8 intelligence --- intelligent Help
3a benefit, challenge, comment, design, - A fails to mention the final point, that
focus, process, reward, support companies should find ways around this
3b problem.
assess (v) – assessment (n) - B fails to include the main point and
punish (v) – punishment (n) focuses on a supporting point.
repeat (v) – repetition (n) repeat (n) - D suggests that employers only see the
solve (v) – solution (n) negative side.
translate (v) – translation (n) 3 1 Companies want to protect their
4a 1 challenged 2 effectively brands from negative comments.
3 translate 4 definition 5 creative 2 Some employees spend two hours a
6 beneficial 7 focus 8 importance day on social networking sites.
9 repetition 10 development 3 Potential customers can see what
11 motivated 12 affect employees say online.


Language development 2 Reading 2 p.18
2 B
1a 1 are currently experiencing 2 are Help
using 3 are reaching 4 improving - These questions are annoying.
5 are also using - Research results, not the writer’s view.
after ‘the researchers found that …’
1b Students' own answers: 3 1 Students’ own answers
1 am/am not studying 2 like/don’t like 2 ‘the most qualified workers preferred
3 feel/don’t feel 4 go/don’t go not to attend interviews that use trick
5 have/don’t have questions’
2a 1 employee mood 2 positive
experiences 3 events at home
2b 1 A traffic jam blocks 2 you arrive Speaking 2 p.19
3 the day goes 4 Does a bad mood
5 amount is 6 studies look 1a The chart illustrates the percentage
7 scientists are 8 the results suggest of people who are in the labour force in
9 moods affect 10 the effects are four countries in the year 2012.
11 people bring 12 the mood has 1b 1 is correct. 2 contains a detail,
13 changes are 14 findings mean rather than an overview, and 3 focuses
15 businesses help on unemployment, whereas the chart
3a 1 Department head 2 Human focuses on employment.
Resources staff 3 Human Resources 1c A topic sentence describes what the
staff 4 Candidate 5 Human researchers were studying. The overview
Resources staff 6 Human Resources describes the results they found.
staff 2a A highest, 70 percent B possible
C over half, much lower D clear, gap
E illustrates
Academic vocabulary 2 p.17 2b 1 E 2 D 3 A 4 C 5 B
3 Yes
1a 1 B 2 F 3 E 4 C 5 D 6 A
1b adjective + noun: working hours,
social media, active role, potential Summary writing 2 p.20
noun + noun: development opportunities, 2a 1 Summarise from written text
networking sites should have ONE sentence.
2a 1 setting 2 offer 3 give 2 In the response box
4 complete 5 make 6 establish 3 10 minutes
7 see 8 providing 9 address 4 On the quality of the writing and how
10 affect well the response presents the key
2c 2 development opportunities points.
3 positive feedback 4 tasks 2b The effect of genes on job choice.
5 arrangements 6 relationship 3a Suggested answers: twin studies,
7 positive side 8 support 9 issue genes, environment, similar jobs
10 work 3c Twin studies have been very useful
3 1 A job B career C work in giving us information about whether
2 A listen B hear our genes or our environment makes us
3 A salary B wages who we are.
4 A rise B raise The research suggests that our genes
affect both the satisfaction that comes
from doing a job and the satisfaction that
comes from working conditions such as a
person’s pay or their manager.
It means that from birth, you are more
likely to prefer one occupation to another


and find certain jobs more satisfying than
You could argue that some of the
positive ones can be negative in some
3d 1 and 2 Twin studies have shown
situations (e.g. pride), and vice versa.
that genes affect many aspects of life,
2 Students’ own answers
and one of these is job choice.
3 Students’ own answers
4a 2 so 3 with the result 4 as
5 for the reason that 6 and, therefore
4b Cause Effect Reading 1 p.24
as with the result 2a Question 2
for the reason that therefore 2b 1 1 verb 2 adjective 3 verb
4c 1 Non-identical twins do not have 4 adjective + preposition 5 (phrasal)
the same genes, therefore they are less verb 6 verb
likely to choose the same job. 2 Irritated might be known with the
Because non-identical twins do not have meaning of annoy which could help
the same genes, they are less likely to students to understand the meaning of
choose the same job. irritated in this context.
2 As genes determine our height, they Related is similar to relative/relation,
determine whether we can become which could help.
basketball players or not. Irritated is negative. It is followed by by
Genes determine our height, so they which suggests something is causing it.
determine whether we can become Related is followed by to.
basketball players or not. Balance is followed by level.
3 Identical twins choose more similar 2c 1 A 2 B 3 B 4 A 5 B 6 B
jobs than non-identical twins for the 3a Question 1
reason that they have the same genes. 3b 1 form 2 fear 3 support
Identical twins have the same genes, 4 reasons
with the result that they choose more Help
similar jobs than non-identical twins. - 1 noun 2 noun 3 noun 4 noun
- Fear and miserable have a negative
Review p.22 connotation, which would help with blank
2, which lists negative conditions.
Caring has positive connotations, which
1 1 educate 2 socialise 3 punish
could help with blank 3, which lists
4 support 5 beneficial 6 intelligence
positive words. Form, reasons and ways
7 influential 8 challenging
are neutral.
2 1 media 2 active 3 potential
- 1 of communication 2 express
4 affect 5 complete 6 negative
3 prompt 4 culturally acceptable
7 effect 8 likely
4 caring – 1A 2A/B 3B 4A/D
3a 1 encourages 2 likely
miserable – 1A/B/D 2B 3A/B 4A/B
3 concerned 4 raise 5 reason
ways – 1C 2A/B 3A/B 4A 5D
6 career 7 socialise 8 As
4 1 make 2 clean 3 take 4 have
5 are 6 are studying 7 exists Academic vocabulary 1 p.26
8 are choosing 9 are working 10 are
training 11 stay 12 are doing 13 1a 1 by 2 about 3 about 4 of
want 5 by 6 with 7 about 8 with 9 of
10 to
02 More than a 1b An -ing verb follows a preposition. In
the negative form, a preposition is
feeling followed by not and then the -ing verb.
2a 1 research 2 involve 3 generate
Lead-in p. 23 4 investigate 5 analyse 6 interpret
7 identify
3a 1 C 2 D 3 E 4 H 5 G 6 A
2 1 Positive: hope, interest, patience,
7B 8F
pleasure, pride, respect, wonder
3b 1 figure 2 speaking 3 high
Negative: anxiety, envy, guilt, hate, pity


4 say Listening 1 p.28

Speaking 1 p.27 2a 1 C 2 A 3 B
2b 1 B 2 A 3 A
2c 1 Sentence 3B – the speaker says
1a A It is likely that students can guess that successful designers do this.
words from sentence 1, but not 2 2 Sentence 1A – this is a minor point in a
because the words in 2 give little list of possible reactions, not the main
meaning to the sentence, whereas the point.
words in sentence 1 carry the meaning. 3 Sentence 2B – there is nothing in the
B Sentence 1: disgust/emotion/people – talk about whether surprise has been
noun, basic – adjective, often – adverb, studied.
experience – main verb. Sentence 2: 3 2 – the lecturer states this: ‘But why
We/which – pronoun, are/are – verb to do we feel surprise?’
be, by/to – preposition, the – article. 4 C – ‘Surprise happens when past
Nouns, main verbs, adjectives and beliefs are proved wrong’, both examples
adverbs usually carry the meaning of a the speaker gives illustrate this point.
sentence. The other words are functional A – There is no mention of the causes of
words which do not carry meaning. physical effects of surprise, they are
1b 1 is a, that simply listed.
2 disgusted, things, dangerous, body B – The comment about first-hand
1c 1 Disgust is a basic emotion that surprise is true, but it is only one detail in
people often experience. a wider talk on two different types of
We are disgusted by things which are surprise.
dangerous to the body. D – The text clearly states that surprise
2a 1 It’s difficult for us to control our is stronger when events contradict
feelings of disgust. strongly held beliefs, not sudden events.
2 The feeling of disgust is related to the
3 Disgust helps us to avoid diseases and Language development 1
viruses. p.29
4 We acquire disgust through our genes
and our culture.
1a A who, that B where
3 and 4 1 The presentation on disgust
C which/that D when E whose
will be in the Great Hall.
1b That can replace who and which in
2 Anyone who feels ill should visit our
the text.
medical centre.
1c 1 whose 2 who’s 3 who’s
3 Feelings of nerves are common to all
4 whose
university freshers.
1d 1 which/that 2 who/that
4 Next week’s assignment will be similar
3 who/that 4 where 5 whose
to last week’s.
6 which/that
5 Our exam results are consistently high
2a 2 Fear is a high level of stress
in all subjects.
which/that is caused by danger.
6 The Students’ Union governs the use
3 People who/that are frightened turn
of the sports centre.
7 Please leave any questions related to
3 A person whose fear is strong might
the topic until the end.
8 Students can avoid viruses by eating
5 Dark houses are places where people
lots of fruit and vegetables.
feel frightened.
9 To acquire a copy of the presentation,
2b Possible answers:
please go to my website.
1 which/that can be positive
10 Copying from the internet threatens to
2 when we are in danger
damage your chances of success.
3 which/that scientists carry out
5 1 emotions/feelings 2 tears/a tear
4 who works in a laboratory
3 biology/medicine 4 jealousy/jealous,
5 whose, is probably upset
envy/envious 5 communication


6 where people go to get emotional Language development 2
7 who/that, is very frightened of p.32
8 which/that is dangerous to do 1a 1 The animal might have
3b Suggested summary: opportunities to escape
An extreme adventure break is a holiday 2 Nothing will have an effect
which is becoming increasingly popular 3 That child will experience that same
because people can experience fear and feeling of helplessness
excitement and learn more about the 1b 1 from this environment
local culture. 2 on the child’s maths performance
3 on another occasion
1c 1 place 2 manner 3 time
Writing 1 p.30 2 1 of teenagers, in the developing
2 Discuss the arguments for and 2 at understanding, as adults
against this view tells students that this is 3 from a number, in our brain, of possible
an argument essay. actions
3 1 Not all children receive the correct 4 in teen brains, in unusual ways
values at home so it is important to teach 3a 2A The number of 10–24-year-olds
values in schools. who had tried a cigarette decreased from
2 There are a large number of subjects 1991 to 2011.
which children need to study on the 2B There was a decrease in the number
school curriculum these days. of 10–24-year-olds who had tried a
3 Children of different ages need a cigarette.
different approach to learning values. 3A The number of 10–24-year-olds who
4 1 E 2 C/D 3 A/B 4 C/D 5 A/B had not eaten any fruit increased in
Listening 2 p.31 3B There was an increase in the number
of 10–24-year-olds who had not eaten
any fruit in 2011.
1 1 A opportunities B possibilities 4A The number of 10–24-year-olds who
2 A attitude B behaviour had not eaten any vegetables increased
3 A prevent B protect in 2011.
4 A optimistic B pessimistic 4B There was an increase in the number
2 C – The speaker describes people of 10–24-year-olds who had not eaten
expecting to fail. any vegetables.
A – clearly wrong – Students expect to 4 Scientists from Stanford carried out
fail and don’t even try to avoid negative fascinating research on the social causes
situations. in 2010 of emotion in 2010. They studied
B – The speaker says nothing about female undergraduates aged between
positive experiences. 18 and 20 from different social
D – The speaker is clearly implying that backgrounds. Half of the
these results have been observed in undergraduates were paired of the
animals and humans in reliable tests. undergraduates with actors who had
Help similar likes and dislikes to them. The
- The first sees having learned actors were trained to answer questions
helplessness as a good thing, and is about giving speeches by acting in front
therefore wrong. of their partner stressed in front of their
- The second is clearly wrong because partner. They found that the
positive experiences aren’t mentioned. undergraduates in the test group showed
3 1 Measuring personal experience of to their partner similar physical reactions
happiness is easier than you would think. to their partner.
2 We can use machines to scan brain
activity as it happens.
3 We get equally accurate results just
asking people how they feel.


