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HVAC System Design

Simplified Method for Early Design Environmental


Technology 1

Part

Air Delivery side Mechanical Room


Return ducts and diffusers
Fresh outside air

Classroom 1 Classroom 2 Classroom 3 Classroom 4

VAV Box VAV Box VAV Box VAV Box

Air Handling Unit


Supply ducts and diffusers Corridor (Air-conditioning)
ETone
Introduction
HVAC Design Procedures

! Estimate the space cooling requirement


! Estimate ventilation requirement
! Determine supply air quantiy for each
zone and AHU
! Estimate equipment sizes - space sizes
! Revise system layout

ETone
Estimate Space Cooling Load
Simplified method for determining the space
cooling load
Cooling load factor
Residential 1cfm/sf
Office 1.2 cfm/sf
School 1.5 cfm/sf
Aud. / theater 2.5 cfm/sf
ventilation load not included

Floor area x cooling load factor = required cfm

ETone
Estimate Space Cooling Load Example

Calculate floor area

Determine CFM required


(Floor area) x (1.5 cfm - school)

Classroom 1 Classroom 2 Classroom 3 Classroom 4 Mechanical


25'X30' 25'X30' 25'X30' 25'X30'
750 sf 750 sf 750 sf 750 sf
1,125 cfm 1,125 cfm 1,125 cfm 1,125 cfm

ETone
Estimate Ventilation Load
Ventilation Requirements

Ventilation factor
Residential 10 cfm/person
Office 20 cfm/person
School 15 cfm/person
Aud. / theater 15 cfm/person
adds to the space cooling load

# of people x ventilation factor = required cfm

ETone
Estimate Ventilation Load Example

Calculate ventilation requirement


15 cfm per person

Use MEEB table 5-8 (page 226) to estimate occupancy count.

Classroom 1 Classroom 2 Classroom 3 Classroom 4 Mechanical


30 people 30 people 30 people 30 people
15 cfm/prn 15 cfm/prn 15 cfm/prn 15 cfm/prn
450 cfm 450 cfm 450 cfm 450 cfm

ETone
Estimate Total Supply Air Example

Determine total supply air to space


Ventilation + cooling = total supply air

Determine AHU Supply air total


Sum of supply air to all zones served

Classroom 1 Classroom 2 Classroom 3 Classroom 4 Mechanical

450 cfm 450 cfm 450 cfm 450 cfm AHU


1,125 cfm 1,125 cfm 1,125 cfm 1,125 cfm
1,575 cfm 1,575 cfm 1,575 cfm 1,575 cfm

1,800 (vent) + 4,500 (cool) = 6,300 cfm

ETone
Estimate Equipment Sizes Example
1,575 cfm
VAV box sizes
required at each zone for temperature control
total air
See course handout required


Table reprinted from Architectureal Graphic Standards
ETone
Estimate Equipment Sizes Example
Air Handler Unit Sizes 6,300 cfm
Supply air to multiple zones required
See course handout

Table reprinted from Architectureal Graphic Standards

Room dimensions: 18' -6" wide


22' - 3" long
9' - 6" tall

ETone
Estimate Equipment Sizes
Calculating the refrigeration required
Converting air flow quantities to tons of cooling required

Cooling CFM (estimate based on internal air conditions)


4,500 cfm per AHU

Ventilation CFM (based on external air conditions)


1,800 cfm per AHU

Total CFM
6,300 CFM per AHU

ETone
Estimate Ventilation Load
Ventilation Sensible
based on the )t between cooling coil and outside temp

1,800 cfm per AHU


Design
Qsensible = 1.08 x CFM x )t Condition
95 EF
80 % rh

Qsensible = 1.08 x 1,800 cfm x 40EF


Qsensible = 77,760 btu’s hr

ETone
Estimate Ventilation Load
Ventilation Latent
based on the )w between cooling coil and outside temp

1,800 cfm per AHU


Qlatent = 4,840 x CFM x )w Design
Condition
95 EF
80 % rh

Qlatent = 4,840 x 1,800 cfm x .o2 lb


QLatent = 174,240 btu’s/hr

ETone
Estimate Ventilation Load
Ventilation Total Load

Qventilation = 174,240 btu/hr + 77,760 btu/hr


Qventilation = 252,000 btu/hr Design
Condition
95 EF
80 % rh
Qsensible = 1.08 x CFM x )t

Qlatent = 4,840 x CFM x )w

Qtotal ventilation
ETone
Estimate Equipment Sizes Example

Refrigeration Equipment Sizes


based on the tons of cooling required

1 ton of cooling . 400 cfm


1 ton of cooling . 12,000 Btu/hr

Conversion from cfm to tons


(cooling load)
4,500 cfm per AHU (1 of 15 units)
15 AHU’s in school x 4,500 = 67,500 cfm
Total for school
67,500 cfm ÷ 400cfm/ton = 169 tons of cooling
ETone
Estimate Equipment Sizes Example

Refrigeration Equipment Sizes


based on the tons of cooling required

1 ton of cooling . 400 cfm


1 ton of cooling . 12,000 Btu/hr

Conversion from cfm to tons


(Ventilation load)
252,000 Btu/hr per AHU (1 of 15 units)
15 AHU’s in school x 252,000 = 3,780,000
Btu Total for school
3,780,000 ÷ 12,000 btu/ton = 315 tons of cooling
ETone
Estimate Equipment Sizes Example

Refrigeration Equipment Sizes


based on the tons of cooling required

1 ton of cooling . 400 cfm


1 ton of cooling . 12,000 Btu/hr

Total Cooling Required - 484 tons

Space Cooling Load - 169 tons

Space Ventilation Load - 315 tons

ETone
Estimate Equipment Sizes Example

Chiller Size 484 tons


Two chillers are required of cooling
• reduced off-season loads
required
• repair and maintenance

Table reprinted from Architectureal Graphic Standards

ETone 2 - 250 ton chillers


Estimate Equipment Sizes Example

Chiller Room 484 tons


• Dimensions from previous table of cooling
• Room layout with pumpe required

ETone
Estimate Equipment Sizes Example
484 tons
Cooling Tower Size of cooling
Based on tons of cooling required
required


Table reprinted from Architectureal Graphic Standards

3+ - 150 ton cooling towers

ETone
System Design
Revise basic layout adding equipment sizes

Air Delivery side Mechanical Room


Return ducts and diffusers
Fresh outside air

Classroom 1 Classroom 2 Classroom 3 Classroom 4

VAV Box VAV Box VAV Box VAV Box

Air Handling Unit


Supply ducts and diffusers Corridor (Air-conditioning)

ETone
Review

HVAC Design Procedures

! Estimate the space cooling requirement


! Estimate ventilation requirement
! Determine supply air quantiy for each
zone and AHU
! Estimate equipment sizes - space sizes
! Revise system layout

ETone
HVAC System Design
Simplified Method for Early Design Environmental
Technology 1

Part

Air Delivery side Mechanical Room


Return ducts and diffusers
Fresh outside air

Classroom 1 Classroom 2 Classroom 3 Classroom 4

VAV Box VAV Box VAV Box VAV Box

Air Handling Unit


Supply ducts and diffusers Corridor (Air-conditioning)
ETone