meaning, and linking words (in the form
of symbols) because they show the
Academic vocabulary 2 p.33 relationship between ideas.
2 Speaker 1 is more effective for all
three reasons.
1 1 A grow up B bring up 4 Suggested answer:
2 A relationship B relative Smiling can benefit you and other
3 A community B society people. Firstly, big smiles which show
4 A accept B except teeth and use muscles around the eyes
5 A sensible B sensitive make you feel happier and less stressed.
6 A younger generation B First This is because your brain releases
generation chemicals that make you feel good.
2 1B 2E 3F 4C 5D 6A Smiling can also make other people feel
3 1 injury 2 analysis 3 Despite good. In a Swedish study, people moved
4 identify 5 project 6 area their smile muscles when they looked at
7 construct 8 physical photos of people smiling. When they
looked at photos of unhappy people, they
Reading 2 p.34 moved their frown muscles. So, when
you smile, other people copy you.
1 It would be good practice to
encourage students to find good Writing 2 p.36
arguments for both approaches, as they
need to get in the habit of giving 2a 3
balanced arguments. Help
2 1 existed 2 power 3 unrealistic 1 DNA, surroundings 2 both
4 negative 3a 1 C/D 2 A/B 3 C/D 4 A/B
Help 4a 1 on 2 which, in 3 of, on
- 1 verb 2 noun 3 adjective 4 which/that, for/to 5 of, where
4 adjective 5 Generally, students should use the
- Exist is for states, happen is for actions. expressions of the opinions of others
- Higher, more optimistic expectations. everywhere, apart from the conclusion,
3 1 Happened doesn’t collocate, top which could express their own view.
and patient aren’t the correct parts of Evidence should be introduced by giving
speech. examples.
2 Happened and patient aren’t the
correct parts of speech, top doesn’t
collocate. Review p.38
3 Happened isn’t the correct part of
speech, top and patient don’t collocate. 1 1 Research, involve 2 interpret
4 Happened and top aren’t the correct 3 identified 4 investigating, results
parts of speech, patient doesn’t collocate 5 interested, data
with about and doesn’t fit the meaning 2 1 possible 2 up 3 relationships
(opposite of unrealistic). 4 community 5 acceptable
6 response 7 sensitive 8 forms
Speaking 2 p.35 3 1 Measuring people’s experience of
2 surprisingly accurate results
1a A diary where you write the good 3 the world’s most frequently asked
things that have happened to you. question
1b appreciate happiness only after 4 blood flow to the brain
something good bad 5 the activity of the smile muscles in the
but habit of grateful = decrease increase face
happiness 6 something which people experience
gratitude journal = less more successful, naturally in a laboratory
less more healthy, less more generous 7 the possibility that one person’s five is
1c Mostly verbs, nouns and adjectives, another person’s six
because these communicate the main


8 the differences in their measurements 4 A True (Unlike real leaves, the
4 1 There has been an increase in the artificial ones do not need sunlight.)
number of people who own a car in my B False (There is nothing in the text
country. describing the leaf’s appearance.)
2 The number of people who own their C False (To remove the CO2, the leaves
own home in my country has decreased are washed with water once a month, or
in the last 50 years. as needed. – implies a decision)
3 There has been a rise in the number of D True (Klaus Lackner has designed an
people who eat a good diet in my country artificial tree to remove carbon dioxide
in the last ten years. (CO2) from the air using ‘leaves’ that are
4 The number of people who get enough proven to be 1,000 times more efficient
exercise all over the world has fallen in than the real thing.)
the last 30 years. E False (Past research has shown that
CO2 can be turned into hydrocarbon
03 Wild world fuels, like methanol diesel. Students may
not know the words hydrocarbon or
methanol diesel, but the word fuel should
Reading 1 p.40 be accessible.)
F True (At that price, which others have
1 Although answers may vary, on claimed is completely unrealistic, some
average the order is: calculate it at $600 per ton.)
1 watching TV (one year) G False (The text mentions the
2 using the computer and phone (one possibility of selling the liquid fuel to oil
year) companies, but contains nothing on their
3 breathing (one adult,one year) involvement in the project or their views)
4 flying from New York to Mumbai Help
(12,570 km per passenger) - artificial trees
5 driving (medium-sized car in Europe, - See above
approximately 15,000 km per year)
6 heating a home (Europe, one year)
2a Facts are pieces of information that
Academic vocabulary 1 p.42
are known to be true.
Opinions are someone’s ideas or beliefs 1a 1 environmental 2 widely
about something. There may not always 3 change 4 natural 5 environmental
be agreement over whether something is 6 widely 7 natural 8 change
a fact or not, but students should be able 2a 2 accurately 3 survivors
to recognise the language which 4 eventually 5 Individuals
indicates facts or opinions. 6 transportation 7 creative
2b 1 Fact 2 Fact 3 Opinion 4 Fact 8 predictable
5 Opinion 6 Opinion 7 Opinion 3a Bacteria (very small living things)
8 Opinion that feed on CO2 and turns it into an
2c 1 Research has shown 2 ever alcohol.
recorded 3b 1 engineering 2 fossil fuels
3 As far as I’m concerned 4 Scientists 3 released 4 biofuels 5 processing
have proven 5 claim 6 have 6 laboratory 7 feed 8 waste
suggested 7 are of the opinion 4 1 to 2 from 3 with 4 into 5 at
8 have argued 6 to
3a 1 ‘Artificial trees’, machines that can
remove CO2 from the air.
2 A – 10% B – 3.6 billion tons C –
$30–$600 D – $100 E – 1,000 times
3b 1 Facts – A, B, E, Opinion – C, D
2 possibly FACT – ‘research has shown
that the artificial leaves do not [need
OPINION – ‘he suggests that the stores
of CO2 could be turned into liquid fuels.’


Speaking 1 p.43 Language development 1
1a 1 Oceans cover two thirds of the
earth’s surface. 1a 1 are going to try 2 is sending
2 Oceans regulate the earth’s climate 3 will know 4 is going to be
and weather systems. 1b 1 will spend 2 is going to travel
1b The first. 3 will do 4 is starting 5 are going to
2a 1 damage, focus, global learn 6 are meeting
2 design, event, percent 2b 1 very sure (definitely) 2 not sure
3 benefit, chemical, justify (possibly)
4 discovery, environment, participate 3 quite sure (probably)
5 1 recycling 2 oxygen 3 solar 3a 1 People are likely to become much
4 female 5 laboratory 6 tree taller.
2 Trains are unlikely to travel less than
Listening 1 p.44 150 miles per hour.
3 We are likely to eat ready-cooked
meals delivered to our homes.
1 Most of the world’s surface has been
4 The letters C, X and Q are likely to
explored, especially by satellite.
disappear from the alphabet.
However, very little of the world’s deep
3b 1 and 3 came true. 2 is partly true
seas and oceans has been explored.
because some trains travel at over 150
2a It’s about the bottom of our
mph. 4 hasn’t come true.
oceans/the deep sea.
2b 1 in fact 2 however 3 anyway
4 you know 5 well 6 so Summary writing 1 p.46
3a 1 B 2 D 3 C 4 E 5 A
4 Option C – the creatures that exist 1a The lecture is about the
there (The creatures describes the living environment/global warming.
things mentioned in the previous 1b 1 people 2 because 3 negative
sentence.) 4 results in 5 Talk 6 about 7 positive
5 All of them fit the final sentence and 8 to
are relevant to the overall meaning of the 1c With a symbol: results in (=)
lecture, but none of them match the With the first three/four letters: negative
meaning of the previous sentence. (neg.), positive (pos.)
By taking out the vowels: people (ppl),
talk (tlk)
With a special abbreviation: because
(b/c), about (abt)
With a number: to (2)
1d ppl tired of global warming b/c focus
neg. e.g. lives affected. = ppl feel
suggest tlk abt pos stories2, tlk abt pos.
effect of actions 2 motivate ppl


2a Students’ own ideas, but suggest:
2 Pets offer emotional support to sick
but – bt
and elderly people.
environment – environ./env.
3 Dogs are able to provide assistance to
especially – esp
people with disabilities.
for example – eg
great – gr8/grt
increase – incr Language development 2
problem – prblm/prob. p.48
research – res./rsch
smaller than – smller than
twice – x2 1b 1 E 2 A 3 D 4 B 5 C 6 F
very – v. 1c 1 Present simple after if, etc. Either
with – w/ present simple (zero conditional) OR
2b It’s about garbage in the Pacific will/might + infinitive (first conditional)
Ocean. 2 Sentence 1 is a general truth (zero
2c Suggested answer: conditional), Sentences 2–6 are future
Journalists make things sound worse. possibilities (firstconditional).
Sci too. Grt Pacific Garbage Patch – 3 When If, etc. comes first in the
plastic waste collects in ocean. Sci sentence.
claimed x2 size of Texas/x20 size 4 If = used with things which might
England. New rpt – v. serious prob 4 happen; unless = used to say that
environ. Bt not as grt as said. Garbage something will happen if another thing
area smaller than Texas. + plastic feeds doesn’t happen, or isn’t true, means if
some tiny creatures. Rep. concludes – not; provided that = used for things that
shldn’t remove garbage. Foc. on stp you want to happen, but which are only
more in ocean in future. possible after another event
3 Sentence 2 2a 3 If plants die out, small animals will
Sentence 1 includes information that was find it hard to live.
not mentioned in the lecture, i.e. how the 4 When people build roads through
journalists feel about writing the different forests, large animals have a smaller
types of stories. Sentence 3 talks about area to hunt in.
global warming, but not how it is 5 Unless large animals have enough
reported. space to find food, they will die out.
4 Suggested answer: 6 Provided that roads are carefully
A new report suggests that scientists can planned, the environment will be easier
sometimes make things sound worse to manage.
than they are. / A new report suggests 7 Unless large animals are protected,
that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is tourism will suffer.
not as big as scientists thought. 3a Hunting animals
3b 1 are 2 will quickly become
3 results 4 control 5 will be 6 is
Listening 2 p.47 7 is 8 will die out 9 will need/need
10 decide
1a 1 C 2 E 3 F 4 A 5 B 6 D
1b Suggested answers: Academic vocabulary 2 p.49
wild: tiger, elephant
domestic: cat
does not breed easily in zoos: panda 2a They make the words negative.
has a leader in the group: gorilla, 2b Possible, expensive and helpful are
lion all adjectives, abilities is a noun. NB The
feeds its babies for several months: prefix changes the meaning of the word,
lion, rhino, some monkeys but it does not change the part of
2 B – follow (people/animals follow a speech.
leader) 2c 1 unimportant 2 common
3 1 Service animals have become a 3 expensive 4 disadvantage
common feature of modern society. 5 unpleasant 6 unlikely
7 dislike 8 unable 9 indirectly


3 Suggested answer: Insects kill 2 He only covers a couple of stages.
crops, which has a large effect on our 3 He doesn’t use time connectors.
economy, but they also provide food, 4 Although he speaks fluently, he paused
help the fishing industry to survive, keep for too long and the computer has cut
land in good condition and spread seeds him off.
from one flower to another, which is
necessary for life.
Summary writing 2 p.52
Reading 2 p.50 2 1 an interview 2 a summary
3 50–70 4 10 minutes 5 On how well
1 1C 2A 3B your summary presents the key points
2 A True (1,400 people died that day, presented in the interview.
some of them surely died because they 3 Suggested answer:
loved their pets too much.) Thought 4 long time: animals have
B False (We know the brain reacts to friendships b/c biology/continue genes.
animals, but there is nothing about the Growing evidence that animals are
parts of the brain which deal with this.) generous and help each other. Don’t
C True (It also explains why we feel expect anything back.
strongly about an animal such as a baby e.g. 2 chimpanzees, hunted, shared
seal, yet care so little about one like the food, favour not returned 4 months.
much rarer – but rather ugly – Chinese Friends between diff. species: know very
salamander.) little. Starting to look more closely.
D False (Why then should we invest 4a 1 They believed that animals had
time, money and love in animals who are friends for biological reasons, to continue
unlikely to ever return the favour?) their genes.
E True (I believe our love for pets comes 2 No, they don’t. They believe that
from three features of human nature: animals can have true friendships.
natural instincts, culture and empathy. 4b Suggested answer:
The human brain makes us feel warm Scientists thought that animals only had
and happy when we see baby cheeks friends to protect their genes, but now
and big eyes.) they know this is not true.
F False (Nothing in the text addresses 5a 1 Scientists know that animals can
this directly.) be generous and help each other without
G False (… we would expect that pet- expecting anything in return.
keeping would, like music, be found in all 2 Two chimpanzees who hunted
human societies. This is not the case.) together, shared food and helped each
Help other.
- Evidence suggests people died in the 5b Suggested answer:
hurricane to save their pets. A1 B2
- Paragraph 3 talks about three features 6a 1 E 2 B 3 F 4 D 5 C 6 A
of the human brain, but doesn’t talk 6b Link two sentences: whereas,
about the parts of the brain. although, while, and yet.
Start a new sentence: However, On the
other hand
Speaking 2 p.51 6c 2 Scientists believed that only
humans had real friendships. However,
1 1 An eel is a snake-shaped fish. It is they now believe this is not true.
born in salt water. 3 Scientists believed that animals have
2 changes in shape, size, colour and friends to protect their genes, while
habitat/ environment humans have them for emotional
3 Possible answers: life cycle, eel, purposes.
shape/size/colour, environment 4 Scientists believed that animals are not
2 1 where 2 the second stage generous, whereas humans are.
3 When 4 During 5 also 6 After that 5 Some animals do a favour for a friend
7 finally and yet they do not expect one in return.
3 1 He starts in a good place.


6 One chimpanzee helped another, 3 A
although he did not expect a favour in 2 Suggested answers:
return. business – companies operate all over
7 Scientists are learning about the world, but small businesses may
friendships between animals of the same suffer
species. On the other hand, they know language – more people learning English
very little about friendships between which could impact on local language
animals from different species. shopping – global brands, quality could
8 Possible summary: be affected sport – international games
Scientists thought that animals only had like the Olympics and the World Cup are
friends to protect their genes, but now very popular
they know this is not true. They believe travel – people can travel between
animals can be generous and help each countries more easily, but it is damaging
other without expecting help in return. the environment
For example, two male chimpanzees work – people can work in multinational
who did not return favours to each other companies and work in different
for months. Scientists are learning more countries, but local people may lose jobs
about friendships between animals from to people in other countries
the same species. On the other hand,
they know very little about friendships
between animals from different species.
Reading 1 p.56

2a A 1st B 2nd, 3rd and 4th C 5th

2b A 5 C 2 D 4 E 3
Review p.54 3a 2 chemical 3 company in Taiwan
4 chemical 5 plastic 6 bodies of the
1a disappeared, indirectly, inexpensive, dolls 7 bodies of the dolls 8 bodies of
dislike, unlikely, unpleasant, impossible, the dolls, nylon hair, cotton dresses
unusual 3b Topic – 1st, Supporting points –
1b 1 impossible 2 unlikely 3 dislike 2nd–7th,
4 unusual 5 unpleasant Concluding – 8th
6 inexpensive 7 disappeared 4 C, B, E, A, D
8 indirectly Help
2 1 feature 2 dropped 3 accurately - transferring every box each time the
4 will be 5 feed 6 removed 7 unable goods were moved
8 social 9 is starting 10 discoveries - the shipping system required many
3 1 widely 2 community 3 natural changes
4 modern 5 environmental 6 focus - the shipping container
7 attitudes 8 leaders 9 policies
10 reduce
4 1 think … believe
Academic vocabulary 1 p.58
2 hear … do not understand
3 are educated … won’t change 1a Suggested answer:
4 understand … will introduce Many countries transport goods from
5 will reduce … introduce Asia to America and Europe and avoid
6 reduce … will continue the long and dangerous route around
South America.
04 The global village 1b 1 innovation 2 required 3 invest
4 equipment 5 distribution
6 contribute
Lead-in p.55 2 1D 2G 3E 4C 5A 6B
1 1 Suggested answer: 3a How the ship industry started to
We can travel to different countries focus on the cruise industry after the
easily, we can communicate very easily, development of commercial aeroplanes.
business is much more international 3b 1 abroad 2 routes 3 journey
these days. 4 crossing 5 sights 6 destination


dangerous, trouble, 3 = I don’t know how
7 board 8 transport
much longer)
3c 1 travel 2 see 3 made 4 sail
2 Voices tend to go up and down more
5 boarded 6 reached 7 set off
dramatically for enthusiasm (speaker 1)
and surprise (speaker 4).
Speaking 1 p.59 3 Speaker 4 clearly repeats the statistics.
3a 2 – The speaker talks about the
1a 1 is the correct intonation. The final companies making money by getting
word is stressed the most in each customers to do their work for them, and
sentence. The voice rises on the companies making products people don’t
stressed syllable of that word and then really need (quick cook pasta).
falls. 3b √ A enthusiastic about the name
1b The same intonation. chosen for this business style.
4 1 She pauses for longer than three × B happy about the appearance of
seconds and the microphone switches ‘McDonaldisation’ in education.
off. × C worried that furniture delivery
2 She forgets the words. companies would lose business.
3 She goes back and starts again from √ D surprised that customers quickly
the beginning. agreed to take on some tasks.
4 She doesn’t speak with good × E annoyed that pasta companies
intonation. misrepresent their products.
5 1 (A) cruise ship 2 (They) invest × F pleased that standards of
3 (A) passenger 4 (A) canal restaurants are the same around the
5 (A) factory/factories/plant/plants world.
√ G unsure that the customer receives
a better deal from this system.
Listening 1 p.60 Help
See above
1a key features – most important or
interesting part of something Language development 1
organise – plan or arrange something
drive-through – a restaurant or bank, p.61
etc. you can use without getting out of
your car 1a 1 described, seemed, were
flat-pack – furniture that is sold in a box spreading
and has to be put together 2 appeared, were doing 3 were, was
predictable – behaving or happening in 4 used to advertise, cooked, needed,
a way you expect were saving 5 went, could
2a annoyed – They might raise their 1c past simple, past continuous and
voice a little, their intonation goes down, used to
they speak more quickly, and less 2a 1 were you doing 2 got, were the
smoothly. others in your house doing 3 arrived,
enthusiastic – Their voice will go up and were you talking 4 did you like, were
down more than usual, they might speak 5 were you dreaming, woke up
more quickly, they might place emphasis 6 were you thinking, were travelling
on positive words. 7 Did you get 8 was wearing, saw
surprised – Some words will be said 3a 1 telephone 2 computer
slowly, and they might repeat things. 3 television 4 car 5 steam engine
Their tone of voice will go up more. 4a 1 A risk society describes how hard
worried – They might speak more slowly, it is to plan for risks these days.
their voice will go down at the end of 2 Risks stopped being things that nations
sentences more noticeably, they might could control themselves.
stress negative words. 4b 1 could/were able to 2 invented
2b 1 enthusiastic 2 annoyed 3 happened/used to happen
3 worried 4 surprised 4 paid/used to pay 5 stopped
2c 1 Speakers 1–3 use specific words, 6 began 7 were causing
(1 = successful, so clean, easily, 2 =


8 changed 9 affected 10 used to × C annoyed that foreigners find it
be/was 11 used to hard to learn the difficult vocabulary.
experience/experienced 12 didn’t ✓ D aware that several words may
have/didn’t use to have describe the same physical thing.
× E confident that they understand life
in a different way.
Writing 1 p.62 Help
See above
2a Argue either for or against this view. Yes, Who knows the real answer?
Advantages could include boosting the The Inuit experience of snow doesn’t
economy, improving transport links, actually help us understand these issues
sharing culture with other nations, better that much. Lots of languages have more
hospitals. than one word for something.
Disadvantages could include a decrease 3 1 An ancient text may hold secrets
in values (through alcohol consumption which were lost centuries ago.
or clashing cultures), damage to natural 2 The ancient names for plants have
resources, international companies taught researchers about possible
removing profits. medicines.
3a the economy 3 Information may soon disappear
3b P = Tourism can have a positive forever as fewer people read classical
effect on the economy of a country. languages.
I = In fact, no other industry in the world
employs as many people as tourism. In
2011, when the global economy was Language development 2
suffering serious difficulties, tourism still p.64
E = So there are strong economic 1 1D 2B 3A 4C
reasons for a country to consider 2a 1 would live 2 would be 3 would
encouraging tourism. eat 4 would have 5 would drive
6 would own
Listening 2 p.63 2b 1 spoke, wouldn’t understand
2 would need, wanted 3 had,
could/would be able to 4 were, would
1a 1 classical 2 disappearing
be 5 would be, had 6 were, would
3 endangered 4 secrets 5 century
probably use 7 would be, were
6 legend
8 owned, could/would be able to
1b There are several words in English
3a 1 told 2 wouldn’t 3 wouldn’t
which students might have seen:
4 would be 5 wouldn’t 6 didn’t
rain – shower, pouring, mist, drizzle,
7 spoke 8 wouldn’t 9 would be
coming down in buckets, chucking it
10 told 11 would be 12 would be
down, etc.
3b One day, Professor Richard
windy – stormy, breezy, blowing,
Wiseman had an idea. If he created a
draughty, a gale, gusty
project called LaughLab, he’d be able to
sunny – clear, bright, pleasant
search for the funniest international
snowy - blizzard
joke. If he created a website, he’d attract
Some words possibly have more
interest from people all over the world. If
synonyms than others because the type
he attracted interest from people all over
of weather they describe is more
the world, he’d have the opportunity to
common in the country where the
collect thousands of jokes. And if he
language is spoken (e.g. English as it is
published those jokes, other people
spoken in Britain has developed a wider
could/would be able to rate them. So
vocabulary for rain than sun).
that’s exactly what he did and the result
2 ✓ A interested in how the number
was a winning joke by a 31-year-old
of words for snow has attracted attention.
psychiatrist from Manchester, UK.
× B surprised that the different kinds of
snow make so many words necessary.
Academic vocabulary 2 p.65


and cover the main point and supporting
1a 1 individual 2 historical
3 national 4 political 5 social
3 Possible answer:
6 earlier 7 equal 8 International
English is the most successful world
1b individual differences, historical
language in history, but one academic
period, national identity, political parties,
believes it’ll be used less in future.
social responsibility, earlier times, equal
English is spoken in every continent. It’s
opportunities, international organisations
learnt by schoolchildren everywhere and
1c 1 individual differences 2 national
is spoken in science, business, etc. So,
identity 3 earlier times 4 political
lots of people think that it’ll spread more.
parties 5 social responsibility
But only 330 million people speak it as a
6 international organisations 7 equal
first language and this population isn’t
opportunities 8 historical period
spreading. Non-English-speaking
2a 2 differences 3 effectively
countries won’t make English a national
4 communication 5 speakers
language and so English will start to
6 speech 7 symbolise 8 co-operate
disappear, replaced by technology.
9 non-standard
4 Possible answer:
3a 1 It refers to the fact that a larger
Language and culture are connected so
percentage of the population is older.
some people worry that English will
2 all societies
affect their local culture. Esperanto was
3b 1 revolution 2 medical 3 roles
created in 1887 by a doctor who wanted
4 range 5 relevant 6 majority
to make a new language with no culture
7 individuals 8 diverse 9 located
or politics. He wanted people to
10 immigration
communicate and understand each other
better. We don’t know exactly how many
Reading 2 p.66 people speak it, but around a million
have studied it at some point.
2 D C A B
Help Writing 2 p.68
- D has no back references, so is
probably the first one.
2 Language and the cultures with
- In other words introduces another way
them are disappearing every week.
of saying that something is simple, easy
When they go, we lose knowledge,
to pronounce and has no particular
heritage and different ways of viewing
the world, so we should try to save
3 To check that it all makes sense and
minority languages, cultures and
the ideas link appropriately.
traditions. Argue either in support of this
view or against it.
Speaking 2 p.67 Help
- traditions
1a English as a world language - persuasive – Argue either in support of
1b Student 1 correctly identifies the this view or against it.
main point. 3a Supporting: a description of
Student 2 has picked up on details. possible ways of saving a language, a
1c 1 spoken every country continent, description of why these cultures are
learnt by adults schoolchildren important
2 language of sci, music global business Against: a discussion of the usefulness
and popular culture of international languages
3 few lots of people think Eng. spread Either: a discussion of whether it is
more possible to save these cultures, a
1d 1 spreading 2 national language description of why these cultures are
3 start to disappear, computer translation disappearing, a discussion of the cost
and speech recognition and finding money to save culture
2 Yes, he took good notes because he 5a Possible answers:
is able to re-tell the lecture quite fluently 1 we would lose a part of our national


2 future generations won’t be able to Musicians are aware of sounds in
enjoy them. general, and in fact, some even have the
3 they can still be taught in schools. ability to recognise pitch, identifying a
4 they will not be able to get a good job. note without comparing it to any other
5 they will get a better job. sound. However, for those who notice
6 they can be studied at a later date. sounds, any form of noise can be
emotionally upsetting, and distract them
from doing more productive tasks such
Review p.70 as relaxation and sleep.
3 1 either 2 evidence 3 separates
1 1 argued 2 had never been 4 accounted 5 although
3 have since found 4 realised 5 had Help
become 6 decided 7 used - Whether or either, whether doesn’t fit
8 dropped 9 were working 10 turned grammatically
11 caused 12 reflected 13 had - Clues is informal, evidence is more
already changed often used in the context of research
2 1 want … will need 2 go … will be
3 will understand … speak 4 offer …
will try 5 will spend … import 6 do … Academic vocabulary 1 p.74
don’t have to 7 don’t want … is
8 won’t get … try 1a 1 western society – the ideas and
3 1 require 2 contribute 3 foreign ways of doing things which come from
4 creates 5 innovations 6 equipment Europe and North America
7 process 8 distribution 2 literary texts – stories, plays or poems
4 1 earlier times 2 identity 3 role 3 factual information – written material
4 social responsibility 5 individual based on information that is believed to
6 majority 7 range 8 international be true
Mystery word – relevant 4 free access – be able to use
something without paying
05 Sensational 5 virtual communities – a group of
people who only talk through the internet
6 popular media – television,
Lead-in p.71 magazines, radio, etc. which provide
entertainment people like
2 1 someone cleaning their teeth 7 wider audience – a larger number of
2 someone chopping food 3 scissors people who see or hear a particular
snipping 4 someone turning a tap on writer’s work
and off 5 someone cleaning windows 8 powerful influence – something which
6 boiling water strongly affects how others think or
2a 1 specific 2 beneficial 3 acquire
Reading 1 p.72 4 category 5 alternatives
3a 1 Illegal downloads 2 recording
1a 1 C 2 A 3 D 4 B 5 E artist 3 advance 4 album
2a The first is informal, the second is 5 commission 6 released 7 hit
formal and academic. 8 produce 9 on tour 10 promotion
2b 1 C 2 A 3 D 4 E 5 B 11 broadcast 12 media
2c Guys who can really play the guitar 4a 1 A creative B create C creativity
or the drums know absolutely loads 2 A entertainment B entertaining
about music and sounds. And one or two C entertain
can say the name of a note as soon as 3 A literature B literate C literacy
they hear it. Anyway, this means that 4b 1 -ity, ability, community
having to listen to other noises around 2 -ment, entertainment, enjoyment
them every day really starts to suck, and 3 -ture, literature, creature
stops them getting on with other stuff like 4 -ive, creative, native
working or sleeping. 5 -ing, entertaining, worrying
6 -ate, literate, private


2a aloud – allowed
guessed – guest
Speaking 1 p.75 here – hear
hire – higher
peace – piece
1a Noun endings: sail – sale
-cy – third from the end scene – seen
-ity– third from the end week – weak
-ment – first whether – weather
-tion/-sion– second from the end worn – warn
Adjective endings: 2b 1 here/hear 2 hire/higher
-ive – second from the end 3 scene/seen 4 worn/warn
-able – third from the end 5 whether/weather
-tional – third from the end 2c 1 hear 2 Higher 3 scene
NB Although these words stress the third 4 warn 5 whether
from the end, if the word is shorter than 3 1 sales 2 action 3 positive
three syllables, they need to reduce the 4 directly 5 cut 6 advertisements
rule by one (i.e. second from the
end, etc.).
2 1 The best way to describe the Language development 1
advantages of digital sound technology is p.77
2 The improvements are clearer in action
1a 1 is more negative because of the
use of little/few. It means there wasn’t
3 There is often an intentional decision to
make objects sound as though they are
2 is more positive because of the use of
flying around the room.
a little/a few. It means there wasn’t a lot,
but it was enough.
Listening 1 p.76 1b 1 little 2 many 3 Few 4 A few
5 a lot of 6 much 7 a little 8 few
1c 1 too little 2 showed too many
1 soundtrack – the recorded music
3 Too few/ Not enough 4 Not enough
from a film
5 too much 6 too little/wasn’t enough
comedy – entertainment intended to
7 too little 8 enough
make people laugh
2a 2 Just under half 3 A quarter
panic – a sudden, strong feeling of fear
4 One in five 5 One in every fifty
or anxiety that makes you do things
6 Almost one out of five
without thinking carefully
2b 1 95 percent of the population listen
tension – a nervous and anxious feeling
to music and watch films.
scene – a short part of a play or film,
2 17 percent of people do arts and crafts.
when the events happen in one place
3 5 percent of women visit entertainment
pitch – how high or low a sound is
volume – the amount of sound produced
4 40 percent of men read.
download – to receive information or
5 47 percent of women read.
programs on a computer
6 1 percent of Australians attend courses
share illegally – use a file or song
to learn a hobby.
without paying
7 56 percent of women participate in
community activities. 8 22 percent of
women and 17 percent of men socialise.
2c Suggested answers:
1 Almost all of the population listen to
music and watch films.
2 Almost one in six people do arts and
3 One out of every 20 women visits
entertainment venues.
4 Two-fifths of men read.


5 Just under half of women read. 1 Yes
6 One out of a hundred Australians 2 Yes – The only way to do this task is to
attends courses to learn a hobby. listen carefully. You cannot notice the
7 Just over half of women participate in incorrect words by reading only.
community activities.
8 Almost a quarter of women and almost
one in six men socialise.
Language development 2
Summary writing 1 p.78
1 1 faster, more effective 2 less
able, fewer
1a Suggested answers: 3 as green as 4 more popular 5 more
Advantages: You can listen without important 6 as common, as
disturbing other people, you can listen to 2a 2 six times higher than 3 ten times
music everywhere. greater than 4 five times more popular
Disadvantages: They aren't good for 5 twice as popular as 6 twice as high
your ears, they make you unsociable. as
2a 3 is the most appropriate. 3a 1 best-looking 2 most
2b 1 includes information that is not northerly/northernmost 3 best
correct (80 percent). 4 loveliest 5 easiest
3 does not cover the main point of the 4a 1 easily 2 new 3 continually
talk, but instead covers a supporting 4 commercially 5 invisible 6 easily
point. 7 newly 8 simply 9 quietly
3a C, B, A 10 horizontally 11 exceptional
3b In quiet places most people listen to 12 theoretically
music at a sensible level. Unfortunately,
they turn it up too loud in places with a
lot of background noise. However, they Academic vocabulary 2 p.81
do not know their hearing has been
damaged until several years later. 1a 1 define 2 item 3 design
4 1 is most appropriate. 2 includes 4 principle 5 interact 6 theory
information not discussed in the lecture. 7 select 8 perceive
3 includes correct information, but the 2a 1 E 2 F 3 B 4 C 5 A 6 D
speaker did not make this conclusion. 2b 1 basically 2 obviously
5b Suggested answer: 3 Interestingly 4 actually 5 unusually
Using an electronic device to stop 6 Personally
teenagers from hanging around outside 3a 1 B 2 F 3 D 4 G 5 A 6 E
shops is against their human rights. The 7C
device makes a sound that only young
people can hear so they soon move
away. However, the device could Reading 2 p.82
damage their hearing. As a result, we
should focus our attention on creating 2 1 challenges 2 Previous
better facilities for young people to use. 3 participants 4 drawing 5 tended
Listening 2 p.79 - He disagrees – studies of vision and
attention generally ignored individual
factors such as sex, race and age.
2a The topic is language and colour, challenges
specifically the colour blue. How much - a noun, before cannot fill this blank
information the students get will depend - Yes. Beings is from philosophy, players
on the strategies they use. is from sport and characters is for drama.
3 related, faster, beginning, arose, 3 1 1, 3 and 5
vegetables 2 In 2 it was meaning and grammar, in 4
4 place, basic, perceive, selected, it was collocation with attention.
5 position, simple, see, chosen, art
Speaking 2 p.83
1a People in the United States do not 2 a summary for a fellow student who
visit eye doctors when they have a was not present at the lecture
medical problem. 3 It should be between 50 and 70 words.
1b The main reason for not seeking eye 3 Suggested answer:
care is due to not being able to afford the Every year, 75,000 eyewitnesses identify
treatment. criminal suspects, but 1/3 are wrong.
2a 1 other 2 cost/no insurance 3 no 1974 experiment: 2000 ppl watched
eye doctor/travel/appointment video. 14% identified criminal
2b the number of people who either did Ppl make mistakes b/c fear, poor lighting,
not need treatment or hadn’t thought of it weapon.
3 1 the most common 2 as high as Argument 4 eyewitnesses: part of legal
3 greater than 4 the least common system, history
4 The second is better because the Argument against eyewitnesses: now
speaker turns the categories in the table scientific evidence
into noun phrases that can be used in a 4a Eyewitnesses should not be used.
sentence, and identifies key trends, and 6a 1 E 2 C, F 3 B 4 A, D
then gives detail. The first just repeats 6b Every year, 40 percent of criminals
detail and cannot really use the words in are wrongly identified because the
sentences. witnesses’ memories change. An
experiment in 1974 showed that the
reasons for this are poor lighting,
Summary writing 2 p.84 weapons, fear and time. Now, scientific
evidence can give us more accurate
1 arrest – when the police take information about how a crime was
someone away because they think they committed.
have done something illegal 6c The summary in Exercise 6a is
suspect – someone who may be guilty accurate, but omits mention of the
of a crime research which supports the main idea. It
evidence – facts shown in court in order does follow a kind of PIE format,
to prove that someone is guilty or not although the topic sentence suggests
guilty that the writer’s view is that witness
weapon – something that is used to evidence is inaccurate, whereas actually
attack people or to fight against people this is what research tells us. The
court – the place or the people who speaker’s viewpoint is actually that we
make a legal judgement, for example should not continue to use it in court. A
about whether someone is guilty of a question is not appropriate in a
crime summary. The ideas are linked and there
eyewitness – someone who sees a are 50 word, so it just fulfils the exam
crime or accident criteria.
commit – to do something wrong or The summary in 6b is inaccurate (14
illegal percent, not 40 percent). The experiment
judge – the person who controls a court did not tell us why memories change. It
of law and decides how criminals should does not give information about the
be punished writer’s view that witness evidence
jury – a group of twelve ordinary people should not continue to be used. The PIE
in a court who decide whether someone format is followed at first although the
is guilty final sentence could be more effective. It
guilty – having done something that is a is only 49 words long so does not meet
crime exam criteria.
victim – someone who has been hurt, 8 Example answer:
attacked or killed because of something The legal system should change
bad because eyewitnesses often make
The typical order is: E, G, D, B, A, C, F. mistakes. A 1974 experiment showed
However, G, D, B and A could be done that just 14 percent of people could
at the same time or in a slightly different correctly identify a criminal they saw
order. commit a crime on video which is a lower
2 1 a short lecture percentage than guessing. Fear, poor


lighting, weapons and time are all causes
6 share 7 interact 8 factual
of this. Now that accurate scientific
9 actively 10 powerful
evidence is available, we need to
consider whether to continue to use
eyewitnesses. 06 City intelligence
Review p. 86 Reading 1 p.88

2a 1 C 2 E 3 A 4 B 5 D
1 1 a few 2 little 3 too much
2b 1 E 2 C 3 D 4 A 5 B
4 not enough/ few 5 not
3a Text A – to persuade the reader that
enough/little 6 too many
cities need to prepare for increased
2 1 Most people listen to music once a
Text B – to contrast two cities, although
2 Just under 50 percent of the group
there is also some comparison.
read books.
3b Text A – it is important; they must
3 A third of teenagers enjoy watching
invest. Plus reasons why Songdo is
leading the way.
4 One in five people do an outdoor
Text B – the similarities end there, on the
activity each week.
other hand, smaller, While
5 A quarter of the class do arts and
4 B
5a ... do not be mistaken about the
6 Almost one in ten children at the school
potential lack of privacy that
have piano lessons.
accompanies it. Buildings and homes will
3 The increase in popularity of ebooks
be monitored at all times and cameras in
means that it is now more common for
the streets will see who is doing what
writers to publish a book themselves and
and when.
publishers are not as more important
5b A You would expect to see positive
as they used to be. However, knowing
language describing the city.
which is the most appropriate choice for
C You would expect to see more
you can be difficult. Writers might have a
reference to the environment and
greater chance of being successful if
negative language associated with it.
they have the support of a publisher who
D You would expect there to be other
will spend larger large amounts of money
cities mentioned and words like similar
on promoting the book. They will also
give you an advance, so financially it
may be the best option. On the other
hand, finding a publisher to publish your Academic vocabulary 1 p.90
book is not as easy as publishing your
own. For this reason it may be better 1 1 Rural 2 spaces 3 Traffic
more good for a writer to publish the 4 land 5 save 6 fresh
book themselves and sell it at a price 2a 1 E 2 B 3 C 4 A 5 D 6 F
which is less expensive than the one you 3a 1 monitors 2 experts 3 assess
would like to charge. Once readers give 4 similarities 5 potential 6 Despite
positive feedback, other readers will be 7 energy
happy to purchase the book at the more 3b For current answers, check the
high higher price. It can also take ten internet. The top 5 in 2012 were 1 Tokyo,
times as long to get a book published 2 Luanda, 3 Osaka, 4 Moscow, 5
by a publisher than by yourself, so Geneva. However, cities like N’Djamena
self-publishing can bring faster results in in Chad have featured in the top 5.
the least less amount of time. 4a 1 re- 2 over- 3 mis-
4 1 literacy 2 improvement 4b 1 over- 2 mis- 3 re-
3 entertainment 4 creativity 4c 1 re 2 re 3 re 4 over 5 mis
5 celebrities 6 tension 7 promotion 6 over 7 mis
8 production
5 1 emotional 2 perceive
3 process 4 work 5 entertaining


Speaking 1 p.91 D is wrong because it wasn’t the first city
built in a difficult location, and misses
some information.
1a 1 The first word ends in a Help
consonant. - the journey, the working conditions, the
2 The second word begins with a vowel. high death rate – this does not reflect the
1b There is no pause as the words are text
linked together as if they are one word. - So and that is why do not reflect the
2a 1 New technology has a role to play reasons for choosing the location.
in innovation.
2 We could invest in effective public
transport. Language development 1
3 We should attempt to lower the p.93
amount of traffic on roads.
4 One solution is a system of electric
1a 1 building (although to build is also
cars to hire on-demand.
possible) 2 to construct 3 working
5 Another is an electric bus with an
4 to provide 5 to prevent, running away
open bottom for cars to drive under.
6 to provide 7 to find, using 8 to build
6 If little action is taken, we could
1c 1 died from working, prevent them
experience energy shortages.
from running, prevent them from using
3 1 Nine out of ten British people live
2 decided to construct, had to provide
in towns and cities.
3 began building, began to build
2 Larger numbers of city residents
4 hard to find, impossible city to build
means greater car ownership.
5 to prevent, cleared to provide
3 Our future well-being depends on
2a 1 attracting 2 to find 3 to rent
action we take now.
4 finding 5 to walk 6 getting 7 living
4 The impact of climate change could
8 visiting
result in floods.
3a 1 to keep 2 having 3 to
5 Public transport is the best way to
leave/leaving 4 to create 5 to
travel to university.
discourage 6 sleeping 7 To make
6 Cycle lanes make it safer to travel by
8 camping 9 to switch on 10 to drive
11 to protect 12 adding 13 building
7 Cities need to invest more money in
14 to prevent 15 hanging around
road systems.
8 An increase in population will result in
fewer resources. Writing 1 p. 94
9 The bus will depart from outside the
building in five minutes. 2 Many have argued that the best
10 Street lighting allows people to walk solution to the problems … Do you agree
home safely at night. with this view?
5 1 public (transport) 2 rent 3b 1 Megacities appeared for the first
3 desert 4 rain 5 forest/wood time last century 2 we are seeing cities
6 overestimate with populations of over 20 million
3 these large cities bring new problems,
Listening 1 p.92 which have never been experienced
before 4 Overcrowding and transport
are particularly challenging in the modern
2 1C 2B 3A 4D
world. 5 Although there are several
3 1 mass 2 geographical
solutions to these difficulties, none of
compromise 3 ethnical compromise
these are without problems.
4 safety 5 Eeconomic reasons
4 C is correct.
A is wrong because it misses the last
B is wrong because the location makes it
difficult, not helpful.


Listening 2 p.95 5 If the media continues to show violent
content, very young children might start
displaying violent behaviour.
2 B 6 If more than half the population is over
A – wrong – They have chosen to 60, we would have to increase the
transform garages. retirement age to 70, or even older.
C – wrong – The location was not
chosen to be close to work opportunities.
D – wrong – They have to share cooking Academic vocabulary 2 p.97
and bathing facilities.
3 1 Affordable housing is an important 1a 1 unrest 2 opportunities 3 rights
issue for all members of society. 4 wider 5 skills
2 Attracting skilled workers to a city with 2a 1 majority 2 reversible/irreversible
expensive housing is hard. 3 minimum 4 consequences
3 Without a home, people have no hope 5 depression 6 ignored 7 central
of escaping poverty. 8 daily
4a A – ‘Because housing is too 3a 1 traffic congestion 2 nuclear
expensive in the city, people have had to power 3 organised crime (crime
move into garages.’ committed by large groups under
C – ‘The houses will help people get to powerful leaders) 4 drug abuse
work more quickly because of their 5 disabled rights (giving people with
central location.’ permanent injuries equal access to
D – ‘They will each have their own public buildings and opportunities)
bedroom, shower room, kitchen and 6 unemployment
garage.’ 4a Possible answers:
4b 1 housing is an important issue for 1 If people do not stop eating fast food,
all, members of 2 city with expensive, obesity rates will be even higher than
housing is 3 without a home, no hope they are now.
of escaping 2 If the gap between rich and poor
grows, there is likely to be more social
Language development 2 unrest around the world.
3 If women have to work long hours in
p.96 the future, professional childcare will be
a major issue.
1a 1 unrest 2 opportunities 3 rights 4 If oil runs out, we will not be able to
4 wider 5 skills make things from plastic anymore.
2a 1 majority 2 reversible/irreversible 5 If the media continues to show violent
3 minimum 4 consequences content, very young children might start
5 depression 6 ignored 7 central displaying violent behaviour.
8 daily 6 If more than half the population is over
3a 1 traffic congestion 2 nuclear 60 years old, we would have to increase
power 3 organised crime (crime the retirement age to 70 or even older.
committed by large groups under
powerful leaders) 4 drug abuse
5 disability rights (giving people with
Reading 2 p.98
permanent injuries equal access to
public buildings and opportunities) 1a 1 D 2 C 3 A 4 E 5 B
6 unemployment 2 B (The atmosphere that exists on
4a Possible answers: Mars today is similar to the Earth’s
2 If the gap between the rich and poor atmosphere when it was first formed,
grows, there is likely to be more social making it a real possibility that it will one
unrest around the world. day be transformed into a planet where
3 If women have to work long hours in plants and animals can live successfully.)
the future, professional childcare will be 3 A3 C1 D2
a major issue.
4 If oil runs out, we will not be able to Speaking 2 p.99
make things from plastic anymore.


1a Students' own answers, but it is 1 1 locating 2 constructing 3
likely to be on the topic of doing work at training 4 to ignore 5 to walk 6 to
home or working from home. cause 7 to walk 8 Spending 9 living
1b The main idea is that employers 2 2 It is fairly unlikely that people will
should rethink the place where their stop living in cities. / People are fairly
employees work. unlikely to stop living in cities.
2a A 4 B 6 C 5 D 3 E 7 G 8 3 Traffic jams will definitely last days, not
H2 F1 hours.
2b Suggested answers: 4 Pollution might make it impossible to
1 they can work from home walk outside.
2 a change in the way employees work 5 There is a strong possibility that
3 watching a film, playing games, taking manufacturers will develop smaller,
a nap folding cars.
4 more work 6 It is likely that only thinner cars will be
5 productivity than workers in an office allowed to enter cities. / Only thinner cars
6 companies should rethink their are likely to be allowed to enter cities.
approach 7 There is a strong chance that robotic
3 Yes, the speaker links her ideas with cars will talk to each other to reduce
therefore, but, however, so. accidents.
8 It is highly likely that self-drive cars will
allow cars to travel closer together
Writing 2 p.100 safely. / Self-drive cars are likely to be
able to travel closer together safely.
2 Help 9 There is a possibility that drivers will be
- problem-solution essay – Some say, To fined for causing accidents.
what - extent do you agree with this 3 1 increasing 2 addressed
solution? 3 meets 4 newly-created 5 suburban
3 6 similarities 7 potentially 8 leading
2 The benefits of providing housing for 4 1 central 2 plastics 3 technical
everyone are huge. 4 ignore 5 consequences 6 social
3 For example, having a stable home 7 wider 8 power
reduces crime and encourages better
4 These benefits will reduce the costs of
07 The future of food
policing and healthcare for the
government in the long-term. Reading 1 p.104
5 However, building homes is expensive
and it is unfair to expect taxpayers to 2 Students can answer any way they
provide homes for other people who want, provided they can justify their
might not always deserve it. answer. 1 is more likely to be farming,
5a 2 is a strong probability that 3 is and 2 is more likely to be
unlikely to be, is highly likely that homes pharmaceuticals, but these days the two
will be 4 cannot be, is only a small industries are merging.
chance that banks will lend 3a Suggested answers:
6 Possible answer: 1 die 2 chemicals 3 home-cooked
1 Over the last decade, more people food
worry about the cost of housing. 2 In fact, 3b The answers are likely to be similar
in the last ten years house prices have because the linking words lead you
more than doubled and young people towards certain ideas (consequence,
cannot afford to buy a new home. 3 This definition, contrast).
is significant because young people have 3c A 3 B 2 C 1
to delay buying a home and starting a 4a 2
family until very late. 4 It is important to 4b 1 joining 2 medical 3 common
identify new ways to provide housing. 4 genes
5 grown 6 before 7 babies 8
Review p.102 unlimited 9 milk 10 affordable
5 1 strongest 2 aggressive 3 failed


4 qualities 2 B The quality of food may decrease.
Help 3 A Professor Jameson rejects the idea
- Blank 1 – superlative adjective completely.
Things that are fine and thin are usually 3 B The food is sorted and the rejects
weak. After despite we need something are thrown out.
surprising, so the opposite, strong, would 4 A My country exports a lot of food.
be best. 4 B There were a lot of exports last year.
- Blank 2 – People have tried … but … 5 1 calcium 2 crops/cereals
leads you to the idea that their attempts 3 agriculture 4 sour/bitter 5 frozen
failed, therefore we’re looking for a 6 harvest
negative meaning after too.
Listening 1 p.108
Academic vocabulary 1
p.106 2a The amount of land that is farmed in
1a 1 A consumed B consumption 2b 2 problem + solution. The words
2 A varieties B varied issue and solve help to tell us this.
3 A react B reaction 2c A 2 B 5 C 3 D 4 E 1
4 A process B processed 3a 1 cause + effect
2a 1 minimum 2 major 3 widely 2 event 1, event 2, event 3
4 broad 5 individual 6 greater 3 comparison + contrast
2b 1 broad range 2 greater 3b 1 because, as a result, a significant
awareness impact
3 widely available 4 major cause 2 First, Then, Next
5 individual choice 3 similar, However, one major difference
6 minimum requirement 4 D (There’s a strong possibility that
3a The text is about an underground these features of their culture would be
room in the Arctic, where seeds from lost forever if modern farming practices
every plant currently used in agriculture were forced on them in order to make
can be kept safe for future use. them more competitive.)
3b 2 rice 3 lettuce 4 frozen 5 These strategies are all very useful
5 agriculture 6 crop 7 harvesting for this task.
8 disease 9 supply
4 2 carbohydrates 3 vitamins and Language development 1
minerals 4 dairy and calcium 5 fibre
6 high-calorie

3c To extend this activity, ask students

Speaking 1 p.107 to consider what influences the foods we
choose to eat (health, convenience,
1 1 science 2 scientific taste, cost, etc.).
3 scientifically 4 various 5 variety 1a Active: 2 has created 5 consist of
6 variations 7 inform 8 information Passive: 1 will be farmed 3 is
9 informative produced
2a 1 A noun (after a lot of) 1 B verb 4 will be run
(after to) 1b 1 by farmers (not mentioned)
2 A noun (after a) 2 B verb (after may) 3 Japanese farmers (mentioned)
3 A verb (between two nouns) 4 these boys (mentioned)
3 B noun (after the) 4 A verb (between The agent is only mentioned when an
two nouns) 4 B noun (after a lot of) important contrast is being made, or it is
2b 1 A There’s been a lot of progress in essential to the meaning.
this field. 1c 1 Fresh fruit which is sold (by
1 B They’ll need to progress to the next supermarkets)
level. 2 Most fruit can be stored
2 A There’s been a decrease in the 3 They are chilled (by producers)
quality of food. 4 Some fruit is picked (by producers)


5 Fruit is sometimes sprayed (by
2a It shows the process that fruit goes
through from being picked to reaching a
2b Suggested answers:
1 The apples are picked.
2 They are placed into trucks.
3 They are processed in a warehouse.
4 They are chilled in a refrigerator.
5 They are transported abroad.
6 They are driven to a distribution centre.
7 They are taken to a supermarket.
8 They are bought by customers.
3a 1 was released 2 is taken 3 is
expected 4 be fed 5 is consumed
6 will be limited 7 will be produced
3b 1 are affected 2 contribute 3 is
used 4 be reduced 5 be increased
6 is also needed 7 will rise/is going to
rise 8 is generated

Summary writing 1 p.110

1 Suggested answer:

Green Revolution, increased crops.

Mexico 1940s. Borlaug, new wheat.
Agricultural technology, water innovation,
fertilizer. India, leading rice producer.
Criticisms: overpopulation, Africa.
Changed agriculture, benefitting people.
Increased food production.
2 The first line of the paragraph is the
topic sentence.
3 The final line of paragraph 2 is the
topic sentence.
4 Suggested answer:
(It combines the two topic sentences
from each paragraph.)
Agriculture today would not be the same
without the Green Revolution because it
significantly increased the amount of
crops produced per acre of land and
benefitted people of many nations in
need of increased food production,
despite some criticisms.


Listening 2 p.111 2a 1 chain 2 branches 3 industry
4 manufacture 5 run 6 profit, loss
3 2 comparison 3 economy
1a Suggested answers: 4 manufacturers 5 unemployment
1 sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell 6 management 7 independence
sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami 8 Retailers
3 dog’s, bear’s, shark’s 4a 1 earlier times 2 specialist shops
2 C (An individual human cell is just as 3 financial services 4 retail sector
sensitive as a dog’s cell, but dogs have 5 economic benefits 6 make contracts
many more of them) 7 large quantities 8 new custom
3 1 Taste is used to test food before it 9 employment opportunities
enters the body. 2 Things that are 10 independent retailers 11 increased
potentially harmful for us taste bad. competition 12 family firms
3 Our sense of taste is heavily influenced
by our sense of smell.
4a 1 D 2 B 3 A Reading 2 p.114

Language development 2 2 1 diners 2 calorie 3 dessert

4 atmosphere
p.112 3 1 enjoyment 2 particular
3 overeat 4 planned 5 relaxed
1a In general, the sales of unhealthy 3 overeat 4 planned 5 relaxed
fast food, such as hamburgers and soft
drinks, went down, and the sale of
healthier choices, such as sushi and fruit
Speaking 2 p.115
juice, went up over the ten-year period of
the study, suggesting that people were 1 To provide water for people who live
making healthier eating choices. far away from the main water pipe
1b 1 number 2 level 3 number systems.
4 amount 5 number 6 amount 2B
2a 1 1a is passive. 2b is active. 2a Speaker 2 is better because they
when the verb in the relative clause is arrange the description in terms of
passive (the tense makes no difference) advantages and disadvantages, rather
when the verb in the relative clause is than describing the detail in a
active (the tense makes no difference) mechanical fashion.
2b 1 pre-cooked 2 using 3 grown 2b 1 two 2 Firstly 3 so 4 This
4 working 5 involving 5 Secondly 6 however 7 For these
3a 2 consumptionrecorded reasons
3 hamburgers eaten 4 fruit juice drunk
5 individuals making 6 sushi bought Summary writing 2 p.116
4a 2 images of food shown in the media
3 weight increases seen in Western
populations 4 test involving 5 pictures 1a 1 sweetener 2 controversial
containing either images of delicious 3 blamed for 4 subsidies 5 alternative
food or non-edible objects6 chemical 6 ingredients 7 tariffs
controlling how hungry we feel 2a 1 one 2 in the response box
7 factors only found inside the body, not 3 ten minutes 4 On the quality and how
in the environment 8 anyone well your response presents the key
concerned about their weight points in the passage.
9 photographs showing high-calorie food 2b The use of high fructose corn syrup,
an alternative to sugar.
3c Paragraph 1: The use of HFCS
Academic vocabulary 2 steadily rose and it is now regularly used
p.113 as an ingredient in processed food such
as tinned vegetables and ketchup.
Paragraph 2: Today HFCS is a
1a 1 by 2 between 3 to 4 to 5 at
controversial product, regularly blamed
6 from


for the rising weight gain occurring in the
2 1 varieties 2 order
3 consumption 4 vitamins … minerals
The writer concludes that there is little
5 Frozen 6 ingredient 7 diseases
scientific evidence to suggest that HFCS
8 crops 9 imports 10 processed
is more harmful than other sweeteners,
11 retailers 12 harvest
including sugar. (Final two sentences of
3 2 involved
paragraph 2.)
3 buying vegetables 4 conducted in
3d Suggested answers:
5 offering 6 building 7 investigating
The use of HFCS steadily rose in the
8 created by
1970s and is now regularly used as an
4 1 independent 2 specialist
ingredient in processed food such as
3 firm 4 runs 5 makes 6 broad
tinned food and ketchup.
7 greater 8 agricultural 9 organic
Today, HFCS is a controversial product,
10 widely
regularly blamed for rising weight gain in
the USA.
There is little scientific evidence to 08 Being human
suggest it is more harmful than other
types of sweeteners, including sugar. Lead-in p.119
4a 1 government’s, responsibility, which
2 necessary, their, dependent
2 Possible answers:
3 separate, consumers, achieve
1 Bankers – send money places quickly,
4 definitely, consistently, environment
get information quickly, look at charts
4b 1 They all express purpose.
2 Doctors – scans, operations, medicines
2 2, 3 and 4 are followed by an infinitive.
3 Engineers – make models, measure
1 is followed by a clause.
things quickly, design
4c Possible answers:
4 Police officers – radio communication,
1 stop them from eating unhealthy food.
obtain information, DNA evidence
2 harm the teeth of children.
5 Sailors – communication, weather
reduce the amount of damage we cause
reports, satellite technology, better
to the environment.
4 they taste good.
5 2 Many sweet manufacturers use
natural flavouring so that parents who Reading 1 p.120
are worried about their children’s health
will buy them. 1 Suggested answers:
3 Food packaging uses a lot of resources 1 There are implants that can help deaf
and produces a lot of waste which we children to hear, otherwise technology
should try to reduce. that turns voice to text can help.
4 Some people drink a lot of fizzy drinks 2 Technology can include wheelchairs,
which can contain a lot of caffeine and specially-adapted cars, stairlifts.
cause anxiety. 3 There is some special equipment that
6 Suggested answer:The use of high can help with opening packets, jars,
fructose corn syrup in tinned food and boxes, etc.
ketchup is a controversial product which 4 Technology will no doubt be used
is regularly blamed for rising weight gain during the operation.
in the USA, although there is little 2 A new robotic arm controlled directly by
evidence to suggest that it is more thought could help people with
harmful than other types of sweeteners, disabilities in the future.
including sugar. 3a 1 which is 2 who is
3 microelectrodes 4 which was 5 able
Review p.118 to control the hand 6 which had been
3b A: 3, 5 B: 1, 2, 4, 6
4 One replaces a computer. Does
1 1 be described 2 is covered
replaces translates the signals.
3 eat
5 this – the fact that the woman learnt to
4 are activated 5 taste 6 influence
control the hand with greater flexibility
7 depends 8 is blocked
it – the robotic arm


1c carry out – conduct – doresearch –
some – experts
workexamine – analyse
such developments – making a robotic
2a 1 D 2 B 3 E 4 H 5 G 6 A
arm which can be controlled by thoughts
7 F 8 C2
those – people
b 2 breaks down – stop
6 1 situation 2 device 3 be
3 coming up – thinking of
accepted 4 wish 5 such
4 note down – write
5 dealing with – managing
- passive7 1 event, background,
6 carry out – do/conduct
conditions, facility 2 accept, is
7 go over – review
accepted, one, it, these 3 stuff, fancy
8 look up – find
4 too, desire, requir require
3a 1 virus 2 install 3 upload
4 password 5 link 6 download
Academic vocabulary 1 7 document 8 technical (Technical and
p.122 technological mean the same thing, but
do not collocate with the same words.)

1a 2, 6, 3, 1, 5, 4
1b 1 research 2 conduct 3 collect
4 international 5 significant 6 natural
7 discovered


communicate with the humans around
Speaking 1 p.123 them.’
6 The student misses a word – ‘Please
1a The second speaker stresses the sign your name (here) if you want to join
word good because she wants to stress the social club.’
this word because she think it is 8 T he student gets a word wrong – ‘It’s
important. She thinks the robots are bad. my opinion that technological … er..
1b 1 I don’t think social robots are good something … will begin to slow.
for society. (advances)
2 I don’t think social robots are good for 5 1 surgeon 2 disabled 3 (a)
society. laboratory
3 I don’t think social robots are good for 4 (a) virus 5 (a) journal 6 deaf
4 I don’t think social robots are good for Listening 1 p.124
1c 1 B 2 D 3 A 4 C
2a 1 Social robots are being created to 3a Something about them being
help people. They won’t hurt us. dangerous themselves would contrast
2 Talking to a robot is not the same as with the idea that they protect humans.
talking to a human. It’s very different, 3b 1 A They perform harmful jobs.B
actually. They create dangers.
3 Loneliness won’t disappear. But it A There have been accidents and deaths
could be reduced. caused by robots.
4 Some people might enjoy talking to a B some kind of guidelines or regulations
robot. But it’s not for everyone. perhaps
5 Social robots might help some people. A under normal use, when the robot is
But, I’m not completely sure. predictable
6 This is a terrible idea. Although some B something not normal or predictable
people think it’s a good one. 4 A the robot has stopped working or is
3 working slowly
1 Our lecture on robotic engineering B the robot starts or goes fast again
takes place on Tuesday. 5 A emergency stop buttons
2 Most people feel lonely at some point B a place where the operator can get to
in their lives. them quickly
3 It’s important for people to connect to 3c 1 dangerous conditions
each other. 2 safety rules 3 unexpected
4 Robots are able to communicate with movement4 accelerates 5 easy-to-
humans around them. reach locations
5 Elderly people can sometimes lose 4 B walking around
their connection to society. Help– to understand identity and what
6 Please sign your name here if you happens when someone is in two places
want to join the social club. at the same time – appearing
7 Our friends give us emotional support, elsewhere– it has no body from the
although not always. shoulders down
8 It’s my opinion that technological
advances will begin to slow. Language development 1
9 Let’s all meet at four and not three as
we agreed before.
10 Social robots can show different facial
expressions and emotions. 1 2 have to 3 mustn’t 4 don’t have
4 The student repeats sentences 1, 2, 5, to 5 must 6 had to 7 didn’t have to
7, 9, 10 correctly. 8 will have to
3 The student uses the wrong part of 2a In future, social robots will need
speech – ‘It’s important for people to legal rights to protect people,
connecting to each other.’ especially children.
4 The student adds a word that wasn’t in 2b Possible answers:
the original – ‘Robots are able to


Latvia today more than at any other time
1 You must not hit your robot.
in history. (4) Unless we take action to
You have to protect your robot from strengthen communities, these problems
harm. may become worse in future.
You must be kind to your robot. 3 (1) To sum up, the changes in Bahrain
4 You do not have to clean your robot have taken place very rapidly. (2) It is too
but you should look after it. early to say whether this will have a
5 You have to give your robot an annual negative effect on family and social
check-up. relationships. (3) More research is
6 You must not shout at your robot. needed to better understand these
3a 1 can 2 could not 3 were 4 are changes.
3b Students’ own answers. Choose Listening 2 p.127
1 had to/didn’t have to do
2 1 nerves 2 gut 3 functions
had to/didn’t have to turn off
3 C, a second brain
could/couldn’t take
4 1 The human body has a second
4 could/couldn’t chat
brain in the gut. 2 This system of brain
5 had to/didn’t have to share
cells can learn, remember and produce
6 could/couldn’t/had to/didn’t have to
feelings. 3 It plays a major role in
human happiness and unhappiness.
7 could/couldn’t download
8 had to/didn’t have to put away
4a 1 C 2 B 3 D 4 A Language development 2
4bStudents’ own answers. Choose from: p.128
1 It was necessary/It was not necessary
(for me) to
2 It was necessary/It was not necessary 1 1E 2A 3D 4C 5B
(for me) to 2a 1 suggests 2 are likely to
3 I was allowed to/was prohibited from 3 claimed 4 suggests 5 suggests
4 I was allowed to/was prohibited from 6 are likely to 7 suggests
5 It was necessary/It was not necessary 3 2 probability of 3 use of 4 growth
(for me) to in 5 failure of 6 introduction of
6 I was allowed to/I was not allowed to/It 4 Pharmaceuticals is are used to treat
was necessary/It was not necessary (for or prevent illness, whereas cosmetics
me) to are use used to make people look better.
7 I was allowed to/I was not allowed to Cosmeceuticals, drugs wich which make
8 It was necessary/It was not necessary someone more attractive, haven’t
(for me) to appeared in shops yet but this is mostly
because the law requires that drugs is
are more thorouhly thoroughly testing
Writing 1 p.126 tested than cosmetics. The distinction
between cosmetics and pharmaceuticals
2 2, with reference to one culture is already unclear at times. In the US, for
which you are familiar with. example, sunscreen and some
3b 1 (1) So, because of improved shampoos are considerd considered to
communication and the fact that modern be drugs. However, as long as people
medicine keeps families together longer, put pressure on companies to produce
2 (2) I believe that modern technology these products, it is likely that the curent
has improved social relationships in current regulation will be relax relaxed
Taiwan. (3) If we introduce laws to over the next ten years and we will see
control the worst aspects of technology, cosmeceuticals much more often.
we will continue to enjoy the benefits in
3 (2) In conclusion, the evidence
suggests that people are more likely to
live alone and experience loneliness in


Writing 2 p. 132
Academic vocabulary 2
2a cosmetics industry, grown, multi-
p.129 million-dollar industry, wasted, spent on,
better healthcare
1a 1 strongly linked 2 short period 3 Students need to write a case study
well documented 4 serious essay, as shown by the last sentence in
consequences 5 positive view 6 set the task.
themselves a target 7 relatively few Help
8 showed a tendency - answers could range from people
1b 1 short period 2 well documented employed in factories, shops, dependent
3 relatively few 4 serious industries (such as advertising agencies,
consequences 5 set, targets packaging manufacturers)
6 strongly linked 7 show a tendency 3a Against – Blogster, ShopGirl,
8 positive view MintSweet
2a 1 B 2 G 3 H 4 D 5 C 6 A For – Duncan29
7E 8F 4a 1 seems, a large amount, much
3a 1 healthy 2 ill 3 medicine 2 are employed, mostly 3 on health,
4 sickness 5 healing 6 physical essential 4 helps, the media
7 systems 8 alternative 4b Possible answers:
1 the media 2 seems, mostly, helps
3 are employed, a large amount of
Reading 2 p.130 money on health
5 1To sum up, closing down the
2 1 unless 2 reason 3 are carried cosmetics industry would be bad for the
4 available 5 instead Brazilian economy. 2The evidence
suggests that the money spent provides
Speaking 2 p.131 work for many people. 3Provided that we
introduce a tax on cosmetic products, we
will still be able to spend more on
1a Suggested answer: medical research and drugs without
It’s about beauty, e.g. piercings and affecting the economy. 4Unless we take
tattoos this action now, the importance and
1b Suggested notes: value of good health may be lost until it is
Every group of humans: change bodies too late to make changes.
Reason 1: social status, wealth, e.g.
jewellery, piercings
Reason 2: deeper meanings, e.g. scars, Review p.134
tattoos, Africa, adulthood, courage
Reason 3: look better, e.g. plastic 1 1 mustn’t 2 don’t have to
surgery 3 cannot 4 had to 5 couldn’t 6 have
2a 3 the end to 7 could 8 didn’t have to
2b As a result, So, The effect of this is 2 1 the importance of the gut
that, To conclude 2 pointed out 3 this chemical 4 It is
2c Suggested notes: desire, human best known as 5 These
perfection 6 communicate 7 might only be 8 a
3 Yes, he follows his notes from the role to play
lecture. He does not include information 3 1H 2G 3D 4C 5A 6E
about the history of the piercings 7F 8B
because it is a minor, supporting point. In 4 1 well-documented 2 potential
40 seconds, you cannot include this kind 3 short period 4 relatively 5 factors
of information. 6 strongly linked 7 alternative
8 lifestyle


3 Before every match they perform the
Haka, a Maori war dance that is closely
09 Winning counts! associated with New Zealand’s cultural
history and is designed to terrify
Reading 1 p.136 opponents.
4 1 borrow 2 speed 3 professional
4 a teenager 5 reject
2a 1 B, A 2 A, B 3 B, A 4 A, B
5 B, A
2b 1 D 2 C 3 E 4 A 5 B Listening 1 p.140
3 C, A, E, B, D
Help 2b 1 It’s about how humans used their
- Sentence C – names appear in full the abilities to run long distances to survive
first time they are mentioned, then with faster, more dangerous animals.
shortened or replaced with a pronoun 3a 1 They cannot run long distances.
after that. This is probably the first 2 When they have to, not by choice.
sentence. 3 Run a marathon.
- He concluded appears in E. Point out 4 Our legs, feet, bodies and heads.
that he concluded is not automatically 3b 1 reduce our body temperature
the last sentence (unlike the phrase in 2 we can breathe through our nose and
conclusion), particularly in Academic mouth at the same time, but animals
writing. It may refer to the conclusions of cannot
a piece of research, not the writer’s 3 chasing them for long periods of time
conclusions. until the animal collapsed
4 A (... because we’re built to run long
Academic vocabulary 1 distances / They chased the animals
again and again over long distances
p.138 without stopping.)
C (Our ability to sweat might not seem
1a 1 D 2 F 3 A 4 C 5 B 6 E like an advantage, but it allows us to lose
2 1 relaxed 2 exceed 3 So-called heat ...)
4 dramatic 5 eventually 6 ignore D (people had to use their abilities to ...
3 1 about 2 for 3 to 4 by 5 to show a lot of determination/they chased
6 in 7 with 8 to the animals again and again over long
4a 1 adolescents 2 professional distances without stopping)
3 clubs 4 competitions 5 passive 5 Options B, F are not mentioned.
6 co-operation 7 self-esteem 8 defeat Option E is only half true because arms
9 facilities 10 equipment 11 coaching were not mentioned. Option G is the
12 recreational opposite of what was mentioned
(Humans are ... mostly weaponless.).
Speaking 1 p.139
Language development 1
1a When these letters come before a p.141
vowel, they are clearly pronounced.
When they come before a consonant, the
1a 1 an 2 A 3 an 4 a 5 the
letter is barely pronounced.
1b They are all used to talk about
1b 1 In over a hundred years only five
things in general, therefore no article is
separate nations have been able to beat
them and they’ve accumulated a historic
2a 1 the, the 2 an, the 3 –, a 4 a,
win rate of 75 percent.
the 5 the, – 6 a, a
2 Only the United States’ basketball
2b The answers below were correct in
team has a similar past record but with a
population of 350 million, compared to
1 Usain Bolt
New Zealand’s four million, they’re more
2 Faster than the speed of sound (Felix
likely to produce a winning team.


3 About 2700 4a Suggested answer:While watching
( football is considered to be a spectator
ure/blog/marathon-facts) sport, you can experience the same
4 About 112 kph physical stress as the players. Most
5 France (Eric Barone, using a special people think watching a sports match is
bike) harmless, but it can increase your risk of
6 Approximately a heart attack. Although these physical
3a 1 a 2 a 3 – 4 – 5 The 6 a effects disappear after a couple of hours,
7 the 8 – 9 The 10 the 11 a it’s still important to introduce limits to the
12 The 13 a 14 the amount of excitement people experience
4a 1A – not a specific group, we have in their lives.
no knowledge of them already
B – a specific group we both have
knowledge of
Listening 2 p.143
2 A – a specific boy and girl that we both
have knowledge of 1a 1 businessperson who starts a new
B – a generalisation business 2 features of a person’s
3 A – a generalisation character 3 know a lot 4 ability to get
B – a specific match on well with people 5 able to think of
4 A – a specific runner and hat we both new, exciting ideas
have knowledge of B (Firstly, you have to be able to
B – runners in general, hats in general. communicate your ideas effectively to
5 A – a generalisation your team.) E ( ... you must be able to
B – specific runners speak to your customers or give them a
6 A – not a specific article, tennis player good service)
or sports paper 3 1 Business people can experience
B – a specific article about a specific both success and failure. 2 Being
tennis player in a specific sports paper successful involves setting a goal and
4b 2 Cars move around my city more achieving it. 3 Building a profitable
quickly than motorbikes. company requires innovation and
3 Astronauts now travel further into determination.
space than astronauts 40 years ago. 4b 1 Business people can experience
4 Older people walk for longer distances both success an(d) failure. 2 Being
than younger people. successful involves setting a goal and
5 Marathon runners are mentally achieving it. 3 Building a profitable
stronger than speed runners. company requires innovation an(d)
6 Travelling determination.

Writing 1 p. 142 Language development 2

1 Possible answer:
They are very involved in the game and 1a 1 This 2 these 3 so 4 that
look disappointed. 5 This 6 those … those
2a 1 produce exciting moments 1b 1 seeing work as a sign of social
2 great sense of community 3 playing it status these days 2 financial and
offers more benefits 4 see more on TV marital status 3 work very hard 4 the
5 wanting your team to win income 5 the rise in the number of
6 worth it for a special day out people increasing their social status
7 special treat 6 people … people
2b The speaker usually starts with the 2a 1 B 2 E 3 F 4 D 5 C 6 A
opposing opinion because he/she wants 2b A similar situation refers to people
to focus and finish with his/her opinion, reporting feeling happier.
which is more important. E, one refers to Dante Gabriel Rossetti,
2c 1 Agreed 2 I admit that the other refers to Dante.
3 Although 4 While it’s true that F, do just that refers to trying to explain
5 Some people argue that 6 While the connection.


4 D, The number refers to 30 percent, Reading 2 p.146
higher refers to higher than 30 percent.
5 C, what they originally suspected
refers forwards to the fact that they had This will vary depending on the country,
always suspected that a minimum but according to the National Centre for
amount of money buys happiness. Health Statistics in the US, the risks are:
6 A, The former refers to hard work, the • death by diet-related illnesses – 1 in
latter refers to luck. 5
3a 1 then 2 Similar situations • death by car accident – 1 in a 100
3 these 4 such 5 what 6 This • death by fire – 1 in 1,116
7 former 8 latter • death by air travel accident – 1 in
4 2 Such/These problems 20,000
3 Such/These benefits 4 this • death by natural disaster – around 1
mistake 5 this skill in 100,000
Academic vocabulary 2 1
p.145 2 The text explains who Thomas Midgely
is and how he got the title.
2 C, A, D, B
1a 1 build, make 2 high, area
3 highly, achieve 4 developing
5 achieve 6 miss 7 effectively Speaking 2 p.147
2a They all go with money, except for
do, hire. 1a 1 Boys are around 3 percent more
3b 1 lend 2 owe 3 spend 4 save likely to be in education 2 No. Girls are
5 afford 6 earn 7 waste 8 borrow around 4 percent more likely to be in
3a 1 start 2 earn 3 lend 4 profit education than boys.
5 borrow 6 loans 7 charges 8 debt 1b Possible answer:Although around
9 income 10 budget 11 pay back the world girls are less likely to
12 worth participate in education, in some
4 1 slightly 2 considerable regions, such as Latin America and the
3 significantly 4 slight 5 slightly Caribbean, this trend is reversed.
6 considerable 2a The first is better as they make
connections between the charts.
2b 1 Around the world 2 Latin
America and the Caribbean 3 globally


aged 12. Because of this, he gave away
90 percent of his fortune to science,
Summary writing 2 p.148 teachers and libraries. Today, he is
considered to be one of the great
philanthropists of all time.
1a 1 away 2 causes 3 found
4 donation 5 public 6 pension
2 1 An interview, a summary for a Review p.150
fellow student 2 50–70 3 10 minutes
4a Suggested topic sentence:Andrew 1 1 spent 2 wasted 3 recreational
Carnegie became the richest man in the 4 gave away
world and then gave most of his money 5 co-operation 6 attitude 7 added
away. 8 achieve
4b Suggested supporting points: 2a 1 C 2 E 3 H 4 F 5 B 6 D
He started out as a factory worker aged 7A 8G
12 He created and sold a successful 2b 1 start a company 2 a dramatic
steel company that made $480 million. increase 3 a major concern 4 highly
He founded an institution to support motivated 5 communicate effectively
scientific research. He gave money to 6 people skills 7 exceed your limits
teachers and opened 2,000 public 8 sports facilities
libraries. By 2011, he had given away 90 3 1 – 2 an 3 a 4 a 5 an 6 the
percent of his fortune. 7 the 8 an 9 a 10 a
4c Suggested importance: 4 1 it 2 former 3 this 4 latter
1 He started out as a factory worker 5 these 6 so 7 such
aged 12.
2 He created and sold a successful steel
company that made $480 million.
10 Let's talk!
3 By 2011, he had given away 90
percent of his fortune. Lead-in p.151
4 He founded an institution to support
scientific research. 1 Suggested answers:
5 He gave money to teachers and 1 The photos represent people
opened 2,000 public libraries. communicating through a letter, an
4d Today, Andrew Carnegie is individual communicating to potential
considered to be one of the great employers through a billboard advert and
philanthropists of all time. friends/relatives communicating through
5a 2, 3, 5 describe cause. 1, 4 describe technology.
effect. Led to (lead to) and resulted in are 2 We use more technology these days.
verbs and are followed by a clause. Social media means people
Because of, Owing to, Due to are communicate in short sentences. Letters
followed by a noun. are becoming a thing of the past as it’s
5b 2 Because of/Due to/Owing to faster to chat via email/SMS.
Carnegie’s influence, other wealthy 3 Students’ own answers
people gave away money. 2 Employees: email/letter to clients,
3 Carnegie’s generosity led to/resulted in co-workers, managers
the availability of pensions for teachers. Journalists: articles in
4 Because of/Due to/Owing to the newspapers/online, blogs, social
Carnegie Institution, more science networking messages to anyone
research was done. 5 Carnegie’s interested in news
beliefs led to/resulted in the decision to Politicians: interviews, reports, social
give away most of his money. media, letters to voters and people they
7 Suggested summary:Andrew are responsible for, emails/telephone
Carnegie became the richest man in the calls to other politicians
world and then gave most of his money Students: social networking for study
away. He created and sold a successful groups with friends/classmates, email to
steel company that made $480 million, tutor/teacher, blogging, SMS to
but he started out as a factory worker friends/relatives


Reading 1 p.152 10 linked 11 related to 12 findings
13 shown 14 conclusions
2 1 It measures how much people in a 4a 1 B 2 F 3 C 4 D 5 E 6 A
culture accept inequality.
2 They have a centralised government Speaking 1 p.155
with many levels, people do not question
authority, but respect it.
3 They have fewer levels in government, 1a Each group will take somewhere
individualism is more important than between two and five seconds.
authority, decisions are regularly 1b It should take almost the same time,
questioned. as the unstressed words fit into the
4 sociology, psychology, international rhythm of the stressed words.
management and cross-cultural 1c The weak forms of the words are as
communication follows:
3 1 ... has developed a theory about 1 a – /ə/
culture ... 2 we – /wɪ/, were – /wə/, an – /ən/
2 ... authority with many levels which was – /wəz/, that – /ðət/
people respect ... 4 we – /wɪ/, the – /ðə/, for – /fə/, to –
3 (Germany is mentioned several times, /tə/,the – /ðə/
comparing it to other countries.) 2 Stressed words:
4 Compared to Arab, Latin, African and 1 Email’s, quick, convenient
Asian countries where the power 2 no, context, words, read
distance is very high ... 3 talk, use, tone, expressions,
5 ... index has been used in research in understand
the fields of sociology ... 4 email, increases, chance,
4a 1 A (The index would not exist if this miscommunication
were untrue. The writer describes and Weak forms:
does not give an opinion.) 1 and 2 But, for the, we
2 B ... centralised authority with many When, we, we, and, to
levels. Again, there is no opinion given 4 the, of
about what type of countries are better. 3 1 Shall we meet in the coffee shop
3 A (They have a low index.) to discuss the problem? 2 Please email
4 A (It is used in international reception with your most recent contact
management and cross-cultural details. 3 It’s important to use a
communication. The text states that spellchecker to catch any errors.
people use the index in research, not 4 When I returned to work, there were
that it is important.) It can affect both hundreds of emails in my inbox. 5 Our
verbal and written forms of email system isn’t working due to a
communication. technical failure. 6 We use verbal
5 A, D communication and body language to
6 A ( ... have centralised authority with communicate. 7 When we talk face-to-
many levels which people respect.) face, our brains copy each other.
D (People tend not to question the 8 Email allows us to get things done
decisions that people in authority make.) more quickly together. 9 We tend to
misinterpret neutral email jokes as
negative. 10 Jokes are rated as less
Academic vocabulary 1 funny by recipients than senders.
p.154 4 Speakers 2 and 5 use appropriate
sentence stress and weak forms.
Speakers 1, 3 and 4 stress each word
1a 1 theory 2 research 3 impact
equally, which sounds unnatural.
4 communication 5 cultures
5 1 (a) coin(s) 2 communication
6 authority 7 decisions
3 (an) ad(s)/advert(s)/advertisement(s)
2a 1 F 2 D 3 B 4 A 5 E 6 C
4 (an) experiment(s) 5 face-to-face
3a 1 research 2 field 3 analysis
6 non-verbal (communication)/body
4 evaluate 5 experiments 6 process
7 evidence 8 concept 9 studies


Listening 1 p.156 the recent redundancies. What’s your
opinion of the company’s future?)
4 (because anything related to salaries
2a 1 accurately 2 somewhat should only be discussed after an offer
3 reflections 4 attempt 5 replying has been made). NB This may not apply
6 figure out to all cultures.
2b See answers to Exercise 2a above.
3 1 unique 2 accuracy 3 shades
4 associations 5 translation Writing 1 p.158

Language development 1 1b Argument essay

Listening 2 p.159
1 have left, have just said 2 meant
3 have added 4 had, talked 2a 2 natural 3 buy 4 persuade
2a 1 was, made, Have you stayed 5 unlikely 6 knows 7 jacket
2 did you meet, have you known 8 worth
3 Have you ever met, did that person 3 After targeting pet owners for years,
make 4 Have you ever spoken, Did you advertisers are now going appealing
get on 5 did you start, Have you directly to the animals. One European TV
finished ad for dog food, featured a high-pitched
3a 1 is the best title – it mentions that sound, like a dog howl whistle, that only
men who touch their face, lick their lips, dogs could hear, the idea being that pet
etc. ‘were calmer’. Fidgeting means ‘to dogs living in a family home would rush
keep moving your hands or feet when up to the TV and look keen. A similar
you are nervous’. idea, but a year decade earlier – a dog
3b 1 ’ve perfected 2 ’ve chosen food company set up a series of
3 have you thought 4 found signboards billboards that gave off an
5 touched 6 bit 7 licked 8 yawned ultrasonic sound every ten seconds.
9 scratched 10 did not make ‘Bark if you like Bonzo!’ said the
11 hypothesised 12 had 13 has since headline. But even if dogs are attracted
been 14 found to certain sounds, they're even more
4a 1 Have you looked at my references attracted to things that sell smell. Dog-
yet? food-scented ads on sidewalks were
2 How has the company recognised designed to persuade dogs and their
good work in the past? owners to come over for a sniff.
3 Why did the company reduce the
workforce last year? Language development 2
4 How much did the company pay in staff
bonuses last year? p.160
5 I like to work in a team. Can you give
me some examples of how your 1a 2 have made claims
company achieved its goals through 3 might influence more people
teamwork last year? 4 advertise to people who can’t afford
6 Can you explain the company culture them
and how this has been practised in 5 When they see someone with a luxury
recent years. item, they’ll recognise it as expensive.
4b Experts in the UK and USA advised 1b Yes. It is more common to change
against: the tenses when we report speech, but
1 (because references are usually only speakers often choose to keep them in
checked at the very end of the the present tense if they feel that what
recruitment process, and if you ask too was said still holds true, which is often
quickly, you sound desperate) the case in Academic English.
(because any questions starting with 2a 1 E 2 C 3 F 4 D 5 B 6 A
Why sound aggressive – a better 2b A would give children energy until
alternative might be to say I read about lunchtime.


B could prevent sore throats. Reading 2 p.162
C it had the ability to cure everything.
D it cured baldness. 2 A, B, E
E had been produced in a more 3 A ... art has been used ... for
environmentally-friendly way. centuries. (infer)
F made you/people thinner. B ... it can also be used to persuade us
3a Suggested answers: to see things in a certain way/However
1 The speaker said that people didn’t like the art was a lie (stated)
to believe that they were influenced by E To communicate … power. (infer)
advertising because it made them seem
weak and shallow.
2 The speaker said that companies had Speaking 2 p.163
spent $70 billion on TV advertising over
the last year. 1a Suggested answer:
3 The speaker said that a good advert It’s about advertising in Canada and the
worked by providing us with positive data that companies or customers are
feelings about a brand which would happy to share.
slowly influence our spending habits. 2a The first speaker.
4 The speaker said that people could 2b It is likely she used all the strategies
recall ads they had seen when they were except for 2. Ten seconds is not long
children because they associated them enough to practise what you are going to
with simpler, happier times. say, but it is enough time to decide on
5 The speaker said that every advertising the main point of the lecture so you can
agency was hoping to produce the next start with this.
big ad that everyone talked about.NB.
The verbs in these suggested answers
have been changed, but they do not Writing 2 p.164
need to change as the information is still
true today. 2a Case study essay
4 Reported speech/reporting verbs Help
mistakes:explained me ... has had - people’s sense of identity comes from
placed them on buses ... play played on the products they buy
the company’s ad ... increase increased - it’s not stated in the question, but things
by 29 percent ... have had heard, seen like family, health, friendship, community,
and smelled ... Spelling mistakes:unusal etc.
unusual, explaned explained, spesific 3a The order within the paragraphs
specific, extreem extreme, campain depends on the students’ plans, but a
campaign logical order would be:
Paragraph 1: C, B, E
Paragraph 2: F, A, D
Academic vocabulary 2 4a 1 B 2 C 3 A
p.161 4b moreover, too, not to mention
5a A 4 B 3 C 1 D 6 E 2 F 5
1a 1 full 2 large 3 well 4 marked G7
5 high 6 wide
1b 1 full analysis 2 well aware Review p.166
3 marked contrast 4 large quantities
5 wide range 6 high priority
2a 1 D 2 E 3 A 4 C 5 B 1 2 dominated 3 built 4 didn’t want
3a 1 online 2 credit 3 refund 5 represented 6 has not been 7 have
4 deliver 5 reserved 6 reduce 7 found 8 claimed 9 did not practise
reasonable 8 receipts 2 1 was, would be 2 were, shouldn’t
4a 1 advertising 2 brand do/shouldn’t have done 3 wasn’t, went
3 campaign 4 persuading 5 sales 4 was 5 had, would carry
assistant 6 commission 7 commercial 3 1 authority 2 concept 3 impact
8 consumer 9 promotion 10 deals 4 related 5 theory 6 focus 7 field
8 widespread


Mystery word – analysis
4 1F 2B 3A 4G 5D 6E
7H 8C